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Sample records for boilermaker construction workers

  1. Night Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Exposures among Boilermaker Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of −8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), −16.29 to −0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, −14.77 (95% CI, −31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and −8.37 (95% CI, −17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed

  2. PM2.5 metal exposures and nocturnal heart rate variability: a panel study of boilermaker construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Eisen, Ellen A; Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

    2008-01-01

    Background To better understand the mechanism(s) of particulate matter (PM) associated cardiovascular effects, research priorities include identifying the responsible PM characteristics. Evidence suggests that metals play a role in the cardiotoxicity of fine PM (PM2.5) and in exposure-related decreases in heart rate variability (HRV). We examined the association between daytime exposure to the metal content of PM2.5 and night HRV in a panel study of boilermaker construction workers exposed to metal-rich welding fumes. Methods Twenty-six male workers were monitored by ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) on a workday while exposed to welding fume and a non-workday (baseline). From the ECG, rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals) was summarized over the night (0:00–7:00). Workday, gravimetric PM2.5 samples were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence to determine metal content. We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations between night rMSSD and PM2.5 metal exposures both with and without adjustment for total PM2.5. Matched ECG measurements from the non-workday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors and models were also adjusted for smoking status. To address collinearity between PM2.5 and metal content, we used a two-step approach that treated the residuals from linear regression models of each metal on PM2.5 as surrogates for the differential effects of metal exposures in models for night rMSSD. Results The median PM2.5 exposure was 650 μg/m3; median metal exposures for iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, zinc, chromium, lead, and nickel ranged from 226 μg/m3 to non-detectable. We found inverse linear associations in exposure-response models with increased metal exposures associated with decreased night rMSSD. A statistically significant association for manganese was observed, with a decline of 0.130 msec (95% CI: -0.162, -0.098) in night rMSSD for every 1 μg/m3 increase in manganese. However, even

  3. Boilermakers' bronchitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Hoffman, L.; Gottsegen, S.

    1984-08-01

    Severe respiratory tract irritation occurred in at least 74 of 100 boilermakers who were exposed to high levels of vanadium pentoxide fume during oil-to-coal conversion of a utility company power plant in a rural area of western Massachusetts. Many were welders working in confined areas with inadequate ventilation. Most frequent symptoms were productive cough, sore throat, dyspnea on exertion, and chest pain or discomfort. The illness was severe enough to cause 70 workers to consult physicians and most of them to lose time from work (medium, five days). Wheezing (in 39%) was the most frequent finding on physical examination. Mild hypoxemia was noted in several workers; most (72%) had normal chest x-ray films. Expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the forced vital capacity was the pulmonary function test most remarkably affected (median, 57% of predicted for 24 workers tested). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration documented levels of vanadium pentoxide fume at or above the permissible exposure limit in all eight air samples taken from inside the boiler; it cited the company for inadequate mechanical ventilation and an inadequate respiratory protection program for workers. The report of this outbreak may help prevent future problems by drawing attention of physicians, workers, and managers to the potential pulmonary hazards in power plant conversion.

  4. Boilermaking Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This manual is intended (1) to provide an information resource to supplement the formal training program for boilermaker apprentices; (2) to assist the journeyworker to build on present knowledge to increase expertise and qualify for formal accreditation in the boilermaking trade; and (3) to serve as an on-the-job reference with sound, up-to-date…

  5. Application of mixed models to assess exposures monitored by construction workers during hot processes.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Weaver, M; Taylor, D; Kupper, L; Susi, P

    1999-10-01

    Particulate exposures were assessed among construction workers engaged in hot processes in four jobs (boilermakers, ironworkers, pipefitters and welder-fitters) at nine sites in the U.S. After being trained by occupational hygienists, the workers obtained shift-long personal samples at each site for total particulates (TP). Selected samples were also assayed for manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Workers provided information about process- and task-related covariates that were present on the days of monitoring. Data were investigated with mixed-model regression analyses that designated the jobs and covariates as fixed effects and the worker and error terms as random effects. Results indicated that the within-worker variance components, but not the between-worker variance components, could be pooled among jobs. Mean air levels for a given agent varied by roughly six to 100 fold among the jobs, with boilermakers and ironworkers experiencing much higher levels of TP and Mn than pipefitters and welder-fitters. Limited data also suggested that welder-fitters were exposed to greater levels of Ni and Cr than pipefitters. Sufficient sample sizes were available to evaluate the effects of covariates upon exposures to TP and Mn. As expected, processes involving more than 50% hot work led to substantially higher levels of TP and Mn than those involving shorter durations of hot work. Local-exhaust or mechanical ventilation reduced exposure to TP (but not Mn) by as much as 44%, and shielded or manual arc welding increased exposure to Mn (but not TP) by about 80%. Parameters estimated with these mixed models were used to calculate probabilities that workers were exposed at levels above U.S. occupational exposure limits (OELs). Regarding TP and Mn, these calculations suggested that 26-95% of exposures to boilermakers and pipefitters and 2-13% of exposures to pipefitters and welder-fitters exceeded the current Threshold Limit Values. Among welder-fitters, limited data

  6. Asbestos-related pulmonary disease in boilermakers

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, R.Y.; Neale, A.V.; Robins, T.; Herman, S.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Boilermakers are skilled building tradesmen who construct, repair, and dismantle boilers. The present study reports on the evaluation of members of a Michigan boilermaker's union for the presence of signs and symptoms of chronic pulmonary disease. Study variables included standardized evaluations of chest x-ray findings, pulmonary function testing, physical examination, and respiratory symptoms. An overall participation rate of 69% was achieved. A non-participant survey identified no significant differences between participants and non-participants in dyspnea, cough, age, or smoking history. Among participants with greater than 20 years experience in the trade, the mean FVC was 91% of predicted; the FEV1 was 86% of predicted; 25% showed at least a 1/0 profusion of interstitial markings on chest x-ray; 30% had bilateral pleural abnormalities; and 52% had audible inspiratory rales on physical examination. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at one second both decreased with years in the trade. Chest x-ray findings of interstitial fibrosis and pleural plaques were related to ten or more years in the trade, as were respiratory symptoms of pulmonary rales, wheeze, and dyspnea.

  7. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  8. Current chemical exposures among Ontario construction workers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dave K; Kurtz, Lawrence A; Sahai, Dru; Finkelstein, Murray M

    2003-12-01

    Current occupational exposures to chemical agents were assessed as part of an epidemiological study pertaining to the cancer and mortality patterns of Ontario construction workers. The task-based exposure assessment involved members from nine construction trade unions. Air samples were taken using personal sampling pumps and collection media. A DustTrak direct-reading particulate monitor was also employed. Exposure assessments included measurements of airborne respirable, inhalable, total, and silica dust; solvents; metals; asbestos; diesel exhaust and man-made mineral fibers (MMMF). In total, 396 single- or multi-component (filter/tube), 798 direct-reading, and 71 bulk samples were collected. The results showed that Ontario construction workers are exposed to potentially hazardous levels of chemical agents. The findings are similar to those reported by other researchers, except for silica exposure. In our study, silica exposure is much lower than reported elsewhere. The difficulty associated with assessing construction workers' exposures is highlighted. PMID:14612300

  9. OCCUPATIONAL SKIN PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-01-01

    Background Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). Aim: The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. Results and Discussion: All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. Conclusion The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20–25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms. PMID:21430887

  10. View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the oldest piece of equipment in the yard, originally powered by steam) nameplate: United Engineers and FDRY. Co. Pittsburgh, Pa, USA Davy Brothers LTD. Patents - Aug 1, 1905, Feb, 1901, Sept 8, 1908 - 10000 lbs. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Cancer in Illinois construction workers: a study.

    PubMed

    Keller, J E; Howe, H L

    1993-08-01

    A series of case-control studies using subjects from the Illinois State Cancer Registry have been conducted. Logistic regression was used to control for age and history of tobacco and alcohol use. Construction workers were consistently found to be younger than other subjects and to have used alcohol and tobacco more often. Significant positive associations between cancer of the stomach and welding (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 4.09), lung cancer and employment in the construction industry (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.26), and lung cancer and welding (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.76) were found. Significant negative associations between cancer of the colon and welding (OR = .54, 95% CI = .29, 1.00), cancer of the prostate and employment in the construction industry (OR = .76, 95% CI = .65, .89), cancer of the prostate and plumbing (OR = .44, 95% CI = .38, .50), cancer of the prostate and metal working (OR = .43, 95% CI = .19, .93), and bladder cancer and employment as an electrician (OR = .60, 95% CI = .36, 1.00) suggests that construction workers did not consistently experience excesses of cancers known to be associated with tobacco use, and an overall excess of sites not known to be related to tobacco use may have occurred. PMID:8213848

  13. Childcare Practices among Construction Workers in Chira Chas, Jharkhand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Rajib

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at examining the childcare practices and issues experienced by the low-income construction workers in India. It is concerned with understanding varied aspects relating to problems that construction workers, as parents, face while bringing up their children in one of the small construction companies of eastern India, in the state of…

  14. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  15. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  16. [Risk factors for arterial hypertension among machinery construction workers].

    PubMed

    Zakhar'eva, S V; Pasechnaia, N A

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied prevalence of arterial hypertension, its risk factors in workers of major machinery construction enterprise, who have prolonged contact with a complex of low-intensity occupational hazards. Findings are reliably higher prevalence of arterial hypertension among the workers vs. reference group, relative risk of arterial hypertension responding to exposed factor. PMID:16491856

  17. 22. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WORKERS LOWERING CALCINER VESSEL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WORKERS LOWERING CALCINER VESSEL INTO CELL THROUGH THE HATCH. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-2485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure

  19. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Construction Industry Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  20. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  1. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  2. Elevated lead contamination in homes of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Piacitelli, G M; Whelan, E A; Sieber, W K; Gerwel, B

    1997-06-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health investigators studied lead exposures among 37 families of construction workers; 22 neighborhood families with no known lead exposures were included for comparison. Workers were identified as having blood lead levels at or above 25 micrograms/dL. This article reports the levels of lead contamination on hands and interior surfaces of homes and automobiles of study participants. Results indicate that the hands of lead-exposed workers were seven times more contaminated with lead compared with control workers; no difference was found between exposed and control family members' hands. Surface lead contamination was significantly higher in automobiles driven by the lead-exposed workers; some locations, such as armrests, were 10 times more contaminated for the exposed group. High lead loadings in lead workers' automobiles were found on the driver's floor (geometric mean [GM] = 1100 micrograms/m2), driver's armrest (2000 micrograms/m2), and passenger's armrest (1200 micrograms/m2). Surface lead concentrations were significantly higher for exposed homes compared with control homes in rooms where work clothing was changed (GM = 370 versus 120 ppm; p = 0.005). While environmental sources of lead were also evaluated, study results strongly suggest that construction workers' occupational exposures together with poor hygiene practices were the primary causes of lead contamination. Requirements intended to prevent "take-home" lead exposures were reported by workers in this study to be infrequently followed by employers. These findings may be limited in representativeness since only highly exposed workers were selected from a specific geographic area. Regardless, targeted education and enforcement efforts are necessary to help ensure that preventive measures are adequately practiced throughout the construction industry. PMID:9183839

  3. Cement dust exposure-related emphysema in a construction worker

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, V.; Joshi, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker. PMID:22084546

  4. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions

  5. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-02-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  6. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site. PMID:19137154

  7. Heavy Physical Work: Cardiovascular Load in Male Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Moen, Gunn-Helen; Wærsted, Morten; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate cardiovascular loads (CVL) in construction workers during work and leisure by relative heart rate (RHR) over several days. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate the level of CVL in relation to individual factors, work ability, musculoskeletal pain and subjective general health. From a group of 255 construction workers responding to the baseline questionnaire, the CVL during work and leisure time was determined by recording RHR in 42 workers over 3–4 days. Almost 60% of the workday was spent below 20% RHR. The mean RHR during work for all participants was 16% RHR, with large differences between professions. On average, the 42 workers spent 14% of the workday at a RHR above 33%, and four subjects (10%) had a mean RHR above 33% during work. Eight (19%) of the participants had a mean length of their workday exceeding calculated maximal acceptable work time. Seven persons (17%) experienced on average one or more episode(s) of 5 min or more continuously above 33% RHR. The cardiovascular load at work was significantly associated with age and V˙O2max, but not with work ability, musculoskeletal pain or subjective general health. PMID:27023574

  8. Heavy Physical Work: Cardiovascular Load in Male Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Moen, Gunn-Helen; Wærsted, Morten; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate cardiovascular loads (CVL) in construction workers during work and leisure by relative heart rate (RHR) over several days. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate the level of CVL in relation to individual factors, work ability, musculoskeletal pain and subjective general health. From a group of 255 construction workers responding to the baseline questionnaire, the CVL during work and leisure time was determined by recording RHR in 42 workers over 3-4 days. Almost 60% of the workday was spent below 20% RHR. The mean RHR during work for all participants was 16% RHR, with large differences between professions. On average, the 42 workers spent 14% of the workday at a RHR above 33%, and four subjects (10%) had a mean RHR above 33% during work. Eight (19%) of the participants had a mean length of their workday exceeding calculated maximal acceptable work time. Seven persons (17%) experienced on average one or more episode(s) of 5 min or more continuously above 33% RHR. The cardiovascular load at work was significantly associated with age and  V ˙O2max, but not with work ability, musculoskeletal pain or subjective general health. PMID:27023574

  9. Boilermaker: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 3809.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The graduate of the Boilermaker apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) understand the principles of drafting; how drawings originate, their purpose and how to correctly interpret the information therein; (2) understand the use of each type of drawing, part work order sketches, materials lists and specification…

  10. Point-source outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in construction workers.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K C; McDowell, A; Wheeler, C; McNary, J; Das, R; Vugia, D J; Mohle-Boetani, J C

    2010-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis results from inhaling spores of the fungus Coccidioides spp. in soil or airborne dust in endemic areas. We investigated an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in a 12-person civilian construction crew that excavated soil during an underground pipe installation on Camp Roberts Military Base, California in October 2007. Ten (83.3%) workers developed symptoms of coccidioidomycosis; eight (66.7%) had serologically confirmed disease, seven had abnormal chest radiographs, and one developed disseminated infection; none used respiratory protection. A diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in an eleventh worker followed his exposure to the outbreak site in 2008. Although episodic clusters of infections have occurred at Camp Roberts, the general area is not associated with the high disease rates found in California's San Joaquin Valley. Measures to minimize exposure to airborne spores during soil-disrupting activities should be taken before work begins in any coccidioides-endemic area, including regions with only historic evidence of disease activity. PMID:19845993

  11. The association between global DNA methylation and telomere length in a longitudinal study of boilermakers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason Y Y; De Vivo, Immaculata; Lin, Xihong; Grashow, Rachel; Cavallari, Jennifer; Christiani, David C

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if global DNA methylation, as reflected in LINE-1 and Alu elements, is associated with telomere length and whether it modifies the rate of telomeric change. A repeated-measures longitudinal study was performed with a panel of 87 boilermaker subjects. The follow-up period was 29 months. LINE-1 and Alu methylation was determined using pyrosequencing. Leukocyte relative telomere length was assessed via real-time qPCR. Linear-mixed models were used to estimate the association between DNA methylation and telomere length. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to explore the hypothesized relationship between DNA methylation, proxies of particulate matter exposure, and telomere length at baseline. There appeared to be a positive association between both LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels, and telomere length. For every incremental increase in LINE-1 methylation, there was a statistically significant 1.0 × 10(-1) (95% CI: 4.6 × 10(-2), 1.5 × 10(-1), P < 0.01) unit increase in relative telomere length, controlling for age at baseline, current and past smoking status, work history, BMI (log kg/m(2) ) and leukocyte differentials. Furthermore, for every incremental increase in Alu methylation, there was a statistically significant 6.2 × 10(-2) (95% CI: 1.0 × 10(-2), 1.1 × 10(-1), P = 0.02) unit increase in relative telomere length. The interaction between LINE-1 methylation and follow-up time was statistically significant with an estimate -9.8 × 10(-3) (95% CI: -1.8 × 10(-2), -1.9 × 10(-3), P = 0.02); suggesting that the rate of telomeric change was modified by the degree of LINE-1 methylation. No statistically significant association was found between the cumulative PM exposure construct, with global DNA methylation and telomere length at baseline. PMID:24616077

  12. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. Methods From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0–10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Results Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Conclusions Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and

  13. Alternative metrics for noise exposure among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Noah; Neitzel, Rick; Sheppard, Lianne; Goldman, Bryan

    2005-08-01

    Although the exposure-response relationships for noise-induced hearing loss are relatively well established, there is not complete agreement on which metrics of noise exposure best represent risk of hearing damage. In particular, while L(eq), based on a 3 dB exchange rate (ER) is used by most agencies, US OSHA's standard is based on the L(avg), which uses a 5 dB ER. In addition, peak levels of exposure, which are commonly found in some industries, including construction, are believed to increase risk above that predicted by the L(eq). This paper presents an analysis of a large database of noise exposures among construction workers, comparing several noise metrics, and their application to a cohort of construction workers. Metrics examined were the L(avg), L(eq) and L(max), expressing average levels of exposure across an exposure interval. Two novel metrics were derived from these monitored metrics, L(eq)/L(avg) and L(max)/L(eq), as measures of exposure variability and 'peakiness', respectively. A total of 730 workshifts, including data on 361 492 min of exposure to workers in nine trades were examined. Correlations between average metrics (L(eq), L(avg) and L(max)) are generally very high, while the variability metrics are poorly correlated with either average levels, or with each other, indicating that they characterize different aspects of exposure. Alternative models for estimating exposure for the cohort were considered and the use of a task-within-trade specific mean level was adopted. The task-specific estimates of exposure using the various metrics will be applied to the cohort's work history to explore the importance of these alternative metrics in estimating risk of noise-induced damage. PMID:15797894

  14. WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. FORMS WERE MADE OF STEEL. AFTER AN INCH OF CONCRETE HAD BEEN POURED IN THE FORM, A MAT OF REINFORCING STEEL WAS PLACED ON IT. THE REMAINDER OF THE FORM WAS FILLED, AND THE CONCRETE WAS VIBRATED, STRUCK, AND TROWELED. GROOVES AT CORNER WILL HAVE 1/4 INCH RODS WELDED INTO THE EYE OF THE STEEL MAT FOR GROUNDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 578. Unknown Photographer, 9/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Native Residential Construction Worker. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Construction residentielle autochtone. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for native residential construction workers are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related…

  16. Asbestos examinations for construction workers: a workable alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Whorton, M.D.

    1986-12-01

    There have been numerous changes in how occupational health and safety has been practiced in the United States since 1971 and the implementation of the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Despite the philosophy of the current Administration toward deregulation, the momentum which had been established prior to 1981 concerning changes in improving working conditions has not been halted. However, it is noted that a lack of understanding exists concerning medical data analysis associated with asbestos exposures. OSHA issued a revised standard on asbestos exposure on June 20, 1986 which detailed the requirements for medical examinations of exposed workers. There are separate standards for general industry and for construction industries. These differences reflect, in part, the different nature of construction work.

  17. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  18. THE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MSDs AMONG CONSTRUCTION WORKERS.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, Telaprolu; Lal, Bhanwar I A S; Swarochish, Chekuri

    2014-06-01

    Evidence regarding possible risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can guide the selection of possible intervention measures and the work towards developing appropriate ergonomic and safety measures. The intention of the study was to explore the factors associated with developing MSDs among construction workers. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to measure the severity, duration, frequency and prevalence of symptoms of MSDs in nine anatomical body regions. Physical fitness was assessed based on the workers' answers regarding the perception of their own physical fitness. Psychosocial work demands were measured in terms of job control, psychological demands, social support and job dissatisfaction. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors related to upper back, neck and upper limb MSDs. Results from multiple logistic regression showed that distal upper limb MSDs were related to manual handling, work repetitiveness, psychosocial demands, job dissatisfaction and gender. Neck, shoulder or upper back MSDs were related to manual handling, work repetitiveness, psychosocial demands, job dissatisfaction and physical unfitness. The findings suggest that reducing neck, shoulder upper back and distal upper limb MSDs in the workplace requires appropriate measures aimed at making the physical environment more suitable with regard to equipment, machinery, tools and furniture, in order to reduce repetitiveness, the use of force and manual handling. PMID:26182667

  19. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. Methods: A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989–2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. Results: The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20–31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Conclusion: Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure. PMID:14985522

  20. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  1. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems. PMID:26957808

  2. The Association Between Global DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in a Longitudinal Study of Boilermakers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Y.Y.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Lin, Xihong; Grashow, Rachel; Cavallari, Jennifer; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if global DNA methylation, as reflected in LINE-1 and Alu elements, is associated with telomere length and whether it modifies the rate of telomeric change. A repeated-measures longitudinal study was performed with a panel of 87 boilermaker subjects. The follow-up period was 29 months. LINE-1 and Alu methylation was determined using pyrosequencing. Leukocyte relative telomere length was assessed via real-time qPCR. Linear-mixed models were used to estimate the association between DNA methylation and telomere length. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to explore the hypothesized relationship between DNA methylation, proxies of particulate matter exposure, and telomere length at baseline. There appeared to be a positive association between both LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels, and telomere length. For every incremental increase in LINE-1 methylation, there was a statistically significant 1.0 × 10−1 (95% CI: 4.6 × 10−2, 1.5 × 10−1, P < 0.01) unit increase in relative telomere length, controlling for age at baseline, current and past smoking status, work history, BMI (log kg/m2) and leukocyte differentials. Furthermore, for every incremental increase in Alu methylation, there was a statistically significant 6.2 × 10−2 (95% CI: 1.0 × 10−2, 1.1 × 10−1, P = 0.02) unit increase in relative telomere length. The interaction between LINE-1 methylation and follow-up time was statistically significant with an estimate −9.8 × 10−3 (95% CI: −1.8 × 10−2, −1.9 × 10−3, P = 0.02); suggesting that the rate of telomeric change was modified by the degree of LINE-1 methylation. No statistically significant association was found between the cumulative PM exposure construct, with global DNA methylation and telomere length at baseline. PMID:24616077

  3. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

  4. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  5. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530

  6. Work fatigue and physiological symptoms in different occupations of high-elevation construction workers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fu-Lin; Sun, Yih-Min; Chuang, Kao-Hsing; Hsu, Der-Jen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether work fatigue and physiological symptoms that high-elevation construction workers experience would be affected by the occupations. Questionnaires of demographic data and subjective fatigue symptoms as well as some physiological measurements were carried out, pre- and post-shift, on scaffolders, steel fixers, formworkers, electrician-plumbers, concreters and miscellaneous workers at a high-rise building construction site. This study found that some subjective fatigue symptoms coincide with the life style of some workers and that the extent of fatigue symptoms and physiological strains varies among different occupations of construction workers. Scaffolders, steel fixers and formworkers are categorized as physically demanding fatigue type of workers, while concreters, electrician-plumbers and miscellaneous workers as general type. The prevalence and occurrence of subjective fatigue symptoms indicate high-elevation workers have more complaints of "projection of physical impairment" than "drowsiness and dullness" and "difficulty in concentration". Some unexpected changes (i.e., post-shift measurements are greater than pre-shift ones) in some strength tests in scaffolders and concreters were consistent with the observations of how they exercised their bodies during work shift. Considerable variation of average heart rate among occupations was found, with scaffolders the highest and concreters the lowest. This study concludes that questionnaires of subjective fatigue symptoms and some physiological measurements can be used as indicators to predict the extent of strains or hazards which construction workers encounter. In terms of management program of safety and health, more attention should be paid to those physically demanding workers, such as scaffolders, workers with lower sense of safety and health, such as miscellaneous workers, and workers with older age, such as concreters. PMID:18620333

  7. HIV testing of construction workers in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Cattell, Keith

    2015-01-01

    With an infection rate estimated at 14%, the South African construction industry is one of the economic sectors most adversely affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Construction workers are considered a high-risk group. The provision and uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is critical to reducing transmission rates. This study examined the testing behaviour of site-based construction workers in terms of demographic and lifestyle risk behaviour characteristics to help inform better strategies for work-based interventions by construction firms. A total of 512 workers drawn from six firms operating on 18 construction sites in the Western Cape province participated in the study. Twenty-seven per cent of the participants reported never having been tested for HIV. Results indicate that females (aOR = 4.45, 95% CI, 1.25-15.82), older workers (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI, 1.08-1.81), permanent workers (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI, 1.11-2.50) and workers whom had previously used a condom (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.02-3.65) were significantly more likely to have been tested. Ethnicity was not significantly related to prior testing. Identification of these subgroups within the industry has implications for the development of targeted work-based intervention programmes to promote greater HIV testing among construction workers in South Africa. PMID:25886973

  8. The Discursive Construction of the "Competent" Learner-Worker: From Key Competencies to "Employability Skills"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The subjectivity of workers, articulated in terms of the personal attributes required in ongoing conditions of economic change, has been at the forefront of current discussions of generic skills in Australia. This article explores the discursive construction and reconstruction of the "competent" learner-worker from its initial elaboration in the…

  9. Results of a community-based survey of construction safety climate for Hispanic workers

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Luz S; Cifuentes, Manuel; Roelofs, Cora

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hispanic construction workers experience high rates of occupational injury, likely influenced by individual, organizational, and social factors. Objectives: To characterize the safety climate of Hispanic construction workers using worker, contractor, and supervisor perceptions of the workplace. Methods: We developed a 40-item interviewer-assisted survey with six safety climate dimensions and administered it in Spanish and English to construction workers, contractors, and supervisors. A safety climate model, comparing responses and assessing contributing factors was created based on survey responses. Results: While contractors and construction supervisors’ (n = 128) scores were higher, all respondents shared a negative perception of safety climate. Construction workers had statistically significantly lower safety climate scores compared to supervisors and contractors (30.6 vs 46.5%, P<0.05). Safety climate scores were not associated with English language ability or years lived in the United States. Conclusions: We found that Hispanic construction workers in this study experienced a poor safety climate. The Hispanic construction safety climate model we propose can serve as a framework to guide organizational safety interventions and evaluate safety climate improvements. PMID:26145454

  10. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  11. 36. SAR1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, WITH WORKERS ATOP CRANE. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SAR-1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, WITH WORKERS ATOP CRANE. EEC print no. N-C-01-00031, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Epidemiology of Work-Related Injuries Among Construction Workers of Ilam (Western Iran) During 2006 - 2009

    PubMed Central

    Moradinazar, Mehdi; Kurd, Nematullah; Farhadi, Rozita; Amee, Vahid; Najafi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related injuries are the most important cause of work absence, disability, retirement, mutilation, and even mortality. In Iran a great number of work-related injuries are occurred in construction industry. However, less than 12% of total workers are active in the construction sector. Objectives This study aimed to determine the incidence rate of work-related injuries, the type of injuries, and its other determinants among the construction workers of Ilam (Iran). Patients and Methods The participants were the workers and staffs working in the construction activities of Ilam in Western Iran. All the recorded injuries and deaths related to the construction workers of Ilam from 2006-2009 were collected from the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs and then analyzed by the statistical package of SPSS (version 19, for Windows). Results During 2006 - 2009 in Ilam, 387workers encountered the building accidents. Their mean age was 34.3 years (SD = 12.4). The average annual incidence of work-related injuries among the workers was 8.2 per 1000 workers. Fracture with 275 cases (71%) was the most common outcome of injuries, and slipping and falling with 77 cases (36%) were the most important events and exposures. The most important factor related to injuries was the lack of surveillance by employers which was also related with the severity of accident-induced injuries (P < 0.004). Conclusions Considering the effectiveness of the relevant preventive measures activities such as training the workers as well as using safety tools and more surveillance by employers can decrease the number of work-related injuries among constructive workers. PMID:24693372

  13. Contact allergy in male construction workers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marzia Silva; de Avelar Alchorne, Alicede Oliveira; Costa, Enilde Borges; Montesano, Fábio Tadeu

    2007-04-01

    There are no recent data on allergens in the construction industry in Brazil; apparently there were no changes in allergenic substances. The objective of this study was to identify sensitization to allergens in adult males working in the construction industry. A cross-sectional study with adult males submitted to patch tests from May 2000 to December 2005. Out of 169 male patients, 83 were construction workers. The five most frequent allergens among the construction workers were potassium dichromate (57%), carba-mix (34.9%), cobalt chloride (30.2%), thiuram-mix (27.9%) and neomycin (19.8%). There is a significant sensitization to potassium dichromate, cobalt, carba-mix, and thiuram-mix, demonstrating that cement and rubber gloves of personal protection equipment still account for allergic contact dermatitis in construction industry workers. PMID:17343626

  14. Development and Validation of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for U.S. Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Methods Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n=11) and focus groups (3 groups with 6 workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n=144). Results Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales (“Lethargy” and “Bodily Ailment”).. During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW (0.91), Lethargy (0.86) and Bodily Ailment (0.84)) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59–0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74–0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. Conclusions The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. PMID:25603944

  15. Effects of worker size on the dynamics of fire ant tunnel construction

    PubMed Central

    Gravish, Nick; Garcia, Mateo; Mazouchova, Nicole; Levy, Laura; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2012-01-01

    Social insects work together to complete tasks. However, different individuals within a colony may vary in task proficiency. We investigated if fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) worker body size influenced the ability to construct tunnels—a key component of subterranean nests. We monitored excavation by worker groups in a substrate of small wetted glass particles in quasi-two-dimensional arenas. Morphological and network features of the tunnel system were measured. Total tunnel area did not differ significantly between groups of large and small workers, although the tunnel area of control sized workers was significantly larger than that of large workers. Moreover, large workers created wider but shorter tunnels, with slower growth rate of tunnel number. However, edge–vertex scaling and degree distribution of the tunnel network were similar across all treatments. In all cases, the amount of excavated material was correlated with the number of active workers. Our study reveals that morphological features of excavated tunnels show modest variation when constructed by workers of varying sizes, but topological features associated with the tunnel network are conserved. These results suggest that important behavioural aspects of tunnel construction—and thus nest building—are similar among morphologically distinct members of fire ant societies. PMID:22915634

  16. Associations between Wage System and Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders among Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Persson, Roger; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    Piece rate and performance based wage systems are common in the construction industry. Construction workers are known to have an increased risk of pain and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the association between wage system and (1) physical exertion, (2) time pressure, (3) pain, and (4) fatigue. The participants comprised 456 male Danish construction workers working on one of three different wage systems: group based performance wage, individually based performance wage, and time based wage system. The statistical analyses indicated differences between the wage systems in relation to physical exertion (ηp = 0.05) and time pressure (ηp = 0.03) but not to pain or fatigue. Workers on group based performance wage scored higher (i.e., worse) than workers on individual performance based wage and workers with an hourly/monthly wage. In conclusion, group performance based wage was associated with higher levels of physical exertion and time pressure. Accordingly, group performance based wage can be viewed as a factor that has the potential to complicate prevention of MSD among construction workers. Since performance based wage systems are common in many countries across the world, more attention should be paid to the health effects of these types of payment. PMID:26605083

  17. Effects of elevation change on mental stress in high-voltage transmission tower construction workers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Feng-Wen; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Jen

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage transmission tower construction is a high-risk operation due to the construction site locations, extreme climatic factors, elevated working surfaces, and narrow working space. To comprehensively enhance our understanding of the psychophysiological phenomena of workers in extremely high tower constructions, we carried out a series of field experiments to test and compare three working surface heights in terms of frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measurements. Twelve experienced male workers participated in this experiment. The dependent variables, namely, heart rate (HR), normalized low-frequency power (nLF), normalized high-frequency power (nHF), and LF-to-HF power ratio (LF/HF), were measured with the Polar RS800CX heart rate monitor. The experimental results indicated that the task workload was similar between working surface heights. Tower construction workers perceived an increased level of mental stress as working surface height increased. PMID:27184317

  18. [Fever and dry cough in a construction worker from Portugal].

    PubMed

    Wiesli, P; Flepp, M; Greminger, P

    1997-07-30

    A 33-year-old Portugese worker presented with a one-week history of nonproductive cough and fever. A presumptive diagnosis "viral infection of the respiratory tract" was made. However, because of persisting cough and fever further investigations were necessary, and finally Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood cultures. Three months before admission to the hospital the man was dressing the carcasses of a goat in Portugal and consumpted fresh goats milk cheese. Antibiotic therapy with Rifampicin and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazol over 6 weeks improved the signs and symptoms of the infection. PMID:9340710

  19. Physical activity levels at work and outside of work among Commercial Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Oscar E.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Umukoro, Peter E.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Characterize the number of minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity at work and outside of work during seven consecutive days, in a sample of 55 commercial construction workers. Methods Workers wore accelerometers during work and outside work hours for seven consecutive days, and completed brief survey at the seventh day of data collection. Results From the directly measured physical activity, the average number per participant of moderate minutes of occupational physical activity and physical activity outside of work obtained in short bouts were 243 minutes (65%) and 130 minutes (35%), respectively. Directly measured minutes of vigorous occupational physical activity were significant and positively correlated with self-reported fatigue. Conclusions Among commercial construction workers, physical activity from work contributes significantly, approximately 2/3, towards a workers total amount of weekly minutes of moderate physical activity. PMID:25563543

  20. Young workers in the construction industry and initial OSH-training when entering work life.

    PubMed

    Holte, Kari Anne; Kjestveit, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that young workers are at risk for injuries. The risk for accidents is high within construction, indicating that young workers may be especially vulnerable in this industry. In Norway, it is possible to enter the construction industry as a full time worker at the age of 18. The aim of this paper was to explore how young construction workers are received at their workplace with regards to OHS-training. The study was designed as a qualitative case study. Each case consisted of a young worker or apprentice (< 25 years), a colleague, the immediate superior, the OHS manager, and a safety representative in the company. The interviews were recorded and analyzed through content analysis. The results showed that there were differences between large and small companies, where large companies had more formalized routines and systems for receiving and training young workers. These routines were however more dependent on requirements set by legislators and contractors more than by company size, since the legislation has different requirements with impact on OHS. PMID:22317356

  1. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  2. Health problems among migrant construction workers: A unique public–private partnership project

    PubMed Central

    Adsul, Balkrishna B.; Laad, Payal S.; Howal, Prashant V.; Chaturvedi, Ramesh M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Construction sector is a booming industry and involves many hazardous activities. Migrant labor in the industry is susceptible to various health and occupational hazards. In a unique public–private partnership project, a medical team from a public sector teaching hospital in Mumbai provided comprehensive on-site health care services to the construction workers of a private construction company. Objective: To study socio-demographic profile and morbidity pattern of construction workers. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study at construction site Vidyavihar (West), Mumbai, was carried out over the period of May to November 2010. Materials and Methods: A medical team provided comprehensive on-site health care services, and a Health Card was devised to maintain the record of socio-demographic, occupational details, and complete physical examination findings of the workers who participated in the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 15.0. Results: Of the 1337 workers (all males) examined, 1289 (96.4%) belonged to 15–45 years age group. The mean age of the workers was 26.25 ± 8.49 years. A third of the migrants belonged to West Bengal. The average number of health problems in the workers was 1.41. Regular consumers of tobacco and alcohol were 50.48 and 14.65%, respectively. Nearly one-fifth of the workers had febrile illness, of which 20.71% had suspected malaria; 12.6% had respiratory infections, while 3.4% were found to have hypertension. There was a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between type of occupation and morbidity status. PMID:21808498

  3. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed. PMID:18446563

  4. Postural stability effects of random vibration at the feet of construction workers in simulated elevation.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, P; Hsiao, H; Powers, J; Ammons, D; Kau, T; Amendola, A

    2011-07-01

    The risk of falls from height on a construction site increases under conditions which degrade workers' postural control. At elevation, workers depend heavily on sensory information from their feet to maintain balance. The study tested two hypotheses: "sensory enhancement"--sub-sensory (undetectable) random mechanical vibrations at the plantar surface of the feet can improve worker's balance at elevation; and "sensory suppression"--supra-sensory (detectable) random mechanical vibrations can have a degrading effect on balance in the same experimental settings. Six young (age 20-35) and six aging (age 45-60) construction workers were tested while standing in standard and semi-tandem postures on instrumented gel insoles. The insoles applied sub- or supra-sensory levels of random mechanical vibrations to the feet. The tests were conducted in a surround-screen virtual reality system, which simulated a narrow plank at elevation on a construction site. Upper body kinematics was assessed with a motion-measurement system. Postural stability effects were evaluated by conventional and statistical mechanics sway measures, as well as trunk angular displacement parameters. Analysis of variance did not confirm the "sensory enhancement" hypothesis, but provided evidence for the "sensory suppression" hypothesis. The supra-sensory vibration had a destabilizing effect, which was considerably stronger in the semi-tandem posture and affected most of the sway variables. Sensory suppression associated with elevated vibration levels on a construction site may increase the danger of losing balance. Construction workers at elevation, e.g., on a beam or narrow plank might be at increased risk of fall if they can detect vibrations under their feet. To reduce the possibility of losing balance, mechanical vibration to supporting structures used as walking/working surfaces should be minimized when performing construction tasks at elevation. PMID:21071015

  5. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03 ± 10.41 μg/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81 ± 10.21 μg/dL), p = 0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04 ± 4.11 μg/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99 ± 3.28 μg/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 μg/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention. PMID:24645964

  6. LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) interior. Construction worker applies caulking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) interior. Construction worker applies caulking compound to joint between stainless steel weir and concrete. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: March 6, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-1099 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Employee engagement, boredom and frontline construction workers feeling safe in their workplace.

    PubMed

    Whiteoak, John W; Mohamed, Sherif

    2016-08-01

    Systems thinking is a philosophy currently prevalent within construction safety literature that is applied to understand and improve safety in sociotechnical systems. Among systems, the site-project organizational system is of particular interest to this paper. Using focus group and survey feedback research to learn about how safety incidents effect levels of construction workers engagement this paper reveals how a safety incident provides an opportunity to create a potential quality (productivity) upgrade within an organization. The research approach involved a qualitative study involving 27 frontline supervisors and a follow-up survey completed by 207 frontline workers in the Australian Asphalt and Pavement Industry. The focus group interviews supported the articulation of the concepts of tacit safety, explicit safety, situational awareness, foresight ability, practical intelligence and crew synergy. Our findings indicate that having regular shift changes and other job site workers being fatigued are influential on perceptions of tacit safety. An individual's foresight ability was found to be the most potent predictor of worker perceptions of work engagement. The paper explains that relatively small improvements in worker perceptions of safety can bring about significant improvements in employee engagement and productivity. PMID:26616016

  8. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  9. Individual behavior of workers of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on consecutive days of tunnel construction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the individual behavior of workers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shirkai, on two consecutive days of tunnel construction. In each trial, a group of 30 termite workers was observed continuously during the first 60 min of construction of a new tunnel ...

  10. The development of anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather.

    PubMed

    Chan, Albert P C; Guo, Y P; Wong, Francis K W; Li, Y; Sun, S; Han, X

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, the design situation was explored, including clothing fabric heat/moisture transporting properties and UV protection and the aspects of clothing ergonomic design (mobility, convenience, and safety). The problem structure was derived from the results of the surveys in three local construction sites, which agreed well with the task requirements and observations. Specifications were consequently described and 30 commercially available fabrics were identified and tested. Fabric testing data and design considerations were inputted in S-smart system to predict the thermal functional performance of the clothing. A new uniform prototype was developed and evaluated. The results of all measurements suggest that the new uniform which incorporated fabrics with superior heat/moisture transporting properties and loose-fitting design could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. Practitioner Summary: The construction workers' uniform currently used in Hong Kong during summer was unsatisfactory. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, an anti-heat stress uniform was developed by testing 30 fabrics and predicting clothing thermal functional performance using S-smart system. The new uniform could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. PMID:26399956

  11. Impact of social determinants on well-being of urban construction workers of Hyderabad

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Sudha; Valsangkar, Sameer; Lakshman Rao, Reshaboyina Lakshmi Narayana; Surya Prabha, Manem Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyderabad has witnessed one of the largest labor immigration in recent years and these construction workers are highly vulnerable in terms of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) arise from conditions in which they live and these factors interact with each other to produce direct impact on health. Objectives: (1) To evaluate the sociodemographic and job characteristics of the construction workers. (2) To assess the impact of social determinants on well-being. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 135 construction workers working at three sites of HITEC city were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Health perception and the impact on well-being was measured using the Healthy Days Module and Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. SDH were measured on a 27-item questionnaire with responses on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 4. Proportions, percentages, P values, and mean scores were obtained. Results: The mean age of the sample was 35.4 ± 11.94 years. Seventeen (12.6%) of the workers reported a high risk score on the Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant domains of social determinants independently associated with the well being of construction workers and significant among the nine domains of social determinants were addiction score domain with odds of 2.259 and a P value of 0.015 and the distress domain with odds of 1.108 and a P < 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant impairment of physical and mental health due to various factors including SDH, such as addictive habits and psychological distress, which are amenable to prevention. PMID:27390473

  12. Chronic back pain among older construction workers in the United States: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen S; Wang, Xuanwen; Fujimoto, Alissa; Dobbin, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed chronic back pain among older construction workers in the United States by analyzing data from the 1992-2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large-scale longitudinal survey. Fixed-effects methods were applied in the multiple logistic regression model to explore the association between back pain and time-varying factors (e.g., employment, job characteristics, general health status) while controlling for stable variables (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity). Results showed that about 40% of older construction workers over the age of 50 suffered from persistent back pain or problems. Jobs involving a great deal of stress or physical effort significantly increased the risk of back disorders and longest-held jobs in construction increased the odds of back disorders by 32% (95% CI: 1·04-1·67). Furthermore, poor physical and mental health were strongly correlated with back problems. Enhanced interventions for construction workers are urgently needed given the aging workforce and high prevalence of back disorders in this industry. PMID:22762489

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), thyroid hormones and cytokines in construction workers removing old elastic sealants

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Cecilia; Johansson, Niklas; Wingfors, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the internal PCB level in Swedish workers specialised in PCB abatement in buildings and to measure possible effects of PCB on thyroid function and aspects of the immune system. Methods Thirty six of 40 eligible workers (90%) removing old elastic sealants containing PCB and 33 control construction workers provided blood samples for determination of 19 PCB congeners and some other organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene and p,p′-DDE), thyroid function hormones and a set of cytokines. The PCB exposed group was reinvestigated after 10 months for a trend assessment. Results The sum of 19 PCB congeners in blood plasma from the occupationally PCB-exposed group was twice the level in the controls (geometric mean 580 vs. 260 ng/g lipid; P < 0.001), and there was also some difference in p,p′-DDE between the groups while the lipid-adjusted hexachlorobenzene levels were of the same magnitude. No statistically significant increase in overall PCB levels was observed in the abatement workers at follow-up and some congeners even declined. Thyroid function was not associated with PCB exposure at the current levels and this applied also to the cytokines investigated. Conclusions Swedish workers removing old elastic sealants with PCB have a higher internal PCB load than unexposed colleague construction workers, tentatively secondary to historical exposure. A system of protective measures seemed to be efficient since no further increase was noted after a longish period of additional exposure. There was no evidence of thyroid function or immune system involvement, as expressed by a set of cytokines, at the low PCB levels recorded. PMID:18350309

  14. Are hearing loss and balance dysfunction linked in construction iron workers?

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H; Hanscom, B

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether an association existed between hearing loss and balance dysfunction in construction workers exposed to noise. Screening pure tone audiometry and balance testing were performed using a sound emitter and dual microphone system to evaluate 78 iron workers who were compared with 128 histology technicians. Most iron workers showed hearing loss at frequencies below 3000 Hz. Their sway speeds were significantly faster both with the eyes open (1.05 (SD 0.39) v 0.91 (SD 0.22) cm/s) and with eyes closed (1.66 (SD 0.82) v 1.31 (SD 0.51) cm/s) than those of histology technicians. Coefficients for sway speed with the eyes closed and hearing loss in the left ear were significantly correlated at 500 to 8000 Hz. They were also correlated with the sway speed, eyes open, at low and high Hz. It is concluded that the use of air impact power tools in an inordinately noisy work environment makes iron workers prematurely deaf and impairs their balance. Falls may be related to balance dysfunction and impaired equilibrium. Falls from height injure and kill iron workers. Further investigations will determine whether injuries from falls are linked to these impairments. PMID:1536822

  15. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L

    2015-11-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power-generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011-April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non-Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department. PMID:26484688

  16. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J.; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C.; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power–generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011–April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non–Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department. PMID:26484688

  17. Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

    1981-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

  18. Cohort study of occupational risk factors of low back pain in construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Latza, U.; Karmaus, W.; Sturmer, T.; Steiner, M.; Neth, A.; Rehder, U.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To identify work related risk factors of future low back pain (LBP) in a cohort of construction workers free of LBP at the start of follow up.
METHODS—The Hamburg construction worker study comprises 571 male construction workers who have undergone two comprehensive interview and physical examination surveys. A cohort of 285 subjects without LBP at baseline was identified. After a follow up of 3 years, the 1 year prevalence of self reported LBP was determined in the 230 men followed up (80.7%). Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of LBP at follow up according to self reported work tasks of construction workers measured at baseline were estimated from Cox's regression models which were adjusted for age, and anthropometric measures.
RESULTS—At follow up 71 out of 230 workers (30.9%) reported LBP during the preceding 12 months. Four work tasks (scaffolding, erecting roof structures, sawing wood, laying large sandstones) with an increased risk of 1 year prevalence of LBP at follow up were further evaluated. After further adjustment for occupation the relative risk was increased for workers who had reported ⩾2 hour/shifts laying large sandstones (PR=2.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 6.5). Work load of bricklayers was additionally estimated by an index on stone load (high exposure: PR=4.0; 95% CI 0.8 to 19.8), and an index for laying huge bricks/blocks (yes/no: PR=1.7; 95% CI 0.5 to 5.7).
CONCLUSIONS—The results suggest that self reported differences in brick characteristics (size and type of stone) and temporal aspects of the work of bricklayers (average hours per shift laying specified stones) can predict the future prevalence of LBP. The data have to be interpreted with caution because multiple risk factors were tested.


Keywords: construction industry; cohort studies; low back pain PMID:10711266

  19. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Building Construction Workers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Alsaaran, Zaid Fahad; Alshehri, Moayad Khalid; Azam Khashougji, Mohammed; Almeterk, Abdul Aziz Zayed; Almutairi, Saif Fraj; Alsaeed, Saad Fahad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among building construction workers. Methods: Total 389 apparently healthy, male volunteers were selected with mean age 34.56±8.33 years and a mean working duration in building construction as 5.76±2.68 years. Musculoskeletal complaints were recorded through a detailed clinical interview and comprehensive questionnaire. Results: Substantial number of building construction workers developed musculoskeletal symptoms including neck pain 29 (7.5%), shoulder pain 41(10.5%), upper back pain 24(6.2%), lower back pain 64 (16.5%), legs pain 93 (23.9%), feet pain 52 (13.4%), head heaviness 44 (11.3%) and whole body fatigue 78 (20.1%). These complaints were significantly associated with long-term duration-response in building construction industry. Furthermore, cigarette smokers had little higher percentage of musculoskeletal complaints compared to non-smoker companions. Conclusions: Building construction occupation is a prolific source of musculoskeletal ailments and complaints were significantly increased with long-term working duration in building construction industry. PMID:24550961

  20. Certain questions of the acclimatization of construction workers to the conditions of a subtropical climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babayev, A.

    1979-01-01

    The period of active acclimatization was determined for construction workers coming into a subtropical climate. Changes were observed in metabolic processes, oxygen needs, pulse rate, arterial pressure, body and skin temperature, body weight, water consumption and loss, and the comfort zone of heat sensitivity. It was concluded that acclimatization is facilitated if introduction to the hot climate occurs in the mild cool season, rather than the summer. This also prevents heat prostration and improves the development of adaptive mechanisms.

  1. Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, I A; Torén, K; Eriksson, K; Hedlund, U; Nilsson, T; Flodin, R; Järvholm, B

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers. PMID:15065829

  2. Construction Workers Struggle with a High Prevalence of Mental Distress and this is Associated with Their Pain and Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Borsting; Caban-Martinez, Alberto; Onyebeke, Lynn C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Reme, Silje Endresen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate how mental distress was associated with pain and injuries in a convenience sample of construction workers. Methods A cross-sectional, mental health assessment was conducted in a convenience sample of construction workers (N=172). A subsample participated in a clinical interview (N=10). We used a cut-off (≥1.50) on HSCL-25 to determine substantial mental distress and determined associations with pain and injury outcomes. Results The prevalence of substantial mental distress was 16 % in the workers. This was supported by follow-up clinical interviews where nine out of ten workers fulfilled the criteria for a mental disorder. Substantial mental distress was associated with both injury rate and self-reported pain. Conclusion This pilot study strongly suggests the need for rigorous studies on construction worker mental health, and how it affects their work and wellbeing. PMID:24064778

  3. 46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... members and accommodations for offshore workers. 127.280 Section 127.280 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular... accommodations for offshore workers. (a) The following requirements apply to quarters for crew members on...

  4. Time trend in hospitalised chronic lower respiratory diseases among Danish building and construction workers, 1981–2009: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tüchsen, Finn; Hannerz, Harald; Mølgaard, Ellen Fisher; Brauer, Charlotte; Kirkeskov, Lilli

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981–1990, 1991–2000, 2001–2009). Design Within consecutive cohorts of all male building and construction workers in Denmark, selected occupations: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plumbers and ‘other construction workers’ were followed up for hospitalisation due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. SHR was calculated for each occupation and time period. Time trend was calculated for construction workers at large using Poisson regression. Setting Denmark. Participants All gainfully employed male building and construction workers aged 20 or more. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-standardised and gender-standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR). Results The number of hospitalised construction workers at large was reduced from 1134 in the first 10-year period to 699 in the last 9-year period. Among all Danish males, it was, however, even more reduced as reflected in the expected number that was down from 1172 to 617. Hence, SHR increased from 97 during 1981–1990, 100 during 1991–2000 to 113 during 2001–2009. It means that SHR increased with an average rate of 0.76% per year (95% CI 0.28 to 1.24) during the study period. A low SHR=72 (95% CI 60 to 87) was found among carpenters in 1981–1990. From 2001 to 2009, high SHRs were found among painters (SHR=147; 95% CI 111 to 192) and plumbers (SHR=132; 95% CI 101 to 171). In general, the selected groups of construction workers had, however, a low or average SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. Conclusions The number of hospitalised workers, suffering from chronic lower respiratory diseases, was reduced over time for construction workers, but for all economically active men, it was reduced even more. Therefore, SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases increased over time in the

  5. Effectiveness of an intervention to increase construction workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Hong, O S; Ronis, D L; Eakin, B L; Kerr, M J; Early, M R

    1999-09-01

    In this project we tested the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention (video, pamphlets, and guided practice session) to increase the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) among Midwestern construction workers and a national group of plumber/pipefitter trainers. Posttest measures were collected 10-12 months following this intervention. Pender's Health Promotion Model (1987) provided the conceptual basis for development of the training program. A total of 837 high-noise-exposed workers were included in the analysis: 652 regional Midwestern construction workers and 185 national plumber/pipefitter trainers. Effectiveness of the intervention was determined through the sequence of analyses recommended by Braver and Braver (1988) for the Solomon Four-Group Design. Analysis of variance and covariance of postintervention use and intention to use HPDs and a meta-analytic test were done. These analyses indicated that the intervention significantly increased use of HPDs but had no effect on intention to use HPDs in the future. Pretesting had no effect on use. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidance in the development of successful theory-based interventions to increase use of HPDs. PMID:10665215

  6. Older workers in the construction industry: results of a routine health examination and a five year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Rothenbacher, D; Brenner, H; Fraisse, E; Zschenderlein, B; Daniel, U; Schuberth, S; Fliedner, T M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health status of older construction workers and the occurrence of early retirement due to disability or of mortality within a five year follow up. METHODS: Firstly, a cross sectional study was performed among 4958 employees in the German construction industry, aged 40-64 years, who underwent standardised routine occupational health examinations in 1986-8. The study population included plumbers, carpenters, painters/varnishers, plasterers, unskilled workers, and white collar workers (control group). Job specific prevalence and age adjusted relative prevalence were calculated for hearing loss, abnormal findings at lung auscultation, reduced forced expiratory volume, increased diastolic blood pressure, abnormalities in the electrocardiogram, increased body mass index, hypercholesterolaemia, increased liver enzymes, abnormal findings in an examination of the musculoskeletal system, and abnormalities of the skin. Secondly, follow up for disability and all cause mortality was ascertained between 1992 and 1994 (mean follow up period = 4.5 y). Job specific crude rates were calculated for the occurrence of early retirement due to disability and for all cause mortality. With Cox's proportional hazards model, job specific relative risks, adjusted for age, nationality, and smoking were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with the white collar workers, a higher prevalence of hearing deficiencies, signs of obstructive lung diseases, increased body mass index, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were found among the construction workers at the baseline exam. During the follow up period, 141 men died and 341 men left the labour market due to disability. Compared with white collar workers, the construction workers showed a 3.5 to 8.4-fold increased rate of disability (P < 0.05 for all occupational groups) and a 1.2 to 2.1-fold increased all cause mortality (NS). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need and possibilities for further health promotion in workers

  7. Age in Relation to Worker Compensation Costs in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Schwatka, Natalie V.; Butler, Lesley M.; Rosecrance, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding of how workers’ compensation (WC) costs are affected by an aging US workforce is needed, especially for physically demanding industries, such as construction. Methods The relationship between age and injury type on claim costs was evaluated using a database of 107,064 Colorado WC claims filed between 1998 and 2008 among construction workers. Results Mean WC costs increased with increasing age for total cost (P < 0.0001), medical costs (P < 0.0001), and indemnity costs (P < 0.0001). For each one-year increase in age, indemnity, and medical costs increased by 3.5% and 1.1%, respectively. For specific injury types, such as strains and contusions, the association between age and indemnity costs was higher among claimants aged ≥65 compared to claimants aged 18–24. Conclusions Our findings suggest that specific injury types may be partially responsible for the higher indemnity costs among older construction workers, compared with their younger coworkers. PMID:22782837

  8. [Measurement of energy expenditure in a group of construction workers during work].

    PubMed

    Manfredini, F; Borleri, D; Mosconi, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the results obtained from measuring energy expenditure (EE) during work in a group of male construction workers through a new portable device of practical use and low cost. The instrument consists of an electronic bracelet multisensor system for measuring EE, which is called Armband Sensewear Pro2 and is produced by Body Media. The disposal has 5 steel hypoallergenic sensors which detect the skin and the near body temperature, the environment temperature, the electrical skin conductance, and an internal two axes accelerometer which detects the transverse and longitudinal acceleration. The analysis of these parameters through software allows you to derive the individual EE. The study describes the results obtained by applying Armband to a group of 10 construction workers performing the following jobs: bricklayer, tiler, crane driver and "rock climber". The results allow to assess and confirm the high EE related to the work of the subjects enrolled in the study. In conclusion the authors argue that Armband, already validated experimentally in several areas of Medicine, can be a useful tool available to the Occupational Physician, in order to determine the EE for workers who perform heavy tasks, such as those that exist in the construction industry, which are characterised by high levels of EE and poor reproducibility of tasks. Moreover, Armband appears to be an useful tool in connection with the dual possibility on the one hand to assess fatigue related to certain skills and jobs, and on the other side to contribute to the metabolic evaluation of cardiac patients during rehabilitation at work. PMID:18409925

  9. The Development, Diffusion and Evaluation of a Fall Hazard Safety Training Program for Residential Construction Workers Utilizing Instructor Led and New Media Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of workers in the residential construction industry are on the rise. Falls have continually been the largest contributor to residential construction worker deaths and injuries. These workers are largely self-employed or working for small companies. These individuals are difficult to reach through traditional methods. This research…

  10. Perceptual strain index for heat strain assessment in an experimental study: an application to construction workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Chan, Albert P C

    2015-02-01

    Although the physiological strain index (PhSI) is universal and comprehensive, its restrictions are recognized in terms of invasive on-site measurements and the requirement of accurate instruments. The perceptual strain index (PeSI) has been proposed as a user-friendly and practical indicator for heat strain. However, the application of this index in assessing the heat strain of construction workers has yet to be examined and documented. This study aims to ascertain the reliability and applicability of PeSI in an experimental setting that simulates a stressful working environment (i.e., environment, work uniform, and work pace) experienced by construction workers. Ten males and two females performed intermittent exercise on a treadmill while wearing a summer work uniform at 34.5 °C and 75% relative humidity in a climatic chamber. Physiological parameters (core temperature, heart rate) and perceptual variables (thermal sensation, perceived exertion) were collated synchronously at 3 min intervals. The results of two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (clothing×time) revealed that the PeSI was useful in differentiating the heat strain levels between different work uniforms. Not only did the PeSI change in the same general manner with the PhSI, but it was also powerful in reflecting different levels of physiological strain. Thus, the PeSI offers considerable promise for heat strain assessment under simulated working conditions. PMID:25660626

  11. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed. PMID:27625442

  12. Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Boessen, Ruud; Spaan, Suzanne; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2015-10-01

    There is little evidence with respect to the effectiveness of intervention programs that focus on the reduction of occupational quartz exposure in the construction industry. This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. Eight companies participating in the cluster randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to the intervention (four companies) or control condition (four companies). The multidimensional intervention included engineering, organizational, and behavioural elements at both organizational and individual level. Full-shift personal quartz exposure measurements and detailed observations were conducted before and after the intervention among bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers (n = 282). About 59% of these workers measured at baseline were reassessed during follow-up. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to evaluate the intervention effect on exposure levels. Concrete drillers in the intervention group used technical control measures, particularly water suppression, for a significantly greater proportion of the time spent on abrasive tasks during follow-up compared to baseline (93 versus 62%; P < 0.05). A similar effect, although not statistically significant, was observed among demolishers. A substantial overall reduction in quartz exposure (73 versus 40% in the intervention and control group respectively; P < 0.001) was observed for concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers. The decrease in exposure in the intervention group compared to controls was significantly larger for demolishers and tuck pointers, but not for concrete drillers. The observed effect could at least partly be explained by the introduced interventions; the statistically significant increased use of control measures among concrete drillers explains the observed effect

  13. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKOOEI, Hossein; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02–0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers. PMID:24292876

  14. [The effects of the Demand-Support-Control model on construction workers' health].

    PubMed

    López-Araújo, Blanca; Osca Segovia, Amparo

    2011-02-01

    This work takes as reference the Demand-Control-Support model and analyzes the relation of job control and social support and some job demands and physical well-being in a sample of 285 construction workers. In general, job demands, exposure to harmful conditions, social support, and job control were found to be related to physical well-being. The modulator effects of job control and social support were verified. Job control modulates the negative effects of stress, mainly in situations of high demand. Moreover, social support modulates the negative effects of stress in situations of high exposure to harmful conditions. A three-way interaction effect was found but the increase in explained variance was not significant. Thus, the results do not reveal empirical evidence of the Demand-Control-Support model. The limitations and practical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:21266152

  15. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  16. Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures

  17. A panel study of occupational exposure to fine particulate matter and changes in DNA methylation over a single workday and years worked in boilermaker welders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to pollutants including metals and particulate air pollution can alter DNA methylation. Yet little is known about intra-individual changes in DNA methylation over time in relationship to environmental exposures. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of acute- and chronic metal-rich PM2.5 exposures on DNA methylation. Methods Thirty-eight male boilermaker welders participated in a panel study for a total of 54 person days. Whole blood was collected prior to any welding activities (pre-shift) and immediately after the exposure period (post-shift). The percentage of methylated cytosines (%mC) in LINE-1, Alu, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (iNOS) were quantified using pyrosequencing. Personal PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) was measured over the work-shift. A questionnaire assessed job history and years worked as a boilermaker. Linear mixed models with repeated measures evaluated associations between DNA methylation, PM2.5 concentration (acute exposure), and years worked as a boilermaker (chronic exposure). Results PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased methylation in the promoter region of the iNOS gene (β = 0.25, SE: 0.11, p-value = 0.04). Additionally, the number of years worked as a boilermaker was associated with increased iNOS methylation (β = 0.03, SE: 0.01, p-value = 0.03). No associations were observed for Alu or LINE-1. Conclusions Acute and chronic exposure to PM2.5 generated from welding activities was associated with a modest change in DNA methylation of the iNOS gene. Future studies are needed to confirm this association and determine if the observed small increase in iNOS methylation are associated with changes in NO production or any adverse health effect. PMID:23758843

  18. Accident data study of concrete construction companies' similarities and differences between qualified and non-qualified workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss findings from an analysis of accidents in concrete construction companies in Spain and to compare the accident rates of qualified and non-qualified workers. A total of 125,021 accidents between 2003 and 2008 involving both blue-collar and white-collar workers were analysed, comparing the variables of occupation, age, company staff, length of service, location of the accident, together with the severity of the accidents. Results showed that lack of experience in the first month is more significant in non-qualified workers and experienced supervisors and that head injuries are more likely to lead to fatalities. The most remarkable similarity was that fatal accidents to and from the worksite are a problem common to both groups of workers. PMID:26327149

  19. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors — the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work — the work place is not proper — the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field. PMID:21808496

  20. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field. PMID:21808496

  1. Quality of life and probable psychological distress among male workers at a construction site, Kolar district, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Geethu; Ramesh, Naveen; Shanbhag, Deepthi; Goud, Ramakrishna; Subramanian, Sharan; Lobo, Carol; Xavier, Alex; Dasari, Prudhvi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The construction industry, which mainly consists of migrant labouers is one of the largest employers in the unorganized sector in India. These workers work in poor conditions and are often vulnerable to exploitation. These workers also do not have health care benefits and often these factors lead to poor quality of life (QOL) and psychological distress. Objectives: To assess the QOL, probable psychological distress and associated factors among male construction workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and November 2013 among 404 male workers. These construction workers were enrolled by consecutive sampling at a construction area in Kolar district, Kaarnataka, India. The study tools used were World Health Organization (WHO) QOL-BREF and 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess QOL and probable psychological distress, respectively. The transformed scores in WHO QOL-BREF in all four domains ranged 0–100. The four domain scores are scaled in a positive direction with higher scores indicating a higher QOL. Associations were done using statistical tests such as Chi-square, correlation, regression, independent samples t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: A total of 404 male workers with a mean age of 25.6 ± 7.3 years were studied. Mean scores of various domains of QOL were 68.5 ± 13.7 (physical), 59.9 ± 13.5 (psychological), 64.3 ± 16.4 (social), and 44.1 ± 12.8 (environmental). On the self- rating scale, 59 (14.6%) workers were rated as having poor QOL. The prevalence of probable psychological distress was 27.5%. Factors such as increasing age, being currently married, and low educational status were found to be significantly associated (P < 0.05) with poor QOL and psychological distress. There was a significant negative correlation (P < 0.05) between QOL and psychological distress and a positive correlation between income and QOL. Conclusion: The QOL in the

  2. Musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers: a one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important cause of functional impairments and disability among construction workers. An improved understanding of MSDs in different construction occupations is likely to be of value for selecting preventive measures. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of symptoms of MSDs, the work-relatedness of the symptoms and the problems experienced during work among two construction occupations: bricklayers and supervisors. Methods We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors resident in the Netherlands in December 2009. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire one year later. The participants were asked about complaints of the musculoskeletal system during the last six months, the perceived work-relatedness of the symptoms, the problems that occurred during work and the occupational tasks that were perceived as causes or aggravating factors of the MSD. Results Baseline response rate was 37%, follow-up response was 80%. The prevalence of MSDs among 267 bricklayers and 232 supervisors was 67% and 57%, respectively. Complaints of the back, knee and shoulder/upper arm were the most prevalent among both occupations. Irrespective of the body region, most of the bricklayers and supervisors reported that their complaints were work-related. Complaints of the back and elbow were the most often reported among the bricklayers during work, whereas lower arm/wrist and upper leg complaints were the most often reported among the supervisors. In both occupations, a majority of the participants perceived several occupational physical tasks and activities as causes or aggravating factors for their MSD. Recurrent complaints at follow-up were reported by both bricklayers (47% of the complaints) and supervisors (31% of the complaints). Participants in both occupations report that mainly back and knee complaints result in additional problems during work, at the time

  3. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  4. Impact of exposure to insulation wool on lung function and cough in Swedish construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M.; Engholm, G.; Hallin, N.; Hagmar, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether application of insulation wool adversely affects lung volumes and increases the occurrence of symptoms of airway irritation. METHODS: Data from nationwide health check ups in 1981-93 of male construction workers born in 1955 or later were used to investigate cross sectional (n = 96,004) and longitudinal (n = 26,298) associations between lung volumes, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure to insulation wool by combining a job exposure matrix (JEM) and self reported exposure. Data on 12 month prevalence of persistent cough not associated with the common cold was available for the period 1989-92. Potential confounding from smoking, exposure to asbestos, silica, and isocyanates, was considered in the analyses. RESULTS: For those in the highest exposure category (self reported duration of exposure of > or = 11 years, and high exposure according to the JEM) VC was on average 2.5 cl lower (95% CI -6.5 to 1.5) than in those with no exposure. The corresponding figures for FEV1 was -2.4 cl (95% CI -6.1 to 1.3). In the longitudinal analyses, the yearly change in VC between the first and last spirometry for those in the highest exposure category was 0.50 cl (95% CI -0.97 to 1.98) less than in the unexposed category. The corresponding figure for FEV1 was 0.89 cl (95% CI - 0.70 to 2.06). High exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, or silica, during the 12 months preceding the check up was associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for persistent cough of the same magnitude as current smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate no effects on VC or FEV1 from exposure to insulation wool. Recent exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, and silica was associated with an increased prevalence of persistent cough.   PMID:9930086

  5. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  6. Time trends in mortality in forestry and construction workers in Finland 1970-85 and impact of adjustment for socioeconomic variables.

    PubMed Central

    Notkola, V J; Martikainen, P; Leino, P I

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study aimed firstly to describe the development of cause-specific mortality in forestry workers, farmer/forestry workers, and skilled and semiskilled construction workers between 1970 and 1985 in Finland, and to compare this with mortality in the total working male population. The second aim was to evaluate how well the cause-specific mortality differences between the occupations could be explained by differences in socioeconomic status, marital status, or in the region of residence. DESIGN AND SETTING--This is a follow up study based on the 1970, 1975, and 1980 census records in Finland linked with all death certificates for 1971-75, 1976-80, and 1981-85 respectively. Log-linear regression analysis was used. SUBJECTS--All economically active men in Finland aged between 35 and 64 years in 1971-85 were studied. The number of person-years in the period totals about 10 million. MAIN RESULTS--Semiskilled construction workers had the highest mortality rate almost independent of the cause of death. The mortality of forestry workers was the second highest. Compared with the reference population, however, the differences were small with regard to neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. With regard to other diseases, only the mortality of semiskilled workers was fairly high. Differences in mortality as a result of accidents were the highest. Both suicide and accidental death rates were high in semi-skilled construction workers and forestry workers. During the study total mortality fell by about 30% but mortality differences between groups did not decline. CONCLUSIONS--The high mortality of forestry and semiskilled construction workers is partly explained by socioeconomic factors such as marital status and housing conditions. These factors do not, however, explain the high suicide and accident mortality rates of forestry workers or semiskilled construction workers. More research is needed to explain these findings. PMID:8350029

  7. High-altitude gastrointestinal bleeding: An observation in Qinghai-Tibetan railroad construction workers on Mountain Tanggula

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tian-Yi; Ding, Shou-Quan; Liu, Jin-Liang; Jia, Jian-Hou; Dai, Rui-Chen; Zhu, Dong-Chun; Liang, Bao-Zhu; Qi, De-Tang; Sun, Yong-Fu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in people from lowland to high altitude and in workers on Mountain Tanggula and its causes as well as treatment and prophylaxis. METHODS: From 2001 to October 2003, we studied GIB in 13 502 workers constructing the railroad on Mountain Tanggula which is 4905 m above the sea level. The incidence of GIB in workers at different altitudes was recorded. Endoscopy was performed when the workers evacuated to Golmud (2808 m) and Xining (2261 m). The available data on altitude GIB were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall incidence of GIB was 0.49% in 13 502 workers. The incidence increased with increasing altitude. The onset of symptoms in most patients was within three weeks after arrival at high altitude. Bleeding manifested as hematemesis, melaena or hematochezia, and might be occult. Endoscopic examination showed that the causes of altitude GIB included hemorrhage gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and gastric erosion. Experimental studies suggested that acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) could be induced by hypoxic and cold stress, which might be the pathogenesis of altitude GIB. Those who consumed large amount of alcohol, aspirin or dexamethasone were at a higher risk of developing GIB. Persons who previously suffered from peptic ulcer or high-altitude polycythemia were also at risk of developing GIB. Early diagnosis, evacuation, and treatment led to early recovery. CONCLUSION: GIB is a potentially life threatening disease, if it is not treated promptly and effectively. Early diagnosis, treatment and evacuation lead to an early recovery. Death due to altitude GIB can be avoided if early symptoms and signs are recognized. PMID:17278202

  8. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24821509

  9. Nature's agents or agents of empire? Entomological workers and environmental change during the construction of the Panama Canal.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Paul S

    2007-12-01

    This essay examines the role that entomological workers played in U.S. public health efforts during the construction of the Panama Canal (1904-1914). Entomological workers were critical to mosquito control efforts aimed at the reduction of tropical fevers such as malaria. But in the process of studying vector mosquitoes, they discovered that many of the conditions that produced mosquitoes were not intrinsic to tropical nature per se but resulted from the human-caused environmental disturbances that accompanied canal building. This realization did not mesh well with an American ideology of tropical triumphalism premised on the notion that the Americans had conquered unalloyed tropical nature in Panama. The result, however, was not a coherent counternarrative but a set of intra-administrative tensions over what controlling nature meant in Panama. Ultimately, entomological workers were loyal not just to the U.S. imperial mission in Panama but also to a modernist culture of science and to the workings of mosquito ecology as they understood them. PMID:18314643

  10. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; van Duivenbooden, Cor; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost-) effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA) and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS), and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI). Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588 PMID:18173844

  11. Anakuran: A Proposed Path to Education for Children of Migrant Construction Workers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pal, Satarupa Dutta

    2014-01-01

    "If you cannot go to school, the school comes to you." Project Anakuran (the Hindi word for germination) is an innovative design which seeks to provide formal education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the children of migrant construction labourers based at medium and large construction sites in urban locales.…

  12. Tobacco use and cancer survival: a cohort study of 40,230 Swedish male construction workers with incident cancer.

    PubMed

    Nordenvall, Caroline; Nilsson, Per J; Ye, Weimin; Andersson, Therese M-L; Nyrén, Olof

    2013-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, nicotine has been implicated as a modifier of cancer progression. We investigated possible associations of smoking or use of Scandinavian moist snuff (snus) with survival after cancer among Swedish male construction workers. Snus use is associated with substantial exposure to nicotine but not to the combustion products in smoke. Among 336,381 workers with detailed information on tobacco use in 1971-1992, we observed 40,230 incident cancers. Complete follow-up through 2007 was accomplished through linkage to population and health registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from any cause, cancer-specific death and death from other causes were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, body mass index at study entry and period of diagnosis. Never users of any tobacco served as reference. Increased risks of cancer-specific death were observed both among exclusive smokers (HR(all cancer) 1.15, 95% CI: 1.10-1.21) and never-smoking snus users (1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26). As regards deaths due to other causes, exclusive smokers had higher relative risks than exclusive snus users (p = 0.03). A history of tobacco use, even exclusive use of the seemingly benign snus, is associated with moderately increased cancer-specific mortality. Although nicotine might play a role, the mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:22492255

  13. Enterprise size and risk of hospital treated injuries among manual construction workers in Denmark: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In most countries throughout the world the construction industry continues to account for a disturbingly high proportion of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Research has shown that large enterprises seem to be most actively working for a safe working environment when compared to small and medium-sized enterprises. Also, statistics from Canada, Italy and South Korea suggest that the risk of injury among construction workers decreases with enterprise size, that is the smaller the enterprise the greater the risk of injury. This trend, however, is neither confirmed by the official statistics from Eurostat valid for EU-15 + Norway nor by a separate Danish study - although these findings might have missed a trend due to severe underreporting. In addition, none of the above mentioned studies controlled for the occupational distribution within the enterprises. A part of the declining injury rates observed in Canada, Italy and South Korea therefore might be explained by an increasing proportion of white-collar employees in large enterprises. Objective To investigate the relation between enterprise size and injury rates in the Danish construction industry. Methods/Design All male construction workers in Denmark aged 20-59 years will be followed yearly through national registers from 1999 to 2006 for first hospital treated injury (ICD-10: S00-T98) and linked to data about employment status, occupation and enterprise size. Enterprise size-classes are based on the Danish business pattern where micro (less than 5 employees), small (5-9 employees) and medium-sized (10-19 employees) enterprises will be compared to large enterprises (at least 20 employees). The analyses will be controlled for age (five-year age groups), calendar year (as categorical variable) and occupation. A multi-level Poisson regression will be used where the enterprises will be treated as the subjects while observations within the enterprises will be treated as correlated repeated measurements

  14. Occupational exposure to silica in construction workers: a literature-based exposure database.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Charles; Lavoué, Jérôme; Sauvé, Jean-François; Bégin, Denis; Senhaji Rhazi, Mounia; Perrault, Guy; Dion, Chantal; Gérin, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We created an exposure database of respirable crystalline silica levels in the construction industry from the literature. We extracted silica and dust exposure levels in publications reporting silica exposure levels or quantitative evaluations of control effectiveness published in or after 1990. The database contains 6118 records (2858 of respirable crystalline silica) extracted from 115 sources, summarizing 11,845 measurements. Four hundred and eighty-eight records represent summarized exposure levels instead of individual values. For these records, the reported summary parameters were standardized into a geometric mean and a geometric standard deviation. Each record is associated with 80 characteristics, including information on trade, task, materials, tools, sampling strategy, analytical methods, and control measures. Although the database was constructed in French, 38 essential variables were standardized and translated into English. The data span the period 1974-2009, with 92% of the records corresponding to personal measurements. Thirteen standardized trades and 25 different standardized tasks are associated with at least five individual silica measurements. Trade-specific respirable crystalline silica geometric means vary from 0.01 (plumber) to 0.30 mg/m³ (tunnel construction skilled labor), while tasks vary from 0.01 (six categories, including sanding and electrical maintenance) to 1.59 mg/m³ (abrasive blasting). Despite limitations associated with the use of literature data, this database can be analyzed using meta-analytical and multivariate techniques and currently represents the most important source of exposure information about silica exposure in the construction industry. It is available on request to the research community. PMID:23252413

  15. The Risk of Lung Cancer After Cessation of Asbestos Exposure in Construction Workers Using Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma as a Marker of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Åström, Evelina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the risk of lung cancer in heavily asbestos-exposed workers after the exposure to asbestos has ended. Methods: Lung cancer was studied in a cohort of 189,896 Swedish construction workers through a linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Asbestos exposure was estimated by the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in the occupational group. Results: There were in total 2835 cases of lung cancer. Workers with heavy exposure to asbestos had an increased risk of lung cancer (relative risks = 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.41) before exposure ended and a similar risk to those with low exposure 20 years after the exposure had ceased (relative risks = 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.15). Conclusions: Workers with heavy exposure to asbestos have a similar risk of lung cancer as persons with low or no exposure 20 years after the exposure has ended. PMID:25479300

  16. The construct validity of the work-related flow inventory in a sample of Australian workers.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF; Bakker, 2008). This instrument was administered to 711 men and women who were working in Queensland, Australia. The results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WOLF has moderately acceptable construct validity, with the three-factor model being a borderline fit to the data. Tests of the convergent validity of the WOLF yielded satisfactory results. However, the analysis of the discriminant validity of the WOLF showed that the instrument poorly discriminated between work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation. Follow-up exploratory factor analysis, using recommended procedures for determining the number of factors to extract, revealed a two-factor solution, with the work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation items loading on the same factor. Drawing on literature on psychological flow and motivation, as well as the findings of the present study, questions are raised over the adequacy of the conceptual basis of the three-factor model of work-related flow, the discriminant validity of the WOLF subscales, and the appropriateness of the wording of several of this measure's items. Using alternative methods and measures to investigate flow in work settings is recommended. PMID:25495162

  17. Respiratory Cancer and Non-Malignant Respiratory Disease-Related Mortality among Older Construction Workers-Findings from the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuanwen; Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Welch, Laura; Largay, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored the risk of respiratory cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD)-related mortality among older construction workers. Methods Analyzed data from the 1992–2010 RAND Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the HRS National Death Index – Cause of Death file. About 25,183 workers aged 50 years and older were examined, including 5,447 decedents and 19,736 survivors, of which 1,460 reported their longest job was in construction. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the differences in mortality between workers’ longest occupations, controlling for confounders. Results After adjusting for smoking and demographics, construction workers were almost twice as likely to die from respiratory cancer (OR = 1.65; CI: 1.10–2.47) or NMRD (OR = 1.73; CI: 1.16–2.58) compared to white-collar workers. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that respiratory cancer and NMRD are frequently associated with construction exposure. PMID:27500180

  18. Survey of construction workers repeatedly exposed to chlorine over a three to six month period in a pulpmill: I. Exposure and symptomatology.

    PubMed Central

    Courteau, J P; Cushman, R; Bouchard, F; Quévillon, M; Chartrand, A; Bhérer, L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The admission to hospital of three construction workers with acute respiratory distress caused by inhalation of chlorine gas prompted the inspection of a building site located in a kraft pulpmill. The accidental emissions had taken place in the bleach plant and the construction workers assigned there were surveyed to uncover possible large scale health effects. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS--A questionnaire was presented to 281 workers (participation rate = 97%); 257 workers reported an average of 24 exposure episodes to chlorine and derivatives over a three to six month period. The air monitoring data available from the pulpmill's industrial hygienist were not useful in linking specific events reported by the workers to environmental conditions in the bleach plant. RESULTS--Over 60% of the workers described a characteristic flu like syndrome that lasted for an average of 11 days and was exacerbated by new bouts of exposure. Irritation of the throat (78%) and eyes (77%), cough (67%), and headache (63%) were the most often reported symptoms. Shortness of breath was reported by 54% of the participants and was not associated with age, smoking state, or history of asthma or chronic bronchitis. First aid self referral was associated with significantly greater reporting of most symptoms, including dyspnoea and cough. A significantly greater proportion of workers in the dyspnoea group had gone at least once for first aid care after a gassing incident (64% as opposed to 48%, p = 0.008). Throat irritation and cough persisted for mean intervals of eight and 11 days respectively. A flu like syndrome lasted for an average of 20 days. Seventy one subjects were considered to be a moderate to high risk of having persisting respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION--Throat and eye irritation as well as cough and flu like symptoms are frequent occurrences after repeated accidental inhalation of chlorine. Subjects who consulted first aid care stations after a gassing incident are more

  19. Comparing the physiological and perceptual responses of construction workers (bar benders and bar fixers) in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del Pui-Lam; Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen; Wong, Francis Kwan-Wah; Yi, Wen

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to (1) quantify the respective physical workloads of bar bending and fixing; and (2) compare the physiological and perceptual responses between bar benders and bar fixers. Field studies were conducted during the summer in Hong Kong from July 2011 to August 2011 over six construction sites. Synchronized physiological, perceptual, and environmental parameters were measured from construction rebar workers. The average duration of the 39 field measurements was 151.1 ± 22.4 min under hot environment (WBGT = 31.4 ± 2.2 °C), during which physiological, perceptual and environmental parameters were synchronized. Energy expenditure of overall rebar work, bar bending, and bar fixing were 2.57, 2.26 and 2.67 Kcal/min (179, 158 and 186 W), respectively. Bar fixing induced significantly higher physiological responses in heart rate (113.6 vs. 102.3 beat/min, p < 0.05), oxygen consumption (9.53 vs. 7.14 ml/min/kg, p < 0.05), and energy expenditure (2.67 vs. 2.26 Kcal/min, p < 0.05) (186 vs. 158 W, p < 0.05) as compared to bar bending. Perceptual response was higher in bar fixing but such difference was not statistically significant. Findings of this study enable the calculation of daily energy expenditure of rebar work. PMID:24980679

  20. Test of the health promotion model as a causal model of construction workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Ronis, D L; Hogan, M M

    1997-06-01

    The health promotion model (HPM) was tested as a causal model of construction workers' use of hearing protection (N = 359). Theoretical and exploratory models fit well, with the theoretical model accounting for 36.3% of variance and the exploratory model accounting for 50.6% of variance in hearing protection use. Value of use (benefits of using hearing protection), barriers to use, and self-efficacy were significant predictors in both the theoretical and exploratory models, but perceived health status was a predictor only in the theoretical model. In the exploratory model, where modifying factors were allowed direct relationships with use of hearing protection, two modifying factors--noise exposure and interpersonal influences-modeling--were significant predictors. Results of this test of the HPM are consistent with the revised HPM (Pender, 1996). There were significant direct paths from modifying factors to behaviour. Use of hearing protection was best predicted by behavior-specific predictors, such as perceived barriers to use of hearing protection. Results support the use of the HPM to predict use of hearing protection. PMID:9179173

  1. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken. PMID:22226545

  2. Evaluation of primary DNA damage, cytogenetic biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 in road tunnel construction workers.

    PubMed

    Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Fatigoni, C; Agea, E; Dominici, L; Mattioli, A; Volpi, R; Pasquini, R

    2008-01-01

    In tunnel construction workers, occupational exposure to dust (alpha-quartz and other particles from blasting), gases (nitrogen dioxide, NO(2)), diesel exhausts, and oil mist has been associated with lung function decline, induction of inflammatory reactions in the lungs with release of mediators that may influence blood coagulation, and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present molecular epidemiology study was designed to evaluate whether occupational exposure to indoor pollutants during road tunnel construction might result in genotoxic effects. A study group of 39 underground workers and a reference group of 34 unexposed subjects were examined. Primary and oxidative DNA damage, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) were measured in peripheral blood cells. The possible influences of polymorphisms in gene encoding for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes were also investigated. Exposure assessment was performed with detailed interviews and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in the level of primary and oxidative DNA damage and frequency of SCE between the tunnel workers and controls, whereas the frequency of MN showed a significant increase in exposed subjects compared to controls. No effects of CYP1A1 or GSTM1 variants were observed for the analyzed biomarkers. Since MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes are recognized as a predictive biomarker of cancer risk within a population of healthy subjects, the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to various indoor environmental pollutants during road tunnel construction cannot be excluded by this biomonitoring study. PMID:18800292

  3. [Skin diseases and sensitization to metals in construction workers engaged in the production of pre-cast cellular concrete slabs].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Woźniak, H; Wojtczak, J

    1989-01-01

    The study involved 461 building workers exposed to ashes, cement and ash-cement mixtures in direct production and at auxiliary posts (fitters, welders, mechanics, electricians etc.). In addition, all those workers were exposed to lubricants ans machine oils, as well as anti-adhesive oils used to lubricate moulds. All the subjects underwent patch tests. Dermatitis was found in 18.9%, whereas oil acne in 7.4% of subjects, 23.0% exhibited chromium allergy, 15.2% - cobalt allergy and 5.0% - nickel allergy. Two workers were ++hypersensitive to zinc. No differences were found in the rates of dermatitis, oil acne and metal allergy between production workers and auxiliary ones. Airborne dust concentrations at those workplaces were similar. Cement and ashes contained compounds of chromium, cobalt and nickel. PMID:2531830

  4. Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Worker Role Self-Assessment (WRS) When Used for People With Psychiatric Disabilities in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Mona; Bäckström, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A self-report instrument assessing work-related factors among people with psychiatric disabilities would be useful when trying to match possible employment or prevocational opportunities with people's desires and capacities. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct and criterion validity of the Worker Role Self-Assessment (WRS) in this group as well as possible floor and ceiling effects. The participants were 283 clients from day centers for people with psychiatric disabilities and from outpatient units for people with psychosis. They completed the WRS and instruments selected to assess construct validity in terms of convergent (motivation for work and current activity level as reference variables) and discriminant validity (quality of life and self-rated health as reference variables). Two factors were identified, one tapping beliefs in a future worker role and one reflecting current capacities and routines. The internal consistency for the scale as a whole was good at 0.84. The factor reflecting a future worker role correlated as expected with the reference variables used to assess convergent and discriminant validity, whereas current capacities and routines showed a moderate association with quality of life and self-rated health, assumed to indicate discriminant validity. Criterion validity was shown in that those who had recent work experiences scored higher than the others on WRS. No floor or ceiling effects were identified. The findings indicate acceptable psychometric properties of the WRS. Further development is still warranted, however; the factor solution needs to be replicated and the construct validity should be further established. PMID:27103638

  5. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance

  6. Short and long term effects of a lifestyle intervention for construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among workers in the construction industry is relatively high. Improving lifestyle lowers CVD risk and may have work-related benefits. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects on physical activity (PA), diet, and smoking of a lifestyle intervention consisting of individual counseling among male workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods In a randomized controlled trial including 816 male blue- and white-collar workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of CVD, usual care was compared to a 6-month lifestyle intervention. The intervention consisted of individual counseling using motivational interviewing techniques, and was delivered by an occupational physician or occupational nurse. In three face to face and four telephone contacts, the participant's risk profile, personal determinants, and barriers for behavior change were discussed, and personal goals were set. Participants chose to aim at either diet and PA, or smoking. Data were collected at baseline and after six and 12 months, by means of a questionnaire. To analyse the data, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The intervention had a statistically significant beneficial effect on snack intake (β-1.9, 95%CI -3.7; -0.02) and fruit intake (β 1.7, 95%CI 0.6; 2.9) at 6 months. The effect on snack intake was sustained until 12 months; 6 months after the intervention had ended (β -1.9, 95%CI -3.6; -0.2). The intervention effects on leisure time PA and metabolic equivalent-minutes were not statistically significant. The beneficial effect on smoking was statistically significant at 6 (OR smoking 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.7), but not at 12 months (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4; 1.6). Conclusions Beneficial effects on smoking, fruit, and snack intake can be achieved by an individual-based lifestyle intervention among male construction

  7. Radiological abnormalities among sheet-metal workers in the construction industry in the United States and Canada: Relationship to asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Lilis, R. )

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the possible adverse health effects to sheet-metal workers who had past exposure to asbestos. A cross-sectional medical examination of 1,330 workers was conducted during 1986 and 1987 in seven cities in the United States and Canada. A total of 1,016 workers had been employed for at least 35 y in the industry, and the mean duration from onset of asbestos exposure was 39.5 y (SD = 7.41 y). Chest x-ray abnormalities were found in more than half of the group. Pleural fibrosis, the most frequently found abnormality, was present in 47.0% of the cases and was the only abnormality found in 27.8% of cases; parenchymal interstitial fibrosis, found in 33.1% of cases, was the only abnormality found in 16.2% of cases. Radiologic abnormalities increased as duration of exposure increased. A positive smoking history was associated with a higher prevalence of radiologically detectable parenchymal abnormalities, a finding confirmed by us and others. Dyspnea on exertion was graded by a Medical Research Council questionnaire, the examinee's self-assessment, and a more detailed 12-point scale questionnaire. Few persons had marked shortness of breath, and approximately one-third had slight dyspnea. Individuals who had radiologic abnormalities experienced more shortness of breath than did those who had no radiologic abnormalities. Cigarette smoking also resulted in a higher prevalence of dyspnea. The results indicate that during the past, construction sheet-metal workers have been significantly exposed to asbestos on the job. Every effort should be made to minimize the anticipated serious health consequences, and further asbestos exposure for those who continue in this trade should be avoided.

  8. A regression approach to the analysis of serial peak flow among fuel oil ash exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Daskalakis, C; Christiani, D C

    1996-10-01

    We investigated the association between exposure to fuel oil ash and acute airway obstruction in 31 boilermakers and 31 utility workers during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler. Air flow was assessed with self-recorded serial peak expiratory flow rate measurements (PEFR) using a mini-Wright meter. Exposure to thoracic particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 gm or smaller (PM10) was assessed using personal sampling devices and detailed work diaries. All subjects were male, with an average age of 43 yr, and an average of 18 yr at their current trade. Average PM10 exposure on work days was 2.75 mg/m3 for boilermakers and 0.57 mg/m3 for utility workers. Three daily PEFR measurements (start-of-shift, end-of-shift, and bed-time) were analyzed simultaneously, using Huber linear regression. After adjustment for job title, welder status, age, height, smoking, and weld-years, for each mg/m3 increase in PM10, the estimated decline in PEFR was 13.2 L/min (p = 0.008) for end-of-shift, 9.9 L/min (p = 0.045) for bed-time, and 6.6 L/min (p = 0.26) for start-of-shift of the following day. This decline of the exposure effect over the 24-h period that follows was statistically significant (p = 0.004). No other factors were found to significantly modify the effect of exposure. Our results suggest that occupational exposure to fuel oil ash is associated with significant acute decrements in peak flow. PMID:8887594

  9. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: Victorian Aged Care Workers Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  10. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  11. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Methods Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning). Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. Results A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Conclusions Our study suggest

  12. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: National Finance Sector Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zaniah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  13. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  14. Worker Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  15. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  16. It Cuts Both Ways: Workers, Management and the Construction of a "Community of Fate" on the Shop Floor in a Mexican Garment Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videla, Nancy Plankey

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of lean production are based on surveys of managers. This article examines the labor process under lean production at a high-end garment factory in Central Mexico through ethnographic research, consisting of nine months of work at the factory, and in-depth interviews with 25 managers and 26 workers. The author found that…

  17. The Worker's Cooperative = Cooperativas de Trabajadores Duenos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mayra Lee

    Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…

  18. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  19. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  20. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  1. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  2. Construction & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

  3. Educating Worker-Citizens: Visions and Divisions in Curriculum Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are interested in how employment--or employability--is connected to citizenship, and how the ideal subjectivity of worker-citizens is discursively constructed in curriculum texts. The "worker-citizen" is a social construction that connects closely the notion of worker and the notion of citizen. Our analysis is based…

  4. Pain and the injured worker.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James P; Glass, Lee S

    2015-05-01

    Physicians who treat injured workers with painful conditions face complex challenges that require skills beyond those of a clinician. To address these challenges effectively, physicians need to understand the logic of workers' compensation systems and the interests of the various participants in the systems. They must be prepared to interface constructively between their patients and the workers' compensation carrier and attend to a multitude of administrative issues. In the present article, the authors provide an extended case history with commentary to illustrate the challenges that physicians face and the ways they can respond to these challenges. PMID:25952072

  5. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zaniah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. (Contains 30 tables.) [This work has been produced…

  6. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems. PMID:9928797

  7. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one's interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.78-0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42-0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants' job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants' expectations for job control explored. PMID:20582720

  8. Fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report: construction worker dies as a result of spraying coating material in confined space in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    A fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report describing a confined space accident in California was presented. The report was part of the NIOSH FACE project to collect data on electricity or confined space/related accidents involving fatalities. The victim and a coworker were exposed to 2-nitropropane and coal-tar-pitch vapors while painting the valves and steel flanges in a 72-inch underground water line with an epoxy coating on July 1, 1985. They were admitted to a hospital after complaining of nausea, headache, and vomiting. They were discharged on July 2. The victim was readmitted on July 6. He lapsed into a coma and died on July 12 of acute liver failure. The coworker was advised by the attending physician not to return to work because of fluctuations in his liver enzyme counts. Despite warnings on the cans not to use the resin in confined, unventilated spaces, a blower provided for ventilation was not used. Since both workers did not speak English well, it is possible they did not understand the warning labels. Recommendations include ensuring that employees are aware of the hazards associated with the materials they are using and enforcing existing safety policies.

  9. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to fine particulates.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Young; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Ngo, Long C; Christiani, David C

    2004-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a chemically complex mixture of compounds, including metals that are potentially carcinogenic because of their ability to cause oxidative injury. In this study, we investigated the association between exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter boilermakers exposed to ROFA and metal fumes. Twenty workers (50% smokers) were monitored for 5 days during an overhaul of oil-fired boilers. The median occupational PM2.5 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.44 mg/m3 (25th-75th percentile, 0.29-0.76). The mean +/- SE creatinine-adjusted 8-OHdG levels were 13.26 +/- 1.04 micro g/g in urine samples collected pre-workshift and 15.22 +/- 0.99 micro g/g in the post-workshift samples. The urinary 8-OHdG levels were significantly greater in the post-workshift samples than in the pre-workshift samples (p = 0.02), after adjusting for urinary cotinine levels, chronic bronchitis status, and age. Linear mixed models indicated a significant exposure-response association between PM2.5 exposure and urinary 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.03). Each 1-mg/m3 incremental increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase of 1.67 micro g/g (95% confidence interval, 0.21-3.14) in 8-OHdG levels. PM2.5 vanadium, manganese, nickel, and lead exposures also were positively associated with 8-OHdG levels (p boilermakers may experience an increased risk of developing oxidative DNA injury after exposure to high levels of metal-containing particulate matter. PMID:15121508

  10. A job safety program for construction workers designed to reduce the potential for occupational injury using tool box training sessions and computer-assisted biofeedback stress management techniques.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth A; Ruppe, Joan

    2002-01-01

    This project was conducted with a multicultural construction company in Hawaii, USA. The job duties performed included drywall and carpentry work. The following objectives were selected for this project: (a) fire prevention training and inspection of first aid equipment; (b) blood-borne pathogen training and risk evaluation; (c) ergonomic and risk evaluation intervention program; (d) electrical safety training and inspection program; (e) slips, trips, and falls safety training; (f) stress assessment and Personal Profile System; (g) safety and health program survey; (h) improving employee relations and morale by emphasizing spirituality; and (i) computer-assisted biofeedback stress management training. Results of the project indicated that observed safety hazards, reported injuries, and levels of perceived stress. were reduced for the majority of the population. PMID:12189103

  11. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  12. Assessor Judgements and Everyday Worker Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timma, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    The subjective nature of assessment focuses attention on the prior perceptions that workplace assessors can bring to formal assessment activities, regarding the competence of workers. This paper draws on a study into workplace learning and assessment practices and the construction of worker identities, which was conducted at three food production…

  13. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer...

  14. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  15. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  16. Boilermaker (boilermaking) I 805.281-010--Technical Report on Development of USTES Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe

    1975-01-01

    State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

  18. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  19. Under construction: building a safer industry.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, John

    2002-01-01

    A revolution in the building industry over the past decade has spawned a new generation of safer materials and practices, decreasing some health risks for construction workers. Concerned consumers, builders, materials manufacturers, and government regulatory agencies have all contributed to a turn toward "green" building materials and practices, meaning that homeowners and office workers now are better able to live and work in healthier environments, and many construction workers are handling and installing less-toxic materials. PMID:11882489

  20. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  1. Hanford-worker health study: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Tolley, H.D.; Gilbert, E.S.; Petersen, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analysis of the workers' health at the Hanford plant produced no startling changes. Multiple myeloma is the only cancer type that shows a statistically significant trend of mortality with increasing radiation exposure. The study populations will be augmented by the addition of a group of construction workers in the future. Methodologic studies based on this data set are continuing.

  2. Special tool kit aids heavily garmented workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. E.

    1966-01-01

    Triangular aluminum tool kit, filled with polyurethane is constructed to receive various tools and hold them in a snug but quick-release fit as an aid to heavily gloved workers. The kit is designed to allow mounting within easily accessable reach and to provide protection of the tools during storage.

  3. Organizing marginalized workers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A K

    1999-01-01

    Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

  4. Traps and Treasures: How To Stay Safe and Avoid the Perils of School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides steps school administrators can take to ensure safe construction: stay visible, update students, separate students and construction workers, engage workers in the educational process, monitor student movement, observe construction workers, barricade work areas, watch for stored materials, check emergency exits daily, conduct fire drills,…

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  6. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  7. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  8. Are Social Workers Homophobic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jack J.; Toomey, Beverly G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of attitudes towards homosexuality in representative sample of social workers (N=77) in Columbus, Ohio using Hudson's Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals. Results lend preliminary empirical support to the implied assumption that social workers manifest signs of homophobia. (ABL)

  9. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  10. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers. PMID

  11. Assessment of workers' compensation claims for back strains/sprains.

    PubMed

    Klein, B P; Jensen, R C; Sanderson, L M

    1984-06-01

    Workers' compensation claim data for 1979 obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Supplementary Data System (SDS) were utilized to examine the demographic and occupational incidence of back strains/sprains among U.S. industrial employees covered by state compensation systems. These data were combined with estimated employment figures to provide incidence ratios, which allowed better approximations of industry- and occupation-specific risk. Industries found to have the largest incidence ratios were construction (1.6 claims/100 workers) and mining (1.5 claims/100 workers). Occupations with the largest ratios were miscellaneous laborers (12.3 claims/100 workers) and garbage collectors (11.1 claims/100 workers). The 285,468 compensation claims due to back strains/sprains filed in the 26 SDS states in 1979 suggest that back injuries continue to be a large and costly problem for U.S. workers and their employers. PMID:6234383

  12. Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Hoppin, J A; Christiani, D C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed on the morning of the first day back to work after an average of 114 days away from work (range 36 hours to 1737 days). A lavage was performed after exposure on the morning three days after the baseline lavage. Exposure to respirable particulate matter of diameter < or = 10 microns (PM10) and respirable vanadium dust were estimated with daily work diaries and a personal sampling device for respirable particulates. These estimates were made for each subject on each workday during the three days between lavages. For each subject, the adjusted change in polymorphonuclear cells was calculated by dividing the change in polymorphonuclear cell counts by the average of the counts before and after exposure. The association between the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and exposure was assessed with multiple linear regression, adjusted for age and current smoking. RESULTS--Personal sampling (one to 10 hour time weighted average) showed a range of PM10 concentrations of 50 to 4510 micrograms/m3, and respirable vanadium dust concentration of 0.10 to 139 micrograms/m3. In smokers the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell count was not significantly different from zero (-0.1%, P > 0.5), but in nonsmokers it was significantly greater than zero (+50%, P < 0.05). In both non-smokers and smokers, there was considerable variability in adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and a dose-response relation between these adjusted cell counts and either PM10 or respirable vanadium dust exposure could not be found. CONCLUSION--A significant increase in polymorphonuclear cells in

  13. Urine vanadium concentrations in workers overhauling an oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Ryan, P B; Christiani, D C

    1998-01-01

    Since fuel oil ash contains vanadium (V), the measurement of urinary levels of V may provide a biological marker in workers exposed to fuel oil ash. The usefulness of urine V samples as a biological monitoring tool ultimately depends on determining the appropriate time of sampling relative to when exposure occurs. Twenty boilermakers were studied during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler. A total of 117 urine samples were collected, 65 start-of-shift (S-O-S) and 52 end-of-shift (E-O-S) samples. Air V exposures were estimated with personal sampling devices and work history diaries. Air V concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 32.19 micrograms V/m3, with a mean +/- SD of 19.1 +/- 10.7, and a median of 18.5. On the first day of work on the overhaul, the V urine levels at the E-O-S (mean +/- SD were 1.53 +/- 0.53, median was 1.52 mg V/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those at the S-O-S (0.87 +/- 0.32, median was 0.83), P = 0.004. However, the V concentrations of the S-O-S urine samples on the last Monday of the study were not significantly different from the S-O-S urine levels on the previous Saturday, a time interval of about 38 hr between the end of exposure and sample collection. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the S-O-S urine V and the workplace concentration of V dust during the previous day was r = 0.35. In summary, the results suggest a rapid initial clearance of V (elevating the E-O-S V concentration on the first day of work relative to the S-O-S concentration), followed by a slow clearance that is not complete 38 hr after the end of exposure, as evidenced by the Monday morning urine V concentrations. The Spearman correlations suggest that the S-O-S urine is preferred to the E-O-S urine for across-shift biological monitoring of V exposure. PMID:9408529

  14. 1 in 8 U.S. Workers Has Some Hearing Loss: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Survey finds highest rates of impairment in mining, construction and manufacturing industries To use the sharing ... place or on the phone." Workers in the mining, construction and manufacturing sectors were especially prone to ...

  15. 1 in 8 U.S. Workers Has Some Hearing Loss: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest rates of impairment in mining, construction and manufacturing industries To use the sharing features on this ... the phone." Workers in the mining, construction and manufacturing sectors were especially prone to noise-linked hearing ...

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  17. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers' exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  18. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936

  19. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  20. Evolution of worker policing.

    PubMed

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. PMID:26976051

  1. The Psychology of Life Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2009-01-01

    The present article analyzes, from a historical perspective, the object of the study in the fields of vocational guidance and career management. It then considers the contemporary need to view workers as collaborators within organizations. Finally, in the third part, it presents tentative principles for the construction of a new paradigm called…

  2. "Wrapping Up" Your Construction Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Mark

    1998-01-01

    School facility managers are beginning to use a special insurance-management technique called wrap-up. The project owner purchases a bulk construction insurance policy consisting of general liability, excess liability, workers' compensation, and builders' risk insurance. Wrap-ups ensure competitive pricing, safety incentives, lower claims costs,…

  3. Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

  4. The Impaired Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses concept of the impaired professional; reviews research on various types of impairment (personality disorders, depression and other emotional problems, marital problems, and physical illness), prevalence and causes of impairment, and responses to it; and outlines model assessment and action plan for social workers who encounter an…

  5. Doctoring the Knowledge Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

  6. Residential Workers' Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Alan, Ed.

    The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…

  7. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  8. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

  9. Perspectives about Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Mark E.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers…

  10. Worker-Directed Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

  11. Educating the Knowledge Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid

    2001-01-01

    In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)

  12. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  13. Dislocated Worker Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  14. Information Workers within Bureaucracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Report on the conference on information workers held as part of the White House Conference on Productivity covers statistics on the information work force and findings and recommendations from the conference on productivity within bureaucracies, e.g., productivity measures for determining wage increases and formal price systems. (EJS)

  15. Women Workers' History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

    This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

  16. Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, William S.

    1998-01-01

    An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

  17. Another Look at Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Women now comprise 30 percent of trade union membership worldwide. The International Labour Organisation's Workers' Education Branch is attempting to improve the status of women workers and increase their participation in union activities and labor education. (SK)

  18. Innovative Older-Worker Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)

  19. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-01-01

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. PMID:22773029

  20. Office Workers Stress Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

    A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

  1. Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

  2. How To Train Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

  3. EOC construction update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Work on Stennis Space Center's new Emergency Operations Center is progressing on schedule, according to Robert Perkins, construction manager with Jacobs Technology. At the turn of the New Year, construction contractors had completed the pervious paving for the north and west parking lots. Part of the facility's `green' design, pervious paving allows water to pass through and be absorbed directly into the ground below, preventing erosion from runoff. Through January, workers concentrated on installing the roof, sprinkler piping and overhead cable trays for electrical and communication lines. The next step will be interior work, erecting wallboard and installing electrical equipment. Perkins said NASA seeks to earn a Silver LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Rating for the project's environmentally-friendly and sustainable design, construction and operation. The facility has a projected completion date of February 2009.

  4. Exposure to lead of boatyard workers in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thanapop, Chamnong; Geater, Alan F; Robson, Mark G; Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya; Viroonudomphol, Duangkamol

    2007-09-01

    Lead oxide is used extensively in the construction and repair of wooden boats in Thailand, but the behaviors of boatyard workers that could place them at risk of contamination have not previously been documented. Baseline data on practices and behaviors of boatyard workers and on the level of worker and workplace contamination with lead were therefore collected. Fifty workers in two boatyards participated in this study. Lead exposure of workers was assessed by determining airborne and blood lead levels. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on work history, suspected exogenous lead sources, personal behavior and knowledge about lead. Evidence obtained by the study indicated that safety behavior and personal hygiene were poor--workers used no mask, gloves or hood, wore open sandals, smoked, drank, chewed and ate during work and did not wash their hands before drinking or eating. Some workers had lunch in the working area. The mean personal airborne lead of caulkers (36.4 microg/m3) was higher than that of carpenters (8.3 microg/m3). Forty-eight percent of all workers and 67% of caulkers had a blood lead level (BLL) exceeding 40 microg/dl. Multiple linear regression indicated that blood lead levels of workers were significantly related to job and education level, with significant differences between boatyards. In addition, the potential for "take-home" contamination was high; none of the workers took a shower or changed their clothes prior to going home. These results indicate a problem of lead exposure of sufficient magnitude to be a public health concern. PMID:17951965

  5. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  6. Were Workers of Eusocial Hymenoptera Initially Altruistic or Oppressed?*

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Charles D.; Brothers, Denis J.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of a primitively eusocial halictid bee, Lasioglossum zephyrum, strongly suggest that a major factor in originating a worker caste is selection at the individual level for queens that control associated adult females. Even in this scarcely social form, the queen inhibits other adult females from becoming queens, perhaps by her high level of activity and frequent nudging in the nest. Queens are behaviorally less varied than workers and show specialization, particularly in frequency of nudging (which is concentrated on the worker with largest ovaries) and of backing. Backing draws workers, especially those with slender ovaries, down to lower parts of the burrows where the stimuli for cell construction and provisioning probably operate. Eating of worker-laid eggs by queens was also noted. In spite of the suggestion that queens have evolved to control their workers rather than that workers have evolved to help their queens, both may well have occurred, for these processes are not mutually exclusive; moreover, social attributes mutually beneficial to both castes no doubt have arisen. PMID:16592144

  7. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as 'vectors' of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as 'polluting others'. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the 'choices' made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk. PMID:25588539

  8. Establishing worker identity: a study of people in craft work.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Virginia Allen

    2003-01-01

    Having a work-related identity is central to being an adult in America. Going to work and engaging in prescribed work behaviors in the workplace is the usual or typical way that adults achieve worker identities. The purpose of this study, developed from an ethnography of people who make crafts at home and sell their work at craft fairs, was to examine how worker identity is constructed when individuals do not have the external markers of a socially identified job and workplace. I used participant observation of craft fairs and other craft venues, and interviews of people who do this work, as major sources of data. Results of the analysis of the data related to worker identity demonstrated that these crafters followed basic steps, or rules, to achieve such a worker identity. These rules, some for work at home and some for other social contexts, encompassed complex behaviors learned through the process of doing the work as well as from other crafters. The conclusions of the study are first, that individual and social identity formation as a worker involves complex processes for which rules and guidelines do exist. Second, these rules are often discovered through the process of doing the work. Third, the meaning of work and the individual and social identities of being a worker are individual, and finally, knowledge of worker identity formation is gained through the study of both those who successfully achieve such an identity and those who do not. PMID:12785663

  9. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as ‘vectors’ of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as ‘polluting others’. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the ‘choices’ made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk. PMID:25588539

  10. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  11. Between Intimacy and Intolerance: Greek Cypriot Children's Encounters with Asian Domestic Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyrou, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how Greek Cypriot elementary school children construct their identities in relation to Sri Lankan and Filipino women who come to Cyprus as domestic workers. The article focuses primarily on the views of children whose families employ these women; however, the views of children whose families do not employ domestic workers are…

  12. Collaboration of School Social Workers and Drug Prevention Staff in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factors that are related to collaboration between high school social workers and substance abuse prevention/intervention counselors in New York State high schools (except for New York City high schools). Constructs that were analyzed were high school social workers' perceived adequacy in working with high school students'…

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  14. Radiological worker training

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  15. "Carve-Outs" from the Workers' Compensation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.; Neuhauser, Frank; Petersen, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Decentralized regulation has become increasingly important in many areas; examples range from school vouchers to workplace safety committees to alternative dispute resolution procedures replacing courts. Consistent with this trend, in 1993 California permitted construction unions and employers to "carve out" their own workers' compensation system.…

  16. Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawer, Giselle; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This report presents issues associated with incentives for training existing workers in small to medium-sized firms, identified through a small sample of case studies from the retail, manufacturing, and building and construction industries. While the majority of employers recognise workforce skill levels are fundamental to the success of the…

  17. Older Workers, Retirement and the Need for Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul

    1984-01-01

    This literature review presents viewpoints on retirement expressed in four books: "Capitalism and the Construction of Old Age," (Chris Phillipson); "Work and Retirement," (Stanley Parker); "Work or Retirement?" (B. Casey, G. Bruche); "The Ageing Worker," (M. Doering, S.R. Rhodes, M. Schuster). (JB)

  18. "Cloud" health-care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.

    2001-01-01

    Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715

  19. [A study on stressful life events of workers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y; Uehata, T; Sekiya, E; Abe, M; Ishihara, S; Oikawa, S; Chida, T; Yamazaki, Y; Sugisawa, A; Sakano, J

    1994-06-01

    The experience rates of eighteen life events of Japanese workers were surveyed and the strength of each of the events was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. The fifteen professions surveyed included construction, transport, mailing, chemical production, banking, newspaper, TV services, commercial publishing, advertising, teaching and civil service. The number of workers who answered was 18,657 males and 4,443 females, aged 20 to 59 years. The male workers were divided and analysed in six job groups: clerical workers (n = 5,866), professionals (n = 3,696), blue collar day workers (n = 1,623), blue collar night or shift workers (n = 3,191), drivers (n = 1,663) and construction workers (n = 2,466). They were divided into groups and compared according to job, sex and five different age groups. The highest experience rate in each of the life events such as family trouble for both sexes, death of a family member, financial trouble and anxiety, death of a close friend, dissatisfactory transport to workplace or job, respectively. Comparing the experience rates between males and females we found no significant difference for five items. However, other items had higher experience rates for males than for females with the exception of family trouble. In regard to the age characteristics of each of the life events, as the age increased the experience rates of health-related life events such as the death of a spouse, child, family member or close friend and one's own illness or injury became higher. In contrast, the experience rates of items such as moving to a worse residence and failure in a school or training program became lower as the age increased for both sexes. Among job groups, construction workers had the highest experience rates of most life events except for the item of dissatisfactory transport to the workplace or job. Among other job groups, drivers had higher experience rates in the following four items: re-employment, death of spouse, divorce and

  20. Non-enzymatic hydrolysis of RNA in workers of the ant Nylanderia pubens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During preparation of total RNA from Nylanderia pubens (Forel) workers for use in expression library construction, severe RNA degradation consistently occurred that was masked by spectrophotometric analysis but clearly evident by microfluidic-based assay. Although not specifically identified, the ...

  1. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  2. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  3. Immigrant workers and worker's compensation: the need for reform.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Smith, J D

    2012-06-01

    Foreign-born workers in the United States suffer high rates of workplace injuries and accidents. Both for workers who are unauthorized to work in the United States and for those who are present legally under guest worker programs, access to workers' compensation benefits presents nearly insurmountable barriers. Some of these are longstanding, such as employer retaliation and aggressive litigation of claims. Some are more recent and related to the increasingly transnational character of the workforce and to barriers put in place by administrators. This is a legal overview of the cases, statutes, and policies that act as barriers to access for immigrant workers, conducted by reviewing case law and basic compensation statutes in all fifty states. Where these are known, policies that keep workers locked out of workers' compensation are also discussed. It concludes that reform of the system is needed in order to ensure its standing as an insurance program with universal application. As part of that reform, further state by state research and advocacy would discover specific administrative practices in each state that keep immigrant workers from receiving the benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:22457221

  4. Occupational fatalities among older workers in the United States: 1980-1991.

    PubMed

    Kisner, S M; Pratt, S G

    1997-08-01

    Workers aged 65 and older had a workplace fatality rate of 2.6 times that of workers aged 16 to 64 for 1980 through 1991 (14.1 per 100,000 vs 5.4), according to National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) data. The highest rates were in mining, agriculture, and construction. Compared with younger workers, older men were at an elevated risk for fatalities caused by machines, and older women for fatal falls and homicide. Prevention efforts should focus on older workers in agricultural settings, as well as those at increased risk of workplace falls or violence. PMID:9273874

  5. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  6. Disturbed sleep in shift workers, day workers, and insomniacs.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Ingre, Michael; Broman, Jan-Erik; Kecklund, Göran

    2008-04-01

    Very little is known about differences in sleep between day and shift workers in representative samples of the population. This study compared a national representative sample (N=3400) of shift (with night shifts) and day workers regarding the different types of sleep disturbances and also the level of sleep symptoms with that of insomnia patients. The results showed very few differences between shift and day workers; only "too little sleep" and "nodding off at work" were marginally higher among shift workers. The results also showed that the complaints of insomnia patients for most sleep disturbances corresponded to the 2nd-16th percentile of the shift workers' levels of complaints. The results suggest, at least with the present questionnaire methodology, that shift work does not appear to be a major source of sleep disturbances and that their complaint levels bear no resemblance to those seen in insomniac patients. PMID:18484368

  7. Do hornets have zombie workers?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

    2000-06-01

    Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289

  8. Occupational stress among tunnel workers in Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Pragyan; Gurung, Shoyeta; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Bharati, Dharamvir Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Job stress has been linked to a wide range of adverse effects on mental, physical and organizational health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of job stress on mental, physical and social health of the underground construction workers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of tunnel workers and a comparable group of controls. Using the interview technique, data was collected using the SF-36 General Health Survey Questionnaire. Results: The study population comprised of individuals of whom more than half were below 40 years of age and was comparable to the group of controls. Majority reported good health, while poor health was reported by 22 % of the subjects under study Compared to their health status last year, 52% rated their health as somewhat worse. Majority reported that their physical health problems limited them in activities of daily life, viz., running, lifting heavy objects, participation in strenuous sports, climbing several flights of stairs, bending, stooping or kneeling and walking more than a mile, during the past four weeks. More than half of them had severe body ache in the past four weeks that interfered with both work outside home and housework. This was true for emotional problems also, which interfered with their normal social activities involving family, friends, neighbors or groups. The associations of occupational stress with physical, emotional and social life and with limitation of day-to-day activities among tunnel workers were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of assessment of the effects of job stress and of fulfilling the need of underground workers for optimum preventive measures. PMID:21694786

  9. Construction Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in construction technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: basic types of construction and the impact of construction on society, preconstruction, personnel…

  10. Electrochemical construction

    DOEpatents

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  11. Experience and limited lighting may affect sleepiness of tunnel workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working on shifts, especially on a night shift, influences the endogenous sleep regulation system leading to diminished sleep time and increased somnolence. We attempted to evaluate the impact of shifts on sleepiness and correlate the sleepiness score to the experience in a shift schedule. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study consists of 42 male and 2 female workers involved in a tunnel construction. They underwent spirometry, pulse oximetry and were asked to complete the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed that workers of lower Epworth had a mean age of 43.6 years, compared to the mean age of 36.4 years of workers with higher Epworth. Furthermore, workers of lower Epworth were characterized by a mean number of shift years equal to 14.8, while those of higher Epworth possessed a mean number of shift years equal to 8. The shift schedule did not reveal any statistically significant correlation. Conclusions Workers employed for a longer time had diminished sleepiness. However, there is no relationship between night shifts and sleepiness, possibly because of exposure to artificial lighting in the construction site. PMID:24993796

  12. 29 CFR 500.72 - Agreements with workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers. (a... seasonal agricultural workers. Normally, “without justification” would not include situations in...

  13. 29 CFR 500.72 - Agreements with workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers. (a... seasonal agricultural workers. Normally, “without justification” would not include situations in...

  14. ELECTRONIC LIBRARY OF CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH (ELCOSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ELCOSH provides workers, contractors, researchers, and others a wide range of materials on construction safety and health in English, Spanish, and other languages. ELCOSH is maintained by the Center to Protect Workers Rights under a grant from NIOSH. ELCOSH includes non-NIOSH res...

  15. INCOMES OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    METZLER, WILLIAM H.; SARGENT, FREDERIC O.

    A SURVEY ON THE INCOME OF MIGRATORY WORKERS LOCATED IN SOUTH TEXAS DURING THE WINTER OF 1956-57 WAS PRESENTED. IN 446 HOUSEHOLDS SURVEYED, THERE WERE 1,334 WORKERS, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THESE WERE HOUSEHOLD HEADS OR THEIR WIVES. WORKING WIVES WERE A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF AS NUMEROUS AS WORKING HUSBANDS. MOST OF THE HUSBANDS WERE 45 TO 54 YEARS OF…

  16. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  17. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  18. Personal Epistemologies and Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; van Woerkom, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types…

  19. Bilingual Education for Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Susanne

    Bilingual education programs in West Germany and Sweden for the children of foreign workers are described. The 4.5 million foreign workers come particularly from Turkey, but also from other southern European countries, from other member nations of the European Economic Community, and from Asia and Latin America. Some are immigrants, some political…

  20. Minority workers and communities.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Walker, E D; Friedman-Jiménez, G

    1999-01-01

    Environmental and occupational hazards do not affect all communities equally. Members of ethnic and racial minorities, whether as working people or as community residents, sustain disproportionate risks from chemical, physical, and biological hazards. This paper reviews the nature of these disproportionate risks, focusing primarily on the workplace, but considering general environmental exposures as well. It discusses three principal mechanisms of increased risk: excessive hazardous exposures in both the workplace and the general environment, increased susceptibility, and inferior healthcare. It presents evidence that, as the result of these factors, members of minority groups display elevated rates of work-related illness, injury, fatality, and disability. Finally, it offers recommendations with regard to research, primary prevention, minority recruitment into the occupational health professions, and treatment and compensation for injured and ill minority workers. PMID:10378973

  1. Radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.

  2. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  3. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  4. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    The Construction Safety Program (CSP) for NIF sets forth the responsibilities, guidelines, rules, policies and regulations for all workers involved in the construction, special equipment installation, acceptance testing, and initial activation and operation of NIF at LLNL during the construction period of NIF.

  5. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Construction Safety Program (CSP) for NIF sets forth the responsibilities, guidelines, rules, policies and regulations for all workers involved in the construction, special equipment installation, acceptance testing, and initial activation and operation of NIF at LLNL during the construction period of NIF. During this period, all workers are required to implement measures to create a universal awareness which promotes safe practice at the work site, and which will achieve NIF`s management objectives in preventing accidents and illnesses. Construction safety for NIF is predicated on everyone performing their jobs in a manner which prevents job-related disabling injuries and illnesses. The CSP outlines the minimum environment, safety, and health (ES&H) standards, LLNL policies and the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Zero Injury Techniques requirements that all workers at the NIF construction site shall adhere to during the construction period of NIF. It identifies the safety requirements which the NIF organizational Elements, construction contractors and construction subcontractors must include in their safety plans for the construction period of NIF, and presents safety protocols and guidelines which workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment. The CSP also identifies the ES&H responsibilities of LLNL employees, non-LLNL employees, construction contractors, construction subcontractors, and various levels of management within the NIF Program at LLNL. In addition, the CSP contains the responsibilities and functions of ES&H support organizations and administrative groups, and describes their interactions with the NIF Program.

  6. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  7. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  8. Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

  9. Negotiating multiple barriers: health workers' access to counselling, testing and treatment in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Namakhoma, Ireen; Bongololo, Grace; Bello, George; Nyirenda, Lot; Phoya, Anne; Phiri, Sam; Theobald, Sally; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2010-01-01

    Malawi is facing a severe HIV and AIDS epidemic with an estimated 12% of its population living with the virus. Health workers are on the front lines of the HIV epidemic and they face the risk of HIV infection in both their personal and professional lives. This mixed method study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to HIV counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy by health workers in Malawi. After qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with health workers in the Mchinji and Nsanje districts, a survey questionnaire was constructed and administered to 906 health workers in eight districts in Malawi. A majority (76%) of health workers surveyed reported having undergone HIV testing and counselling, of whom 74% reported repeat testing. A striking result of the study is that 22% of health workers reported testing after occupational exposure to HIV. The proportions of respondents reporting that they tested after experiencing symptoms, or self-testing for HIV were 11% each. The in-depth interviews and the survey revealed multiple challenges that health workers face to accessing HIV testing, counselling and treatment, including fear of a positive result, fear of stigma and lack of confidentiality. Additional barriers included health workers' personal acquaintance with those conducting testing, along with their perception of being "role models" which could exacerbate their fears about confidentiality. Given health workers' critical role in HIV delivery in Malawi, there is need to develop solutions to help health workers overcome these barriers. PMID:20680862

  10. [Health Risk Assessment of Tunnel Workers Based on the Investigation and Analysis of Occupational Exposure to PM10].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hua-li; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Zhen-zhen; Lei, Wan-xiong; Zeng, Ting-ting; Lan, Zhi-cai

    2015-08-01

    The health risk of tunnel workers' occupational exposure to PM10, was evaluated applying public health exposure evaluation nodel. A questionnaire survey of 250 tunnel workers was conducted in a construction site of Ma-zhu Highway in Hubei Province, and the concentrations of PM10 were monitored. The results showed that the PM10 exposure concentrations of different types of tunnel workers were extremely high. Compared with the limited value, the PM10 exposure concentrations were 83 times, 18 times, 8 times, 9 times Emd 9 times for excavation workers, blasting workers, supporting workers, slag-out workers and secondary-lining workers, respectively. For secondary-lining workers, the average daily exposure time was the longest, which was 11.48 h x d(-1), and the energy metabolism rate was also the highest, which was 1067.43 kj x (m2 x h)(-1). Regarding the inhalation rates, secondary-lining workers could be classified to high-level working intensity, and the other four types of tunnel workers could he classified to middle-level working intensity. The health risk assessment results showed that all tunnel workers had health risk. High exposure concentration of PM10 was the main reason for excavation workers' highest hazard quotient, and it was the same for the blasting workers. The reason for secondary-lining workers' high hazard quotient was that they had higher inhalation rates and longer average daily exposure time. In order to reduce the health risk of tunnel workers, firstly the workers should be equipped with appropriate respiratory protective equipment; secondly an appropriate tunnel working standard should be developed to set a reasonable working-years for reducing the exposure time. PMID:26592002

  11. [HCV prevalence in health workers].

    PubMed

    Vassia, M A; Curciarello, J O; Bologna, A; De Barrio, S; Belloni, P; Jmelnitzky, C A

    1999-01-01

    The risk of HBV infections in health workers and the different prevalence according to the hospital activities has been shown in a great number of papers. In order to establish the prevalence of serological HBV markers in health workers fron high complexity hospital, we have analyzed 730 inquiries refilled in the period 1994-1995 before receiving the antihepatitis B vaccine. We studied 730 health workers, 282 (38.8%) males and 447 (61.2%) females with a mean age of 40.1 years old. We found 75/730 (10.2) serums antiçHBc reactives. The found prevalence was significantly larger than the one found in blood donors. The analysis of the prevalence according to the hospital activities showed that the infirmary personnel is the only with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors, and the other health workers prevalence. Differences in the anti-HBc prevalence between the physicians specialties were not found. Our results agree with other publications that clearly show that health workers are a risk group for HBV infection. However, what attracts attention in the analyzed population is that the only ones with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors' and the other health workers prevalence were the nurses, suggesting that nurses are the only health workers that have risk of HBV infections. PMID:10599401

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  15. Constructive Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanek, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Compares and reviews currently available brands of steel construction sets that are useful to physics teachers for building demonstrations, prototypes of mechanisms, robotics, and remote control devices. (ZWH)

  16. 75 FR 22228 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY and VT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit a request for... for public safety by safeguarding both mariners and construction workers during the bridge's... public and construction worker safety for the duration of the planned Lake Champlain Bridge...

  17. Construction Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the construction technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with a construction technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or one of five 2-year programs at a community…

  18. Construction Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  19. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown. PMID:2137139

  20. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  1. REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN WORKER REENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 years ago workers recognized the adverse potential of fieldworker exposure to pesticide residues. Subsequent fieldworker acute organophosphate intoxications and resulting political pressure led to regulations by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration and the En...

  2. Coal workers pneumoconiosis, complicated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the lungs. Diseases which may explain these X-ray findings include complicated coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), silico-tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis, metastatic lung cancer, and other diffuse infiltrative pulmonary diseases.

  3. Work values among Lebanese workers.

    PubMed

    Sidani, Y M; Gardner, W L

    2000-10-01

    On the basis of a review of the existing literature, the authors tested 4 hypotheses to determine the applicability of work values in Arab societies to employees in Lebanese organizations. Only 1 hypothesis was supported: Organizational policies that ran counter to the worker's religious values had an adverse effect on job satisfaction. There was no support for the hypotheses (a) that workers' religiosity in inversely related to positive attitudes toward women's involvement at work, (b) that employee satisfaction is related to a mechanistic organizational design, or (c) that workers with an internal locus of control experience higher job satisfaction. The Lebanese workers, thus, did not appear to share some of the attributes claimed to exist in Arab societies. PMID:11059205

  4. Worker responses to workplace hazards.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J C

    1987-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives in occupational safety and health have emphasized strategies that provide workers with information about workplace exposures. It is not clear, however, what effect this new information has had or will have on worker self-help initiatives. This paper analyzes individual and collective worker responses to information on job hazards using five sources of data on workers and industries in the United States. Levels of expressed dissatisfaction, discharges for cause, and strike frequencies are found to be significantly higher in hazardous jobs than in safe jobs. Individual quit strategies are not consistently found to be associated with higher hazard levels. These findings have potentially important implications for the design of future information-oriented health and safety policies. PMID:3429802

  5. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    QUICK CARD TM Protecting Workers from Heat Stress Heat Illness Exposure to heat can cause illness and death. The most serious ... OSHA (6742) OSHA 3154 -06R 2014 QUICK CARD TM • Modify work schedules and arrange frequent rest periods ...

  6. Healthcare Worker Contact Networks and the Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Donald E.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Kanade, Gaurav; Pemmaraju, Sriram V.; Polgreen, Philip M.; Segre, Alberto M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive approach to using electronic medical records (EMR) for constructing contact networks of healthcare workers in a hospital. This approach is applied at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) – a 3.2 million square foot facility with 700 beds and about 8,000 healthcare workers – by obtaining 19.8 million EMR data points, spread over more than 21 months. We use these data to construct 9,000 different healthcare worker contact networks, which serve as proxies for patterns of actual healthcare worker contacts. Unlike earlier approaches, our methods are based on large-scale data and do not make any a priori assumptions about edges (contacts) between healthcare workers, degree distributions of healthcare workers, their assignment to wards, etc. Preliminary validation using data gathered from a 10-day long deployment of a wireless sensor network in the Medical Intensive Care Unit suggests that EMR logins can serve as realistic proxies for hospital-wide healthcare worker movement and contact patterns. Despite spatial and job-related constraints on healthcare worker movement and interactions, analysis reveals a strong structural similarity between the healthcare worker contact networks we generate and social networks that arise in other (e.g., online) settings. Furthermore, our analysis shows that disease can spread much more rapidly within the constructed contact networks as compared to random networks of similar size and density. Using the generated contact networks, we evaluate several alternate vaccination policies and conclude that a simple policy that vaccinates the most mobile healthcare workers first, is robust and quite effective relative to a random vaccination policy. PMID:24386075

  7. Workers Search for Columbia's Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Members of a US Forest Service search team walk a grid during a Columbia recovery search near the Hemphill, Texas site. The group is accompanied by a space program worker able to identify potential hazards of Shuttle parts. Workers from every NASA Center and numerous federal, state, and local agencies searched for Columbia's debris in the recovery effort. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  8. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  9. 29 CFR 779.409 - Handicapped workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handicapped workers. 779.409 Section 779.409 Labor... Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers § 779.409 Handicapped workers. Regulations have been issued... handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act....

  10. The Older Worker. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David; Rocco, Tonette S.

    Although workplaces are searching for ways to increase productivity, older workers asking for increased career development opportunities are neglected by most workplaces. Age alone may not be a defining characteristic of an older worker. Perhaps becoming an older worker is more situational than chronological. Retirement for future older workers is…

  11. Replacing Technically Skilled Workers: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanciew, Cheryl E. P.; Wither, Steven V.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the early 1900s, the United States could either find technically skilled workers based upon their backgrounds or was able to train workers quickly. Farmers, military personnel, and other sources of skilled workers were available to fill the needs of the workforce. These sources of readily available skilled workers are no longer as…

  12. Ant workers exhibit specialization and memory during raft formation.

    PubMed

    Avril, Amaury; Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-06-01

    By working together, social insects achieve tasks that are beyond the reach of single individuals. A striking example of collective behaviour is self-assembly, a process in which individuals link their bodies together to form structures such as chains, ladders, walls or rafts. To get insight into how individual behavioural variation affects the formation of self-assemblages, we investigated the presence of task specialization and the role of past experience in the construction of ant rafts. We subjected groups of Formica selysi workers to two consecutive floods and monitored the position of individuals in rafts. Workers showed specialization in their positions when rafting, with the same individuals consistently occupying the top, middle, base or side position in the raft. The presence of brood modified workers' position and raft shape. Surprisingly, workers' experience in the first rafting trial with brood influenced their behaviour and raft shape in the subsequent trial without brood. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of workers' specialization and memory in the formation of self-assemblages. PMID:27056046

  13. Ant workers exhibit specialization and memory during raft formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Amaury; Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-06-01

    By working together, social insects achieve tasks that are beyond the reach of single individuals. A striking example of collective behaviour is self-assembly, a process in which individuals link their bodies together to form structures such as chains, ladders, walls or rafts. To get insight into how individual behavioural variation affects the formation of self-assemblages, we investigated the presence of task specialization and the role of past experience in the construction of ant rafts. We subjected groups of Formica selysi workers to two consecutive floods and monitored the position of individuals in rafts. Workers showed specialization in their positions when rafting, with the same individuals consistently occupying the top, middle, base or side position in the raft. The presence of brood modified workers' position and raft shape. Surprisingly, workers' experience in the first rafting trial with brood influenced their behaviour and raft shape in the subsequent trial without brood. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of workers' specialization and memory in the formation of self-assemblages.

  14. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  16. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  17. Allergic contact urticaria from natural rubber latex in healthcare and non-healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Valks, Ruud; Conde-Salazar, Luis; Cuevas, Manuela

    2004-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of natural rubber latex (NRL) sensitization and allergic contact urticaria from NRL in healthcare and non-healthcare workers, we studied all 1171 patients who attended our clinic during 2001 and 2002. Prick testing for NRL and patch testing with European standard series were performed in all patients and an additional rubber series in those who had contact with rubber. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels against NRL and tropical fruits were measured when prick testing was positive. Sensitization to NRL (positive prick test and specific IgE levels) was much more common in healthcare workers than that in non-healthcare workers, 16.7 versus 2.3%. Among the non-healthcare workers, sensitization to NRL was more common in food handlers (17.1%), construction workers (6.6%), painters (6.2%), hairdressers (5.1%) and cleaners (3.8%). The difference in the prevalence of specific IgE to tropical fruits was not significant. Allergic contact urticaria from NRL was also much more frequent in healthcare workers, 71.4 versus 28.6%. In conclusion, sensitization to NRL and allergic contact urticaria from NRL are more common in healthcare workers, but this is a growing problem in non-healthcare workers and should be investigated in all workers with a history of NRL intolerance or who have contact with NRL. PMID:15186377

  18. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  19. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    The B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project was an 18-month demonstration project at a campus of Portland Community College (Oregon). During the B-WEST project, the following programs/components were developed: (1) a model building construction (electrical, mechanical, construction) trades program for unemployed and underemployed…

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 851 - Worker Safety and Health Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... each separately definable construction activity (e.g., excavations, foundations, structural steel... activity hazard analysis prior to commencement of affected work. Such analyses must: (i) Identify... inspections of the construction activity, where required by OSHA standards. (2) Ensure workers are aware...

  1. Constructing Phylogenies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilardello, Nicholas; Valdes, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a method for constructing phylogenies using molecular traits and elementary graph theory. Discusses analyzing molecular data and using weighted graphs, minimum-weight spanning trees, and rooted cube phylogenies to display the data. (DDR)

  2. Construction Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, John McKim, II

    1986-01-01

    Successful completion of a construction project requires the efforts of a team composed of the owner, architect, and contractor. A preconstruction conference can clarify the roles of the team as specified in the design contract. (MLF)

  3. Older Workers in the Market for Part-Time Employment. Research Report Series, RR-83-06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jondrow, James M.; And Others

    Evidence from a number of data sets indicates that, despite statements by older workers that they have a strong interest in part-time work, in most cases retirement is sudden. Workers approaching retirement age are not spread evenly across industries. Construction, transportation, and finance/insurance/real estate have a higher-than-average…

  4. Worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.

    1994-10-17

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

  5. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  6. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  7. Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagaman, Jane A. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to present to the aerospace community an in-depth review of Experimental Assembly of Structures on EVA (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) space flight experiments and to present the status of activities regarding future space flight experiments and accompanying technology developments that will demonstrate the capability of on-orbit construction required for the Space Station.

  8. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were

  9. Physical Assaults Among Education Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Hendricks, Scott; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Enumerate and describe physical assaults occurring to Pennsylvania education workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of 6450 workers, stratified on gender, occupation, and region. Logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for physical assault. Results During the 2009–2010 school year, 309 of 2514 workers were assaulted 597 times. Special education teachers, urban workers, and those in their first 3 years of employment were at an increased risk. Most assaults did not lead to medical care or time away from work; however, those assaulted were significantly more likely to find work stressful, have low job satisfaction, and consider leaving the education field (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.5 [95% CI = 1.5 to 4.1]; AOR = 2.4 [95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9]; AOR = 10.7 [95% CI = 4.1 to 28.1]). Conclusions Although education workers experienced few serious physical assaults, the impact of this violence was considerable. PMID:24854254

  10. Trends in Worker Hearing Loss by Industry Sector, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Methods Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981–2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. Results The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. Conclusions While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. PMID:25690583

  11. Worker exposure for at-reactor management of spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Weck, Philippe F

    2013-09-01

    The radiological impact on workers associated with spent nuclear fuel dry storage operations at reactor sites is discussed. The resulting doses to workers exposed to external radiation include the dose during dry storage system loading, unloading and handling activities, the dose associated with independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) operations, maintenance and surveillance activities, and the dose associated with additional ISFSI construction. Comprehensive dose estimates are reported based on previous radiation surveys. PMID:23564883

  12. Lung function in insulation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Netterstrøm, B; Wolff, C

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of working with modern insulation materials (rock and glass wool), the members of the Copenhagen Union of Insulation Workers were invited to participate in a study based on a health examination that included lung function tests. Three hundred and forty men (74%) agreed to participate, and 166 bus drivers served as the control group. Age distribution, height, and smoking habits were similar in the two groups. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used as tests for lung function. There were no differences in FVC between the study and control groups, but the insulation workers had significantly lower values of FEV1 (mean 2.51) compared with the controls (mean 3.4 1), independent of smoking habits. Six years before the present study, 114 of the insulation workers participated in a similar study, and eight years after the initial study, the lung function of 59 of the bus drivers was tested. The decline in FVC in insulation workers who smoked was significantly higher (7.7 cl/year) than in bus drivers who smoked (3.1 cl/year); the decline in FEV1 was significantly higher in insulation workers independent of smoking habits (17.0 cl/year v 2.9 cl/year). Self assessed former exposure to asbestos was not associated with lung function in insulation workers. The study concludes that working with modern insulation materials is associated with increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease. PMID:8457492

  13. TRAINING METHODS FOR OLDER WORKERS. EMPLOYMENT OF OLDER WORKERS, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELBIN, R.M.

    A SURVEY WAS PRESENTED OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON AGE CHANGES IN HUMAN CAPACITIES, ESPECIALLY IN LEARNING ABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY, AND DESCRIBED VARIOUS METHODS USED TO TRAIN WORKERS OVER 40. THE ROLE OF MEMORY, MOTIVATION, RIGIDITY, AND INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINING THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF MATURE ADULTS WAS ASSESSED, ALSO DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY…

  14. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. Methods A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results The hazardous-waste workers' urinary mercury levels (10.07 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than the control group (1.33 µg/g creatinine) (p < 0.001). Work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene, were significantly associated with urinary mercury level (p < 0.001). The workers developed acute symptoms - of headaches, nausea, chest tightness, fatigue, and loss of consciousness at least once a week - and those who developed symptoms had significantly higher urinary mercury levels than those who did not, at p < 0.05. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary mercury levels included hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years), work position, use of PPE (mask, trousers, and gloves), and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work, washed hands before lunch, and washed hands after work). Conclusion Changing garbage workers' hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers. PMID:23251842

  15. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes. PMID:25793365

  16. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  1. Motor vehicle fatalities in the United States construction industry.

    PubMed

    Ore, T; Fosbroke, D E

    1997-09-01

    A death certificate-based surveillance system was used to identify 2144 work-related motor vehicle fatalities among civilian workers in the United States construction industry over the years 1980-92. Construction workers were twice as likely to be killed by a motor vehicle as the average worker, with an annual crude mortality rate of 2.3/100,000 workers. Injury prevention efforts in construction have had limited effect on motor vehicle-related deaths, with death rates falling by only 11% during the 13-year period, compared with 43% for falls, 54% for electrocutions and 48% for machinery. In all industries combined, motor vehicle fatality rates dropped by 47%. The largest proportion of motor vehicle deaths (40%) occurred among pedestrians, with construction accounting for more than one-fourth of all pedestrian deaths. A minimum of 54 (6%) of these pedestrian fatalities were flaggers or surveyors. Flaggers accounted for half the 34 pedestrian fatalities among women, compared with only 3% among men. Along with previous studies and recent trends in the amount and type of road construction, these results underscore the need for better traffic control management in construction work areas to reduce pedestrian fatalities. As the second leading cause of traumatic death in construction, with an annual average share of 15% of the total deaths, exceeded only by falls, prevention of work-related motor vehicle research should become a greater priority in the construction industry. PMID:9316709

  2. Worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Radler, M.

    1998-04-13

    Tables list major construction projects for refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur plants, natural gas processing plants, and gas and oil pipelines. Data are compiled by country, company name, project type, added capacity, status of the project, expected completion date, contractor and contract type. Gas processes include LPG recovery, cryogenic separation, turboexpanders, LNG, liquefaction, desulfurization, NGL recovery, dehydration, hydrogen plants, and fractionators.

  3. Metal Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verduzio, Rodolfo

    1922-01-01

    The future development of aerial navigation is closely connected with the condition of obtaining airplanes of great stability and sufficient strength. Different construction materials such as wood, aluminum, iron, and alloys are examined to determine which materials or combination of materials provides a greater coefficient of safety.

  4. Constructive Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberfeld, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    Many crucial questions need to be answered before a college embarks on a construction project and makes a substantial financial commitment. Computer modeling techniques can be used to make even complex project feasibility analyses. Available from Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co., 345 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10154. (MSE)

  5. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  6. Evaluation of postural stability in workers exposed to lead at a secondary lead smelter.

    PubMed

    Dick, R B; Pinkerton, L E; Krieg, E F; Biagini, R E; Deddens, J A; Brightwell, W S; Grubb, P L; Taylor, B T; Russo, J M

    1999-08-01

    Postural sway testing was carried out on a group of 145 workers exposed to lead in a secondary lead smelter and 84 workers not exposed to lead in a hinge manufacturing plant. All workers were measured for blood lead levels (BLL) and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations at the time of testing and both a total cumulative and a time-weighted average BLL value was constructed for the lead exposed workers. The lead exposed workers mean BLL at the time of testing was 38.9 microg/dl and the non-exposed workers mean was 2.3 microg/dl. ZPP levels averaged 55.2 microg/dl for exposed workers and 18.9 microg/dl for non-exposed workers. Total cumulative BLL averaged 83476 microg/dl days for the exposed workers, with a mean time-weighted average BLL of 35.1 microg/dl. Six tests of postural stability, four two leg conditions and two single leg conditions were administered to all subjects using a force platform to produce measurements of sway for comparison purposes. The two leg conditions also manipulated the visual and proprioceptive systems. A statistically significant association was observed for sway measurements and the current BLL for all workers, but not with the current BLL of only the lead exposed workers. No statistically significant associations were present with the cumulative measures of long-term exposure. Of the six tests of sway, only the single leg conditions showed significant exposure effects. The results suggest effects of lead exposure among those with average BLL near 40.0 microg/dl, but only in the most challenging one leg conditions. PMID:10499358

  7. Contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological factors to neck pain in female office workers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Venerina; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Jull, Gwendolen; Souvlis, Tina

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological features associated with neck pain in female office workers towards developing appropriate intervention programs. Workers without disability (Neck Disability Index (NDI) score < or = 8, n=33); workers with neck pain and disability (NDI > or = 9/100, n=52) and 22 controls (women who did not work and without neck pain) participated in this study. Two logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between various measures in (1) workers with and without disability, and (2) workers without disability and controls. Measures included those found to be significantly associated with higher NDI in our previous studies: psychosocial domains; individual factors; task demands; quantitative sensory measures and measures of motor function. In the final model, higher score on negative affectivity scale (OR=4.47), greater activity in the neck flexors during cranio-cervical flexion (OR=1.44), cold hyperalgesia (OR=1.27) and longer duration of symptoms (OR=1.19) remained significantly associated with neck pain in workers. Workers without disability and controls could only be differentiated by greater muscle activity in the cervical flexors and extensors during a typing task. No psychosocial domains remained in either regression model. These results suggest that impairments in the sensory and motor system should be considered in any assessment of the office worker with neck pain and may have stronger influences on the presenting symptoms than workplace and psychosocial features. PMID:19111487

  8. MATES in Construction: Impact of a Multimodal, Community-Based Program for Suicide Prevention in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gullestrup, Jorgen; Lequertier, Belinda; Martin, Graham

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention); gatekeeper training provided to construction worker volunteer ‘Connectors’; Suicide First Aid (ASIST) training offered to key workers; outreach support provided by trained and supervised MIC staff; state-wide suicide prevention hotline; case management service; and postvention support provided in the event of a suicide. Findings from over 7,000 workers (April 2008 to November 2010) are reported, indicating strong construction industry support, with 67% building sites and employers approached agreeing to participate in MIC. GAT participants demonstrated significantly increased suicide prevention awareness compared with a comparison group. Connector training participants rated MIC as helpful and effective, felt prepared to intervene with a suicidal person, and knew where to seek help for a suicidal individual following the training. Workers engaged positively with the after-hours crisis support phone line and case management. MIC provided postvention support to 10 non-MIC sites and sites engaged with MIC, but not yet MIC-compliant. Current findings support the potential effectiveness and social validity of MIC for preventing suicide in construction workers. PMID:22163201

  9. Education and Today's Older Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N.

    New perspectives need to be gained on the roles of older adults and older workers in the new millenium. Because today's adult is healthier, policies concerning social security, retirement, and work need to be changed. There is a need for acceptance of various types of aging. Rather than mandating specific retirement, the individual should have…

  10. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  11. 1969 Handbook on Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook on American women workers, a ready reference source, includes information that has become available since 1965. Part 1 deals with women in the labor force; Part 2 is concerned with the laws governing women's employment and status; Part 3 tells about the Interdepartmental Committee, the Citizens' Advisory Council, and the State…

  12. Gatekeeper Training for Youth Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmill, Tania; Deane, Frank; Wilson, Coralie

    2009-01-01

    Adults who act as gatekeepers for young people may have the same barriers to help-seeking for mental health issues as young people. This study investigated the personal help-seeking practices of 47 Australian youth workers prior to and after a training workshop on youth mental health issues. Pre-post workshop evaluation revealed some increases in…

  13. Making Technology Work for Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkasky, Todd; Scannell, Ray

    1999-01-01

    A company can undo a generation of organizing and collective bargaining by redesigning the technology of the workplace. Unions must define a different vision of how production can be organized--a vision that is worker centered and skill based--and struggle for it in decision-making arenas of government and private enterprise. (Author)

  14. Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Don

    1979-01-01

    The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

  15. How Workers Get Their Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Max; Eck, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of workers concerning skills needed to obtain a job and training to improve those skills. Sources of training are explored. Occupational patterns are examined by group: executive, administrative, and managerial; professional specialty; technical; sales; clerical, household; service; farming; precision production; and…

  16. Radiological Worker Computer Based Training

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-02-06

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an interactive computer based training (CBT) version of the standardized DOE Radiological Worker training program. This CD-ROM based program utilizes graphics, animation, photographs, sound and video to train users in ten topical areas: radiological fundamentals, biological effects, dose limits, ALARA, personnel monitoring, controls and postings, emergency response, contamination controls, high radiation areas, and lessons learned.

  17. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  18. CTE's Role in Worker Retraining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2011-01-01

    The economic downturn and growing skills mismatch dramatically highlight the importance of programs that retrain workers for the demands of the current workplace. The career and technical education (CTE) system has played a large role in the development of these programs, and CTE educators are leading efforts to ensure that new and newly…

  19. Young Agricultural Workers in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

    This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

  20. The Politics of Workers' Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omole, M. A. Lanre

    1998-01-01

    Provides background on the concept and history of workers' education and opposition to it. States that workers' education should be targeted also to employers, government, media, and the general public. (SK)

  1. Workers' Compensation: Key Legislation in 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, LaVerne C.

    1982-01-01

    Contains a summary of workers' compensation legislation enacted by individual states in 1981. Higher benefit levels, broader coverage, and improved medical and rehabilitation services are among the actions taken by states to provide better protection for injured workers. (Author)

  2. Head-and-face anthropometric survey of Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Zhuang, Ziqing; Guan, Hongyu; Xing, Jingcai; Tang, Xianzhi; Wang, Limin; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Yuewei; Su, Wenjin; Benson, Stacey; Gallagher, Sean; Viscusi, Dennis; Chen, Weihong

    2008-11-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been completely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006. A total of 3000 subjects (2026 males and 974 females) between the ages of 18 and 66 years old was measured using traditional techniques. Nineteen facial dimensions, height, weight, neck circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. A stratified sampling plan of three age strata and two gender strata was implemented. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible effects of gender, age, occupation and body size on facial dimensions. The regression coefficients for gender indicated that for all anthropometric dimensions, males had significantly larger measurements than females. As body mass index increased, dimensions measured increased significantly. Construction workers and miners had significantly smaller measurements than individuals employed in healthcare or manufacturing for a majority of dimensions. Five representative indexes of facial dimension (face length, face width, nose protrusion, bigonial breadth and nasal root breadth) were selected based on correlation and cluster analysis of all dimensions. Through comparison with the facial dimensions of American subjects, this study indicated that Chinese civilian workers have shorter face length, smaller nose protrusion, larger face width and longer lip length. PMID:18765398

  3. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  4. Construction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    This text/reference on construction measurements contains material concerning electronic surveying and remote sensing. New to this edition is coverage of the GPS satellite positioning system, electronic distance measurement (EDM), laser sweep, calculator techniques, radial surveying and tracking, Loran-C, inertial navigation surveying, 3-point resection, computer software, and electronic fieldbooks. It covers the difference of elevation, angle measurements and directions, coordinate surveying and layout, offshore measurements, and random field and office techniques.

  5. Workers Take Wraps Off Atlantis

    NASA Video Gallery

    A plastic covering put over space shuttle Atlantis to protect it from construction dust and debris was removed to reveal the historic spacecraft as construction of its new exhibit hall continues at...

  6. Health Needs of Migrant Workers in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.

    A survey of Wisconsin's migrant workers was conducted to obtain demographic information, to determine unmet health care needs, and to make recommendations for migrant health services based on those needs. A stratified random sample of 408 workers was selected, representing about 10% of the migrant workers in Wisconsin in the 1978 season; 262 of…

  7. THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS SURVEY (NAWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Labor is the only national information source on the demographics, and working and living conditions of U.S. farm workers. Since the NAWS began surveying farm workers in 1988, it has collected information from over 25,000 workers. The survey samples all cro...

  8. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  9. Invisible Divide: Farm Workers and Telephone Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; Delgadillo, Viviana; Flores, Nicolas; Ramirez, Debora

    2003-01-01

    A survey of California farm workers (n=34), former farm workers (n=7), vendors of telephone technology (n=13), and farm camp managers (n=5) revealed a pattern of low access to and availability of telephones and problems in the use of prepaid telephone cards. Results show that farm worker communities are largely forgotten in discussions of the…

  10. Elderly Service Workers' Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    The Elderly Service Workers' Training Project (ESWTP) was designed to identify the problems encountered by human service workers in their daily contact with older adults. A needs assessment (mail survey and structured personal interview) was conducted throughout Manitoba to identify and document the scope of human service workers' on-the-job…

  11. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  12. Workers' Attitudes toward Productivity. A New Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald H.; And Others

    In response to the steady decline in productivity in the United States, the United States Chamber of Commerce in cooperation with the Gallup Organization conducted a survey of workers to determine their attitudes toward productivity. The probability survey sample of more than 800 workers shows that American workers are optimistic about the ability…

  13. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed. PMID:25826875

  14. Presence of Social Workers in Nongovernment Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claiborne, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the job categories full-time social workers occupy in 20 international nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Social workers holding BSW or higher degrees account for 95 percent of the program director and coordinator positions, indicating that now there may be greater use of these professionals. But non-social workers filled…

  15. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  16. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  17. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and compensation in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T.

    1993-04-01

    Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis has been a compensable disease since the 1960s. In 1987 the Kentucky Workers' Compensation Law was changed to provide reduced benefits for coal miners with radiographic evidence of Black Lung Disease, but little or no respiratory impairment. This paper reports a typical case of Black Lung today and discusses the status of workers' compensation for this disease in Kentucky.

  18. Problems and Conditions of Workers' Organisations in Agriculture and Implications for Workers' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The background, achievements, problems, and future plans of various workers' organizations in agriculture are discussed: International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and Allied Workers; Trade Union International of Agricultural, Forestry, and Plantation Workers; World Federation of Agricultural Workers; and the Asian Trade Union College.…

  19. 29 CFR 780.920 - Workers transported must be fruit or vegetable harvest workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workers transported must be fruit or vegetable harvest workers. 780.920 Section 780.920 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Employees § 780.920 Workers transported must be fruit or vegetable harvest workers. Clause (B) of section...

  20. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  1. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  2. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers...

  3. Analysis of working postures at a construction site using the OWAS method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien; Han, Chia-Shan

    2013-01-01

    This study used OWAS to analyze the working postures of construction workers on building the foundations of a log cabin. Three construction workers, with an average work experience of 40 years, participated in this study. Eight elementary jobs of building the foundations of a log cabin were videotaped at a construction site and analyzed later in the laboratory. For an overall distribution of trunk postures, OWAS identified that a bent and twisted trunk posture (34%), which fell into action category 3, was the major poor posture for construction workers. This study also identified that tying beams with steel bars, assembling column templates, and cement grouting of the ground were the 3 principal jobs in which workers building the foundations exhibited poor working posture. This article suggests ways to reduce and evaluate poor posture in a dynamic construction site. PMID:23759194

  4. Trafficked female sex workers awaiting deportation: comparison with brothel workers.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J; Chudakov, B; Paikin, M; Agmon, K; Belmaker, R H

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, we researched the psychosocial characteristics of 55 women working in the commercial brothel-based sex industry in three Israeli cities. This previous social epidemiological study focused exclusively on women working in brothels and the brothel owners consented to their interviews, suggesting that this might be a sample of the most organized brothels with the best social conditions. We therefore decided to study a second sample obtained by different referral methods. The sample consisted of 49 women in a detention center who are awaiting judicial hearings for deportation. This prison sample of sex workers is strikingly similar to the previously studied sample of sex workers working in brothels in terms of demographic features and working conditions. A higher percentage of the prison sample reported depression and somatic symptoms. However, this finding is consistent with a reaction to being arrested and awaiting deportation. Guided by a life course perspective, in the combined sample, we examined whether early exposure to trauma, motherhood and early entry into sex work affected current health and mental health. Those who were mothers were likely to have entered sex work at a later age but no other aspect of their working conditions differed from the non-mothers suggesting that motherhood per se did not appreciably change the experience of these mostly trafficked women sex workers. Early exposure to trauma increased the likelihood for work-related trauma, poor health and mental health outcomes. PMID:15480861

  5. Determinants of dust exposure in tunnel construction work.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; Eduard, Wijnand

    2002-11-01

    In tunnel construction work, dust is generated from rock drilling, rock bolting, grinding, scaling, and transport operations. Other important dust-generating activities are blasting rock and spraying wet concrete on tunnel walls for strength and finishing work. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of dust exposure in tunnel construction work and to propose control measures. Personal exposures to total dust, respirable dust, and alpha-quartz were measured among 209 construction workers who were divided into 8 job groups performing similar tasks: drill and blast workers, shaft drilling workers, tunnel boring machine workers, shotcreting operators, support workers, concrete workers, outdoor concrete workers, and electricians. Information on determinants was obtained from interviewing the workers, observation by the industrial hygienist responsible for the sampling, and the job site superintendent. Multivariate regression models were used to identify determinants associated with the dust exposures within the job groups. The geometric mean exposure to total dust, respirable dust, and alpha-quartz for all tunnel workers was 3.5 mg/m(3) (GSD = 2.6), 1.2 mg/m(3) (GSD = 2.4), and 0.035 mg/m(3) (GSD = 5.0), respectively. A total of 15 percent of the total dust measurements, 5 percent of the respirable dust, and 21 percent of the alpha-quartz exceeded the Norwegian OELs of 10 mg/m(3), 5 mg/m(3), and 0.1 mg/m(3), respectively. Job groups with highest geometric mean total dust exposure were shotcreting operators (6.8 mg/m(3)), tunnel boring machine workers (6.2 mg/m(3)), and shaft drilling workers (6.1 mg/m(3)). The lowest exposed groups to total dust were outdoor concrete workers (1.0 mg/m(3)), electricians (1.4 mg/m(3)), and support workers (1.9 mg/m(3)). Important determinants of exposure were job group, job site, certain tasks (e.g., drilling and scaling), the presence of a cab, and breakthrough of the tunnel. The use of ventilated, closed cabs appeared to be

  6. Mortality studies of smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Enterline, P E; Marsh, G M

    1980-01-01

    In view of the historic importance of smelter workers in the field of occupational medicine, it is surprising that until very recently little data was available on the mortality experience of these workers. The problem in most studies lies in identifying the smelter workers, because smelting, strictly speaking, refers to the melting of ores for the purposes of recovering metals, whereas smelters sometimes perform the operations of roasting, calcining, sintering, converting, and refining. These distinctions are not made in most mortality studies. Most mortality studies of smelter workers conducted to date have shown some excess in lung cancer. For lead, copper, cadmium, and nickel smelters a different etiologic agent has been proposed for each. These different explanations arise partly from different initial perspectives in conducting the studies. In this paper, data are presented on a current historical-prospective study of males who worked a year or more during the period January 1, 1940 to December 31, 1964 at a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington. This smelter (and refinery) handled a copper ore with a relatively high arsenic content and produced arsenic trioxide as a by-product. Overall 97.2% of the original study population was traced through 1976. Of the 1,061 who were found to have died, death certificates were obtained for 1,018, or 96%. For all causes of death, the mortality rates in this cohort, expressed as a Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), were 3.5% higher than that expected based on the United States white male mortality experience. A total of 104 respiratory system cancers were observed compared to 54.6 expected (SMR = 190.5, p less than .05). Respiratory cancer rates were found to be elevated in both smokers and nonsmokers. Overall, a gradual rise in SMR's for respiratory cancer was observed with increasing duration of exposure but not with an increasing interval from onset of exposure. This observation is consistent with the notion that the

  7. Dust and gas exposure in tunnel construction work.

    PubMed

    Bakke, B; Stewart, P; Ulvestad, B; Eduard, W

    2001-01-01

    Personal exposures to dust and gases were measured among 189 underground construction workers who were divided into seven occupational groups performing similar tasks in similar working conditions: drill and blast crew; shaft-drilling crew; tunnel-boring machine crew; shotcreting operators; support workers; concrete workers; and electricians. Outdoor tunnel workers were included as a low-exposed reference group. The highest geometric mean (GM) exposures to total dust (6-7 mg/m3) and respirable dust (2-3 mg/m3) were found for the shotcreters, shaft drillers, and tunnel-boring machine workers. Shaft drillers and tunnel-boring machine workers also had the highest GM exposures to respirable alpha-quartz (0.3-0.4 mg/m3), which exceeded the Norwegian occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.1 mg/m3. Shaft drillers had the highest exposure to oil mists (GM=1.4 mg/m3), which was generated mainly from pneumatic drilling. For other groups, exposure to oil mist from diesel exhaust and spraying of oil onto concrete forms resulted in exposures of 0.1-0.5 mg/m3. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was similar across all groups (GM=0.4-0.9 ppm), except for shaft drillers and tunnel-boring machine workers, who had lower exposures. High short-term exposures (>10 ppm), however, occurred when workers were passing through the blasting cloud. PMID:11549139

  8. Epidemiologic characteristics of compensated occupational lung cancers among Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung Sook

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of the characteristics of occupational lung cancer is important to establish policies that prevent carcinogen exposure and to compensate workers exposed to lung carcinogens. This study analyzed the characteristics of occupational lung cancers in workers who were compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Law between 1994 and 2011. A total of 179 occupational lung cancers were compensated. The main carcinogenic exposure was asbestos, followed by crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium. The mean exposure duration and latency were 19.8 and 23.2 yr. The most common industry was manufacturing, followed by construction and transportation. The most common occupation was maintenance and repair, followed by foundry work, welding, painting, and spinning or weaving. Although asbestos was predominant carcinogen, the proportion of these cases was relatively low compared to other developed countries. Proper surveillance system is needed to monitor occupational lung cancer and improve prevention measures. PMID:25408577

  9. Assessing Quality of Working Life Among Malaysian Workers.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Nur Suffia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Mat Yassim, Abdul Rahim; Van Laar, Darren; Chinna, Karuthan; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-11-01

    The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale-2 (WRQLS-2) has been used to measure quality of working life (QOWL) in the United Kingdom. In this study, the scale was translated and normalized into Malay. The scale was translated using the back-translation method, pretesting, and pilot testing. It was conducted among health care and office workers. It was tested in 3 stages; confirmatory factor analysis at stages 1 and 3 and exploratory factor analysis at stage 2. The Malaysian WRQLS-2 had 5 factors: "General Well-Being," "Job and Career Satisfaction," "Employee Engagement," "Home-Work Interface," and "Stress at Work." The scale showed good convergent and construct validity and also reliability. Perception of good QOWL may differ because of cultural influences and varying work environments. The validated Malaysian WRQLS-2 can be used to determine the QOWL of Malaysian office and health care workers. PMID:25926502

  10. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However, this idea has not been tested. Furthermore, whether inquiline workers have an adaptive role outside the usual worker repertoire of foraging, brood care and colony maintenance has not been examined. In this paper, we present data that suggest that workers of the inquiline ant Acromyrmex insinuator play a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen reproduction, thus promoting the rearing of parasite sexuals. To our knowledge, these are the first experiments on inquiline workers and the first to provide evidence that inquiline workers have an adaptive role. PMID:12816646

  11. Social Workers and General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J. W.; Lovel, T. W. I; Eaton, K. K.

    1969-01-01

    Weekly case conferences have been found valuable in the management of problem families in a general practice in a new town. These are attended by health visitors, mental welfare and child care officers, welfare officers, and psychiatric social workers, as well as by the family doctors. The conferences are a quick and easy way of exchanging important information and leading to rapid decisions. PMID:5761898

  12. Respiratory function in coffee workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Valić, F; Skurić, Z

    1979-01-01

    Respiratory function was studied in three groups of workers employed in processing coffee. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee processors than in control workers. In each group during the Monday work shift there was a significant mean acute decrease in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% vital capacity (VC), ranging from 4.0% to 8.7%, and at 25% VC, ranging from 6.0% to 18.5%. Acute reductions in FEV1.0 were considerably lower, ranging from 1.3% to 2.8%. On Thursdays the acute ventilatory function changes were somewhat lower than on Mondays. Acute decreases in flow rates at low lung volumes suggest that the bronchoconstrictor effect of the dust acts mostly on smaller airways. Administration of Intal (disodium cromoglycate) before the shift considerably diminished acute reductions in flow rates. A comparison of Monday pre-shift values of ventilatory capacity in coffee workers with those in controls indicates that exposure to dust in green or roasted coffee processing may lead to persistent loss of pulmonary function. PMID:111700

  13. Evaluation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in cement and tannery workers in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhosary, Naema; Maklad, Aisha; Soliman, Eman; El-Ashmawy, Nahla; Oreby, Merfat

    2014-04-01

    In Egypt, workers have potentially high exposure levels to chromium (VI) in the cement production and construction industry and to chromium (III) in the leather tanning industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chromium exposure on lipoperoxidation, thiol antioxidants and DNA in cement and tannery workers. This study was conducted on 65 adult male volunteers. These subjects were divided into three groups: Group I (control group); 23 normal healthy volunteers, Group II; 22 cement workers and Group III; 20 tannery workers. All participants were subjected to thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory determination of total blood and urinary chromium, plasma malondialdehyde and total thiol in plasma and assessment of oxidative DNA damage through p53 overexpression. About one third of cement and tannery workers had severe skin and chest manifestations and severe nasal manifestations were observed in 22.7% and 20% of cement and tannery workers, respectively. The blood and urinary Cr and plasma malondialdehyde levels of cement and tannery were significantly higher than control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase of total thiol in control group compared to exposed groups. About half of cement and one third of tannery groups expressed high grade of p53 expression. The blood chromium revealed significant negative correlation with thiol, but, positive correlation with malondialdehyde and p53 expression. Cement and tannery workers should be subjected to frequent clinical examination and blood or urine chromium analysis level to keep guard against its toxic consequences. PMID:24617565

  14. Reasons for job separations in a cohort of workers with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Burke-Miller, Jane K

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relative effects of adverse working conditions, job satisfaction, wages, worker characteristics, and local labor markets in explaining voluntary job separations (quits) among employed workers with psychiatric disabilities. Data come from the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program in which 2,086 jobs were ended by 892 workers during a 24 mo observation period. Stepped multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the effect of variables on the likelihood of quitting. Over half (59%) of all job separations were voluntary while 41% were involuntary, including firings (17%), temporary job endings (14%), and layoffs (10%). In multivariable analysis, workers were more likely to quit positions at which they were employed for 20 h/wk or less, those with which they were dissatisfied, low-wage jobs, non-temporary positions, and jobs in the structural (construction) occupations. Voluntary separation was less likely for older workers, members of racial and ethnic minority groups, and those residing in regions with lower unemployment rates. Patterns of job separations for workers with psychiatric disabilities mirrored some findings regarding job leaving in the general labor force but contradicted others. Job separation antecedents reflect the concentration of jobs for workers with psychiatric disabilities in the secondary labor market, characterized by low-salaried, temporary, and part-time employment. PMID:26348698

  15. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  16. Occupational dermatitis in a prefabrication construction factory.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Gan, S L; Ngui, S J

    1986-10-01

    In a field study of occupational dermatoses in a prefabrication construction factory, 272 workers were interviewed, examined and patch tested to chromate, cobalt, nickel, rubber mixes, epoxy resin, melamine formaldehyde and conplasts. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis was 14% (38/272); 57% (22/38) were irritant dermatitis from cement; 39.5% (15/38) were allergic contact dermatitis from cement (2 with concomitant rubber glove allergy); and 2.5% (1/38) were allergic to rubber chemicals in gloves. The overall prevalence of chromate sensitivity was 8.5% (23/272), with the highest rate from the concreting bays of the factory. The rate was unrelated to the duration of workers' engagement in construction work. 34.8% (8/23) had asymptomatic chromate allergy. The prevalence of cobalt reactions was 17.4% (4/23) and all were associated with chromate allergy. PMID:2948758

  17. 29 CFR 301.4 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disputes involving machinists, boilermakers, blacksmiths, sheet-metal workers, electrical workers, car men..., freight handlers, express, station, and store employees, signal men, sleeping-car conductors, sleeping-car porters, and maids and dining-car employees. (d) Fourth Division. The Fourth Division will...

  18. Relative importance and utility of positive worker states: a review and empirical examination.

    PubMed

    Steele, John P; Rupayana, Disha D; Mills, Maura J; Smith, Michael R; Wefald, Andrew; Downey, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to identity the unique contribution, relative importance, and utility of positive worker states. Using Luthans et al.'s (2007) five positive organizational behavior criteria, a variety of positive worker states were reviewed and then empirically tested to establish if they met these criteria. Data were collected from 724 restaurant employees. Positive worker states included: job involvement, perceived organizational support, engagement, and vigor. Criteria were self-reported performance, customer service, turnover intention, satisfaction, and quality of life. Our review indicated consistency between predictor adequacy of meeting the criteria and their empirical relationship with key outcomes. This research found the positive worker states to be independent constructs that had differential effects depending on the focused outcome. Regression and relative weights analyses showed involvement was a weak predictor of outcomes, while perceived organizational support was the most consistent predictor. Vigor was most useful when predicting job performance. Quality of life was poorly explained. PMID:23094474

  19. Training and Entry Into Union Construction. R and D Monograph 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray; And Others

    The study focuses on the issue of entry into building trades unions, detailing union procedures and standards, journeyman's background, and comparing training routes. Various basic construction trades were investigated: bricklayers, carpenters, electrical workers, ironworkers, plumbers and steamfitters, and sheet metal workers. Data were collected…

  20. Mental health status of municipal solid waste incinerator workers compared with local government office workers.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Kazuyuki

    2006-10-01

    Recently in Japan dioxin problem of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) became social issue. The news spread all around Japan and induced fear that workers at incinerators would suffer from cancer or other serious illness induced by the exposure to dioxins. Authors were interested in the effect of this stressful event occurred to the workers and intended to evaluate mental health status of MSWI workers compared with office workers. Subjects were male workers from two MSWI plants and a local government office; 20 government office workers who were engaging in health administration and 55 MSWI workers. Subjects were interviewed about their age, educational carrier, and working schedule. POMS and GHQ30 were used to evaluate mood status of subjects. There were differences in mood state between the two occupational groups. POMS showed that Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Fatigue levels were high in the health administration worker group. GHQ30 showed that General Illness, Social Dysfunction, and Anxiety and Dysphoria state were deviated to abnormal in the health administration worker group. General mental health status evaluated by GHQ30 score was also deviated to abnormal in the office worker group. Our results showed that mental health status of health administration workers was less healthy compared with MSWI workers. This meant that the stress of MSWI workers enhanced by the fear that they might have been exposed to dioxin did not exceed the stress the health administration workers usually had suffered from. PMID:17085923

  1. 78 FR 37969 - Safety Zone; South Park Bridge Construction, Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; South Park Bridge Construction, Lower... Bridge in Seattle, Washington for the re-construction of the bridge. The safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public and workers involved in the bridge construction. The safety...

  2. Constructing Brambles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Mathieu; Mazoit, Frédéric; Todinca, Ioan

    Given an arbitrary graph G and a number k, it is well-known by a result of Seymour and Thomas [22] that G has treewidth strictly larger than k if and only if it has a bramble of order k + 2. Brambles are used in combinatorics as certificates proving that the treewidth of a graph is large. From an algorithmic point of view there are several algorithms computing tree-decompositions of G of width at most k, if such decompositions exist and the running time is polynomial for constant k. Nevertheless, when the treewidth of the input graph is larger than k, to our knowledge there is no algorithm constructing a bramble of order k + 2. We give here such an algorithm, running in {mathcal O}(n^{k+4}) time. For classes of graphs with polynomial number of minimal separators, we define a notion of compact brambles and show how to compute compact brambles of order k + 2 in polynomial time, not depending on k.

  3. Family planning and voluntary workers.

    PubMed

    Bhende, A

    1968-01-01

    The Family Planning Communication Action Research Projects at the Demographic Training and Research Centre, DTRC, Bombay, and the Planning Research and Action Institute (PRAI) Lucknow, provide guidelines for implementation of a program in which voluntary workers play an important role. DTRC has concentrated on urban areas and PRAI on rural areas. In selecting the volunteers, emphasis is on involving those who are already active in community affairs, or those who wield some degree of influence. In rural areas, the literacy level of the leaders is an important factor, as well as those who have a wide circle of acquaintances. The training programs conducted by the DTRC are for 3-5 days, covering 6-10 hours, and the involvement of some local association is always sought. It is found that an informal, permissive atmosphere, the use of visual aids, the distribution of reference material, and the lecture and group discussion methods are effective in orienting the participants to family planning educational activities. The PRAI trains the workers 1st through individual visits, and then when a good number have participated for 3 or 4 months, a training camp is organized. When high officials attend and address these camps, and when certificates and badges are distributed, it serves to keep up the enthusiasm. The main problem in both urban and rural area are sustaining the interest of the volunteer and involving men as volunteers. Where cash incentives are not feasible, newspaper and radio publicity is effective, and words of recognition and appreciation also help. Where male volunteers are involved, it is found that they can work well in their places of employment rather than in residential communities. In highly cosmopolitan areas, various linquestic groups live side by side, and it is necessary to enroll voluntary workers from the individual groups. PMID:12338667

  4. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  5. Workers` compensation for radiation injury?

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.; Phoebe, T.O.; Wiedis, D.

    1993-10-01

    This article addresses the concern in the nuclear industry over the possible problem of tort actions with regard to cancer incidence among the nuclear workforce. In part there is concern due to recent studies which hint that there is uncertainty in the question of radiation effects due to low-level exposure. Given the uncertainty in such studies, and the fact that approximately 30 percent of any group of workers will show a natural incidence of cancer, there is real concern about the impact tort actions will have on the nuclear industry. The authors examine the choices facing the nuclear utilities in responding to claims of work-related cancers.

  6. Anesthetic gases and occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Schifano, Maria Pia; Capozzella, Assunta; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate whether the occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could cause alterations of blood parameters in health care workers. 119 exposed subjects and 184 not exposed controls were included in the study. Each worker underwent the complete blood count test (CBC), proteinaemia, leukocyte count, serum lipids, liver and kidney blood markers. The liver blood markers show statistically significant differences in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05), a statistically significant decrease in neutrophils and an increase of lymphocytes in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The prevalence of values outside the range for GPT, GGT, total bilirubin, lymphocytes and neutrophils was statistically significant in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The results suggest that occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could influence some haematochemical hepatic and hematopoietic parameters in exposed health care workers. PMID:24374387

  7. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 109 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 109 GREEN STREET. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY WITH A CENTER CHIMNEY, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. THIS DWELLING WAS CONSTRUCTED BY THE HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE HOGANSVILLE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 109 Green Street (House), 109 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  8. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN STREET HOUSE IS A WOOD-FRAME DUPLEX WITH A PYRAMIDAL ROOF, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND A PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. NOTE 105 GREEN STREET TO RIGHT. THESE DWELLINGS WERE CONSTRUCTED BY HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 107 Green Street (House), 107 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  9. 76 FR 38183 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... the reviews of all procedures used in the dose reconstruction process by the NIOSH Division of... Consider When Processing Claims for Construction Trade Workers''), OTIB-0054 (``Fission and Activation... of the comment- resolution process for other dose reconstruction procedures under review by...

  10. 76 FR 54775 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... all procedures used in the dose reconstruction process by the NIOSH Division of Compensation Analysis... Construction Trade Workers''), OTIB-0054 (``Fission and Activation Product Assignment for Internal Dose-Related... process for other dose reconstruction procedures under review by the Subcommittee. The agenda is...

  11. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... the reviews of all procedures used in the dose reconstruction process by the NIOSH Division of... Processing Claims for Construction Trade Workers''), OTIB-0054 (``Fission and Activation Product Assignment... of the comment-resolution process for other dose reconstruction procedures under review by...

  12. 77 FR 40890 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... the reviews of all procedures used in the dose reconstruction process by the NIOSH Division of... Claims for Construction Trade Workers''), OTIB-0054 (``Fission and Activation Product Assignment for... comment-resolution process for other dose reconstruction procedures under review by the Subcommittee....

  13. 75 FR 78998 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... the reviews of all procedures used in the dose reconstruction process by the NIOSH Division of... Processing Claims for Construction Trade Workers''), OTIB-0054 (``Fission and Activation Product Assignment... comment- resolution process for other dose reconstruction procedures under review by the Subcommittee....

  14. A Big-Data-based platform of workers' behavior: Observations from the field.

    PubMed

    Guo, S Y; Ding, L Y; Luo, H B; Jiang, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) has been used in construction to observe, analyze and modify workers' behavior. However, studies have identified that BBS has several limitations, which have hindered its effective implementation. To mitigate the negative impact of BBS, this paper uses a case study approach to develop a Big-Data-based platform to classify, collect and store data about workers' unsafe behavior that is derived from a metro construction project. In developing the platform, three processes were undertaken: (1) a behavioral risk knowledge base was established; (2) images reflecting workers' unsafe behavior were collected from intelligent video surveillance and mobile application; and (3) images with semantic information were stored via a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The platform was implemented during the construction of the metro-system and it is demonstrated that it can effectively analyze semantic information contained in images, automatically extract workers' unsafe behavior and quickly retrieve on HDFS as well. The research presented in this paper can enable construction organizations with the ability to visualize unsafe acts in real-time and further identify patterns of behavior that can jeopardize safety outcomes. PMID:26614050

  15. Experiencing the Workplace: Shaping Worker Identities through Assessment, Work and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timma, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how worker identities are shaped (and reshaped) in the workplace through the interconnected experiences of assessment, work and learning. Drawing on a study conducted at three food production companies in regional Victoria, the paper locates these workplace experiences as social constructions and considers the significance of…

  16. An increase in the Na+/K+-ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes in workers employed in a lead refining factory.

    PubMed Central

    Karai, I; Fukumoto, K; Horiguchi, S

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase activity and haematological findings, several clinical laboratory examinations were performed on 31 male workers employed in a scrap lead refining factory and, as controls, 50 male workers employed in railway construction. The results were: (1) Values for erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase activity, blood and urine lead, urine delta-aminolaevulinic acid, and urine coproporphyrin of lead workers were significantly higher than those of the controls (p less than 0.01). (2) A strongly positive relationship between blood lead and erythrocyte Na/K-ATPase activity was observed in lead workers (r = 0.473, p less than 0.01). (3) A strongly negative relationship between Na+/K+-ATPase activity and intracellular sodium was observed in both groups (lead workers; r = -0.601, p less than 0.01: controls; r = 0.595, p less than 0.01). PMID:6284196

  17. Properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across Workers with Different Pain Experiences and Cultural Backgrounds: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, M B; Damsgård, E; Holtermann, A; Anke, A; Søgaard, K; Røe, C

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the construct validity of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is consistent with respect to its scaling properties, unidimensionality and targeting among workers with different levels of pain. The 311 participating Danish workers reported kinesiophobia by TSK (13 statement version) and number of days with pain during the past year (less than 8 days, less than 90 days and greater than 90 days). A Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the measurement properties of the TSK in the workers across pain levels, ages, genders and ethnicities. The TSK did not fit the Rasch model, but removing one item solved the poorness of fit. Invariance was found across the pain levels, ages and genders. Thus, with a few modifications, the TSK was shown to capture a unidimensional construct of fear of movement in workers with different pain levels, ages, and genders. PMID:26075669

  18. Mortality of lead smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Selevan, S G; Landrigan, P J; Stern, F B; Jones, J H

    1985-10-01

    To examine patterns of death in lead smelter workers, a retrospective analysis of mortality was conducted in a cohort of 1,987 males employed between 1940 and 1965 at a primary lead smelter in Idaho. Overall mortality was similar to that of the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 98). Excess mortality, however, was found from chronic renal disease (SMR = 192; confidence interval (CI) = 88-364), and the risk of death from renal disease increased with increasing duration of employment, such that after 20 years employment, the standardized mortality ratio reached 392 (CI = 107-1,004). Excess mortality was also noted for nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 187, CI = 128-264). Eight of 32 deaths in this category were caused by silicosis; at least five workers who died of silicosis had been miners for a part of their lives. An additional 11 deaths resulted from tuberculosis (SMR = 139; CI = 69-249); in six of these cases, silicosis was a contributory cause of death. Cancer mortality was not increased overall (SMR = 95; CI = 78-114). An increase, however, was noted for deaths from kidney cancer (six cases; SMR = 204; CI = 75-444). Finally, excess mortality was noted for injuries (SMR = 138; CI = 104-179); 13 (23%) of the 56 deaths in this category were caused by mining injuries. The data from this study are consistent with previous reports of increased mortality from chronic renal disease in persons exposed occupationally to lead. PMID:4025307

  19. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  20. Silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Castranova, V; Vallyathan, V

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to coal mine dust and/or crystalline silica results in pneumoconiosis with initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. This review presents characteristics of simple and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) as well as pathologic indices of acute and chronic silicosis by summarizing results of in vitro, animal, and human investigations. These results support four basic mechanisms in the etiology of CWP and silicosis: a) direct cytotoxicity of coal dust or silica, resulting in lung cell damage, release of lipases and proteases, and eventual lung scarring; b) activation of oxidant production by pulmonary phagocytes, which overwhelms the antioxidant defenses and leads to lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosation, cell injury, and lung scarring; c) activation of mediator release from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, which leads to recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive species and in further lung injury and scarring; d) secretion of growth factors from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, stimulating fibroblast proliferation and eventual scarring. Results of in vitro and animal studies provide a basis for proposing these mechanisms for the initiation and progression of pneumoconiosis. Data obtained from exposed workers lend support to these mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10931786

  1. Asbestos Exposure among Mitering Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fiber counting was conducted under Rule A. The study showed that the fiber concentration medians for personal air samples gathered from the two tools were 4.11 fibers/cc (ranged: 1.33-12.41 fibers/cc) and 0.13 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.01-5.00 fibers/cc) respectively. The median for the area samples was 0.59 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.14-3.32 fibers/cc). Comparing each study case, the concentration level caused by the high-speed motor saw was more than twice that of the hand saw. According to the area samples, the workers nearby the test site are at risk from high exposure to asbestos. PMID:23019536

  2. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  3. Workplace bullying among healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  4. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  5. Silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Castranova, V; Vallyathan, V

    2000-08-01

    Exposure to coal mine dust and/or crystalline silica results in pneumoconiosis with initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. This review presents characteristics of simple and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) as well as pathologic indices of acute and chronic silicosis by summarizing results of in vitro, animal, and human investigations. These results support four basic mechanisms in the etiology of CWP and silicosis: a) direct cytotoxicity of coal dust or silica, resulting in lung cell damage, release of lipases and proteases, and eventual lung scarring; b) activation of oxidant production by pulmonary phagocytes, which overwhelms the antioxidant defenses and leads to lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosation, cell injury, and lung scarring; c) activation of mediator release from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, which leads to recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive species and in further lung injury and scarring; d) secretion of growth factors from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, stimulating fibroblast proliferation and eventual scarring. Results of in vitro and animal studies provide a basis for proposing these mechanisms for the initiation and progression of pneumoconiosis. Data obtained from exposed workers lend support to these mechanisms. PMID:10931786

  6. Construction labor assessment for coal gasification plant Murphy Hill, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northern Alabama near Murphy Hill. The project is estimated to require nearly 7000 workers at peak employment in 1985. It is projected that construction will start in early 1981 and be completed in 1988. Nearly 66 percent of all construction craft worker requirements are expected to occur during a 36-month period from 1984 to 1986, and about 25 percent are projected to occur during the 1985 calendar year alone. This construction labor market assessment report is directed toward establishing and analyzing data on construction labor requirements, and labor availability for the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding Murphy Hill, Alabama. The purpose of this report is to examine potential skilled labor shortages and some alternatives for alleviating those shortages, but not to address the array of socioeconomic implications of reducing shortages by training, by attracting workers who move permanently to the job site, or by attracting workers who live temporarily near the site and return home periodically. Parameters and assessments of the Murphy Hill construction labor market have been developed for: the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding the site; the major skilled construction trades involved; the time phase of construction labor demand; and projected craft-specific labor shortfalls. These objectives have been developed within the engineering bounds of the TVA's labor planning memo.

  7. Value-Added Workers Earn Less, Have Less Education Than Other Rural Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…

  8. Worker Retraining: Fifth Accountability Report for Worker Retraining Programs. (Formerly HB 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This report is the fifth review of the accomplishments of Washington's 32 two-year colleges under the provisions of the Worker Retraining program. The Worker Retraining program assures that jobless workers have immediate access to job retraining for a new career if they are not able to find work in their current field. It also builds the capacity…

  9. Growing Worker Activism Pushes Envelope in China: Worker Protests Spread, Despite Repression and "Official Unions."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senser, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that China's rulers are trying to have a free labor market without the freedom, and that the Chinese labor union is actually a branch of the Communist Party. The result is worker exploitation and a burst of worker protests (despite the threat of jail). Describes efforts by Chinese activists to mobilize and empower workers and document…

  10. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections. (a) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70...

  11. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections. (a) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70...

  12. English airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwencke, D

    1930-01-01

    English airplane construction is presented with a particular emphasis on metal construction techniques. Steel rib and fuselage construction are discussed as well as the use of duralumin in construction.

  13. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  14. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Ostwald, Madeleine M; Loftus, J Carter; Seeley, Thomas D

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term 'larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size. PMID:25142633

  15. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    branches increased. In the early 1960s the employment of foreign workers was concentrated in 3 branches -- the construction sector (32% of all foreign workers), metal industries (16%), and textile industries (10%). In 1982 only 1/3 of all foreign workers were still employed in these branches as an infiltration by foreign labor had taken place in all sectors. The services sector showed the greatest increase in foreign employment since 1975. There has never been as strong a concentration of 1 nationality in a particular economic branch as in Switzerland, Germany, or France. Case studies in Austria reveal that it was an explicit policy for firms (and also unions and entrepreneur representatives) not to depend on only 1 nationality of foreign workers. According to the case studies, about 1/3 of all foreign workers today occupy jobs which are in direct competition with indigenous labor. Another 1/3 fill jobs which are complementary to indigenous labor. For the remainder it is difficult to say to what extent they belong to one or the other segment of the labor market, because there is no information available on the occupational job structure. PMID:12159579

  16. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors ('decision latitude' and 'job demands') for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of 'very often' and 'always' for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach's α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65-0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25-0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  17. Lumbar compression forces while lifting and carrying with two and four workers.

    PubMed

    Visser, Steven; Faber, Gert S; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-09-01

    Team lifting and carrying is advised when loads exceed 25 kg and mechanical lifting is not feasible. The aim of this study was to assess mean, maximum and variability of peak lumbar compression forces which occur daily at construction sites. Therefore, 12 ironworkers performed 50-kg two-worker and 100-kg four-worker lifting and carrying tasks in a laboratory experiment. The 50-kg two-worker lifts resulted in significantly higher mean (Δ 537 N) and maximum (Δ 586 N) peak lumbar compression forces compared with the 100-kg four-worker lifts. The lowest mean and maximum peak lumbar compression forces were found while carrying on level ground and increased significantly when stepping over obstacles and up platforms. Lifting 100 kg with four workers in a rectangular line up resulted in lower compression forces compared with lifting 50 kg with two workers standing next to each other. When loads are carried manually routes should be free of any obstacles to be overcome. PMID:25959318

  18. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J.; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors (‘decision latitude’ and ‘job demands’) for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of ‘very often’ and ‘always’ for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach’s α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65–0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25–0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  19. Pedestrian worker fatalities in workplace locations, Australia, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Fiona; Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian deaths of workers in Australian workplaces (1 July 2000-31 December 2010) are described using coronial and safety authority fatality databases. One hundred and fifteen deaths were identified, with the majority male (93%) and aged over 50 years (59%). Four industries predominated (85% of deaths): Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (31%), Construction (29%), Transport, Postal and Warehousing (16%) and Manufacturing (10%). Similarly, three occupations dominated: Farmers (28%), Labourers (27%) and Machinery Operators and Drivers (25%). Common circumstantial factors (reversing machines or vehicles, driver also the pedestrian, driver's vision impeded and working accompanied) occurred in the Construction, Transport and Manufacturing industries, providing collaborative opportunities for prevention. Deaths occurring in the Agriculture industry showed different circumstantial factors, likely needing different solutions. While some effective countermeasures are known, workplace pedestrian fatalities continue to occur. Prevention strategies are needed to share known information across industries and to produce data enhancements and new knowledge. PMID:23656178

  20. Tunnel construction for a desertron

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterberger, H.; Huson, F.R.

    1983-03-27

    The tunnel in this model of construction is 3-1/2 feet wide by 5 feet high. It is assumed that the tunnel contains a rail system and guidance system for: (1) An enclosed car used for transport of 2 people and some tools. (2) A magnet mover. This robot could pick up a magnet and transport it at about 10 miles per hour. (3) An alignment robot. The alignment robot would intercept E.M. waves (microwaves, lasers) to determine its position in the tunnel. Then workers could come along inside the tunnel hoop and nail it together and to the floor. The trench would then be back-filled with a 1 foot berm on top. A rail system would be installed and a support stand for the magnet.

  1. Older Workers and Bridge Employment: Redefining Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Lorene B.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present a qualitative study that explored the transition experiences of older workers who retired from long-term careers and who were working in bridge jobs (i.e., transitional work between career employment and retirement). Using grounded theory methodology, the authors interviewed 24 older workers to learn why they decided to pursue…

  2. Workers' Education in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the…

  3. The Income Losses of Displaced Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijzen, Alexander; Upward, Richard; Wright, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    We use a new, matched worker-firm dataset for the United Kingdom to estimate the income loss resulting from firm closure and mass layoffs. We track workers for up to nine years after the displacement event, and the availability of predisplacement characteristics allows us to implement difference-in-differences estimators using propensity score…

  4. Special Issue: Workers' Education and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes papers from symposium on "Workers' Education and the Environment": "All Mobilizing to Contribute" (Taylor); "Trade Union Participation in Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development" (Brett); "ILO's Environment Policy and Programmes" (Kohler); "Workers' Education and the Environment in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean"; "Practical…

  5. How To Train Older Workers. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Work Force Programs Dept.

    This booklet is a practical guide to help employers develop ways to train midcareer and older employees to work to their full potential. Section 1 discusses the older worker advantage. Section 2 focuses on dealing with older workers, the half-life effect, and three common problems that reduce productivity: career burnout, career plateauing, and…

  6. Who Are the "Low-Wage" Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Derek

    A study attempted to identify low-wage workers in the United States by providing a statistical portrait of all workers who made less than $6.25 per hour in 1993. Data for the analysis were gathered from a cross-section of the Merged Outgoing Rotation Group File--Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1993 and panel data from the National Longitudinal…

  7. How To Manage Older Workers. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Work Force Programs Dept.

    This publication focuses on the challenges to management of dealing with older workers. Section 1 addresses motivating older workers who may perceive that their opportunities for promotion and increased earnings are limited. Six principles to guide this motivation are discussed: needs can be powerful motivators; to motivate, link need satisfaction…

  8. Teaching and Cultivating Workers of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiko, I.

    1972-01-01

    The Donetsk Vocational-Technical School No. 1 began in 1963 training specialist workers in the mining industry with a secondary education. The school has facilities for general education along with vocational training thereby encouraging a combination of education and labor development and future party workers. (Author/SM)

  9. Sheet Metal Worker: A Training Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    This training profile is intended for use by program developers and trainers in the development of training courses and programs for sheet metal workers. It contains 17 modules: safety for sheet metal worker; tools and machinery; materials and gauges; drafting and shop drawing; pattern development; methods of joining sheet metal; shearing and…

  10. Emotional Exhaustion in Day-Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Løvgren, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Although childcare workers have the second-worst occupation for work-related health problems and the number of professional day-care centers is growing throughout Europe, few studies have examined these workers' emotional well-being. This study investigates the effect of position, competence, work role, role clarity, and work tasks on emotional…

  11. Helping Those in Need: Human Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Colleen Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Many people experience hardship and need help. This help is provided by a network of agencies and organizations, both public and private. Staffed by human service workers, this network, and the kinds of help it offers, is as varied as the clients it serves. Human service workers help clients become more self-sufficient. The first section of this…

  12. The Multicultural Home-School Workers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver Board of School Trustees (British Columbia).

    A two-part report on the Multicultural Home-School Workers project in Vancouver (Canada) contains a brief overview of the project's background and an analysis of data collected to evaluate the duties performed by the project workers. Part I, a report by the Vancouver Home-School Co-ordinating Committee, explains the motivation and means of funding…

  13. Social Workers and Immunity from Civil Lawsuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Alexander, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that certain professionals have immunity from civil rights lawsuits, but has not considered any cases involving social workers. A split view regarding the extent of social workers' immunity in investigating child abuse cases has appeared in two courts of appeals. Discusses immunity, the case in these two circuits, and…

  14. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  15. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  16. Community College Adjustment among Dislocated Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Molly H.; Laughlin, Janet T.; Walker, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges often are catalysts for economic and workforce development in localities with high unemployment or large numbers of dislocated workers. Increasingly, dislocated workers--individuals who have experienced job loss due to occupational closings, reduced workforces, or severe local economic downturns--are enrolling in educational and…

  17. Jobseeking Methods Used by American Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Carl; And Others

    A nationwide sample survey was conducted in Janurary 1973 to investigate the job search methods workers used and their effectiveness. Prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Manpower Administration in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census, the survey covered nearly 16 million employed wage and salary workers 16 years of age and…

  18. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  19. Older Workers in Transition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Lisa

    Many older workers in Canada today are perplexed and dismayed by the swift and dramatic changes occurring in the workplace. Plant closures, downsizings, restructuring, new technologies, international trade agreements, ecological concerns, and changing demographics have affected the Canadian workforce, particularly workers in their forties and…

  20. Worker decisions to purchase health insurance.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, L J; Nichols, L M; Banthin, J S

    2001-01-01

    Studying worker health insurance choices is usually limited by the absence of price data for workers who decline their employer's offer. This paper uses a new Medical Expenditure Panel Survey file which links household and employer survey respondents, supplying data for both employer insurance takers and declines. We test for whether out-of-pocket or total premium better explains worker behavior, estimate price elasticities with observed prices and with imputed prices, and test for worker sorting among jobs with and without health insurance. We find that out-of-pocket price dominates, that there is some upward bias from estimating elasticities with imputed premiums rather than observed premiums, and that workers do sort among jobs but this does not affect elasticity estimates appreciably. Like earlier studies with less representative worker samples, we find worker price elasticity of demand to be quite low. This suggests that any premium subsidies must be large to elicit much change in worker take-up behavior. PMID:14625931

  1. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  2. Children of Migrant Workers: Exploring the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercaw, Lynne; Colby, Susan; Pacifici, Linda; Oldendorf, Sandra; Groce, Robin; Groce, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The topic of migrant workers is commonplace among headlines in the national news, but such workers have been part of the United States economy for at least seventy-five years, as can be seen in decades of enrollment records in K-12 schools. In this article, the authors discuss an integrated unit of study which integrates language arts and social…

  3. Library Service to Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naismith, Rachael

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of issues in bookmobile services to migrant workers focuses on the experiences of the Fresno County Public Library. A profile of migrant workers is provided, and funding problems and options, the information provision aspect of library service, lending policies, and impediments to serving migrants are discussed. (three references) (MES)

  4. 76 FR 24783 - Workers Memorial Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-10811 Filed 4-29-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... 2, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8658--Workers Memorial Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0; Presidential...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8658 of April 27, 2011 Workers Memorial...

  5. 75 FR 23561 - Workers Memorial Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-10574 Filed 5-3-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ...;#0; ] Proclamation 8507 of April 28, 2010 Workers Memorial Day, 2010 By the President of the United... fulfilling that promise. On Workers Memorial Day, we remember all those who have died, been injured,...

  6. 77 FR 25859 - Workers Memorial Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8805 of April 27, 2012 Workers Memorial Day... average of 12 individuals die on the job every day. On Workers Memorial Day, we honor all who...

  7. Workplace Education for Low-Wage Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrand, Amanda L.; Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

    The training being provided to low-wage workers, factors affecting the availability and effectiveness of such training, and training outcomes were examined. The major research activities were as follows: (1) identification of 192 employers that invested most heavily in training for low-wage workers; (2) telephone interviews with 40 of the 192…

  8. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  9. TANF workers' responses to battered women and the impact of brief worker training: what survivors report.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel G; Holter, Mark C; Pahl, Lisa C; Tolman, Richard M; Kenna, Colleen E

    2005-02-01

    Battered women (n = 159) report on their experiences with their Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) case workers. Workers most often ask about physical harm, feelings of fear, and police involvement. They least often create a safety plan, give information about work exemptions, and ask whether the partner had a gun. Women's major reasons for not talking about abuse are that the worker did not ask and a fear of negative outcomes. Workers who attended 1-day training are more likely than untrained workers to discuss the women's fear and physical harm, to help develop a safety plan, and to be viewed as generally helpful. PMID:16043548

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  11. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-08-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  12. Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Husain, S G; Murthy, R C; Srivastava, S P; Anand, M; Ali, M M; Seth, P K

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed the psychological status of 60 lead-acid battery workers occupationally exposed to low level lead and 30 referents in Lucknow. Digit spans and symbol, Bourdon-wiersma vigilance and Raven's Progressive matrices tests were administered. Significant impairments in concentration, attention, auditory and visual memory, psycho-motor speed, perceptual accuracy, and visual reasoning were observed in the workers compared to the referents. The deficits were not related to exposure duration since the magnitude of the impairments observed in workers with 1-y duration was the same as in those with more (up to 30 years) work duration. The blood lead of the battery workers was significantly elevated. There were functional deficits of the central nervous system in the lead-acid battery workers. PMID:11931507

  13. [Health management of Italian workers abroad].

    PubMed

    Bianco, Paolo; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Ieraci, Roberto; Anzelmo, Vincenza

    2011-01-01

    In the last 20 years traveling workers abroad have increased markedly. This resulted in the need for standardized preventive tools available to protect workers-travelers in geographic areas with related additional risk factors. Health surveillance of these workers require a company organization that involves the components of the process prior: the occupational physician, safety service, administrative areas, travel clinic. The application phases of medical surveillance must be differentiated into two main phases: 1. pre-travel, in which successive stages also encoded by the SIMLII guidelines; 2. the return journey, where the paths are different for asymptomatic and symptomatic workers. The evaluation of fitness to perform the job abroad is based on general criteria that allow to correlate the health of the worker with respect to the destination area. The application methods actually available allow modulations of the health surveillance for companies of different dimension. PMID:22073692

  14. Workers' Memorial Day - April 28, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Workers' Memorial Day, observed annually on April 28, recognizes workers who suffered or died because of exposures to hazards at work. In 2014, 4,679 U.S. workers died from work-related injuries. Although deaths from work-related injuries are captured by surveillance systems, most deaths from work-related illness are not. In 2007, an estimated 53,445 deaths from work-related illness occurred. In 2014, employers reported approximately 3 million nonfatal injuries and illnesses to private industry workers and 722,000 to state and local government workers; an estimated 2.7 million work-related injuries were treated in emergency departments, resulting in 113,000 hospitalizations (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (CDC-NIOSH), unpublished data, 2016). PMID:27563708

  15. Workers compensation: coverage, benefits, and costs, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.N.

    1984-12-01

    Workers compensation provides medical care and income maintenance protection to workers disabled from work-related injury or illness. This program is of considerable interest to the Social Security Administration (SSA) from several perspectives. For example, since 1965 Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits and workers compensation payments have been integrated. Information on the experience under workers compensation provides a framework for examining questions concerning gaps and overlaps in the Nation's social insurance system. In addition, since December 1969 SSA has administered claims filed through 1973 under part B of the Black Lung program--the program providing income maintenance protection to coal miners disabled by pneumoconiosis. The workers compensation experience reported here consists of information on benefits for work-related injury and disease, including data on the combined benefits paid under the entire Federal Black Lung program administered by the Labor Department and SSA.

  16. The business of care: the moral labour of care workers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eleanor K

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a case study conducted in a private residential care home, this article examines the emotional labour of care workers in relation to the moral construction of care and the practical experiences of work. An examination of the company's discursive attempts to construct, manage and demarcate its employees' emotional labour was carried out alongside an exploration of the carers' own interpretations of, and enrolment in, the care-giving role. The potential economic and emotional consequences of these occurrences were a key focus of the inquiry. The study found that carers, encouraged by the company, naturalised their emotional labour, and that this had contradictory consequences. On the one hand it justified the economic devaluation of the carer's work and left her vulnerable to emotional over-involvement and client aggression. On the other, it allowed the worker to defend the moral interests of those within her care and to see when those interests were in conflict with the economic motivations of her employer. PMID:25601068

  17. Affective Skills of Selected Agricultural Workers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1982-01-01

    Significant differences exist between agribusiness workers and agricultural production workers in Missouri in the affective work skills they demonstrate. Significant differences also appear between agricultural supervisors and workers. (SK)

  18. PREDICTION OF AGRICULTURAL WORKER SAFETY REENTRY TIMES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts and current methods of determining worker safety reentry times are reviewed. Comparison of human monitoring studies, factors in a worker reentry episode and exposure estimation methods illustrate the advantages of estimation methods. Research needs for worker reentry tim...

  19. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  20. Another First at NSLS-II Construction Site

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    Workers at the NSLS-II ring building construction site recently completed the first complicated concrete pour for the approximately 19-ft.-tall walls of the Utility Tunnel. The continuous pour was the first of its kind, as previous pours have been for foo

  1. Another First at NSLS-II Construction Site

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    Workers at the NSLS-II ring building construction site recently completed the first complicated concrete pour for the approximately 19-ft.-tall walls of the Utility Tunnel. The continuous pour was the first of its kind, as previous pours have been for foo

  2. Allergy-Related Disorders in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Carino, Mauro; Romita, Paolo; Foti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Working conditions in the construction industry have improved in many industrialized countries, but heavy physical work with recurrent exposure to chemical agents, dust, and climatic influences still represents considerable risk for construction workers and may affect their health. The aim of this review is to analyze available data of the literature on allergy-related respiratory and skin disorders with emphasis on a preventive appraisal in order to produce statements and recommendations based on research evidence. The most common agents involved in the construction industry as a cause of occupational asthma (OA) in industrialized countries are isocyanates, wood dust, resins, glues, cobalt, and chromium. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an immunologic cell-mediated response to a sensitizing agent and the most common sensitizing agents associated with construction workers are epoxy resins, thiurams and thiazoles, and chromates. Medical surveillance must consider individual risk factors such as differences in individual susceptibility and sensitization to agents at workplace. Once work-related disorder is confirmed, adequate fitness for work should be assessed for the worker impaired by health condition. A reliable diagnosis of an index case is a sentinel event that may reveal risks for workers with similar exposure, leading to a revised risk assessment at the workplace that should reduce the risk and prevent further cases. PMID:24971193

  3. An Assessment of Drug Testing within the Construction Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jonathan K.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation.…

  4. [Risk communication in analysis of occupational health risk for industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Barg, A O; Lebedeva-Nesevrya, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of risk communication system function on industrial enterprise. Sociologic study in machinery construction enterprise of Perm area helped to consider main procedures of informing on occupational risk for health of workers exposed to occupational hazards, to describe features and mechanisms of risk communication, to specify its model. The authors proved that main obstacles for efficient system of occupational risks communication are insufficiently thorough legal basis, low corporative social responsibility of the enterprise and low social value of health for workers. This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-16-59011). PMID:26596113

  5. Labor productivity in heavy construction: impact on synfuels program employment

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, K.C.

    1980-06-01

    This study focuses on variations in labor productivity in the heavy construction industry. Productivity is one of a number of factors likely to affect the speed and cost of constructing a synthetic fuels plant. The findings of this study are presented with reference to synthetic fuels plants, but they are relevant to other large energy facilities as well. The data were gathered through a detailed literature search and extensive in-depth interviews with consultants in heavy industrial construction, union officials, and management. In this manner the most important determinants of labor productivity were identified and ranked in terms of relative significance. The type of project under construction is the most important factor affecting the productivity of heavy construction labor. Projects characterized by the utility work syndrome are large, complex, relatively unique, highly regulated, and have cost-plus contracts and tight deadlines. Such projects generally have lower-than-average levels of labor productivity. Labor productivity is also lowered by worker and management morale problems, due to delays and design changes, and by high levels of unemployment among construction workers. Finally, boom town conditions, caused by workers moving to live near large projects located in rural areas, also are likely to result in below-average labor productivity.Synthetic fuels plants are likely to have a number of these identified characteristics. Consequently, the findings suggest that labor productivity may well be a problem for the timely development of an economically competitive synthetic fuels industry.

  6. 20 CFR 617.4 - Benefit information to workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification document. (D) Benefits... location of workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification...

  7. 20 CFR 617.4 - Benefit information to workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification document. (D) Benefits... location of workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification...

  8. 20 CFR 617.4 - Benefit information to workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification document. (D) Benefits... location of workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification...

  9. 20 CFR 617.4 - Benefit information to workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification document. (D) Benefits... location of workers' firm. (C) Impact, certification, and expiration dates in the certification...

  10. Abortion attitudes among nurses and social workers.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, G E; Grimm, J W

    1974-05-01

    A survey of attitudes toward abortion was conducted among nurses and social workers in Tennessee. It was found that, even when relevant background characteristics were similar, social workers were more liberal toward abortion than nurses. It is suggested that the difference may result from differences in goals and types of client contact within the 2 professions. Because social workers aim at helping clients "cope" with many problematic situations and nurses aim at preserving patients' health, social work involves contact with a greater part of clients' lives than nursing. Nurses tend to view abortion as a medical procedure while social workers may consider it an appropriate procedure for various social, economic, and psychological reasons. Social workers see clients in normal life situations but nurses see them under specialized medical conditions in clinics or hospitals. It is more likely that social workers would understand the benefit an abortion could provide to a client. It is speculated that, in the future, social workers will refer poor clients to clinics or hospitals for abortions they feel are necessary and nurses will discourage or turn away many of these clients. PMID:4818082

  11. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  12. Catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Russell, Jim; Luborsky, Mark; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives To identify common catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospital settings. Background Worker-to-worker violence and incivility are prevalent forms of mistreatment in healthcare workplaces. These are forms of counterproductive work behaviour that can lead to negative outcomes for employees, patients and the organisation overall. Identifying the factors that lead to co-worker mistreatment is a critical first step in the development of interventions targeting these behaviours. Design Retrospective descriptive study. Methods Qualitative content analysis was conducted on the total sample (n = 141) of employee incident reports of worker-to-worker violence and incivility that were documented in 2011 at a large American hospital system. Results More than 50% of the incidents involved nurses, and the majority of incidents did not involve physical violence. Two primary themes emerged from the analysis: Work Behaviour and Work Organisation. Incidents in the Work Behaviour category were often sparked by unprofessional behaviour, disagreement over responsibilities for work tasks or methods of patient care, and dissatisfaction with a co-worker’s performance. Incidents in the Work Organisation category involved conflicts or aggression arising from failure to following protocol, patient assignments, limited resources and high workload. Conclusion Incidents of worker-to-worker violence and incivility stemmed from dissatisfaction with employee behaviour or from organisational practices or work constraints. These incident descriptions reflect worker dissatisfaction and frustration, resulting from poor communication and collaboration between employees, all of which threaten work productivity. PMID:25852041

  13. The NIOSH Construction Program: research to practice, impact, and developing a National Construction Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Matt

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research to improve and protect the health and safety of workers. This paper describes the experience of the NIOSH Construction Program with two recent program planning initiatives intended to improve the program: (a) an independent external review of work over the past decade and (b) the development of strategic goals organized into a "National Construction Agenda" to guide a decade of future work. These goals, developed with input from construction industry stakeholders and researchers, are a part of the NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) initiative. The NORA goals are intended to provide an ambitious set of goals for all construction stakeholders to work together on. Both efforts relate to insuring the relevance and impact of research, reflecting an emerging policy perspective that research programs should be judged not just by the quality and quantity of science produced, but by the industry impact and tangible benefit resulting from the research. This paper describes how views on research planning have evolved to incorporate lessons learned about how research leads to improved safety and health for workers. It also describes the process used to develop the goals and the resulting strategic and intermediate goals that comprise the National Construction Agenda. PMID:20630280

  14. An Exploration of the Relationships between Language, Culture, Safety, and Training in the Construction Workforce in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amezcua, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of safety training is to avoid or at least decrease the number of work-related accidents and deaths. This study was concerned with the role that native language plays in effective training of adult construction workers in New Mexico. Specifically, this study examined workers' and trainers' perceptions of the effectiveness of safety…

  15. [Workplace accomodations for two workers with narcolepsy].

    PubMed

    Vico Garcerán, Belén; Monzó Salas, Monserrat; Cuenca Esteve, Francisco; Luis Domingo, José

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of two workers evaluated in our occupational health unit. The first worker was a kitchen aide; the second was a primary care physician. Both had been diagnosed with narcolepsy and had obvious disability.We assessed occupational hazards related to their jobs, analysed their tasks, and performed medical examinations. Afterwards, we offered recommendations to the patients, consisting of avoidance of situations involving a risk of work accidents and improving their sleep habits. Narcolepsy is a rare disorder, but it has important social and occupational consequences. A better understanding of the disease and some work accommodations can help improve the quality of life of affected workers. PMID:23700708

  16. Hazards to space workers from ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of background information and a preliminary assessment of the potential risks to workers from the ionizing radiation encountered in space is provided. The report: (1) summarizes the current knowledge of the space radiation environment to which space workers will be exposed; (2) reviews the biological effects of ionizing radiation considered of major importance to a SPS project; and (3) discusses the health implications of exposure of populations of space workers to the radiations likely to penetrate through the shielding provided by the SPS work stations and habitat shelters of the SPS Reference System.

  17. Identification of potential hazards associated with new residential construction.

    PubMed

    Methner, M M

    2000-02-01

    There were several advantages and limitations of this observational study. The most important advantage of this study was the opportunity to observe residential construction workers performing their jobs. By observing work practices, valuable information was gathered about specific trades and their potential exposure to various chemical and physical agents. This information will be useful in guiding subsequent exposure assessments. Probably the greatest limitation of this study was the lack of participation by homebuilders. Ideally, observations of construction processes would have been more objective if the study included the participation of more than one homebuilder. Aside from one worker who was observed to wear safety glasses, leather gloves, and a dust mask, virtually no personal protective equipment (PPE) was observed onsite. Often small contractors do not have the financial resources necessary to procure the appropriate PPE and issue these items to the workers. Based on hazard prevalence, professional judgement, and the degree of hazardous product use, potential exposures that warrant quantitative sampling efforts during Phase 2 of this study are: bulldozer/backhoe operators--noise, vibration, diesel exhaust; concrete workers--naphtha, mineral spirits, Portland cement; asphalt workers--petroleum hydrocarbons, asphalt, mineral spirits; plumbers--methylethyl ketone, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexanone; drywall finishers--total and respirable dust, hexane, acetone; painters--ethylene glycol, VOCs; masons--dust (during the preparation of mortar); floor preparation technicians--total and respirable dust; and ceramic tile installers--toluene, naphtha, silica (from grout powder). PMID:10675976

  18. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassill, Deby L.; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  19. The use of a task-based exposure assessment model (T-BEAM) for assessment of metal fume exposures during welding and thermal cutting.

    PubMed

    Susi, P; Goldberg, M; Barnes, P; Stafford, E

    2000-01-01

    Elevated disease rates have been documented among construction workers for cancer, pneumonoconiosis, asbestosis, and silicosis. However, methodologies for exposure assessment in construction are not well described in the U.S. literature. Working through a cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Center to Protect Workers' Rights--a research arm of the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO--has developed and used a "Task-Based Exposure Assessment Model (T-BEAM)" for construction. The characteristic elements of T-BEAM are: (1) an emphasis on the identification, implementation, and evaluation of engineering and work practice controls; and (2) use of experienced, specially trained construction workers (construction safety and health specialists) in the exposure assessment process. A task-based approach was used because tasks, or specialized skills, form the single greatest thread of continuity in the dynamic environment of construction. Workers in the construction industry come from several crafts and are typically employed by a large number of contractors throughout their career. Project types (e.g., residential or industrial rehabilitation) are also highly variable and present unique health risks. Finally, because construction involves building, renovating, or dismantling physical surroundings, the work site is constantly changing. Between 1995 and 1996, T-BEAM was applied to the collection of approximately 200 personal exposure measurements associated with "hot work tasks"--welding and thermal cutting. Data were collected with the assistance of specially trained, journeyman ironworkers, pipe fitters, and boilermakers on nine construction sites located throughout the United States. Portable local exhaust ventilation was provided to participating contractors with the intent of measuring its impact on exposure. Results indicate that data collected in a standardized, systematic fashion from multiple

  20. Immigrant workers in the United States: recent trends, vulnerable populations, and challenges for occupational health.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Linda A

    2005-07-01

    Immigrant workers are a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. work force, and these increasing numbers have resulted in a different ethnic mix in the work force than in previous decades. Immigrant workers are not a homogenous group, but are over-represented in low-paying occupations. Their diversity and vulnerability present distinct challenges for occupational health nurses. High-risk occupations in which a large proportion of immigrant workers are hired include agriculture, sweatshops, day laborers, and construction. Initiatives needed to improve the working conditions of this vulnerable population include improved surveillance and research, culturally competent care providers, improved health care access, advocacy, and changes in immigration and health policy. PMID:16097105

  1. Safety in Construction Using Virtual Reality (SAVR): A Model for Labor Safety. Working Paper Series WP-022.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; And Others

    An interactive training model called SAVR (Safety in Construction Using Virtual Reality) was developed to train construction students, novice engineers, and construction workers to prevent falls from scaffolding. The model was implemented in a graphics supercomputer, the ONYX Reality Engine2. The SAVR model provides trainees with an immersive,…

  2. Self-Help Construction of 1-Story Buildings. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Program & Training Journal Manual Series, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Peter

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps field workers who have little or no construction experience in helping communities or families to construct one-story buildings. Discussed in a chapter on basic planning and design are site and position; size, shape, and floor plan; and construction materials. The next chapter is a detailed examination…

  3. Two Egyptian Construction Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the geometric concepts involved in two construction tools used in ancient Egypt. A level is used to make a construction horizontal, and the plumb level is used to make a construction vertical. (MDH)

  4. On The Evolution of Student Personnel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisser, Linda

    1973-01-01

    This discussion of the evolution of student personnel workers and their plight as budgets have been tightened gives suggestions of ways this group could use their human relations expertise to recover from their current condition of institutional impotence. (JC)

  5. Respiratory conditions in Malaysian asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Lim, H H; Rampal, K G; Joginder, S; Bakar, C M Abu; Chan, K H; Vivek, T N

    2002-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers. PMID:12440274

  6. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Cancer.gov

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  7. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  8. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  9. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort. PMID:12134527

  10. Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2 (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... distinct light areas. Diseases which may explain these X-ray findings include simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - stage II, silico-tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis, metastatic lung cancer, and other diffuse infiltrative pulmonary diseases.

  11. HRD and the Steel-Collar Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byham, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The author argues that, as robots begin to take over more and more industrial tasks, the impact on human workers at all levels will increase geometrically and trainers will play a strategic role. (SSH)

  12. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  13. Current nitrogen dioxide exposures among railroad workers

    SciTech Connect

    Woskie, S.R.; Hammond, S.K.; Smith, T.J.; Schenker, M.B. )

    1989-07-01

    As part of a series of epidemiologic studies of the mortality patterns of railroad workers, various air contaminants were measured to characterize the workers' current exposures to diesel exhaust. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), which is a constituent of diesel exhaust, was examined as one possible marker of diesel exposure. An adaptation of the Palmes personal passive sampler was used to measure the NO{sub 2} exposures of 477 U.S. railroad workers at four railroads. The range of NO{sub 2} exposures expressed as the arithmetic average +/- two standard errors for the five career job groups were as follows: signal maintainers, 16-24 parts per billion (ppb); clerks/dispatchers/station agents, 23-43 ppb; engineers/firers, 26-38 ppb; brakers/conductors, 50-74 ppb; and locomotive shop workers, 95-127 ppb. Variations among railroads and across seasons were not significant for most job groups.

  14. Tips to Protect Workers in Cold Environments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anti-Retaliation Tips To Protect Workers In Cold Environments Prolonged exposure to freezing or cold temperatures may ... 321-OSHA. Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Important Web Site Notices | International | Contact Us ...

  15. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  16. Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

  17. Labor Day and the war on workers.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

    1999-01-01

    We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546

  18. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  19. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  20. Medical Surveillance Requirements For Nonionizing Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, James A.

    1980-10-01

    The potential value of medical surveillance examinations for laser workers and other workers potentially exposed to high intensity optical radiation is evaluated. A review of the known adverse biological effects leads to the conclusion that most effects are related to acute and subacute exposures which do not lend themselves to effective medical surveillance. In addition, surveys of thousands of laser workers conducted since 1965 demonstrated that routine periodic medical surveillance has been unnecessary and/or impractical using currently available ophthalmic screening methods. Examination techniques to detect early changes in cataract formation or retinal degeneration (two potential chronic effects of optical radiation) are not sufficiently reliable or specific to be of value as routine screening tests. Epidemiologic studies of large worker groups are suggested to evaluate the potential for these chronic conditions to develop as the result of job exposure; however, specific recommendations for routine medical surveillance are limited to preplacement and termination examinations with appropriate evaluation of individuals following acute injury.

  1. Problems of Younger Workers in the USSR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotlyar, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Young workers, persons from sixteen to thirty years old, have problems relating to occupational choice, vocational guidance, vocational training and other educational opportunities, job satisfaction, and housing, complicating their search for an occupational and social identity. (AG)

  2. Take Control of Your Workers' Comp Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykiel, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    A Proactive Safety Campaign at Lake Central School Corporation in St. John, Indiana, has lowered workers' compensation insurance costs. Quarterly meetings with the insurance carrier and the director of each department address individual concerns. (MLF)

  3. Editorial Commentary: Workers' Compensation and Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Konyves, Arpad

    2016-04-01

    Patients with active claims for workplace injuries will benefit from treatment for femoroacetabular impingement, but improvement is not as good as in the patients with sports-related injuries. Workers' Compensation patients differ from highly motivated athletes. PMID:27039683

  4. Incidence of silicosis in flourmill workers

    PubMed Central

    Athavale, Amita; Iyer, Aparna; Sahoo, Debasis; Salgia, Kapil; Raut, Abhijit; Kanodra, Neeti

    2011-01-01

    Background: Silicosis is an ancient occupational illness reported in silica mill workers, agate stone workers, slate pen workers and mining industry. However its association in flour mill workers has not been established. Aims: To study the incidence of silicosis and respiratory morbidity in flour mill workers. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 56 flour mill workers working with open silica grinding stones was undertaken. Materials and Methods: 56 flour mill workers who volunteered following information regarding the study purpose were recruited from the community. Detailed clinical and occupational history, lung functions, chest x-ray, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were done. Diagnosis was made on the basis of radiological findings. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done with the help of the statistical package for social sciences software. The Chi-square test was used for determining the relationship between qualitative data and descriptive statistics was used where required. Results: 93% had respiratory symptoms that included cough (66.1%), dyspnea (75%), chest pain (17.1%), and rhinorrhea (46.4%). Radiological abnormalities were noted in chest X-ray (60.7%) and HRCT (81.48%). A significant correlation was seen between duration of exposure and HRCT abnormalities. Lung functions revealed obstruction in 28.5% subjects, restriction in 19%, mixed ventilatory defects in 21.4%, while 18.9% had a reduced diffusion capacity. Conclusion: Incidence of silicosis in our study on flour mill workers working with silica containing grinding stones was 30.4%. They had high respiratory morbidity (93%) cough and dyspnea being predominant symptoms. Duration of exposure correlates with radiological findings and increased incidence of silicosis. PMID:22412287

  5. Managing workers' compensation exposures in healthcare.

    PubMed

    McDonald, L

    1998-01-01

    Employees in healthcare are exposed to numerous and varied risks that pose the threat of injury. Management of those exposures by the organization will ultimately help create a safe environment for staff, patients and the public. Incorporating workers' compensation into the risk management program is the first step toward managing and reducing these exposures. This article presents a suggested outline for a written risk management plan for workers' compensation exposures. PMID:10182134

  6. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins. PMID:12285238

  7. Mutagens in urine sampled repetitively from municipal refuse incinerator workers and water treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xin Fang; Babish, J.G.; Scarlett, J.M.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Municipal refuse incinerator workers may be exposed to mutagenic compounds from combustion gases and particulates during plant operation, maintenance, and ash removal procedures. The frequency of mutagens was measured by the Ames assay in 3 urine samples collected from each of 37 workers in 4 refuse incinerators and 35 (control) workers from 8 water treatment plants during June-August 1990. When comparing the first urine samples contributed by workers in each cohort, incinerator workers had a significantly (p < .05) increased risk of both direct-acting mutagens and promutagens (8/37 or 22% for each mutagen type) compared with water treatment workers (2/35 or 6% for each mutagen type). Smoking within 24 h before urine sampling was not a confounder of these results. Interestingly, there was no significant (p > .05) difference for risk of urinary mutagens or promutagens between the two cohorts when comparing, respectively, the second and third urine samples from each cohort. The repeatability of demonstrating urinary mutagens in individual incinerator workers was poor, suggesting that their exposure was highly variable and/or that these workers modified their exposure (e.g., wore masks) as a consequence of being studied. Factors that influence production of mutagenic compounds during refuse incineration and subsequent worker exposure are discussed.

  8. 75 FR 60141 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Continuing Collection; Comment request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Continuing.... Background The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers the Longshore and Harbor Workers.... Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation Programs. Type of Review: Extension. Title: Application...

  9. 75 FR 71456 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed Extension of Existing Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection: Pre... Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act....

  10. Wells Construction. Hand Dug and Hand Drilled. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Richard E.

    This manual is intended for use by development workers involved in the construction of wells to supply water to a local population for personal consumption. Discussed first are the basic points to consider when planning a well. Various aspects of constructing hand-dug wells are explained, including well design, supplies, the lowering and raising…

  11. Evaluation of the Mandatory Construction Induction Training Program in Western Australia: Unanticipated Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Susanne; Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    2012-01-01

    Since January 1, 2007, Government legislation in Western Australia required all workers in construction to complete mandatory safety awareness training before they began work on site. During the implementation of this new legislation there was considerable resistance from the construction sector due to the mandatory nature of the training. The…

  12. [Health problems of workers in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Villafaña, C

    1983-12-01

    Most of the problems concerning the health of the workers in developing countries exist in Latin America : rapid urbanisation, dearth of information on the risks the workers face, intensification of efforts to increase returns. The geographic situation of a country also has its importance: working conditions are more difficult in tropical climates. Over populated, poor districts increase the danger of transmission of infectious diseases. Loneliness, a change in the mode of life are an incentive to alcoholism. The vast majority of Latin American workers are employed in small workshops. In Puerto Rico, 90 per cent of them work in firms employing less than fifty people. It is precisely in these small workshops that health problems are the most serious. The publication of laws to protect health is not sufficient, education campaigns must be organized at all levels: government officials, trade-unions, entrepreneurs and the workers themselves. Education programmes to protect the health of the workers must include the prevention of new risks due to environmental conditions. Health education is essential to protect and improve the health of the workers in Latin America. PMID:6667932

  13. Immunological and respiratory changes in coffee workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Valić, F; Kanceljak, B

    1981-01-01

    Immunological status and respiratory function were studied in a group of 45 coffee workers. Skin tests with coffee allergens demonstrated the highest percentage of positive reactions to dust collected during emptying bags (40.0%), followed by dust of green (12%) and then roasted coffee (8.9%). Among 34 skin-tested control workers, 14.7% had positive skin reaction to dust collected during emptying bags, but none had positive skin reaction to green or roasted coffee. Serum levels of total IgE were increased in 24.4% of coffee workers and in 5.9% of control subjects. The prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee workers than in control subjects. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergen had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic cough (63.6%) and chronic phlegm (72.7%) than those with negative skin tests (32.4% and 23.5% respectively). There was a significant mean decrease over the Monday work shift in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50: -7.9%) and at 25% vital capacity (MEF25: -17.8%), suggesting an obstructive effect mostly in smaller airways. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergens had larger acute reductions in flow rates than those with negative skin tests but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:7292386

  14. Drag reduction effects facilitated by microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Chu; Wu, Jia-Ning; Yang, Yun-Qiang; Zhu, Ren-Gao; Yan, Shao-Ze

    2016-01-21

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is a natural well-designed micropump that uses a reciprocating glossa through a temporary tube comprising a pair of galeae and labial palpi for loading nectar. The shapes and sizes of mouthparts differ among castes of honeybees, but the diversities of the functional microstructures inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones remain poorly understood. Through scanning electron microscopy, we found the dimensional difference of uniformly distributed microridges on the inner galeae walls of Apis mellifera ligustica workers and drones. Subsequently, we recorded the feeding process of live honeybees by using a specially designed high-speed camera system. Considering the microridges and kinematics of the glossa, we constructed a hydrodynamic model to calculate the friction coefficient of the mouthpart. In addition, we test the drag reduction through the dimensional variations of the microridges on the inner walls of mouthparts. Theoretical estimations of the friction coefficient with respect to dipping frequency show that inner microridges can reduce friction during the feeding process of honeybees. The effects of drag reduction regulated by specific microridges were then compared. The friction coefficients of the workers and drones were found to be 0.011±0.007 (mean±s.d.) and 0.045±0.010, respectively. These results indicate that the mouthparts of workers are more capable of drag reduction compared with those of drones. The difference was analyzed by comparing the foraging behavior of the workers and drones. Workers are equipped with well-developed hypopharyngeal, and their dipping frequency is higher than that of drones. Our research establishes a critical link between microridge dimensions and drag reduction capability during the nectar feeding of honeybees. Our results reveal that microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones reflect the caste-related life cycles of honeybees. PMID:26542139

  15. Speech recognition index of workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental or occupational noise: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise. Methodology 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at α=5%. Findings There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. Conclusion Studied group’s high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients’ own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:23259813

  16. Development of an improved dosimetry system for the workers at the Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhryakov, V.; Suslova, K.; Aladova, E.; Vasilenko, E.; Miller, S.C.; Slaughter, D.M.; Krahenbuhl, M.P.

    2000-07-01

    Databases are being created that contain verified and updated dosimetry and worker history information for workers at the Mayak Production Association. many workers had significant external and internal exposures, particularly during the early years (1948--1952) of operation. These dosimetric and worker history data are to be used in companion epidemiology studies of stochastic and deterministic effects. The database contains both external and internal dose information and is being constructed from other databases that include radiochemical analyses of tissues, bioassay data, air sampling data, while body counting data, and occupational and worker histories. The procedures, models, methods, and operational uncertainties will be documented and included in the database, technical reports, and publications. The cohort of the stochastic epidemiological study is expected to include about 19,000 persons while the cohort for the deterministic epidemiological study is expected to include about 600 persons. For external dosimetry, workplace gamma, beta, and neutron doses are being reconstructed. The models used for this incorporate issues such as known isotopes, composition, shielding, further analysis of film bandage sensitivities, and records of direct measurements. Organ doses from external exposures are also being calculated. Methods for calculating dose uncertainties are being developed. For internal dosimetry, the organ doses have been calculated using the established FIB-1 biokinetic model. A new biokinetic model is being developed that includes more information of the solubility and biokinetics of the different chemical forms and particulate sizes of plutonium that were in the workplace. In addition, updated worker histories will be sued to estimate doses to some workers where direct measurements were not made. A rigorous quality control procedure is being implemented to ensure that the correct dosimetry data is entering the various databases being used by the

  17. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender. PMID:21342871

  18. 49 CFR 219.405 - Co-worker report policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Co-worker report policy. 219.405 Section 219.405... Co-worker report policy. (a) Scope. This section prescribes minimum standards for co-worker report... relationship. A co-worker report policy must provide that a covered employee may maintain an...

  19. 49 CFR 219.405 - Co-worker report policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Co-worker report policy. 219.405 Section 219.405... Co-worker report policy. (a) Scope. This section prescribes minimum standards for co-worker report... relationship. A co-worker report policy must provide that a covered employee may maintain an...

  20. 49 CFR 219.405 - Co-worker report policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Co-worker report policy. 219.405 Section 219.405... Co-worker report policy. (a) Scope. This section prescribes minimum standards for co-worker report... relationship. A co-worker report policy must provide that a covered employee may maintain an...