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Sample records for boiling point temperature

  1. The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A photoelectric particle counter was used for the measurement of aerosol boiling points. The operational principle involves raising the temperature of the aerosol by vigorously heating a portion of the intake tube. At or above the boiling point, the particles disintegrate rather quickly, and a noticeable effect on the size distribution and concentration is observed. Stratospheric aerosols appear to have the same volatility as a solution of 75% sulfuric acid. Chemical analysis of the aerosols indicates that there are other substances present, but that the sulfate radical is apparently the major constituent.

  2. An Analytical Approach for Relating Boiling Points of Monofunctional Organic Compounds to Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2011-01-01

    The boiling point of a monofunctional organic compound is expressed as the sum of two parts: a contribution to the boiling point due to the R group and a contribution due to the functional group. The boiling point in absolute temperature of the corresponding RH hydrocarbon is chosen for the contribution to the boiling point of the R group and is a…

  3. Boiling of the interface between two immiscible liquids below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-11-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becoming heated above its bulk boiling point. On the contrary, we address the case where both liquids remain below their bulk boiling points. In this paper we construct the theoretical description of the boiling process and discuss the actualisation of the case we consider for real systems. PMID:25403831

  4. Size-exclusion chromatography for the determination of the boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes a new procedure for the determination of boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions using size-exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection. Thus far, the determination of boiling range distribution by chromatography has been accomplished using simulated distillation with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This study revealed that in spite of substantial differences in the separation mechanism and the detection mode, the size-exclusion chromatography technique yields similar results for the determination of boiling point distribution compared with simulated distillation and novel empty column gas chromatography. The developed procedure using size-exclusion chromatography has a substantial applicability, especially for the determination of exact final boiling point values for high-boiling mixtures, for which a standard high-temperature simulated distillation would have to be used. In this case, the precision of final boiling point determination is low due to the high final temperatures of the gas chromatograph oven and an insufficient thermal stability of both the gas chromatography stationary phase and the sample. Additionally, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography detectors more sensitive than refractive index detection allows a lower detection limit for high-molar-mass aromatic compounds, and thus increases the sensitivity of final boiling point determination. PMID:25545251

  5. From boiling point to glass transition temperature: transport coefficients in molecular liquids follow three-parameter scaling

    E-print Network

    B. Schmidtke; N. Petzold; R. Kahlau; M. Hofmann; E. A. Rossler

    2012-04-27

    The phenomenon of the glass transition is an unresolved problem of condensed matter physics. Its prominent feature, the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the transport coefficients remains a challenge to be described over the full temperature range. For a series of molecular glass formers, we combined tau(T) from dielectric spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering covering the range 10_-12 s < tau(T) < 10^2s. Describing the dynamics in terms of an activation energy E(T), we distinguish a high-temperature regime characterized by an Arrhenius law with a constant activation energy E_inf and a low-temperature regime for which E_coop(T):= E(T) - E_inf increases while cooling. A two-parameter scaling is introduced, specifically E_coop(T)/E_inf = f[lambda(T/T_A -1)], where f is an exponential function, lambda a dimensionless parameter, and T_A a reference temperature proportional to E_inf. In order to describe tau(T), in addition, the attempt time tau_inf has to be specified. Thus, a single interaction parameter E_inf extracted from the high-temperature regime together with lambda controls the temperature dependence of low-temperature cooperative dynamics.

  6. Numerical Study of Spatial Surface Temperature and Nucleation Site Density At High Heat Flux Pool Boiling

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    ] . The results indicate that nucleate boiling curve and critical heat flux point move to the lower superheat Boiling êã--·i"OE`å·H@·j·@"`·³·@·¯Zi·@·³·O·i"OE`å·H·j·@"`·³·@SÛZR·@­Î·v·i"OE`å·H·j Ying He, Masahiro Shoji Boiling, Surface Temperature, Nucleation Site Density INTRODUCTION The macrolayer is widely used

  7. Vapor pressure and boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors: Predictive models with statistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; McNally, T.W.; Fricke, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria and boiling point elevation of slash pine kraft black liquors over a wide range of solid concentrations (up to 85% solids) has been studied. The liquors are from a statistically designed pulping experiment for pulping slash pine in a pilot scale digester with four cooking variables of effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking time, and cooking temperature. It was found that boiling point elevation of black liquors is pressure dependent, and this dependency is more significant at higher solids concentrations. The boiling point elevation data at different solids contents (at a fixed pressure) were correlated to the dissolved solids (S/(1 {minus} S)) in black liquor. Due to the solubility limit of some of the salts in black liquor, a change in the slope of the boiling point elevation as a function of the dissolved solids was observed at a concentration of around 65% solids. An empirical method was developed to describe the boiling point elevation of each liquor as a function of pressure and solids mass fraction. The boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors was correlated quantitatively to the pulping variables, using different statistical procedures. These predictive models can be applied to determine the boiling point rise (and boiling point) of slash pine black liquors at processing conditions from the knowledge of pulping variables. The results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  8. New equations predict boiling point from viscosity, gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.V.

    1996-10-07

    A simple numerical routine computes the normal boiling point of light and heavy petroleum fractions as a function of kinematic viscosities at 100 F abd 219 F and specific gravity at 60 F. The algorithm makes use of a single nonlinear equation with one unknown variable (boiling point), which requires numerical solution. A convenient correlation generates starting values for mean average boiling point (MeABP) that are accurate enough to allow convergence in three or fewer iterations. The paper discusses the need for new equations, the new approach, and the calculations.

  9. Optimal boiling temperature for ORC installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikielewicz, Jaros?aw; Mikielewicz, Dariusz

    2012-09-01

    In the paper a research on cost-effective optimum design boiling temperature for Organic Rankine Cycle utilizing low-temperature heat sources is presented. The ratio of the heat exchanger area of the boiler to the power output is used as the objective function. Analytical relations for heat transfer area as well power of the cycle are formulated. Evaporation temperature and inlet temperature of the heat source medium as well its mass flow rate are varied in the optimization method. The optimization is carried out for three working fluids, i.e. R 134a, water and ethanol. The objective function (economics profitability, thermodynamic efficiency) leads to different optimal working conditions in terms of evaporating temperature. Maximum power generation in the near-critical conditions of subcritical ORC is the highest. The choice of the working fluid can greatly affect the objective function which is a measure of power plant cost. Ethanol exhibits a minimum objective function but not necessarily the maximum cycle efficiency.

  10. Estimating the physicochemical properties of polyhalogenated aromatic and aliphatic compounds using UPPER: part 1. Boiling point and melting point.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) model uses enthalpic and entropic parameters to estimate 20 biologically relevant properties of organic compounds. The model has been validated by Lian and Yalkowsky on a data set of 700 hydrocarbons. The aim of this work is to expand the UPPER model to estimate the boiling and melting points of polyhalogenated compounds. In this work, 19 new group descriptors are defined and used to predict the transition temperatures of an additional 1288 compounds. The boiling points of 808 and the melting points of 742 polyhalogenated compounds are predicted with average absolute errors of 13.56 K and 25.85 K, respectively. PMID:25022475

  11. Characterizing preferential groundwater discharge through boils using temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Doornenbal, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    In The Netherlands, preferential groundwater discharge trough boils is a key process in the salinization of deep polders. Previous work showed that boils also influence the temperature in the subsurface and of surface water. This paper elaborates on this process combining field observations with numerical modeling. As is the case for salinity, a distinct anomaly in the subsurface and surface water temperature can be attributed to boils. Lines of equal temperature are distorted towards the boil, which can be considered as an upconing of the temperature profile by analogy of the upconing of a fresh-saltwater interface. The zone of this distortion is limited to the immediate vicinity of the boil, being about 5 m in the aquitard which holds the boil's conduit, or maximum a few dozens of meters in the underlying aquifer. In the aquitard, heat transport is conduction dominated whereas this is convection dominated in the aquifer. The temperature anomaly differs from the salinity anomaly by the smaller radius of influence and faster time to reach a new steady-state of the former. Boils discharge water with a temperature equal to the mean groundwater temperature. This influences the yearly and diurnal variation of ditch water temperature in the immediate vicinity of the boil importantly but also the temperature in the downstream direction. Temporary nature of the boil (e.g. stability of the conduit, discharge rate), uncertainty on the 3D construction of the conduit and heterogeneity of the subsoil make it unlikely that temperature measurements can be interpreted further than a qualitative level.

  12. Measurement of the absolute Quantum Efficiency of Hamamatsu model R11410-10 photomultiplier tubes at low temperatures down to liquid xenon boiling point

    E-print Network

    Lyashenko, Alexey; Snyder, Adam; Wang, Hanguo; Arisaka, Katsushi

    2014-01-01

    We report on the measurements of the absolute Quantum Efficiency(QE) for Hamamatsu model R11410-10 PMTs specially designed for the use in low background liquid xenon detectors. QE was measured for five PMTs in a spectral range between 154.5 nm to 400 nm at low temperatures down to -110$^0$C. It was shown that during the PMT cooldown from room temperature to -110 $^0$C (a typical PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors), the absolute QE increases by a factor of 1.1 - 1.15 at 175 nm. The QE growth rate with respect to temperature is wavelength dependent peaking at about 165 nm corresponding to the fastest growth of about -0.07 %QE/$^{0}C$ and at about 200 nm corresponding to slowest growth of below -0.01 %QE/$^{0}C$. A dedicated setup and methods for PMT Quantum Efficiency measurement at low temperatures are described in details.

  13. Measurement of the absolute Quantum Efficiency of Hamamatsu model R11410-10 photomultiplier tubes at low temperatures down to liquid xenon boiling point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyashenko, A.; Nguyen, T.; Snyder, A.; Wang, H.; Arisaka, K.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the measurements of the absolute Quantum Efficiency(QE) for Hamamatsu model R11410-10 PMTs specially designed for the use in low background liquid xenon detectors. QE was measured for five PMTs in a spectral range between 154.5 nm to 400 nm at low temperatures down to -110°C. It was shown that during the PMT cooldown from room temperature to -110°C (a typical PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors), the absolute QE increases by a factor of 1.1-1.15 at 175 nm. The QE growth rate with respect to temperature is wavelength dependent peaking at about 165 nm corresponding to the fastest growth of about -0.07%QE/°C and at about 200 nm corresponding to slowest growth of below -0.01%QE/°C. A dedicated setup and methods for PMT Quantum Efficiency measurement at low temperatures are described in details.

  14. Teaching Structure-Property Relationships: Investigating Molecular Structure and Boiling Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    A concise, well-organized table of the boiling points of 392 organic compounds has facilitated inquiry-based instruction in multiple scientific principles. Many individual or group learning activities can be derived from the tabulated data of molecular structure and boiling point based on the instructor's education objectives and the students'…

  15. The Gibbs Energy Basis and Construction of Boiling Point Diagrams in Binary Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Norman O.

    2004-01-01

    An illustration of how excess Gibbs energies of the components in binary systems can be used to construct boiling point diagrams is given. The underlying causes of the various types of behavior of the systems in terms of intermolecular forces and the method of calculating the coexisting liquid and vapor compositions in boiling point diagrams with…

  16. The accommodation coefficient of the liquid at temperatures below the boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulba, Elena E.

    2015-01-01

    Are carried out experimental investigation of the laws of vaporization at temperatures below the boiling point. Is determined the mass rate of evaporation of distilled water in large intervals of time at different temperatures in order to sound conclusions about the stationarity of the process of evaporation of the liquid in the conditions of the experiments performed, and also studied the effect of temperature on the rate of evaporation. Accommodation coefficient is defined in the mathematical expression of the law of Hertz-Knudsen for standart substance used in the experiments.

  17. Rapid thermogravimetric measurements of boiling points and vapor pressure of saturated medium- and long-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

    2002-08-01

    In developing compositional models for biomass-based diesel fuel extenders, volatility properties of medium- and long-chain saturated triglycerides are essential to predict the impact of low levels of these compounds in mixtures with short-chain triglycerides. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method for rapid measurement of boiling points and vapor pressure was used to obtain data for four pure medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Normal boiling points at 1 atm and the temperature dependence of vapor pressure from 760 mm down to 25 mm Hg were obtained for trilaurin (C12:0), trimyristin (C14:0), tripalmitin (C16:0), and tristearin (C18:0). The data showed good agreement with the Clausius-Clapeyron model for temperature dependence of vapor pressure up to 1 atm pressure. The results of this study were consistent with those obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and with data previously reported for reduced pressure. PMID:12137273

  18. Boiling point determination using adiabatic Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations: Application to metals described by embedded-atom potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelb, Lev D.; Chakraborty, Somendra Nath

    2011-12-01

    The normal boiling points are obtained for a series of metals as described by the "quantum-corrected Sutton Chen" (qSC) potentials [S.-N. Luo, T. J. Ahrens, T. Ça??n, A. Strachan, W. A. Goddard III, and D. C. Swift, Phys. Rev. B 68, 134206 (2003)]. Instead of conventional Monte Carlo simulations in an isothermal or expanded ensemble, simulations were done in the constant-NPH adabatic variant of the Gibbs ensemble technique as proposed by Kristóf and Liszi [Chem. Phys. Lett. 261, 620 (1996)]. This simulation technique is shown to be a precise tool for direct calculation of boiling temperatures in high-boiling fluids, with results that are almost completely insensitive to system size or other arbitrary parameters as long as the potential truncation is handled correctly. Results obtained were validated using conventional NVT-Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The qSC predictions for boiling temperatures are found to be reasonably accurate, but substantially underestimate the enthalpies of vaporization in all cases. This appears to be largely due to the systematic overestimation of dimer binding energies by this family of potentials, which leads to an unsatisfactory description of the vapor phase.

  19. What Is the Boiling Point and Heat of Vaporization of Sulfuric Acid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the values presented in various handbooks for the boiling point and heat of vaporization of sulfuric acid, noting discrepencies. Analyzes various approaches to data presentation, discussing the data on sulfuric acid in light of the Trouton constant. Points out the need for a more critical use of tables. (JM)

  20. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.; Carr, John A.; Chen, Yuqing; Bose, Sayantan; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dependences between the boiling point of binary aqueous-organic mixtures and their composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preobrazhenskii, M. P.; Rudakov, O. B.

    2015-01-01

    The optimum three-parametric regression basis set that reflects the properties of permutation symmetry and takes into account the specificity of isobars of aqueous-organic mixtures is constructed. The optimum algorithm for the calculation of the regression parameters of the boiling point isobars is proposed. The parameters are calculated for a series of systems. The accuracy of the method proposed for the regression description of the dependence of the boiling point of binary aqueous-organic mixtures on the composition is determined by empirical inaccuracies and is sufficient for the most part of practical applications. Methods for increasing the accuracy of the regression description of equilibrium homogeneous systems are formulated.

  2. Evaluation on environment-friendly refrigerants with similar normal boiling points in ejector refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Shen, S. Q.; Li, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the "hypothetical throat area" theory and the "constant-pressure mixing" theory, a thermodynamic model for ejector was set up by introducing the real properties of refrigerants. Refrigerants which have similar normal boiling points with each other may act as replacement to each other in substitute progress. In this paper, eight environment-friendly refrigerants were divided into 4 pairs for study according to their normal boiling point. In each refrigerant pair, the entrainment ratios of ejector, system COP, pump power et al. of refrigerants were compared and analyzed. Lastly, the performances of the transcritical and subcritical ejector refrigeration cycles with propylene were calculated and compared.

  3. Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors 

    E-print Network

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Novel Thin...

  4. Emplacement temperatures of boiling-over pyroclastic density currents from Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, E. L.; Geist, D.; Geissman, J. W.; Harpp, K. S.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDC) can be sourced by collapsing columns, dome collapse, and boiling-over fountains. Although there are innumerable studies of the deposits produced by the first 2 mechanisms, pyroclastic deposits from boiling-over have not been well characterized. We are studying several pyroclastic flow deposits from two boiling over eruptions in Ecuador, Tungurahua, 2006 and Cotopaxi, 1877. These eruptions produced abundant cauliflower-textured, large (up to 1 m in diameter), fragile scoria clasts. Some evidence points to relatively low temperatures during transport. For example, some flows at Cotopaxi are unusually long and sinuous and probably influenced by melt water from the glacier that caps the cone. Additionally, un-charred vegetation and eyewitness reports of un-melted plastic in the path of pyroclastic flows at Tungurahua also support cool emplacement temperatures. On the other hand, some scoria clasts were ductile when deposited as evidenced by draped clasts. We cut 5 to 9 cm transects from rim to core of 36 lithic and juvenile samples, which were then thermally demagnetized and measured. Lithic samples from Tungurahua indicate only one flow was fully remagnetized above ~580°C, while another flow was only partially remagnetized below 210°C. All other lithics from both volcanoes were never heated to above 90°C. Juvenile clasts from Cotopaxi indicate three types of flows: currents that begin hot (above 580°C) but cool quickly (juveniles emplaced hot, but lithics emplaced cold); currents that deposit at ~330°C (two components of magnetization that intersect at 330°C in the juvenile clasts), and cold currents such as lahars. The majority of currents from Tungurahua are of the 2nd type, having emplacement temperatures of ~380°C-280°C, with the deformable juvenile clasts being hotter than the rest of the flow. Despite the intact nature of the fragile bombs, emplacement temperatures indicate that the majority of flow deposits at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi were emplaced at temperatures between 210°C and 380°C. The presence of abundant scoria bombs in other PDC deposits are likely indicative of flow and deposition at relatively low temperatures in currents produced by a boiling-over mechanism.

  5. 2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy of fossil-fuel energy systems. These scenarios are analysed for various environmental and health impacts from fossil fuels and other energy sources reported by IEA []. In all of these countries except Kenya

  6. Explaining Melting and Evaporation below Boiling Point. Can Software Help with Particle Ideas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, George; Johnson, Philip; Fotiades, Fotis

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study exploring the use of a software package to help pupils understand particulate explanations for melting and evaporation below boiling point. Two matched classes in a primary school in Greece (ages 11-12, n = 16 and 19) were involved in a short intervention of six one hour lessons. Covering the same…

  7. Students' Understanding of Boiling Points and Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Kaufmann, Birgit; Treagust, David F.

    2009-01-01

    In introductory chemistry courses students are presented with the model that matter is composed of particles, and that weak forces of attraction exist between them. This model is used to interpret phenomena such as solubility and melting points, and aids in understanding the changes in states of matter as opposed to chemical reactions. We…

  8. Study of the depression of incipient boiling temperature and the enhancement of critical heat flux induced by ultrasonic wave on horizontal plate facing upward and downward

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Koizumi, Yasuo

    1999-07-01

    The effects of an ultrasonic wave on nucleate-boiling heat transfer, focusing on depression of the incipient boiling temperature and enhancement of the critical heat flux (CHF) on horizontal plate facing upward and downward, were examined. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin film and saturated R-113 liquid for a pool condition at 0.10 MPa. The incipient boiling temperature was depressed by the ultrasonic wave incidence up to 10K in reheating experiments where the heat transfer surface had been immersed in the liquid following the previous boiling experiment. On the other hand, it was minimally affected when the boiling experiment started immediately after the test surface was immersed into the liquid. These results were considered to be related to the number of active nucleation sites available. The decrease of the incipient boiling temperature as the power of the ultrasonic wave was increased, however, did not depend on the frequency. It was pointed out that the depression of the incipient boiling temperature was caused by the local pressure increase caused by the ultrasonic wave incidence. The CHF was increased by the ultrasonic wave incidence up to a factor of five and increased by the ultrasonic wave incidence up to a factor of five and increased with the power of the ultrasonic wave. The enhancement of the CHF was caused by acoustic flow near the heating surface: the coalesce bubble on the heating surface was collapsed by the acoustic flow.

  9. Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water

    E-print Network

    Hu, Lin-Wen

    In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

  10. Experimental study of flash boiling spray vaporization through quantitative vapor concentration and liquid temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaoming; Hung, David L. S.; Xu, Min

    2014-08-01

    Flash boiling sprays of liquid injection under superheated conditions provide the novel solutions of fast vaporization and better air-fuel mixture formation for internal combustion engines. However, the physical mechanisms of flash boiling spray vaporization are more complicated than the droplet surface vaporization due to the unique bubble generation and boiling process inside a superheated bulk liquid, which are not well understood. In this study, the vaporization of flash boiling sprays was investigated experimentally through the quantitative measurements of vapor concentration and liquid temperature. Specifically, the laser-induced exciplex fluorescence technique was applied to distinguish the liquid and vapor distributions. Quantitative vapor concentration was obtained by correlating the intensity of vapor-phase fluorescence with vapor concentration through systematic corrections and calibrations. The intensities of two wavelengths were captured simultaneously from the liquid-phase fluorescence spectra, and their intensity ratios were correlated with liquid temperature. The results show that both liquid and vapor phase of multi-hole sprays collapse toward the centerline of the spray with different mass distributions under the flash boiling conditions. Large amount of vapor aggregates along the centerline of the spray to form a "gas jet" structure, whereas the liquid distributes more uniformly with large vortexes formed in the vicinity of the spray tip. The vaporization process under the flash boiling condition is greatly enhanced due to the intense bubble generation and burst. The liquid temperature measurements show strong temperature variations inside the flash boiling sprays with hot zones present in the "gas jet" structure and vortex region. In addition, high vapor concentration and closed vortex motion seem to have inhibited the heat and mass transfer in these regions. In summary, the vapor concentration and liquid temperature provide detailed information concerning the heat and mass transfer inside flash boiling sprays, which is important for the understanding of its unique vaporization process.

  11. Boiling Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    The author recounts his experiences he helped to investigate the accident which destroyed the Space Shuttle Challenger. The focus was on how he used novel approaches to investigate heat transfer in the shuttle's hydrogen tank, after an expert he sought for advice proved unhelpful.

  12. Net vapor generation point in boiling flow of trichlorotrifluoroethane at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougall, R. S.; Lippert, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions at which the void in subcooled boiling starts to undergo a rapid increase were studied experimentally. The experiments were performed in a 12.7 x 9.5 mm rectangular channel. Heating was from a 3.2 mm wide strip embedded in one wall. The pressure ranged from 9.45 to 20.7 bar, mass velocity from 600 to 7000 kg/sq m sec, and subcooling from 16 to 67 C. Photographs were used to determine when detached bubbles first appeared in the bulk flow. Measurements of bubble layer thickness along the wall were also made. Results showed that the point of net vapor generation is close to the occurrence of fully-developed boiling.

  13. Boiling Lake of Dominica, West Indies: High-temperature volcanic crater lake dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Witham, F.; Moreau-Fournier, M.; Bardou, L.

    2009-02-01

    The Boiling Lake of Dominica has exhibited stable high-temperature behavior for at least 150 a. This stability is punctuated by occasional crises involving rapid filling and draining of the lake and changes in water temperature. The most recent such crisis occurred in December 2004 to April 2005. Using the results of previous theoretical and experimental work on analogue models, we present a combined thermal, hydrological, and fluid mechanical model of the Boiling Lake. This reveals that the lake appears to be suspended above the local water table by a constant supply of rising steam bubbles sourced from the boiling of groundwater near an igneous intrusion. The bubbles condense in the Boiling Lake, maintaining the temperature at ˜90°C. The geometry of the lake-conduit system provides a mechanism for instability, with a denser liquid lake overlying a bubbly fractured permeable conduit. Following a sufficiently large perturbation, the whole lake rapidly drains until the surface is at the local water table level. The persistent gas supply then reinitiates filling. We propose that local seismic activity may have caused shock nucleation of bubbles within the conduit and triggered the instability of the Boiling Lake.

  14. Morphological control in polymer solar cells using low-boiling-point solvent additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.

    In the global search for clean, renewable energy sources, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have recently been given much attention. Popular modern-day OPVs are made from solution-processible, carbon-based polymers (e.g. the model poly(3-hexylthiophene) that are intimately blended with fullerene derivatives (e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) to form what is known as the dispersed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ). This BHJ architecture has produced some of the most efficient OPVs to date, with reports closing in on 10% power conversion efficiency. To push efficiencies further into double digits, many groups have identified the BHJ nanomorphology---that is, the phase separations and grain sizes within the polymer: fullerene composite---as a key aspect in need of control and improvement. As a result, many methods, including thermal annealing, slow-drying (solvent) annealing, vapor annealing, and solvent additives, have been developed and studied to promote BHJ self-organization. Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in BHJ OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated.

  15. Generalized syntheses of nanocrystal-graphene hybrids in high-boiling-point organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Danny Wei-Ping; Yuan, Fang-Wei; Chang, Yan-Cheng; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Nanocrystal-graphene have been proposed as a new kind of promising hybrid for a wide range of application areas including catalysts, electronics, sensors, biomedicine, and energy storage, etc. Although a variety of methods have been developed for the preparation of hybrids, a facile and general synthetic approach is still highly required. In this study, nanocrystal-graphene hybrids were successfully synthesized in high-boiling-point organic solvents. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were modified by oleylamine (OLA) to form a OLA-GO complex in order to be readily incorporated into hydrophobic synthesis. A rich library of highly crystalline nanocrystals, with types including noble metal, metal oxide, magnetic material and semiconductor were successfully grown on chemically converted graphene (CCG), which is simultaneously reduced from GO during the synthesis. High boiling-point solvents afford sufficient thermal energy to assure the high-quality crystalline nature of NCs, therefore the post-annealing process is obviated. Controlled experiments revealed that OLA-GO triggers heterogeneous nucleation and serves as excellent nuclei anchorage media. The protocol developed here brings one step closer to achieve ``unity in diversity'' on the preparation of nanocrystal-graphene hybrids.Nanocrystal-graphene have been proposed as a new kind of promising hybrid for a wide range of application areas including catalysts, electronics, sensors, biomedicine, and energy storage, etc. Although a variety of methods have been developed for the preparation of hybrids, a facile and general synthetic approach is still highly required. In this study, nanocrystal-graphene hybrids were successfully synthesized in high-boiling-point organic solvents. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were modified by oleylamine (OLA) to form a OLA-GO complex in order to be readily incorporated into hydrophobic synthesis. A rich library of highly crystalline nanocrystals, with types including noble metal, metal oxide, magnetic material and semiconductor were successfully grown on chemically converted graphene (CCG), which is simultaneously reduced from GO during the synthesis. High boiling-point solvents afford sufficient thermal energy to assure the high-quality crystalline nature of NCs, therefore the post-annealing process is obviated. Controlled experiments revealed that OLA-GO triggers heterogeneous nucleation and serves as excellent nuclei anchorage media. The protocol developed here brings one step closer to achieve ``unity in diversity'' on the preparation of nanocrystal-graphene hybrids. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: detail of experimental parameters, AFM, FTIR, XRD, XPS spectra, and other TEM images of GO, CCG and NC-CCG. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30915g

  16. Homochirality beyond grinding: deracemizing chiral crystals by temperature gradient under boiling.

    PubMed

    Viedma, Cristóbal; Cintas, Pedro

    2011-12-28

    A single-chirality solid phase can be obtained in boiling solutions containing a racemic mixture of left- and right-handed enantiomorphous crystals due to dissolution-crystallization cycles induced by a temperature gradient. This phenomenon provides further insights into asymmetric amplification mechanisms under presumably prebiotic conditions. PMID:22053323

  17. Change points of global temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Niamh; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    We aim to address the question of whether or not there is a significant recent ‘hiatus’, ‘pause’ or ‘slowdown’ of global temperature rise. Using a statistical technique known as change point (CP) analysis we identify the changes in four global temperature records and estimate the rates of temperature rise before and after these changes occur. For each record the results indicate that three CPs are enough to accurately capture the variability in the data with no evidence of any detectable change in the global warming trend since ?1970. We conclude that the term ‘hiatus’ or ‘pause’ cannot be statistically justified.

  18. Superconducting state above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen in the GaH3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcz??niak, R.; Durajski, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of the superconducting state in the GaH3 compound under a pressure of 120 GPa have been determined. A wide range of Coulomb pseudopotential values has been taken into account: ???<0.1,0.2>. It has been shown that, for the considered values of ??, the superconducting state is characterized by a critical temperature which is higher than the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen: TC?(122.99,89.78) K. Other parameters significantly deviate from the predictions of BCS theory. In particular, the ratio of the energy gap to the critical temperature (R? ? 2?(0)/kBTC) changes in the range from 4.15 to 4.03. The ratio of the specific heat jump to the specific heat in the normal state (RC ? ?C(TC)/CN(TC)) takes values from 1.87 to 1.58. The parameter {R}_{{H}}\\equiv {T}_{{C}}{C}^{{N}}({T}_{{C}})/{H}_{{C}}^{2}(0), where HC is the thermodynamic critical field, is characterized in the following manner: RH?<0.147,0.150>. Finally, it has been proven that the maximum value of the electron effective mass ({m}_{{e}}^{\\star }) equals 2.66me, where the symbol me denotes the electron band mass.

  19. Experimental pool boiling investigation of FC-72 on silicon with artificial cavities, integrated temperature micro-sensors and heater 

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Today nucleate boiling is widely used in numerous industrial applications such as cooling processes because of the high achieved heat transfer rates for low temperature differences. It remains a possible cooling solution ...

  20. Experimental Research on Dryout Point of Flow Boiling in Narrow Annuli

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Ping Wu; Sui Zheng Qiu; Guang Hai Su; Dou Nan Jia

    2006-07-01

    An experimental research on the dryout point of flow boiling in narrow annuli is conducted under low mass flux with 1.5 mm and 1.0 mm gap, respectively. Distilled water is used as work fluid, the range of pressure is from 2.0 to 4.0 MPa and that of mass flux is 26.0{approx}69.0 kg/(m{sup 2}. s). The relation of CHF and critical qualities with mass flux and pressure are revealed. It is found that the critical qualities decrease with the mass flux and increase with the inlet qualities in externally heated annuli. Under the same conditions critical qualities in outer tube are always larger than that in inner tube. KyTaTeLaDe3e's correlations is cited and modified to predict the location of dryout and proved to be not a proper one. Considering in detail the effects of the geometry of annuli and heat flux on dryout, an empirical correction is finally developed to predict dryout point in narrow annuli under low mass flux condition which has a good agreement with experimental data. (authors)

  1. Wettability influence on the onset temperature of pool boiling: Experimental evidence onto ultra-smooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, B; Bertrand, E; Di Marco, P; Marengo, M; Rioboo, R; De Coninck, J

    2015-07-01

    In this article we study systematically the effect of wettability on the onset of boiling on the same nanometrically smooth surface. By grafting different monolayers of molecules, we were able to explore the wettability from the equilibrium static contact angle, ?0=0° to ?0=110°, without changing the surface topography. The superheat temperature at the onset of pool boiling was measured and eventually a non-classical trend of TONB as a function of wettability was observed. The nucleation site densities for the different grafting cases were also measured by image analysis. Moreover, we propose a novel theoretical interpretation to this phenomenon linking nucleation and the molecular diffusion coefficient. MD simulation results support this approach. PMID:25952077

  2. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  3. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM); Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  4. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose. PMID:17507215

  5. Chemical characterization and genotoxic potential related to boiling point for fractionally distilled SRC-I coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes selected research efforts oriented toward ameliorating the genotoxic potential of direct coal liquefaction materials through modification or optimization of process conditions. The studies described were conducted to evaluate the utility of optimized distillation for coal liquids from the SRC-I process. SRC-I process solvent was distilled into 50/sup 0/F-range boiling point (bp) cuts. Analysis of amino-PAH (APAH) showed that mutagenic APAHs containing 3 or more rings were found primarily in fractions boiling above 750/sup 0/F. Three microbial tester strains were used to screen for genetically active agents in the SRC-I distillate bp cuts. Reverse mutation with the Ames tester strain TA98 demonstrated that mutagens were concentrated in the bp cuts boiling above 700/sup 0/F. For this tester strain most of the genetic activity in these distillates was attributable to chemical fractions enriched in APAH having 3 or more rings. Mutagenicity data obtained with TA98 was in good agreement with sk in carcinogenesis results from the mouse-skin initiation/promotion (in vivo) test system. The strongest response in the forward mutation assay did not occur in the most carcinogenically active fractions. Results of initiation/promotion experiments used to measure the relative potency of bp cuts as initiators of mouse skin carcinogenesis again showed that fractions boiling above 750/sup 0/F. Compounds reaching their highest concentrations in the highest boiling and most carcinogenically active cut included known carcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene and dimethyl benzanthracene. Thus, all biomedical test results indicate that consideration should be given to conducting distillation so as to minimize, in the distillate product, the concentrations of those biologically active compounds found in cuts boiling above 700/sup 0/C.

  6. A Closer Look at Trends in Boiling Points of Hydrides: Using an Inquiry-Based Approach to Teach Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazier, Samantha; Marano, Nadia; Eisen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We describe how we use boiling-point trends of group IV-VII hydrides to introduce intermolecular forces in our first-year general chemistry classes. Starting with the idea that molecules in the liquid state are held together by some kind of force that must be overcome for boiling to take place, students use data analysis and critical reasoning to…

  7. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-07-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. PMID:25863200

  8. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164?178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87–80?°C) and Site B (79?°C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (p?=36.1%), Aeropyrum (p?=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (p?=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (p?=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (p?=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ‘Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82?°C (p?=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23235293

  9. Time and Space Resolved Wall Temperature Measurements during Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work is to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleate bubbles on a constant heat flux surface. This was performed using a microheater array with 100 micron resolution that allowed effectively simultaneous measurements of surface temperature while supplying a constant dissipative heat flux. This data is then correlated with high speed (> 1000Hz) visual recordings of the bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that a significant source of energy during bubble nucleation and initial growth is the superheated layer around the bubble. Bubble coalescence was not observed to decrease surface temperature as significantly as bubble departure from the surface. Since bubble departure is typically followed by a sharp increase in the heater surface temperature, it is surmised that the departing bubble effectively removes the superheated layer, allowing a high local heat transfer rate with the bulk fluid through transient conduction/micro-convection during rewetting.

  10. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-04-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164 178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87-80 °C) and Site B (79 °C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (\\[pmacr]=36.1%), Aeropyrum (\\[pmacr]=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (\\[pmacr]=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (\\[pmacr]=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (\\[pmacr]=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82 °C (\\[pmacr]=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23235293

  11. Non-linear dynamical analyses of transient surface temperature fluctuations during subcooled pool boiling on a horizontal disk

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    excellent high frequency response [16] due to its low thermal inertia. Theycan be fabricated is obtained at each steady state condition to generate the boiling curve. The fraction of false, the minimal thermal inertia and small feature size leads to a reduced distortion of the temperature

  12. Impact of different wort boiling temperatures on the beer foam stabilizing properties of lipid transfer protein 1.

    PubMed

    Van Nierop, Sandra N E; Evans, David E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2004-05-19

    Beer consumers demand satisfactory and consistent foam stability; thus, it is a high priority for brewers. Beer foam is stabilized by the interaction between certain beer proteins, including lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1), and isomerized hop alpha-acids, but destabilized by lipids. In this study it was shown that the wort boiling temperature during the brewing process was critical in determining the final beer LTP1 content and conformation. LTP1 levels during brewing were measured by an LTP1 ELISA, using antinative barley LTP1 polyclonal antibodies. It was observed that the higher wort boiling temperatures ( approximately 102 degrees C), resulting from low altitude at sea level, reduced the final beer LTP1 level to 2-3 microg/mL, whereas the lower wort boiling temperatures ( approximately 96 degrees C), resulting from higher altitudes (1800 m), produced LTP1 levels between 17 and 35 microg/mL. Low levels of LTP1 in combination with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFA) resulted in poor foam stability, whereas beer produced with low levels of LTP1 and FFA had satisfactory foam stability. Previous studies indicated the need for LTP1 denaturing to improve its foam stabilizing properties. However, the results presented here show that LTP1 denaturation reduces its ability to act as a binding protein for foam-damaging FFA. These investigations suggest that wort boiling temperature is an important factor in determining the level and conformation of LTP1, thereby favoring satisfactory beer foam stability. PMID:15137863

  13. Low Temperature Regenerators for Zero Boil-Off Liquid Hydrogen Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kashani, Ali; Helvensteijn, Ben; Kittel, Peter; Arnoldm James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on zero boil-off (ZBO) propellant storage as a means of minimizing the launch mass required for long-term exploration missions. A key component of ZBO systems is the cooler. Pulse tube coolers offer the advantage of zero moving mass at the cold head, and recent advances in lightweight, high efficiency cooler technology have paved the way for reliable liquid oxygen (LOx) temperature coolers to be developed which are suitable for flight ZBO systems. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) systems, however, are another matter. For ZBO liquid hydrogen systems, cooling powers of 1-5 watts are required at 20 K. The final development from tier for these coolers is to achieve high efficiency and reliability at lower operating temperatures. Most of the life-limiting issues of flight Stirling and pulse tube coolers are associated with contamination, drive mechanisms, and drive electronics. These problems are well in hand in the present generation coolers. The remaining efficiency and reliability issues reside with the low temperature regenerators. This paper will discuss advances to be made in regenerators for pulse tube LH2 ZBO coolers, present some historical background, and discuss recent progress in regenerator technology development using alloys of erbium.

  14. POINT 2009: A Temperature Dependent

    E-print Network

    Cullen, Red

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, retired 1466 Hudson Way Livermore, CA 94550 Tel.: 925-443-1911 E: A Temperature Dependent ENDF/B-VII.0 Cross Section Library by Dermott E. Cullen Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, retired 1466 Hudson Way Livermore, CA 94550 Tel.: 925-443-1911 E. Mail: redcullen1@comcast

  15. Determination of the Latent Heats and Triple Point of Perfluorocyclobutane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. G.; Strachan, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Proposes the use of Perfluorocyclobutane in physical chemistry courses to conduct experiments on latent heat, triple point temperatures and pressures, boiling points, and entropy of vaporization. (SL)

  16. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, William F. (Crest Hill, IL); Winiecki, Alan L. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  17. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  18. High flux film and transition boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, L.C.

    1993-02-01

    An investigation was conducted on the potential for altering the boiling curve through effects of high velocity and high subcooling. Experiments using water and Freon-113 flowing over cylindrical electrical heaters in crossflow were made to see how velocity and subcooling affect the boiling curve, especially the film and transition boiling regions. We sought subcooling levels down to near the freezing points of these two liquids to prove the concept that the critical heat flux and the minimum heat flux could be brought together, thereby averting the transition region altogether. Another emphasis was to gain insight into how the various boiling regions could be represented mathematically on various parts of heating surface. Motivation for the research grew out of a realization that the effects of very high subcooling and velocity might be to avert the transition boiling altogether so that the unstable part of the boiling curve would not limit the application of high flux devices to temperatures less than the burnout temperatures. Summaries of results from the study are described. It shows that the potential for averting, the transition region is good, and points the way to further research that is needed to demonstrate the potential.

  19. Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CH[subscript w]F[subscript x]Cl[subscript y]Br[subscript z

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2005-01-01

    A study to present specific hypothesis that satisfactorily explain the boiling point of a number of molecules, CH[subscript w]F[subscript x]Cl[subscript y]Br[subscript z] having similar structure, and then analyze the model with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR), a data analysis tool. The MLR analysis was useful in selecting the…

  20. Boiling radial flow in fractures of varying wall porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, Robb Allan

    2000-06-01

    The focus of this report is the coupling of conductive heat transfer and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed differences in boiling regimes and behavior, and attempted to quantify a boiling convection coefficient. The experimental study involved boiling radial flow in a simulated fracture, bounded by a variety of materials. Nonporous and impermeable aluminum, highly porous and permeable Berea sandstone, and minimally porous and permeable graywacke from The Geysers geothermal field. On nonporous surfaces, the heat flux was not strongly coupled to injection rate into the fracture. However, for porous surfaces, heat flux, and associated values of excess temperature and a boiling convection coefficient exhibited variation with injection rate. Nucleation was shown to occur not upon the visible surface of porous materials, but a distance below the surface, within the matrix. The depth of boiling was a function of injection rate, thermal power supplied to the fracture, and the porosity and permeability of the rock. Although matrix boiling beyond fracture wall may apply only to a finite radius around the point of injection, higher values of heat flux and a boiling convection coefficient may be realized with boiling in a porous, rather than nonporous surface bounded fracture.

  1. To boil or not to boil -- A study of bubble embryo dormancy limits

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Dominguez, I.R.; McDonald, T.W.

    1997-12-31

    In the literature, particularly for refrigerants, experimental studies on the superheat required to initiate nucleate boiling tend to be widely scattered, not only among investigators but even for repeated tests by the same investigator. This study provides an explanation of why this occurs and how to avoid such scatter in future tests. With few exceptions, only re-entrant surface cavities are capable of containing dormant vapor bubble embryos. These dormant embryos are essential to initiate nucleate boiling from a cavity. The temperature (wall superheat) range over which an embryo is stable depends upon the cavity shape, neck size, and the fluid surface tension and thermal properties. Above the upper wall-superheat limit, nucleate boiling occurs. Below the lower limit, the embryo will quench (vanish) and cannot be reactivated by increasing the wall superheat. This study makes the following points, for a given cavity shape, fluid, and pressure (1) The larger the cavity neck radius, the smaller the wall-superheat range over which an embryo can exist. (2) Upon cooling any surface, the boiling cavity with the smallest neck radius will be the first to stop boiling but will require the greatest reduction in wall superheat to quench its embryo. (3) Each site that retains a (dormant) vapor embryo will resume boiling at the same wall-superheat at which it ceased boiling. (4) Small cavities can have a shape such that their vapor embryos will always exist, regardless of the wall temperature. Boiling can always be reinitiated from them. (5) Any wall subject to boiling has a memory. The greater the past wall-subcooling, the greater will be the wall-superheat required to initiate boiling. (6) The wall memory can be erased with sufficient wall-superheat and the presence of vapor.

  2. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  3. Application of adjustment calculus in the nodeless Trefftz method for a problem of two-dimensional temperature field of the boiling liquid flowing in a minichannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho?ejowska, Sylwia; Maciejewska, Beata; Ho?ejowski, Leszek

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72) enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.

  4. Pyrosequencing reveals high-temperature cellulolytic microbial consortia in Great Boiling Spring after in situ lignocellulose enrichment.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Joseph P; Cole, Jessica K; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Fisher, Jenny C; Moser, Duane P; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags) from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture. PMID:23555835

  5. Pyrosequencing Reveals High-Temperature Cellulolytic Microbial Consortia in Great Boiling Spring after In Situ Lignocellulose Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Joseph P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Fisher, Jenny C.; Moser, Duane P.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags) from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture. PMID:23555835

  6. Effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 ?g/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 ?g/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures. PMID:25285502

  7. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 ?L sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 ?L sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 ?g/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ? 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ? 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. PMID:24997514

  8. The boiling Twente Taylor-Couette (BTTC) facility: Temperature controlled turbulent flow between independently rotating, coaxial cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Bruggert, Gert-Wim H.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2015-06-01

    A new Taylor-Couette system has been designed and constructed with precise temperature control. Two concentric independently rotating cylinders are able to rotate at maximum rates of fi = ± 20 Hz for the inner cylinder and fo = ± 10 Hz for the outer cylinder. The inner cylinder has an outside radius of ri = 75 mm, and the outer cylinder has an inside radius of ro = 105 mm, resulting in a gap of d = 30 mm. The height of the gap is L = 549 mm, giving a volume of V = 9.3 L. The geometric parameters are ? = ri/ro = 0.714 and ? = L/d = 18.3. With water as working fluid at room temperature, the Reynolds numbers that can be achieved are Rei = ?iri(ro - ri)/? = 2.8 × 105 and Reo = ?oro(ro - ri)/? = 2 × 105 or a combined Reynolds number of up to Re = (?iri - ?oro)(ro - ri)/? = 4.8 × 105. If the working fluid is changed to the fluorinated liquid FC-3284 with kinematic viscosity 0.42 cSt, the combined Reynolds number can reach Re = 1.1 × 106. The apparatus features precise temperature control of the outer and inner cylinders separately and is fully optically accessible from the side and top. The new facility offers the possibility to accurately study the process of boiling inside a turbulent flow and its effect on the flow.

  9. Boiling liquid cauldron status report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1980-12-28

    The progress made over the past year in assessing the feasibility of the high-temperature, boiling cauldron blanket concept for the tanden mirror reactor is reviewed. The status of the proposed experiments and recently revised estimates of the vapor void fraction in the boiling pool are discussed.

  10. Subcooled forced convection boiling of trichlorotrifluoroethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougall, R. S.; Panian, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental heat-transfer data were obtained for the forced-convection boiling of trichlorotrifluoroethane (R-113 or Freon-113) in a vertical annular test annular test section. The 97 data points obtained covered heat transfer by forced convection, local boiling, and fully-developed boiling. Correlating methods were obtained which accurately predicted the heat flux as a function of wall superheat (boiling curve) over the range of parameters studied.

  11. Return to nucleate boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Shumway, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a collection of TMIN (temperature of return to nucleate boiling) correlations, evaluates them under several conditions, and compares them with a wide range of data. Purpose is to obtain the best one for use in a water reactor safety computer simulator known as TRAC-B. Return to nucleate boiling can occur in a reactor accident at either high or low pressure and flow rates. Most of the correlations yield unrealistic results under some conditions. A new correlation is proposed which overcomes many of the deficiencies.

  12. Thermal inactivation of water-borne pathogenic and indicator bacteria at sub-boiling temperatures.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Anthony T; Dunstan, R H; Harrison, T; Coombes, P; Kuczera, G

    2006-03-01

    The use of harvested rainwater in domestic hot water systems can result in optimised environmental and economic benefits to urban water cycle management, however, the water quality and health risks of such a scenario have not been adequately investigated. Thermal inactivation analyses were carried out on eight species of non-spore-forming bacteria in a water medium at temperatures relevant to domestic hot water systems (55-65 degrees C), and susceptibilities to heat stress were compared using D-values. The D-value was defined as the time required to reduce a bacterial population by 90% or 1 log reduction. The results found that both tested strains of Enterococcus faecalis were the most heat resistant of the bacteria studied, followed by the pathogens Shigella sonnei biotype A and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and the non-pathogenic E. coli O3:H6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be less resistant to heat, while Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aeromonas hydrophila displayed minimal heat resistance capacities. At 65 degrees C, little thermal resistance was demonstrated by any species, with log reductions in concentration occurring within seconds. The results of this study suggested that the temperature range from 55 to 65 degrees C was critical for effective elimination of enteric/pathogenic bacterial components and supported the thesis that hot water systems should operate at a minimum of 60 degrees C. PMID:16524613

  13. A novel refrigerator attaining temperature below ? point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan; Xue, XiaoDai; Wang, JunJie; Gu, Chao

    2012-08-01

    The present study proposes a novel refrigerator in theory, which uses 4He as working fluid to directly reach 2.3 K and uses a small amount of 3He to attain the temperature below 1.7 K. The compact and highly efficient new refrigerator works with the Vuilleumier cycle. The novel refrigerator is driven by a thermal compressor which creatively uses mix-refrigerants J-T refrigerator alternative to liquid nitrogen as the power source. Furthermore, the Vuilleumier cycle can be used to achieve temperature below liquid helium with the improvement of the ultra-low temperature regenerator material. A new method of reaching the temperature below 1.7 K is proposed on the regenerative refrigerator, which could be an important breakthrough for the cryogenic science and technology.

  14. Characteristics of Transient Boiling Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Monde, Masanori; Mitsutake, Y.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, one dimensional inverse heat conduction solution is used for a measurement of pool boiling curve. The experiments are performed under atmospheric pressure for copper, brass, carbon steel and gold. Boiling curves, including unsteady transition boiling region, are found can be traced fairly well from a simple experiment system by solving inverse heat conduction solution. Boiling curves for steady heating and transient heating, for heating process and cooling process are compared. Surface behavior around CHF point, transition boiling and film-boiling regions are observed by using a high-speed camera. The results show the practicability of the inverse heat conduction solution in tracing boiling curve and thereby supply us a new way in boiling heat transfer research. (authors)

  15. Carbon dioxide and R410A flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop, and flow pattern in horizontal tubes at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Yong

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been seriously considered as an alternate refrigerant for HCFC and HFC fluids, due to the increasing interest of environmentally safe refrigerants in air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. In this study, CO2 flow boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are measured in macro-scale (6.1 and 3.5 mm) tubes at evaporation temperatures of -15 and -30°C. The measured results show that the nucleate boiling is a main heat transfer mechanism in the 6.1 mm tube and the contribution of convective boiling becomes greater with the decrease of tube diameters and the increase of mass fluxes. The surface roughness of the 6.1 and 3.5 mm tube are presented by SEM and AFM images and surface profiles, and it is shown that the rougher surface of the 6.1 mm tube can affect the flow boiling heat transfer. The CO2 heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are measured in a mini-scale (0.89 mm) multi-ported tube at the evaporation temperature of -30°C. Also, R410A and R22 flow boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop in a macro-scale (6.1 mm) tube were measured, and they are compared with CO2. This comparison presents that the CO2 flow boiling heat transfer coefficients are higher than R410A and R22 at low vapor qualities, and CO2 pressure drop is significantly lower than R410A and R22. This advantageous characteristic for CO2 could be explained by properties such as surface tension, reduced pressure, and the density ratio of liquid to vapor. The prediction of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop was performed by general correlations and the calculation results are compared with measured values. Two-phase flow patterns were visualized for CO2 and R410A in the 6 and 3 mm glass tubes, and they are compared with the Weisman et al. and the Wojtan et al. flow pattern maps. The flow pattern maps can determine the flow patterns relatively well, except the transition from intermittent to annular flow.

  16. Using temperature gradient gas chromatography to determine or predict vapor pressures and linear solvation energy relationship parameters of highly boiling organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, F; Rogalski, M

    2003-02-21

    An isothermal chromatographic method allowing determination of sigmabetaH2 and sigmaalphaH2 descriptors of the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was tested and results obtained are presented. This method is based on the use of four stationary phases of various polarity. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that the temperature gradient chromatography may be successfully used to determine LSER descriptors. Results of piH2, sigmabetaH2 and log L16 determination are reported. This approach opens new possibilities of precise and rapid determination of LSER descriptors of high boiling compounds using a small number of phases. It was demonstrated that the log L16 descriptor may be used to estimate vapor pressures of high boiling organic compounds with a better accuracy than those usually obtained with chromatographic methods. PMID:12647826

  17. Liquid metal boiling inception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabin, C. M.; Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Meckel, P. T.; Cloakey, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of the inception of boiling in potassium in forced convection is reported. The boiler consisted of a 0.19-inch inside diameter, niobium-1% zirconium boiler tube approximately six feet long. Heating was accomplished by direct electrical tube wall conduction. Experiments were performed with both all-liquid fill and two-phase fill startup sequences and with a range of flow rates, saturation temperatures, inert gas levels, and fill liquid temperatures. Superheat of the liquid above the equilibrium saturation temperature was observed in all the experiments. Incipient boiling liquid superheat ranged from a few degrees to several hundred. Comparisons of these data with other data and with several analytical treatments are presented.

  18. Direct impacts of waves on tropical cold point tropopause temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Alexander, M. Joan

    2015-03-01

    Cold point tropopause temperature is a key regulator of cirrus clouds and stratospheric water vapor, which have significant impacts on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Using tropical radiosonde observations, we show that waves in the tropical tropopause layer lower cold point temperature by 1.6 K on average relative to the seasonal mean. Furthermore, wave activity in the tropical tropopause layer has not been constant over the last 2.5 decades, altering the magnitude of the wave impacts on cold point temperature at a decadal scale. The change in the direct wave impact is partially (~20-30%) responsible for the sudden decrease in cold point temperature and stratospheric water vapor at the end of 2000, which has not been fully explained by changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. We further show that these wave impacts are not well represented in reanalysis data.

  19. Transient boiling heat transfer in saturated liquid nitrogen and F113 at standard and zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oker, E.; Merte, H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Transient and steady state nucleate boiling in saturated LN2 and F113 at standard and near zero gravity conditions were investigated for the horizontal up, vertical and horizontal down orientations of the heating surface. Two distinct regimes of heat transfer mechanisms were observed during the interval from the step increase of power input to the onset of nucleate boiling: the conduction and convection dominated regimes. The time duration in each regime was considerably shorter with LN2 than with F113, and decreased as heat flux increased, as gravity was reduced, and as the orientation was changed from horizontal up to horizontal down. In transient boiling, boiling initiates at a single point following the step increase in power, and then spreads over the surface. The delay time for the inception of boiling at the first site, and the velocity of spread of boiling varies depending upon the heat flux, orientation, body force, surface roughness and liquid properties, and are a consequence of changes in boundary layer temperature levels associated with changes in natural convection. Following the step increase in power input, surface temperature overshoot and undershoot occur before the steady state boiling temperature level is established.

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and in vivo circulatory kinetics with low-boiling-point nanoscale phase-change perfluorocarbon agents.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paul S; Rojas, Juan D; Puett, Connor; Hjelmquist, Jordan; Arena, Christopher B; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have explored phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) that can be vaporized by an ultrasonic pulse to form microbubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy. However, few investigations have been published on the utility and characteristics of PCCAs as contrast agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the properties of low-boiling-point nanoscale PCCAs evaluated in vivo and compare data with those for conventional microbubbles with respect to contrast generation and circulation properties. To do this, we develop a custom pulse sequence to vaporize and image PCCAs using the Verasonics research platform and a clinical array transducer. Results indicate that droplets can produce contrast enhancement similar to that of microbubbles (7.29 to 18.24 dB over baseline, depending on formulation) and can be designed to circulate for as much as 3.3 times longer than microbubbles. This study also reports for the first time the ability to capture contrast washout kinetics of the target organ as a measure of vascular perfusion. PMID:25619781

  1. The boiling suppression of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayoshi, S.; Kokuyama, W.; Fukuyama, H.

    2009-05-01

    When He gas is injected from room temperature into boiling liquid N, boiling is suppressed, leaving liquid surface flat like a mirror. Although the qualitative explanation for this phenomenon is known [Minkoff GJ, Scherber FI, Stober AK. Suppression of bubbling in boiling refrigerants. Nature 1957;180(4599):1413-4], it has not been studied quantitatively and comprehensively yet. In this report, we made careful simultaneous measurements of temperature and weight variation of the liquid. The results clearly indicate that the boiling suppression is caused by cooling of the liquid with "internal evaporation" of N into the He bubbles.

  2. Change point analysis of mean annual air temperature in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of change point in the mean of air temperature is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual Air Temperature Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.

  3. Change point detection of the Persian Gulf sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric change point models (CPMs) were applied to detect change point in the annual Persian Gulf sea surface temperature anomalies (PGSSTA) time series for the period 1951-2013. The PGSSTA time series, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series. The pre-whitened PGSSTA time series were utilized as the input file of change point models. Both the applied parametric and nonparametric CPMs estimated the change point in the PGSSTA in 1992. The PGSSTA follow the normal distribution up to 1992 and thereafter, but with a different mean value after year 1992. The estimated slope of linear trend in PGSSTA time series for the period 1951-1992 was negative; however, that was positive after the detected change point. Unlike the PGSSTA, the applied CPMs suggested no change point in the Niño3.4SSTA time series.

  4. Scaling of high heat flux flow boiling flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Castrogiovanni, A.; Sforza, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    The scaling of high heat flux boiling flow systems is examined using a computational technique newly developed by the present authors. The current work is an extension of previously reported two-dimensional scaling technique to include flow development along the axis of a cooling channel. The new approach involves the solution of the energy equation for a pipe flow subjected to a step change in wall heat flux assuming a fully developed turbulent velocity profile at the point of initial heating. A boiling-induced turbulent eddy diffusivity term is used with an adaptive genetic algorithm closure scheme to predict both the transition to, and development of, the partial nucleate boiling regime based on a postulated minimization of the local wall temperature. Examination of the constitutive equations in non-dimensional form in conjunction with the use of previously established fluid-property scaling tools, leads to the development of a scaling procedure. Reasonable similarity between a high heat flux boiling flow system utilizing water, and a lower heat flux boiling flow system using R-12 is demonstrated. A numerical experiment is carried out to illustrate the scaling technique.

  5. Transition boiling heat transfer from a horizontal surface

    E-print Network

    Berenson Paul Jerome

    1960-01-01

    An experiment, utilising a condensing fluid as the heat source, was performed to determine the heat flux vs. temperature difference curve for transition pool boiling from a horisontal surface. The boiling cure was determined ...

  6. Local Heat Transfer and CHF for Subcooled Flow Boiling - Annual Report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald D. Boyd

    2000-07-01

    The physical phenomenon of forced convective boiling is probably one of the most interesting and complex transport phenomena. It has been under study for more than two centuries. Simply stated, forced convective subcooled boiling involves a locally boiling fluid: (1) whose mean temperature is below its saturation temperature, and (2) that flows over a surface exposed uniformly or non-uniformly to a high heat flux (HHF). The objective of this work is to assess and/or improve the present ability to predict local axial heat transfer distributions in the subcooled flow boiling regime for the case of uniformly heated coolant channels. This requires an accurate and complete representation of the boiling curve up to the CHF. The present. results will be useful for both heat transfer research and industrial design applications. Future refinements may result in the application of the results to non-uniformly heated channels or other geometries, and other fluids. Several existing heat transfer models for uniformly heated channels were examined for: (1) accurate representation of the boiling curve, and (2) characterizing the local heat transfer coefficient under high heat flux (HHF) conditions. Comparisons with HHF data showed that major correlation modifications were needed in the subcooled partial nucleate boiling (SPNB) region. Since the slope of boiling curve in this region is important to assure continuity of the HHF trends into the fully developed boiling region and up to the critical heat flux, accurate characterization in the SPNB region is essential. Approximations for the asymptotic limits for the SPNB region have been obtained and have been used to develop an improved composite correlation. The developed correlation has been compared with 363 water data points. For the local heat transfer coefficient and wall temperature, the over-all percent standard deviations with respect to the data were 19% and 3%, respectively, for the high velocity water data.

  7. Alternative Methods of Blackbody Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement Above Silver Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, A.; Sapritsky, V.; Khlevnoy, B.; Gavrilov, V.

    2015-03-01

    Presently, absolute radiometry is the main method of thermodynamic temperature determination above the silver point. The importance of such measurements has increased, as a large international project is underway aimed at assigning thermodynamic temperatures to high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs). All participants are using filter radiometers calibrated against an absolute cryogenic radiometer which, therefore, will be the basis of the provided thermodynamic temperatures of the fixed points. However, such a unified approach may lead to systematic errors (if any) common to all participants. There are methods, providing an alternative to absolute radiometry, which allow the determination of blackbody thermodynamic temperatures using relative measurements. Alternative methods, even if they have lower accuracy than absolute radiometry, could disclose some possible unrecognized systematic errors, or, on the contrary, could confirm the results obtained using absolute radiometry and increase confidence of the thermodynamic temperature determination. One such method, known as the method of ratios (i.e., double wavelength technique), is based on measuring the ratios of fluxes emitted by a blackbody in separate spectral ranges at two temperatures. This approach has been developed at VNIIOFI, but its realization met serious technical difficulties. Modern sensors with improved sensitivity and stability, extremely reproducible HTFP blackbodies, and significant progress in computational methods and computer performance provide a new chance to realize this approach with sufficient accuracy. Another method is based on comparing the ratio of fluxes measured at two wavelengths for a high-temperature blackbody with that measured for synchrotron radiation. This article overviews possibilities of the alternative methods for determination of blackbody thermodynamic temperatures by means of relative radiometry to attract attention of the thermometry and radiometry communities to the importance of international cooperation for realization of these methods.

  8. ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH POINT SOURCE RECYCLE WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE HYPERFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of energy conservation effects of point source recycle with high-temperature hyperfiltration (HF) in the textile industry. (HF and ultrafiltration (UF) are pressure-driven membrane processes which have potential for recycle of water, energy, an...

  9. High flux film and transition boiling. Final report, April 1988--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, L.C.

    1993-02-01

    An investigation was conducted on the potential for altering the boiling curve through effects of high velocity and high subcooling. Experiments using water and Freon-113 flowing over cylindrical electrical heaters in crossflow were made to see how velocity and subcooling affect the boiling curve, especially the film and transition boiling regions. We sought subcooling levels down to near the freezing points of these two liquids to prove the concept that the critical heat flux and the minimum heat flux could be brought together, thereby averting the transition region altogether. Another emphasis was to gain insight into how the various boiling regions could be represented mathematically on various parts of heating surface. Motivation for the research grew out of a realization that the effects of very high subcooling and velocity might be to avert the transition boiling altogether so that the unstable part of the boiling curve would not limit the application of high flux devices to temperatures less than the burnout temperatures. Summaries of results from the study are described. It shows that the potential for averting, the transition region is good, and points the way to further research that is needed to demonstrate the potential.

  10. In-situ Stress Measurements on SUS316L Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water Simulated Boiling Water Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Nakahigashi, S.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Akiniwa, Y.; Yamada, T.; Liu, L.; Shobu, T.; Tsubakino, H.

    2007-01-01

    An in-situ straining device has been developed, which enables one to apply a load of 240 N to a specimen in hot water at 561 K and a pressure of 8 MPa, simulating the environment in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The device is equipped with sapphire glass windows for a light path, that is, the device can be used for dynamic measurements of stress induced in the specimen using a synchrotron radiation facility. In-situ stress measurements have been carried out at SPring-8 (BL02B1) on a specimen prepared from SUS316L stainless steel. Inhomogeneity in stress distribution and time-dependent changes in stress were successfully measured.

  11. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  12. TEMPERATURE VARIATION WITH TIME IN A PERENNIALLY BOILING WELL IN THE LONG VALLEY CALDERA, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA; OBSERVATIONS IN CHANCE NO. 1 (1976-1983).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diment, W.H.; Urban, T.C.; Nathenson, Manuel

    1985-01-01

    Chance No. 1 was drilled to a depth of 245. 4 m and cased to a depth of 72. 2 m in 1961. Temperature logs were obtained in 1976, 1982, and 1983, with the casing open to the atmosphere. Water was boiling at the surface of the fluid column on each occasion. Temperatures within the upper part of the cased interval remained virtually identical over the 7-year period. The small differences observed can be ascribed to convective motions in the large-diameter casing and the large geothermal gradient. Above a depth of 160 m in the open hole, temperatures have cooled 5 degree -7 degree C over the 7-year period of observation. The shape of the temperature profiles and their variation with time can be explained by an influx of cool water at about 160 m. The cooling rate is much larger between 1982 and 1983 than that between 1982 and 1976, which suggests that earthquake shaking may be a major contributing factor.

  13. An International Star Intercomparison of Low-Temperature Fixed Points Using Sealed Triple-Point Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellmuth, B.; Berger, D.; Wolber, L.; de Groot, M.; Head, D.; Hermier, Y.; Mao, Y. Z.; Nakano, T.; Pavese, F.; Shkraba, V.; Steele, A. G.; Steur, P. P. M.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Tew, W. L.; Wang, L.; White, D. R.

    2003-09-01

    An overview of the main results of an international star intercomparison of low-temperature fixed points is given. Between 1997 and 2002, 52 sealed triple-point cells (STPCs) of the thirteen laboratories represented by the authors have been investigated at PTB. The STPCs are used to realise the triple points of hydrogen, neon, oxygen, and argon, respectively, as defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990, ITS-90. The melting curves of all STPCs have been measured on the same experimental equipment, adhering strictly to a single measurement program. This protocol enables separation of the effects influencing the melting curves and direct comparison of the thermal behaviour of the STPCs, which are quite different with respect to design, age, gas source, and filling technology. In the paper, emphasis is given to the typical properties of the four fixed-point substances and to the spread of the STPC parameters. Connections between the star intercomparison and completed and on-going international activities, including the CIPM Key Comparisons, are also discussed.

  14. Melting Temperature of High-Temperature Fixed Points for Thermocouple Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.; Montag, V.; Lowe, D.; Dong, W.

    2011-01-01

    Thermocouples can be calibrated at pure metal ingot-based fixed points at temperatures up to the freezing point of copper (1084.62 °C). For Pt/Pd thermocouples, the deviation from the accepted reference function very often takes an approximately linear form up to the copper fixed point. The calibration of Pt/Pd thermocouples may therefore be more amenable to extrapolation than that of Pt/Pt-Rh thermocouples. Here, the melting temperatures of a Co-C and a Pd-C eutectic fixed point are determined by extrapolating the deviation functions of several Pt/Pd thermocouples, after the fashion of Edler et al. The results are compared with the melting temperatures measured using non-contact radiation thermometry. The expanded uncertainty ( k = 2) of the melting temperatures determined by extrapolation of the Pt/Pd thermocouple calibrations is ±0.32 °C for the Co-C fixed point, and ±0.49 °C for the Pd-C fixed point. For both fixed points, these uncertainties are comparable to those of non-contact radiation thermometry measurements. While a number of assumptions are made in performing the extrapolation of the calibrations, the method does appear to offer a useful complement to non-contact radiation thermometry measurements.

  15. Direct Numerical Simulations of Boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2003-11-01

    For flow problem of practical interest it is frequently necessary to account for phase change between liquid and vapor. Boiling, in particular, is one of the most efficient ways of removing heat from a solid surface. It is therefore commonly used in energy generation and refrigeration. The large volume change and the high temperatures involved can make the consequences of design or operational errors catastrophic and accurate predictions are highly desirable. For numerical simulations of boiling it is necessary to solve the energy equation, in addition to conservation equations for mass and momentum, and to account for the release/absorption of latent heat at the phase boundary. We describe a numerical method for direct numerical simulations of boiling and show results from simulations of explosive boiling of a vapor bubble in an initially superheated liquids. As the vapor bubble grows, its surface becomes unstable, developing wrinkles that increase the surface area significantly. The increased surface area does, however, have relatively little impact on the growth rate for the parameters examined due to a relatively thick thermal boundary layer. We have also examined film boiling and find relatively good agreement with experimental correlations. Research supported by NASA.

  16. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400??C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385??C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415??C, 330 bar. A 400??C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500??C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor. ?? 1985.

  17. High temperature antenna pointing mechanism for BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürer, Johan A.; Harper, Richard; Anderson, Mike

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the two axis Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM) with dual frequency (X-Ka bands) Rotary Joint (RJ) developed by Kongsberg Defence and Aerospace and BAE Systems, in the frame of the ESA BepiColombo mission to the planet Mercury. The extreme environmental conditions induced by Mercury's proximity to the Sun (up to 14.500 W/m2 direct solar fluxes, up to 5000 W/m2 infrared flux and up to 1200 W/m2 albedo shine form the planet surface), have dictated the need for a specific high temperature development of the pointing mechanism and of its integrated RF Rotary Joint. Global thermal analysis of the antenna predicts qualification temperature for the elevation stage APM between 250°C and 295°C. In addition, the mechanism shall survive extreme cold temperatures during the interplanetary cruise phase. Beside the harsh environment, the stringent pointing accuracy required by the antenna high frequency operations, and the extreme dimensional stability demanded by a radio science experiment (which is using the antenna for range and range rate measurements), have introduced additional, specific challenges to the mechanism design. Innovative solutions have been deemed necessary at system architecture level, in the design of the mechanisms critical areas and in the selection of high temperature compatible materials and processes. The very high working temperature of the mechanism ruled out use of aluminium alloys, which is replaced by Titanium alloy and stainless steels. Special heat treatments of the steel are applied for minimum loss of hardness. The structures are optimised for minimum mass. To handle thermal stresses and distortion, a very compact design of the APM was performed integrating the bearings, position sensor and drive chain within minimum structural length. The Rotary Joint is a unique design tailored to the APM using a common main bearing support. Special manufacturing processes have been tested and applied for manufacture of the very compact RJ being the first of its kind (dual X-Ka band) in European space development. The twin channels are arranged concentrically, permitting continuous 360° rotation. Maximum use of waveguide has been made to minimise the loss in the Ka-band frequency channel and this leads to an unconventional design of the X-band channel. A specific effort and extensive test program at ESTL in the UK have been put in place to identify suitable high temperature solutions for the RJ and APM bearings lubrication. The high temperature demands the use of a dry lubrication system. High working loads due to thermal stresses puts extra challenge to the life duration of the dry film lubrication. Lead lubrication was initially the preferred concept, but has later in the program been substituted by MoS2 film. A design life of 20,000 cycles at 250°C and elevated load has been demonstrated for the bearings with MoS2. Special attention has been paid to the materials in the stepper motor using high temperature solder material and MoS2 dry lubrication in the bearings and gear train. The APM is designed for use of a high accuracy inductive based position sensor with remote signal and amplifier electronics. Electrical signal transfer is via a high temperature Twist Capsule. The activity has included the design, manufacturing and testing in a respresentative environment of a breadboard model of the APM and of its integrated radio frequency RJ. The breadboard does not include a position sensor or the Twist Capsule. The breadboard tests will include functional performance tests in air, vibration tests and thermal vacuum. The thermal vacuum test will include RF testing at high temperature combined with APM pointing performance.

  18. Method for Measuring Collimator-Pointing Sensitivity to Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex; Cox, Timothy E.; Hein, Randall C.; MacDonald, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of applications, it is important to measure the sensitivity of the pointing of a beam emerging from a collimator, as a function of temperature changes. A straightforward method for carrying out this measurement is based on using interferometry for monitoring the changes in beam pointing, which presents its own problems. The added temperature dependence and complexity issues relating to using an interferometer are addressed by not using an interferometer in the first place. Instead, the collimator is made part of an arrangement that uses a minimum number of low-cost, off-the-shelf materials and by using a quad diode to measure changes in beam pointing. In order to minimize the influence of the test arrangement on the outcome of the measurement, several steps are taken. The collimator assembly is placed on top of a vertical, 1-m-long, fused silica tube. The quad diode is bonded to a fused silica bar, which, in turn, is bonded to the lower end of the fused silica tube. The lower end of the tube rests on a self-aligning support piece, while the upper end of the tube is kept against two rounded setscrew tips, using a soft rubber string. This ensures that very little stress is applied to the tube as the support structure changes dimensions due to thermal expansion. Light is delivered to the collimator through a bare fiber in order to minimize variable bending torque caused by a randomly relaxing, rigid fiber jacket. In order to separate the effect of temperature on the collimator assembly from the effect temperature has on the rest of the setup, multiple measurements are taken with the collimator assembly rotated from measurement to measurement. Laboratory testing, with 1-m spacing between the collimator and the quad diode, has shown that the sensitivity of the arrangement is better than 100 nm rms, over time spans of at least one hour, if the beam path is protected from atmospheric turbulence by a tube. The equivalent sensitivity to detecting changes in pointing angle is 100 nanoradians.

  19. Experimental consequences of quantum critical points at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, D. C.; Rodière, P.; Núñez, M.; Garbarino, G.; Sulpice, A.; Marcus, J.; Gay, F.; Continentino, M. A.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.

    2015-11-01

    We study the C r1 -xR ex phase diagram finding that its phase transition temperature towards an antiferromagnetic order TN follows a quantum [(xc-x ) /xc ] ? law, with ? =1 /2 , from the quantum critical point (QCP) at xc=0.25 up to TN?600 K . We compare this system to others in order to understand why this elemental material is affected by the QCP up to such unusually high temperatures. We determine a general criterion for the crossover, as a function of an external parameter such as concentration, from the region controlled solely by thermal fluctuations to that where quantum effects become observable. The properties of materials with low coherence lengths will thus be altered far away from the QCP.

  20. Evaluation and Selection of High-Temperature Fixed-Point Cells for Thermodynamic Temperature Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Anhalt, K.; Battuello, M.; Bloembergen, P.; Khlevnoy, B.; Machin, G.; Matveyev, M.; Sadli, M.; Todd, A.; Wang, T.

    2015-08-01

    A multi-partner project to determine the thermodynamic temperatures of a selected set of high-temperature fixed points based on metal-carbon eutectics is underway as a working group activity within the Comité International des Poids et Mesures. The investigation focuses on four fixed-point types, namely, the three metal-carbon eutectic points of Re-C , Pt-C , and Co-C , and the Cu point . This paper describes the construction, pre-evaluation, and screening stage of the cells prior to their thermodynamic temperature determinations. The construction of the HTFP cells was undertaken by nine national metrology institutes (NMIs) according to instructions laid out in a pre-agreed protocol that ensures production of best quality cells. Four NMIs conducted the evaluation, each for a certain fixed-point type, and screened out cells that did not meet pre-determined selection criteria while assuring sufficient variety in the sources of the cells in the final selected sets. In autumn 2012, the selected cells were successfully passed on to the final stage of the project, the thermodynamic temperature measurement, and assignment.

  1. High-temperature powder x-ray diffraction of yttria to melting point

    E-print Network

    Chen, Haydn H.

    High-temperature powder x-ray diffraction of yttria to melting point V. Swamya) Max from room temperature to melting point with the thin wire resistance heating technique. A solid-temperature data of yttria arises from the potential use of its melting point as a secondary temperature standard,3

  2. The Transition From Nucleate Boiling Towards the Convection: Application to the Quenching of Metallic Massive Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Bourouga, Brahim; Gilles, Jerome

    2007-04-07

    In a recent study on thermal aspects of the quenching process, we developed an original device of measurement which allowed to update the competition between the heat transfer modes according to the quenching conditions and the quenched part size. One shows that, according to the range value of Biot number, the more resistive one part is, the more the boiling phases are relatively short. In order to provide relatively precise data for simulation of the quenching process in the case of strongly resistive parts from a thermal point of view, we undertook experiments on the cooling transition from nucleate boiling towards the convection. The obtained experimental results show that the temperature of transition from the nucleate boiling to the convection increases when the bath temperature decreases. We present the differences between the values of convection coefficient according to whether the bath is agitated or not. Experimental results relating are compared to some classical correlations.

  3. The effect of surface motion on forced convection film boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zumbrunnen, D.A.; Viskanta, R.; Incropera, F.P. )

    1989-08-01

    The growth in demand for high-quality metallic alloys has placed greater emphasis on the predictability of cooling methods used in manufacturing processes. Several methods involve forced convection film boiling, which can occur on metallic strips or plates cooled by water jet impingement or on strips inside cooling jackets of continuous annealing processes. Since surface temperatures are typically well above the boiling point of water, a substantial portion of the surface area can involve film boiling. The strip or plate speed often exceeds the water velocities and strongly influences boundary layer development in the vapor and liquid. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of plate motion on heat transfer in the film boiling regime. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy have been solved by the integral method for film boiling in forced convection boundary layer flow on a flat isothermal plate in motion parallel to the flow direction. Unlike previous studies, which have shown that heat transfer is chiefly governed by the plate and subcooled liquid temperatures, heat transfer is shown to also depend on the plate velocity. For large velocities, the importance of radiation heat transfer across the vapor layer is reduced. However, when the velocities of the plate and liquid are oppositely directed and of nearly equal magnitude, radiation across the vapor layer can become significant, even at low plate temperatures.

  4. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  5. Conceptual design for spacelab pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, J. H.; Peck, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A pool boiling heat transfer experiment to be incorporated with a larger two-phase flow experiment on Spacelab was designed to confirm (or alter) the results of earth-normal gravity experiments which indicate that the hydrodynamic peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes vanish at very low gravity. Twelve small sealed test cells containing water, methanol or Freon 113 and cylindrical heaters of various sizes are to be built. Each cell will be subjected to one or more 45 sec tests in which the surface heat flux on the heaters is increased linearly until the surface temperature reaches a limiting value of 500 C. The entire boiling process will be photographed in slow-motion. Boiling curves will be constructed from thermocouple and electric input data, for comparison with the motion picture records. The conduct of the experiment will require no more than a few hours of operator time.

  6. Development of a mechanistic model for forced convection subcooled boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, Dillon R.

    The focus of this work is on the formulation, implementation, and testing of a mechanistic model of subcooled boiling. Subcooled boiling is the process of vapor generation on a heated wall when the bulk liquid temperature is still below saturation. This is part of a larger effort by the US DoE's CASL project to apply advanced computational tools to the simulation of light water reactors. To support this effort, the formulation of the dispersed field model is described and a complete model of interfacial forces is formulated. The model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code with a K-epsilon model of turbulence. The interfacial force models are built on extensive work by other authors, and include novel formulations of the turbulent dispersion and lift forces. The complete model of interfacial forces is compared to experiments for adiabatic bubbly flows, including both steady-state and unsteady conditions. The same model is then applied to a transient gas/liquid flow in a complex geometry of fuel channels in a sodium fast reactor. Building on the foundation of the interfacial force model, a mechanistic model of forced-convection subcooled boiling is proposed. This model uses the heat flux partitioning concept and accounts for condensation of bubbles attached to the wall. This allows the model to capture the enhanced heat transfer associated with boiling before the point of net generation of vapor, a phenomenon consistent with existing experimental observations. The model is compared to four different experiments encompassing flows of light water, heavy water, and R12 at different pressures, in cylindrical channels, an internally heated annulus, and a rectangular channel. The experimental data includes axial and radial profiles of both liquid temperature and vapor volume fraction, and the agreement can be considered quite good. The complete model is then applied to simulations of subcooled boiling in nuclear reactor subchannels consistent with the operating conditions of the AP1000 pressurized water reactor. The effects of both axial and lateral nonuniform power distributions inside reactor fuel elements are accounted for. Boiling flows are simulated for three different computational domains of increasing complexity: a quarter-subchannel bordering a single fuel pin, two subchannels surround by an array of 2 by 3 fuel pins, and in four subchannels surrounded by an array of 3 by 3 fuel pins. The predicted behavior is consistent with expectations. In the 3 by 3 array, the two-phase coolant is predicted to flow from the hot channels to the cold channels, enhancing heat exchange between subchannels. This, in turn, demonstrates that the new model is capable of capturing the turbulence- and buoyancy-induced coolant mixing across the neighboring channels.

  7. Critical boiling phenomena observed in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabos, Y.; Chabot, C.; Wunenburger, R.; Delville, J.-P.; Beysens, D.

    1999-06-01

    We report experimental observations of the critical boiling when co-existing gas and liquid phases of pure fluid are heated under weigthlessness through the critical point. We find that when the system's temperature T is being increased to the critical temperature Tc so that it's slightly out of equilibrium, the apparent contact angle becomes very large (up to 110 circ). The gas appears to "web" the solid surface. In addition, we detect large temperature gradients between the (hot) gas phase and the (cold) liquid phase in the interferometric cell. These unexpected results are robust: they are observed either under continuous heating (ramping) or stepping by positive temperature quenches, for various morphologies of the gas bubble and in different fluids (SF6 and CO2). The difference in isentropic thermal responses of gas and liquid during heating, due to the adiabatic heating by the "Piston Effect", is responsible for the temperature non-homogeneities. The vapour recoil force due to liquid evaporation, which is involved in the boiling crisis in heat exchangers, is presumably at the origin of the interface deformation. Nous rapportons les observations expérimentales obtenues en chaffant un fluide pur diphasique gaz-liquide en coexistence au cours de la traversée de son point critique en absence de pesanteur. Lorsque la température du système diphasique hors d'équilibre est augmentée vers la température critique, nous observons en transmission un angle de contact apparent de la vapeur très important (atteignant 110 circ), le gaz semblant "mouiller" la surface solide. De plus, d'importants gradients de température entre la phase gaz chaude et la phase liquide froide sont mesurés dans les cellules observées par interférométrie. Ces résultats inattendus sont observés pour un chauffage continu (rampe) et par trempe positive (échelon), pour différents rapports d'aspect du système diphasique, pour des cellules de CO2 et de SF6, démontrant ainsi une grande robustesse. Les réponses isentropiques différentes du gaz et du liquide lors du chauffage par effet piston sont certainement responsables des inhomogénéités de température. La force de recul de la vapeur due à l'évaporation pourrait être la cause dominante de la déformation de l'interface liquide-vapeur à l'approche de la température de transition.

  8. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  9. Enhancements of Nucleate Boiling Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Yang, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents two means for enhancing nucleate boiling and critical heat flux under microgravity conditions: using micro-configured metal-graphite composites as the boiling surface and dilute aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols as the working fluid. In the former, thermocapillary force induced by temperature difference between the graphite-fiber tips and the metal matrix plays an important role in bubble detachment. Thus boiling-heat transfer performance does not deteriorate in a reduced-gravity environment. In the latter cases, the surface tension-temperature gradient of the long-chain alcohol solutions turns positive as the temperature exceeds a certain value. Consequently, the Marangoni effect does not impede, but rather aids in bubble departure from the heating surface. This feature is most favorable in microgravity. As a result, the bubble size of departure is substantially reduced at higher frequencies. Based on the existing experimental data, and a two-tier theoretical model, correlation formulas are derived for nucleate boiling on the copper-graphite and aluminum-graphite composite surfaces, in both the isolated and coalesced bubble regimes. In addition, performance equations for nucleate boiling and critical heat flux in dilute aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols are obtained.

  10. Liquid crystal thermography in boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, J.F.; Mei, R.; Chen, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    The utilization of liquid crystal thermography to study heterogeneous boiling phenomena has gained popularity in recent years. In order not to disturb the nucleation process, which occurs in the microstructure of the heating surface, the crystals are applied to the backside of a thin heater. This work critically examines the ability of liquid crystal thermography to quantitatively capture the thermal field on the boiling surface. The thermal field identified experimentally through liquid crystal thermography is compared against that computed in the vicinity of a growing vapor bubble using a simulation which considers the simultaneous heat transfer between three phases: the solid heater, the liquid microlayer, and the growing vapor bubble. The temperature history beneath a growing vapor bubble elucidates the high frequency response required to capture the transient thermal fields commonly encountered in boiling experiments. Examination of the governing equations and numerical results reveal that due to the heater thermal inertia, the temperature variation on the bottom of the heater is significantly different than that on the boiling surface. In addition, the crystals themselves have a finite spatial resolution and frequency response which filter out much of the microscale phenomenon associated with boiling heat transfer. Analysis of existing pool and flow boiling liquid crystal thermographs indicate that the typical spacial resolution is on the order of 0.25 mm and the response time is on the order of 5 ms which are insufficient to resolve the fine spacial and temporal details of the heating surface thermal field. Thus the data obtained from liquid crystal thermography applied to boiling heat transfer must be cautiously interpreted.

  11. Effect of Running Parameters on Flow Boiling Instabilities in Microchannels.

    PubMed

    Zong, Lu-Xiang; Xu, Jin-Liang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Flow boiling instability (FBI) in microchannels is undesirable because they can induce the mechanical vibrations and disturb the heat transfer characteristics. In this study, the synchronous optical visualization experimental system was set up. The pure acetone liquid was used as the working fluid, and the parallel triangle silicon microchannel heat sink was designed as the experimental section. With the heat flux ranging from 0-450 kW/m2 the microchannel demand average pressure drop-heater length (?p(ave)L) curve for constant low mass flux, and the demand pressure drop-mass flux (?p(ave)G) curve for constant length on main heater surface were obtained and studied. The effect of heat flux (q = 188.28, 256.00, and 299.87 kW/m2), length of main heater surface (L = 4.5, 6.25, and 8.00 mm), and mass flux (G = 188.97, 283.45, and 377.94 kg/m2s) on pressure drops (Ap) and temperatures at the central point of the main heater surface (Twc) were experimentally studied. The results showed that, heat flux, length of the main heater surface, and mass flux were identified as the important parameters to the boiling instability process. The boiling incipience (TBI) and critical heat flux (CHF) were early induced for the lower mass flux or the main heater surface with longer length. With heat flux increasing, the pressure drops were linearly and slightly decreased in the single liquid region but increased sharply in the two phase flow region, in which the flow boiling instabilities with apparent amplitude and long period were more easily triggered at high heat flux. Moreover, the system pressure was increased with the increase of the heat flux. PMID:26353523

  12. ADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, John E.

    ADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING WATER REACTOR AND THE HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1 Temperature Wave with Lateral Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor - General Description . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Modifications

  13. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  14. Chiral interface at the finite temperature transition point of QCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Z.; Patkos, A.

    1990-01-01

    The domain wall between coexisting chirally symmetric and broken symmetry regions is studied in a saddle point approximation to the effective three-flavor sigma model. In the chiral limit the surface tension varies in the range ((40 to -50)MeV)(exp 3). The width of the domain wall is estimated to be approximately or equal to 4.5 fm.

  15. Characteristic boiling curve of carbon nanotube nanofluid as determined by the transient calorimeter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, H. S.; Fan, J. R.; Hong, R. H.; Hu, Y. C.

    2007-04-01

    Nickel-plated copper sphere is employed as the transient calorimeter to explore the boiling heat transfer characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluid. As compared to water, aqueous gum arabic (GA) solution has an enhanced critical heat flux (CHF), transition boiling, and minimum heat flux in film boiling (Leidenfrost point). CNT nanofluid has higher CHF than GA solution. Better wettability and deposits on the heating surface distort the characteristic boiling curve.

  16. Sand boils without earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Clark, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

  17. Pressure-Drop Considerations in the Characterization of Dew-Point Transfer Standards at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, H.; Böse, N.; Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    During calibration of precision optical dew-point hygrometers (DPHs), it is usually necessary to take into account the pressure drop induced by the gas flow between the "point of reference" and the "point of use" (mirror or measuring head of the DPH) either as a correction of the reference dew-point temperature or as part of the uncertainty estimation. At dew-point temperatures in the range of ambient temperature and below, it is sufficient to determine the pressure drop for the required gas flow, and to keep the volumetric flow constant during the measurements. In this case, it is feasible to keep the dry-gas flow into the dew-point generator constant or to measure the flow downstream the DPH at ambient temperature. In normal operation, at least one DPH in addition to the monitoring DPH are used, and this operation has to be applied to each instrument. The situation is different at high dew-point temperatures up to 95 °C, the currently achievable upper limit reported in this paper. With increasing dew-point temperatures, the reference gas contains increasing amounts of water vapour and a constant dry-gas flow will lead to a significant enhanced volume flow at the conditions at the point of use, and therefore, to a significantly varying pressure drop depending on the applied dew-point temperature. At dew-point temperatures above ambient temperature, it is also necessary to heat the reference gas and the mirror head of the DPH sufficiently to avoid condensation which will additionally increase the volume flow and the pressure drop. In this paper, a method is provided to calculate the dry-gas flow rate needed to maintain a known wet-gas flow rate through a chilled mirror for a range of temperature and pressures.

  18. A fundamental study of nucleate pool boiling under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ervin, Jamie S.; Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study of incipient boiling in short-term microgravity and with a/g = +/- 1 for pool boiling was performed. Calibrated thin gold films sputtered on a smoothly polished quartz surface were used simultaneously for thermal resistance measurements and heating of the boiling surface. The gold films were used for both transient and quasi-steady heating surface temperature measurements. Two test vessels were constructed for precise measurement and control of fluid temperature and pressure: a laboratory pool boiling vessel for the a/g = +/- experiments and a pool boiling vessel designed for the 131 m free-fall in the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Research Facility for the microgravity tests. Measurements included the heater surface temperature, the pressure near the heating surface, and the bulk liquid temperatures. High speed photography was used in the experiments. With high quality microgravity and the measured initial temperature of the quiescent test fluid, R113, the temperature distribution in the liquid at the moment of boiling inception resulting from an imposed step in heat flux is known with a certainty not possible previously. The types of boiling propagation across the large flat heating surface are categorized; the conditions necessary for their occurrence are described. Explosive boiling propagation with a striking pattern of small scale protuberances over the entire vapor mass periphery not observed previously at low heat flux levels is described. For the heater surface with a/g = -1, a step in the heater surface temperature of short duration was imposed. The resulting liquid temperature distribution at the moment of boiling inception was different from that obtained with a step in heat flux.

  19. A Fundamental Study of Nucleate Pool Boiling Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ervin, Jamie S.; Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study of incipient boiling in short-term microgravity and with a/g = +/- 1 for pool boiling was performed. Calibrated thin gold films sputtered on a smoothly polished quartz surface were used simultaneously for thermal-resistance measurements and heating of the boiling surface. The gold films were used for both transient and quasi-steady heating surface temperature measurements. Two test vessels were constructed for precise measurement and control of fluid temperature and pressure: a laboratory pool boiling vessel for the a/g = +/- 1 experiments and a pool boiling vessel designed for the 131 m free-fall in the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Research Facility for the microgravity tests. Measurements included the heater surface temperature, the pressure near the heating surface, the bulk liquid temperatures. High speed photography (up to 1,000 frames per second) was used in the experiments. With high quality microgravity and the measured initial temperature of the quiescent test fluid, R113, the temperature distribution in the liquid at the moment of boiling inception resulting from an imposed step in heat flux is known with a certainty not possible previously. The types of boiling propagation across the large flat heating surface, some observed here for the first time, are categorized; the conditions necessary for their occurrence are described. Explosive boiling propagation with a striking pattern of small scale protuberances over the entire vapor mass periphery not observed previously at low heat flux levels (on the order of 5 W/cm(exp 2)) is described. For the heater surface with a/g = -1, a step in the heater surface temperature of short duration was imposed. The resulting liquid temperature distribution at the moment of boiling inception was different from that obtained with a step in heat flux.

  20. Heat transport in boiling turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection

    E-print Network

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to several mechanisms many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubbles compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much enhanced natural convection. In this paper we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection process. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. We consider a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping the temperature difference constant and changing the liquid pressure we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between $2\\times10^6$ and $5\\times10^9$. We find a...

  1. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-01-01

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating. PMID:26690096

  2. Multiple-Point Temperature Gradient Algorithm for Ring Laser Gyroscope Bias Compensation.

    PubMed

    Li, Geng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wei, Guo; Xie, Yuanping; Yu, Xudong; Long, Xingwu

    2015-01-01

    To further improve ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias stability, a multiple-point temperature gradient algorithm is proposed for RLG bias compensation in this paper. Based on the multiple-point temperature measurement system, a complete thermo-image of the RLG block is developed. Combined with the multiple-point temperature gradients between different points of the RLG block, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to tune the support vector machine (SVM) parameters, and an optimized design for selecting the thermometer locations is also discussed. The experimental results validate the superiority of the introduced method and enhance the precision and generalizability in the RLG bias compensation model. PMID:26633401

  3. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System was tested with LH2 and LOX in a vacuum chamber to simulate space vacuum and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. Testing was successful and results validated the scaling study model that predicts active cooling reduces upper stage cryogenic propulsion mass for loiter periods greater than 2 weeks.

  4. Pool boiling heat transfer on small heaters: effect of gravity and subcooling

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jungho

    . An understanding of boiling and critical heat flux in microgravity environ- ments is of importance to space Abstract Measurements of space and time resolved subcooled pool boiling of FC-72 in low, earth, and high to increase in size with bulk fluid temperature. Boiling curves at various subcoolings and gravity levels

  5. In situ technique for measuring heat transfer from a power transistor to a boiling liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struble, C. L.; Witte, L. C.

    1994-05-01

    A technique for in situ measurement of temperature and heat flux in boiling heat transfer from electronic chips is described. The method was used to obtain accurate partial boiling curves for jet impingement and pool boiling in R-113. While the characteristics of the heat transfer behavior agree with previous data, the data in general lie below data obtained with specialized test chips.

  6. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  7. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  8. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  9. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  10. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  11. Natural saltwater upconing by boils: field measurements and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Louw, Perry; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Werner, Adrian; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2013-04-01

    In this study, natural saltwater upconing by boils was investigated using field measurements and numerical simulations. As one-quarter of The Netherlands lies below mean sea level, the upward flow of saline groundwater leads to the salinization of surface waters for large areas, impacting on agriculture and aquatic ecosystems. The largest seepage fluxes are found in deep polders with surface water levels maintained as low as 6 to 8 m below sea level. Recent studies showed that preferential groundwater discharge through boils is the dominant salinization source in these deep polders. Boils occur as conduits in the upper aquitard that connect the underlying aquifer to the surface through which groundwater discharges at high velocities. Groundwater preferentially discharging through boils contains up to hundred times more salt than diffuse forms of groundwater discharge. The upconing of deep saline groundwater induced by the localized, high-velocity flow through boils is the mechanism that leads to the high boil water salinities. The local boil system and associated natural salt water upconing were explored in the field in three different hydrogeological settings. Measurements of the aquifer salinity distribution, temperature, boil discharge, boil salinity and aquifer heads showed that the preferential flow through boils creates localized and narrow saltwater upconing spikes. The possibility to seal the boil at its source vent as a measure to abate surface water salinization was explored in the field. Numerical modeling with the code SEAWAT was applied to investigate the upconing processes in more detail. The field measurements were largely reproduced by the numerical model. 56 different cases, which differ in aquifer properties, salinity distribution, boil discharge and lateral regional flow,were defined to determine the most important boil salinity controlling factors. For each upconing case the sources of boil water, i.e. the contribution to boil discharge from different aquifer depths, were derived from the model results. The contributing depth distributions showed a form opposite to the aquifer salinity distribution, with higher contributions from shallower and less saline groundwater. This illustrates the importance of the density distribution in the aquifer on the saltwater upconing mechanism. The numerical results showed that the most important factors controlling the contributing depths and boil salinity are boil discharge, the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, the depth of the interface and the salinity (and therefore density) contrast within the aquifer. Within a small area of clustered boils, boil salinity varies between individual boils and is determined by the combination of its discharge and its position within the boil area, whereas the total discharge of boil clusters is the principal factor that controls natural saltwater upconing and total salt loads. Regional lateral flow had a large impact on the upconing mechanism in terms of flow patterns but had a minor effect on both the contribution of saline and fresh groundwater to boil discharge and boil salinity. Both measurements and model results will be presented at the EGU.

  12. Experimental study on the onset of nucleate boiling in narrow channel by using grey relational analysis (GRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Gao, Puzhen; Yan, Liming; Lv, Lulu

    2013-07-01

    The point of ONB (Onset of Nucleate Boiling) is a key point of boiling heat transfer in narrow channels. Due to the special structure and complex flow, the points of ONB in narrow channels are affected by many factors, their characteristics are not understood completely yet. In order to study relevant influence factors on ONB in narrow channel from the aspect of quantitative analysis, GRA (Grey Relational Analysis) is applied to analyze the experimental data of ONB in narrow channel by taking water as the working fluid. And then the intensity sequence of the factors that have effects on ONB are confirmed as the heat flux, outlet dryness, pressure, mass flow rate, inlet temperature and outlet temperature. Through analyzing the data of ONB of newly published literatures, the mechanisms for the main influence factors are suggested.

  13. 156 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 32, NO. 1, MARCH 2009 Pool Boiling Experiments on

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    flux in the film boiling regime for the Leidenfrost point by 175% (compared to bare silicon wafer). Index Terms--Carbon nanotube, cooling, critical heat flux (CHF), film boiling, Leidenfrost point Boiling Experiments on a Nano-Structured Surface Hee Seok Ahn, Vijaykumar Sathyamurthi, and Debjyoti

  14. Numerical Investigation of Boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Michael; Tanguy, Sebastien; Colin, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    In this work, boiling is numerically investigated, using two phase flow direct numerical simulation based on a level set / Ghost Fluid method. Nucleate boiling implies both thermal issue and multiphase dynamics issues at different scales and at different stages of bubble growth. As a result, the different phenomena are investigated separately, considering their nature and the scale at which they occur. First, boiling of a static bubble immersed in an overheated liquid is analysed. Numerical simulations have been performed at different Jakob numbers in the case of strong density discontinuity through the interface. The results show a good agreement on bubble radius evolution between the theoretical evolution and numerical simulation. After the validation of the code for the Scriven test case, interaction of a bubble with a wall is studied. A numerical method taking into account contact angle is evaluated by comparing simulations of the spreading of a liquid droplet impacting on a plate, with experimental data. Then the heat transfer near the contact line is investigated, and simulations of nucleate boiling are performed considering different contact angles values. Finally, the relevance of including a model to take into account the evaporation of the micro layer is discussed.

  15. Microbiological Effectiveness of Disinfecting Water by Boiling in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Miller, Laura; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Boiling is the most common means of treating water in the home and the benchmark against which alternative point-of-use water treatment options must be compared. In a 5-week study in rural Guatemala among 45 households who claimed they always or almost always boiled their drinking water, boiling was associated with a 86.2% reduction in geometric mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) (N = 206, P < 0.0001). Despite consistent levels of fecal contamination in source water, 71.2% of stored water samples from self-reported boilers met the World Health Organization guidelines for safe drinking water (0 TTC/100 mL), and 10.7% fell within the commonly accepted low-risk category of (1–10 TTC/100 mL). As actually practiced in the study community, boiling significantly improved the microbiological quality of drinking water, though boiled and stored drinking water is not always free of fecal contaminations. PMID:20207876

  16. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. Jeremy; Mizerak, Jordan P.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Boiling—a process that has powered industries since the steam age—is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase performance. However, without active in situ control of bubbles, temperature or steam generation cannot be adjusted for a given heat input. Here we report the ability to turn bubbles ‘on and off' independent of heat input during boiling both temporally and spatially via molecular manipulation of the boiling surface. As a result, we can rapidly and reversibly alter heat transfer performance up to an order of magnitude. Our experiments show that this active control is achieved by electrostatically adsorbing and desorbing charged surfactants to alter the wettability of the surface, thereby affecting nucleation. This approach can improve performance and flexibility in existing boiling technologies as well as enable emerging or unprecedented energy applications. PMID:26486275

  17. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants.

    PubMed

    Cho, H Jeremy; Mizerak, Jordan P; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Boiling--a process that has powered industries since the steam age--is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase performance. However, without active in situ control of bubbles, temperature or steam generation cannot be adjusted for a given heat input. Here we report the ability to turn bubbles 'on and off' independent of heat input during boiling both temporally and spatially via molecular manipulation of the boiling surface. As a result, we can rapidly and reversibly alter heat transfer performance up to an order of magnitude. Our experiments show that this active control is achieved by electrostatically adsorbing and desorbing charged surfactants to alter the wettability of the surface, thereby affecting nucleation. This approach can improve performance and flexibility in existing boiling technologies as well as enable emerging or unprecedented energy applications. PMID:26486275

  18. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. Jeremy; Mizerak, Jordan P.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2015-10-01

    Boiling--a process that has powered industries since the steam age--is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase performance. However, without active in situ control of bubbles, temperature or steam generation cannot be adjusted for a given heat input. Here we report the ability to turn bubbles `on and off' independent of heat input during boiling both temporally and spatially via molecular manipulation of the boiling surface. As a result, we can rapidly and reversibly alter heat transfer performance up to an order of magnitude. Our experiments show that this active control is achieved by electrostatically adsorbing and desorbing charged surfactants to alter the wettability of the surface, thereby affecting nucleation. This approach can improve performance and flexibility in existing boiling technologies as well as enable emerging or unprecedented energy applications.

  19. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, ? = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, ? = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, ? = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, ? = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, ? = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, ? = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, ? = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, ? = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions. PMID:26030088

  20. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) have been used for thermal control of several NASA and commercial orbiting spacecraft. The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its compensation chamber (CC). Most LHPs use the CC temperature for feedback control of its operating temperature. There exists a thermal resistance between the heat source to be cooled by the LHP and the LHP's CC. Even if the CC set point temperature is controlled precisely, the heat source temperature will still vary with its heat output. For most applications, controlling the heat source temperature is of most interest. A logical question to ask is: "Can the heat source temperature be used for feedback control of the LHP operation?" A test program has been implemented to answer the above question. Objective is to investigate the LHP performance using the CC temperature and the heat source temperature for feedback control

  1. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  2. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  3. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  4. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  5. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  6. Study of structural break points in global and hemispheric temperature series by piecewise regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta

    2015-12-01

    The study of climate trends taking into consideration possible structural changes is important for understanding climate development characterized by a stochastic trend or by a determined one. In the paper global and hemisphere temperature anomalies are modeled by piecewise linear regression and break points in the temperature evolution are found. It was demonstrated that the used method allowed finding of breaks characterized by long time trends (low frequency processes) as well as abrupt changes (fast frequency processes). The obtained break points for slow temperature change are close to the ones found by other authors however additional conditions (as segment length, gradient and others) are not used here. The results for higher break point numbers are like the ones of step slope models. It was demonstrated that the successive phases of warming and cooling and most of the break points subdividing these periods in the Northern Hemisphere are introduced by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Because the strong quasi periodicity of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation the authors recommend the removal of its influence on the temperature from the temperature series before studies of trends or structural changes. The Northern Hemisphere temperature data after the removal of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation influence show structures like the Southern Hemisphere temperatures. Model selection by the Schwarz-Bayesian Information Criterion developed by Liu, Wu and Zidek (LWZ criterion) shows that models with only one break point are to be preferred.

  7. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. This design precludes nucleate boiling in the flow channels as they are too small to handle vapor flow. Consequently, it was necessary to determine boiling incipience under the operating conditions of the magnet system. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of plus or minus 15 percent

  8. Temperature dependent vibrational lifetimes in supercritical fluids near the critical point

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    also initially increases with increasing temperature. However, in supercritical CO2 at the critical, fluoroform, and CO2 solvents are presented and analyzed. The measurements are made at constant densityTemperature dependent vibrational lifetimes in supercritical fluids near the critical point D. J

  9. Two-point two-colour pyrometry using the REMS ground temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorzano, María-Paz; Martín-Torres, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hamilton, Victoria; Sebastian, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Javier Gómez-Elvira, REMS Team; the MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The REMS ground temperature sensor has two IR bands dedicated to the observation of the daily evolution of the ground temperature. One thermopile has a very good signal-to-noise ratio and provides a clean estimate of the brightness temperature. Here we use the information from the extra channel, during the hours of maximal temperatures, and compare the data of both channels (two-colour) at different acquisitions (two-point) to estimate the kinetic temperature and extract information about the averaged emissivity of each spectral band. This information is compared with emissivities from existing spectral data bases and satellite estimates of the landing area.

  10. Curie point, susceptibility, and temperature measurements of rapidly heated ferromagnetic wires.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh; Zia, Wasif

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a technique to measure the temperature of a resistively heated ferromagnetic wire. The wire's temperature rapidly increases, a scenario in which a thermocouple or thermistor's thermal inertia prevents it from keeping up with the rapid temperature variation. The temperature is derived from electrical measurands (voltage and current) and time, as well as thermophysical data such as heat losses and emissivity, and is based on a dynamical thermal-electrical energy conservation principle. We go on to use our technique for the quantitative determination of the Curie point as well as the magnetic susceptibility at elevated temperatures. The results are in good agreement with accepted values. PMID:21198044

  11. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of + or - 15 percent.

  12. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASA's future space exploration due to the high specific impulse that can be achieved using engines suitable for moving 10's to 100's of metric tons of payload mass to destinations outside of low earth orbit. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for missions with durations greater than several days. The losses can be greatly reduced by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and by the integration of self-supporting multi-layer insulation. The active thermal control technology under development is the integration of the reverse turbo- Brayton cycle cryocooler to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling network of tubes coupled to a shield in the tank insulation and to the tank wall itself. Also, the self-supporting insulation technology was utilized under the shield to obtain needed tank applied LH2 performance. These elements were recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center in a series of three tests, two that reduced LH2 boil-off and one to eliminate LO2 boil-off. This test series was conducted in a vacuum chamber that replicated the vacuum of space and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. The test results show that LH2 boil-off was reduced 60% by the cryocooler system operating at 90K and that robust LO2 zero boil-off storage, including full tank pressure control was achieved.

  13. Applications of statistical models to synchronous climate variables: a case study of temperature and dew point for College Station, Texas 

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    Concurrent hourly temperature-dew point and temperature-dew point depression data were fitted to the bivariate normal distribution for the six months of January, March, May, July, September, and November for College Station, Texas. Calculations...

  14. Simulation study based on the single-point temperature monitoring system of LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongling; Yang, Na; Liu, Shuping; Pan, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenjiang

    2014-12-01

    This paper takes LabVIEW2012 as a development platform, creating a J-type thermocouple sensor and the NI USB-6229 data acquisition card and other hardware emulation circuitry which combined with the PC designed a single-point temperature monitoring system. Through simulation experiments, the system has a collection interval, the sampling rate per channel sampling on the temperature limit set by the user function and it also has the function of real-time display the current temperature, the temperature limit alarm, maximum temperature, minimum temperature display and a temperature history data query. This system can be used for temperature monitoring of life, research, industrial control, environmental monitoring, biomedical, tobacco processing, greenhouse cultivation, livestock breeding and other fields, which has important significance and practical value.

  15. Microwave induced jet boiling investigated via voltammetry at ring-disk microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed A; Thompson, Mary; Compton, Richard G; Coles, Barry A; Harvey, Severin; Parker, Kim H; O'Hare, Danny; Marken, Frank

    2006-09-01

    High intensity microwave radiation is (self-)focused at metal electrodes immersed in aqueous electrolyte solutions to generate highly localized superheating and convection effects. It is shown that, for an electrode pointing downward, low intensity microwave radiation causes density driven convective flow (upward), which at the onset of boiling abruptly switches to a fast jet of liquid moving away from the electrode surface (downward). This "jet-boiling" phenomenon allows extremely high rates of mass transport and mixing to be realized at the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammograms obtained at electrodes placed into a microwave field show very strong mass transport enhancement effects. Cyclic voltammograms recorded at a Pt/Pt ring-disk electrode system (r(1) = 25 microm, r(2) = 32 microm, r(3) = 32.4 microm) in the presence of microwave radiation are employed to further explore mass transport effects under microwave conditions. Mass transport coefficients, collection efficiencies, and temperatures are determined as a function of microwave intensity. PMID:16942103

  16. Enhanced Droplet Control by Transition Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Grounds, Alex; Still, Richard; Takashina, Kei

    2012-01-01

    A droplet of water on a heated surface can levitate over a film of gas produced by its own evaporation in the Leidenfrost effect. When the surface is prepared with ratchet-like saw-teeth topography, these droplets can self-propel and can even climb uphill. However, the extent to which the droplets can be controlled is limited by the physics of the Leidenfrost effect. Here, we show that transition boiling can be induced even at very high surface temperatures and provide additional control over the droplets. Ratchets with acute protrusions enable droplets to climb steeper inclines while ratchets with sub-structures enable their direction of motion to be controlled by varying the temperature of the surface. The droplets' departure from the Leidenfrost regime is assessed by analysing the sound produced by their boiling. We anticipate these techniques will enable the development of more sophisticated methods for controlling small droplets and heat transfer. PMID:23056912

  17. Realization of the Temperature Scale in the Range from 234.3 K (Hg Triple Point) to 1084.62°C (Cu Freezing Point) in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvizdic, Davor; Veliki, Tomislav; Grgec Bermanec, Lovorka

    2008-06-01

    This article describes the realization of the International Temperature Scale in the range from 234.3 K (mercury triple point) to 1084.62°C (copper freezing point) at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of Zagreb. The system for the realization of the ITS-90 consists of the sealed fixed-point cells (mercury triple point, water triple point and gallium melting point) and the apparatus designed for the optimal realization of open fixed-point cells which include the gallium melting point, tin freezing point, zinc freezing point, aluminum freezing point, and copper freezing point. The maintenance of the open fixed-point cells is described, including the system for filling the cells with pure argon and for maintaining the pressure during the realization.

  18. Modeling of Aerobrake Ballute Stagnation Point Temperature and Heat Transfer to Inflation Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    2012-01-01

    A trailing Ballute drag device concept for spacecraft aerocapture is considered. A thermal model for calculation of the Ballute membrane temperature and the inflation gas temperature is developed. An algorithm capturing the most salient features of the concept is implemented. In conjunction with the thermal model, trajectory calculations for two candidate missions, Titan Explorer and Neptune Orbiter missions, are used to estimate the stagnation point temperature and the inflation gas temperature. Radiation from both sides of the membrane at the stagnation point and conduction to the inflating gas is included. The results showed that the radiation from the membrane and to a much lesser extent conduction to the inflating gas, are likely to be the controlling heat transfer mechanisms and that the increase in gas temperature due to aerodynamic heating is of secondary importance.

  19. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly accomplished by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. Using this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within +/- 0.5K. However, because of the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP has been carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor is placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir is cold-biased and is heated by a control heater. Tests results show that it is feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. Using this method, the heat source temperature can be maintained within a tight range for moderate and high powers. At low powers, however, temperature oscillations may occur due to interactions among the reservoir control heater power, the heat source mass, and the heat output from the heat source. In addition, the heat source temperature could temporarily deviate from its set point during fast thermal transients. The implication is that more sophisticated feedback control algorithms need to be implemented for LHP transient operation when the heat source temperature is used for feedback control.

  20. How Does Water Boil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2004-11-01

    Insight into the boiling of water is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The process is initiated by the spontaneous formation of small vacuum cavities in liquid water. By themselves, these defects are very short lived. If, however, several cavities occur at close distances, they are likely to merge into larger vacuum holes. At the liquid-vapor interfaces, single or small groups of water molecules tend to leave the liquid surface. Once the system is propagated beyond the transition state, these evaporation events outnumber the competing reintegration into the hydrogen-bonded network.

  1. Fundamental Boiling and RP-1 Freezing Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, Brian; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes results from experiments performed to help understand certain aspects of the MC-1 engine prestart thermal conditioning procedure. The procedure was constrained by the fact that the engine must chill long enough to get quality LOX at the LOX pump inlet but must be short enough to prevent freezing of RP-1 in the fuel pump. A chill test of an MC-1 LOX impeller was performed in LN2 to obtain data on film boiling, transition boiling and impeller temperature histories. The transition boiling data was important to the chill time so a subsequent experiment was performed chilling simple steel plates in LOX to obtain similar data for LOX. To address the fuel freezing concern, two experiments were performed. First, fuel was frozen in a tray and its physical characteristics were observed and temperatures of the fuel were measured. The result was physical characteristics as a function of temperature. Second was an attempt to measure the frozen thickness of RP-1 on a cold wall submerged in warm RP-1 and to develop a method for calculating that thickness for other conditions.

  2. Triops (Entomostraca) eggs killed only by boiling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, D B

    1968-07-19

    Temporary rainpools near Khartoum, Sudan, are inhabited by the notostracan crustacean Triops which completes its life cycle within 4 weeks. The annual rains fall in late summer, and throughout the winter and early summer the eggs of Triops remain in the dried mud or dust where they may be exposed to temperatures up to 80 degrees C. Laboratory experiments show that they can withstand temperatures up to within 1 degrees C of boiling, but are killed in partial vacuum by 70 degrees C, at atmospheric pressure by 100 degrees C, or under pressure by 105 degrees C. Exposure to high temperature seems to be necessary to break the egg diapause. PMID:5690518

  3. Stability of cobalt-carbon high temperature fixed points doped with iron and platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?azovická, L.; Lowe, D.; Machin, G.; Davies, H.; Rani, A.

    2015-04-01

    High temperature fixed points (HTFPs) are stable and repeatable and make comparison of temperature scales possible at a level of uncertainty not previously possible. However, they potentially lack objectivity if the fixed-point temperature is known. Five HTFPs were constructed, one pure Co-C, two Co-C doped with Fe and two Co-C doped with Pt of differing concentrations. The candidate dopants were identified through thermochemical modelling as likely to give maximum temperature shift with minimum increase in melting range. The temperature differences of the doped systems from the pure system were determined and it was found that the addition of Fe depressed the melting temperature and the addition of Pt elevated the melting temperature, qualitatively in line with the thermochemical modelling. The higher concentration doped HTFPs were then aged for approximately 100?h with continuous melting-freezing cycles and the difference to the undoped Co-C HTFP remeasured. These differences were found to agree with those of the unaged results within the measurement uncertainties, confirming artefact stability. It is clear that the doping of HTFPs is a powerful way of constructing stable and reliable high temperature scale comparison artefacts of unknown temperature.

  4. A study of electrowetting-assisted boiling

    E-print Network

    Bralower, Harrison L. (Harrison Louis)

    2011-01-01

    The classical theory of boiling heat transfer based on bubble dynamics is explained and includes a full derivation of the Rohsenow boiling correlation. An alternative, more accurate correlation for determining boiling heat ...

  5. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Oxygen at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the key parameters that affect the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. An in depth analysis of the effect of varying temperature, pressure, and pressurization gas on bubble point is presented. Testing of a 200 x 1400 and 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenics Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 92 to 130K and 0.138 - 1.79 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of temperature with a secondary dependence on pressure. The pressure dependence is believed to be a function of the amount of evaporation and condensation occurring at the screen. Good agreement exists between data and theory for normally saturated liquid but the model generally under predicts the bubble point in subcooled liquid. Better correlation with the data is obtained by using the liquid temperature at the screen to determine surface tension of the fluid, as opposed to the bulk liquid temperature.

  6. Progress report for the CCT-WG5 high temperature fixed point research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R.; Anhalt, K.; Bloembergen, P.; Sadli, M.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    An overview of the progress in High Temperature Fixed Point (HTFP) research conducted under the auspices of the CCT-WG5 research plan is reported. In brief highlights are: Provisional long term stability of HTFPs has been demonstrated. Optimum construction methods for HTFPs have been established and high quality HTFPs of Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C have been constructed for thermodynamic temperature assignment. The major sources of uncertainty in the assignment of thermodynamic temperature have been identified and quantified. The status of absolute radiometric temperature measurement has been quantified through the circulation of a set of HTFPs. The measurement campaign to assign low uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures to a selected set of HTFPs will begin in mid-2012. It is envisaged that this will be complete by 2015 leading to HTFPs becoming routine reference standards for radiometry and high temperature metrology.

  7. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  8. Ultra-high temperature isothermal furnace liners (IFLS) for copper freeze point cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussinger, P. M.; Tavener, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    Primary Laboratories use large fixed-point cells in deep calibration furnaces utilizing heat pipes to achieve temperature uniformity. This combination of furnace, heat pipe, and cell gives the smallest of uncertainties. The heat pipe, also known as an isothermal furnace liner (IFL), has typically been manufactured with Alloy 600/601 as the envelope material since the introduction of high temperature IFLs over 40 years ago. Alloy 600/601 is a widely available high temperature material, which is compatible with Cesium, Potassium, and Sodium and has adequate oxidation resistance and reasonable high temperature strength. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) Alloy 600/Sodium IFLs are rated to 1100°C for approximately 1000 hours of operation (based on creep strength). Laboratories interested in performing calibrations and studies around the copper freezing point (1084.62°C) were frustrated by the 1000 hours at 1100°C limitation and the fact that expensive freeze-point cells were getting stuck and/or crushed inside the IFL. Because of this growing frustration/need, ACT developed an Ultra High Temperature IFL to take advantage of the exceptional high temperature strength properties of Haynes 230.

  9. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 ?m hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance. PMID:23506445

  10. Measurements of Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients for Hydrocarbon Mixtures during Boiling in a Heated Horizontal Pipe from 100 K to Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza, Rodrigo; Nellis, Gregory; Klein, Sanford; Reindl, Douglas

    There is a scarcity of data and theory currently available regarding the heat transfer coefficients associated with two-phase, multi-component mixtures at cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents results of research aimed at measuring theconvection heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbon mixtures (methane, ethane, propane, and nitrogen (for dilution)) during evaporation while flowing within a heated horizontal pipe over a wide range of temperatures (from 100 K to room temperature). The results show the heat transfer coefficients along with their sensitivity to parameters such as heat flux, mass flux, pressure, and composition.

  11. A probe for measuring temperature and pressure at the same points in a gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Glawe, G. E.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Design features and characteristics of a means for measuring total temperature and total pressure at a single point in a gas stream are presented. A rake that provides five such combination measurements is described. Experimental data are included for the aerodynamic recovery and time response of the temperature sensor and for the flow-angle sensitivity of both the temperature and pressure sensors. Data were obtained over a subsonic Mach number range of 0.3 to 0.9 as well as at a Mach number of 1.4.

  12. Measurement of Sticky Point Temperature of Coffee Powder with a Rheometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sticky point temperature (Ts) measurement for hygroscopic food and biomaterial powders is traditionally performed with complex glass instruments. This property is used to characterize material stickiness, which substantially affects the flow and physical behavior of powders. In this research study w...

  13. Drilling efficiency and temperature elevation of three types of Kirschner-wire point.

    PubMed

    Piska, M; Yang, L; Reed, M; Saleh, M

    2002-01-01

    An innovative Kirschner (K-) wire point was developed and compared in fresh pig femora in terms of drilling efficiency and temperature elevation with the trochar and diamond points currently used in clinical practice. The tips of thermal couples were machined to the defined geometry and the temperature measured during drilling. Using the same drill speed (rev/min) and feed rate, the new K-wire point produced the lowest thrust force and torque as measured by a Kistler dynamometer. Drill point temperatures were highest with the trochar geometry (129 +/- 6 degrees C), followed by the diamond (98 +/- 7 degrees C). The lowest temperatures were recorded with the Medin K-wire (66 +/- 2 degrees C). On repeated drilling it could be used for up to 30 holes before reaching the less satisfactory drill performance of the diamond tip. The new K-wire provides a better alternative as it requires less effort for insertion, generates less heat and may be re-used. PMID:11837819

  14. An Investigation of the Relation Between Contact Thermometry and Dew-Point Temperature Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyon, R.; Böse, N.; Mitter, H.; Mutter, D.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    Precision optical dew-point hygrometers are the most commonly used transfer standards for the comparison of dew-point temperature realizations at National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and for disseminating traceability to calibration laboratories. These instruments have been shown to be highly reproducible when properly used. In order to obtain the best performance, the resistance of the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) embedded in the mirror is usually measured with an external, traceable resistance bridge or digital multimeter. The relation between the conventional calibration of miniature PRTs, prior to their assembly in the mirrors of state-of-the-art optical dew-point hygrometers and their subsequent calibration as dew-point temperature measurement devices, has been investigated. Standard humidity generators of three NMIs were used to calibrate hygrometers of different designs, covering the dew-point temperature range from -75 °C to + 95 °C. The results span more than a decade, during which time successive improvements and modifications were implemented by the manufacturer. The findings are presented and discussed in the context of enabling the optimum use of these transfer standards and as a basis for determining contributions to the uncertainty in their calibration.

  15. A Novel Role of Three Dimensional Graphene Foam to Prevent Heater Failure during Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min; Park, Chibeom; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyungdae; Kaviany, Massoud; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel boiling heat transfer (NBHT) in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspended in water (RGO colloid) near critical heat flux (CHF), which is traditionally the dangerous limitation of nucleate boiling heat transfer because of heater failure. When the heat flux reaches the maximum value (CHF) in RGO colloid pool boiling, the wall temperature increases gradually and slowly with an almost constant heat flux, contrary to the rapid wall temperature increase found during water pool boiling. The gained time by NBHT would provide the safer margin of the heat transfer and the amazing impact on the thermal system as the first report of graphene application. In addition, the CHF and boiling heat transfer performance also increase. This novel boiling phenomenon can effectively prevent heater failure because of the role played by the self-assembled three-dimensional foam-like graphene network (SFG). PMID:23743619

  16. Unsteady heat transfer during subcooled film boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagov, V. V.; Zabirov, A. R.; Lexin, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cooling of high-temperature bodies in subcooled liquid is of importance for quenching technologies and also for understanding the processes initiating vapor explosion. An analysis of the available experimental information shows that the mechanisms governing heat transfer in these processes are interpreted ambiguously; a more clear-cut definition of the Leidenfrost temperature notion is required. The results of experimental observations (Hewitt, Kenning, and previous investigations performed by the authors of this article) allow us to draw a conclusion that there exists a special mode of intense heat transfer during film boil- ing of highly subcooled liquid. For revealing regularities and mechanisms governing intense transfer of energy in this process, specialists of Moscow Power Engineering Institute's (MPEI) Department of Engineering Thermal Physics conduct systematic works aimed at investigating the cooling of high-temperature balls made of different metals in water with a temperature ranging from 20 to 100°C. It has been determined that the field of temperatures that takes place in balls with a diameter of more than 30 mm in intense cooling modes loses its spherical symmetry. An approximate procedure for solving the inverse thermal conductivity problem for calculating the heat flux density on the ball surface is developed. During film boiling, in which the ball surface temperature is well above the critical level for water, and in which liquid cannot come in direct contact with the wall, the calculated heat fluxes reach 3-7 MW/m2.

  17. Pool and flow boiling in variable and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As is well known, boiling is an effective mode of heat transfer in that high heat flux levels are possible with relatively small temperature differences. Its optimal application requires that the process be adequately understood. A measure of the understanding of any physical event lies in the ability to predict its behavior in terms of the relevant parameters. Despite many years of research the predictability of boiling is currently possible only for quite specialized circumstances, e.g., the critical heat flux and film boiling for the pool boiling case, and then only with special geometries. Variable gravity down to microgravity provides the opportunity to test this understanding, but possibly more important, by changing the dimensional and time scales involved permits more detailed observations of elements involved in the boiling process, and perhaps discloses phenomena heretofore unknown. The focus here is on nucleate boiling although, as will be demonstrated below, under but certain circumstances in microgravity it can take place concurrently with the dryout process. In the presence of earth gravity or forced convection effects, the latter process is usually referred to as film boiling. However, no vapor film as such forms with pool boiling in microgravity, only dryout. Initial results are presented here for pool boiling in microgravity, and were made possible at such an early date by the availability of the Get-Away-Specials (GAS). Also presented here are some results of ground testing of a flow loop for the study of low velocity boiling, eventually to take place also in microgravity. In the interim, variable buoyancy normal to the heater surface is achieved by rotation of the entire loop relative to earth gravity. Of course, this is at the expense of varying the buoyancy parallel to the heater surface. Two questions which must be resolved early in the study of flow boiling in microgravity are (1) the lower limits of liquid flow velocity where buoyancy effects become significant to the boiling process (2) the effect of lower liquid flow velocities on the Critical Heat Flux when buoyancy is removed. Results of initial efforts in these directions are presented, albeit restricted currently to the ever present earth gravity.

  18. Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature testing of tungsten using the three-point bend test

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Magness, F.; Freeman, D.

    1991-03-05

    Three-point bend tests were performed to determine the Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperatures (DBTTs) of forged and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten. Testing was performed under quasi-static conditions at temperatures between 23{degrees}C and 450{degrees}C using a forced-air environmental chamber. Load-displacement data from the three-point bend tests indicated that the constitutive behavior of the materials tested varied considerably. Finite element modeling of the three-point bend test was performed to investigate plastic strains induced in the samples during testing as a function of constitutive behavior. The modeling assumed plane stress conditions in the sample and simple bi-linear elastic-plastic constitutive behavior of the test material. The strains induced in the samples were found to be functions of both the yield stress and work hardening behavior of the materials. The use of the three-point bend test to determine DBTT, and the DBTTs reported for the test materials, are discussed relative to the modeling results. It is concluded that the three-point bend test has some utility in the determination of DBTTs if some caution is used in the selection of test parameters and fixture geometries. However, the three-point bed test does not provide a complete picture of the nature of the ductile-brittle transition. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Methane at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of varying the liquid temperature and pressure on the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid methane using gaseous helium across a wide range of elevated pressures and temperatures. Testing of a 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenic Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 105 to 160K and 0.0965 - 1.78 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of the liquid temperature and a weak function of the amount of subcooling at the LAD screen. The model predicts well for saturated liquid but under predicts the subcooled data.

  20. Development of a new radiometer for the thermodynamic measurement of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Dury, M. R.; Goodman, T. M.; Lowe, D. H.; Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2013-09-11

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a new radiometer to measure the thermodynamic melting point temperatures of high temperature fixed points with ultra-low uncertainties. In comparison with the NPL's Absolute Radiation Thermometer (ART), the 'THermodynamic Optical Radiometer' (THOR) is more portable and compact, with a much lower size-of-source effect and improved performance in other parameters such as temperature sensitivity. It has been designed for calibration as a whole instrument via the radiance method, removing the need to calibrate the individual subcomponents, as required by ART, and thereby reducing uncertainties. In addition, the calibration approach has been improved through a new integrating sphere that has been designed to have greater uniformity.

  1. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of evaporation and explosive boiling of liquid drops in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G; Troconis, Jorge; Sira, Eloy; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Klapp, Jaime

    2015-07-01

    The rapid evaporation and explosive boiling of a van der Waals (vdW) liquid drop in microgravity is simulated numerically in two-space dimensions using the method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The numerical approach is fully adaptive and incorporates the effects of surface tension, latent heat, mass transfer across the interface, and liquid-vapor interface dynamics. Thermocapillary forces are modeled by coupling the hydrodynamics to a diffuse-interface description of the liquid-vapor interface. The models start from a nonequilibrium square-shaped liquid of varying density and temperature. For a fixed density, the drop temperature is increased gradually to predict the point separating normal boiling at subcritical heating from explosive boiling at the superheat limit for this vdW fluid. At subcritical heating, spontaneous evaporation produces stable drops floating in a vapor atmosphere, while at near-critical heating, a bubble is nucleated inside the drop, which then collapses upon itself, leaving a smaller equilibrated drop embedded in its own vapor. At the superheat limit, unstable bubble growth leads to either fragmentation or violent disruption of the liquid layer into small secondary drops, depending on the liquid density. At higher superheats, explosive boiling occurs for all densities. The experimentally observed wrinkling of the bubble surface driven by rapid evaporation followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the thin liquid layer and the linear growth of the bubble radius with time are reproduced by the simulations. The predicted superheat limit (T(s)?0.96) is close to the theoretically derived value of T(s)=1 at zero ambient pressure for this vdW fluid. PMID:26274283

  2. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of evaporation and explosive boiling of liquid drops in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Troconis, Jorge; Sira, Eloy; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Klapp, Jaime

    2015-07-01

    The rapid evaporation and explosive boiling of a van der Waals (vdW) liquid drop in microgravity is simulated numerically in two-space dimensions using the method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The numerical approach is fully adaptive and incorporates the effects of surface tension, latent heat, mass transfer across the interface, and liquid-vapor interface dynamics. Thermocapillary forces are modeled by coupling the hydrodynamics to a diffuse-interface description of the liquid-vapor interface. The models start from a nonequilibrium square-shaped liquid of varying density and temperature. For a fixed density, the drop temperature is increased gradually to predict the point separating normal boiling at subcritical heating from explosive boiling at the superheat limit for this vdW fluid. At subcritical heating, spontaneous evaporation produces stable drops floating in a vapor atmosphere, while at near-critical heating, a bubble is nucleated inside the drop, which then collapses upon itself, leaving a smaller equilibrated drop embedded in its own vapor. At the superheat limit, unstable bubble growth leads to either fragmentation or violent disruption of the liquid layer into small secondary drops, depending on the liquid density. At higher superheats, explosive boiling occurs for all densities. The experimentally observed wrinkling of the bubble surface driven by rapid evaporation followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the thin liquid layer and the linear growth of the bubble radius with time are reproduced by the simulations. The predicted superheat limit (Ts?0.96 ) is close to the theoretically derived value of Ts=1 at zero ambient pressure for this vdW fluid.

  3. Boiling phenomena in near-critical SF6 observed in weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoutre, Carole; Garrabos, Yves; Beysens, Daniel; Nikolayev, Vadim; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-07-01

    Boiling phenomena in the two-phase region of SF6 close to its critical point have been observed using the high-quality thermal and optical environment of the CNES dedicated facility ALI-DECLIC on board the International Space Station (ISS). The weightlessness environment of the fluid, which cancels buoyancy forces and favorites the three-dimensional spherical shape of the gas bubble, is proven to be an irreplaceable powerful tool for boiling studies. To identify each key mechanism of the boiling phenomena, the ALI-DECLIC experiments have benefited from (i) the well-adapted design of the test cells, (ii) the high-fidelity of the ALI insert teleoperation when long-duration experiment in stable thermal and microgravity environment are required and (iii) the high repeatability of the controlled thermal disturbances. These key mechanisms were observed by light transmission and interferometry technique independently with two sample cells filled with pure SF6 at a near-critical density. The fluid samples are driven away from thermal equilibrium by using a heater directly implemented in the fluid, or a surface heater on a sapphire optical window. In the interferometry cell, the bulk massive heater distinguishes two symmetrical two-phase domains. The modification of the gas bubble shape is observed during heating. In the direct observation cell, the gas bubble is separated by a liquid film from the thin layered transparent heater deposited on the sapphire window. The liquid film drying and the triple contact line motion during heating are observed using light transmission. The experiments have been performed in a temperature range of 10 K below the critical temperature Tc, with special attention to the range 0.1 mK?T-T?3 mK very close to the critical temperature. The unique advantage of this investigation is to provide opportunities to observe the boiling phenomena at very low heat fluxes, thanks to the fine adjustment of the liquid-vapor properties, (e.g. surface tension), by precise control of the distance to the critical point. We present the new observations of the gas bubble spreading over the heating surface which characterizes the regime where vapor bubbles nucleate separately and grow, as well as liquid drying, vapor film formation, triple contact line motion, which are the key mechanisms at the origin of the boiling crisis when the formed vapor film reduces the heat transfer drastically at the heater wall.

  4. Electrical Conductivity of Molten ZnCl2 at Temperature as High as 1421 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2015-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl2 was measured in a wide temperature range (?T=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  5. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  6. Improvements in the realization of the ITS-90 over the temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Ping, Q.

    2013-09-11

    The temperature primary standard over the range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver in National institute of Metrology (NIM), China, was established in the early 1990s. The performance of all of fixed-point furnaces degraded and needs to be updated due to many years of use. Nowadays, the satisfactory fixed point materials can be available with the development of the modern purification techniques. NIM plans to use a group of three cells for each defining fixed point temperature. In this way the eventual drift of individual cells can be evidenced by periodic intercomparison and this will increase the reliability in disseminating the ITS-90 in China. This article describes the recent improvements in realization of ITS-90 over temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM. Taking advantages of the technological advances in the design and manufacture of furnaces, the new three-zone furnaces and the open-type fixed points were developed from the freezing point of indium to the freezing point of silver, and a furnace with the three-zone semiconductor cooling was designed to automatically realize the melting point of gallium. The reproducibility of the new melting point of gallium and the new open-type freezing points of In, Sn, Zn. Al and Ag is improved, especially the freezing points of Al and Ag with the reproducibility of 0.2mK and 0.5mK respectively. The expanded uncertainty in the realization of these defining fixed point temperatures is 0.34mK, 0.44mK, 0.54mK, 0.60mK, 1.30mK and 1.88mK respectively.

  7. Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

    2013-09-11

    The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

  8. Improvements in Predicting Void Fraction in Subcooled Boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kwi Seok; Lee, Yong Bum; No, Hee Cheon

    2005-06-15

    A simple two-phase thermal-hydraulic tool with the drift-flux model has been used to develop a subcooled boiling model. The tool is composed of four governing equations: mixture mass, vapor mass, mixture momentum, and mixture enthalpy. Using the developed tool, various subcooled boiling models were investigated through the published experimental data. In the process of evaluation, two models were developed associated with the subcooled boiling. First, the Saha and Zuber correlation predicting the point of the net vapor generation was modified to consider the thermal and dynamic effects at the high-velocity region. Second, the pumping factor model was developed using the pi-theorem based on parameters related to the bubble generation mechanism, and it produced an additional parameter: the boiling number. The proposed models and several other models were evaluated against a series of subcooled flow boiling experiments at the pressure range of 1 to 146.8 bars. From the root-mean-square analysis for the predicted void fraction in the subcooled boiling region, the results of the proposed model presented the best predictions for the whole-pressure ranges. Also, the implementation of the developed models into RELAP5/MOD3.3 brought about improved results compared to those of the default model of the code.

  9. High flux film and transition boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report is a bench-scale experiment on transition boiling. The author gives a detailed description on experimental apparatus and conditions. The visual observed boiling phenomena; nucleate boiling and film boiling, and the effect of heat transfer are also elucidated. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Liquid Oxygen Liquid Acquisition Device Bubble Point Tests with High Pressure LOX at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2011-01-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth s gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMD) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122K) as part of NASA s continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  11. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  12. Point-of-care temperature and respiration monitoring sensors for smart fabric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in smart sensors, miniaturization, and related technologies leading to the emergence of smart fabrics are prerequisites to the construction of a point-of-care (POC) system for continuous health monitoring and illness prevention. Low manufacturing cost, light weight, portability and flexibility are among the requirements for smart sensors when embedded into smart fabrics. Organic semiconductor technology has recently been envisioned to meet these requirements, and to encourage the development of organic semiconductor based sensors because of its low process temperature and potential for very low cost manufacturing. In this paper, we present flexible sensors based on an organic semiconductor capable of measuring physiological parameters such as strain and temperature, adopting pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) and Wheatstone bridge structures. It is expected that these sensors, integrated into textile structures, will enable real time POC monitoring of a patient's respiration rate, skin temperature, body heat flow and body temperature at an early stage.

  13. Subcooled flow boiling of fluorocarbons

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Richard Walter

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted of heat transfer and hydrodynamic behavior for subcooled flow boiling of Freon-113, one of a group of fluorocarbons suitable for use in cooling of high-power-density electronic components. Problems ...

  14. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2015-09-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG system to provide ˜95% MPPT efficiency when the input temperature is changing at 5°C/s.

  15. Determining the structural phase transition point from the temperature of 40Ca+ Coulomb crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Du, Li-Jun; Song, Hong-Fang; Liu, Pei-Liang; Huang, Yao; Tong, Xin; Guan, Hua; Gao, Ke-Lin

    2014-12-01

    We observed the linear-to-zigzag structural phase transition of a 40Ca+ crystal in a homemade linear Paul trap. The values of the total temperature of the ion crystals during the phase transition are derived using the molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation method. A series of simulations revealed that the ratio of the radial to axial secular frequencies has a dependence on the total temperature that obeys different functional forms for linear and zigzag structures, and the transition point occurs where these functions intersect; thus, the critical value of the ratio of secular frequencies that drives the structure phase transition can be derived.

  16. Simultaneous neutron radiography and infrared thermography measurement of boiling processes

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.H.; Glickstein, S.S.

    1997-02-01

    Boiling of water at 1 to 15 bar flowing upward within a narrow duct and a round test section was observed using both neutron radiography and infrared (IR) thermography. The IR readings of the test section outer wall temperatures show the effects of both fluid temperature and wall heat transfer coefficient variations, producing a difference between liquid and two phase regions. The IR images, in fact, appear very similar to the neutron images; both show clear indications of spatial and temporal variations in the internal fluid conditions during the boiling process.

  17. Simultaneous neutron radiography and infrared thermography measurement of boiling processes

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.H.; Glickstein, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    Boiling of water at 1 to 15 bar flowing upward within a narrow duct and a round test section was observed using both neutron radiography and infrared (IR) thermography. The IR readings of the test section outer wall temperatures show the effects of both fluid temperature and wall heat transfer coefficient variations, producing a difference between liquid and two phase regions. The IR images, in fact, appear very similar to the neutron images; both show clear indications of spatial and temporal variations in the internal fluid conditions during the boiling process.

  18. Influence of Point Defects on the Shear Elastic Coefficients and on the Melting Temperature of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanigel, Amit; Adler, Joan; Polturak, Emil

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the influence of point defects on the shear elastic properties of copper. We find that vacancies do not influence these properties at all, while the introduction of interstitials causes a large reduction of the elastic coefficients. The simulations establish a phase diagram of the melting temperature as a function of the density of interstitials. A crystal having no free surface undergoes bulk mechanical melting as a result of the vanishing of C'?(C11-C12)/2 once the specific volume reaches a critical value, equal to the experimental volume of liquid phase. This critical volume is history independent, in the sense that it does not depend on whether is it reached by heating the crystal or by adding defects at a constant temperature. These results generalize the Born model of melting for the case where point defects are present.

  19. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate to within about 0.005 degrees Celsius (?C). In addition to assessing the effects of point-source heat trades, the models were used to evaluate the temperature effects of several shade-restoration scenarios. Restoration of riparian shade along the entire Long Tom River, from its mouth to Fern Ridge Dam, was calculated to have a small but significant effect on daily maximum temperatures in the main-stem Willamette River, on the order of 0.03?C where the Long Tom River enters the Willamette River, and diminishing downstream. Model scenarios also were run to assess the effects of restoring selected 5-mile reaches of riparian vegetation along the main-stem Willamette River from river mile (RM) 176.80, just upstream of the point where the McKenzie River joins the Willamette River, to RM 116.87 near Albany, which is one location where cumulative point-source heating effects are at a maximum. Restoration of riparian vegetation along the main-stem Willamette River was shown by model runs to have a significant local effect on daily maximum river temperatures (0.046 to 0.194?C) at the site of restoration. The magnitude of the cooling depends on many factors including river width, flow, time of year, and the difference in vegetation characteristics between current and restored conditions. Downstream of the restored reach, the cooling effects are complex and have a nodal nature: at one-half day of travel time downstream, shade restoration has little effect on daily maximum temperature because water passes the restoration site at night; at 1 full day of travel time downstream, cooling effects increase to a second, diminished maximum. Such spatial complexities may complicate the trading of heat allocations between point and nonpoint sources. Upstream dams have an important effect on water temperature in the Willamette River system as a result of augmented flows as well as modified temperature releases over the course of the summer and autumn. The TMDL was formulated prior t

  20. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model can be used to interpolate predictions for low surface tension cryogenic liquids only when pore diameters are based on room temperature bubble point tests and not SEM analysis as presently implemented.

  1. The effect of water contamination on the dew-point temperature scale realization with humidity generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilbaste, M.; Heinonen, M.; Saks, O.; Leito, I.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of contaminated water in the context of humidity generators. Investigation of different methods to determine the drop in dew-point temperature due to contamination and experiments on actual contamination rates are reported. Different methods for calculating the dew-point temperature effect from electrical conductivity and density measurements are studied with high-purity water and aqueous solutions of NaCl and LiCl. The outcomes of the calculation methods are compared with the results of direct humidity measurements. The results show that the often applied Raoult's law based calculation method is in good agreement with other methods. For studying actual contamination, water samples were kept in glass, plastic, copper and stainless-steel vessels for up to 13 months to investigate natural ionic and organic contamination in vessels with different wall materials. The amount of ionic contamination was found to be higher in copper and glass vessels than in stainless-steel and plastic vessels. The amount of organic contamination was found to be highest in the plastic vessel. In all the cases, however, the corresponding drop in dew-point temperature due to natural contamination was found to be below 0.1 mK. The largest rate of change of dew-point temperature was 26 µK/month. Thus, if proper cleanness is maintained in a humidity generator the effect of contamination of water in the saturator is insignificant compared with the major uncertainty components even in the most accurate generators today.

  2. Relationship Between Ice Nucleation Temperature Depression and Equilibrium Melting Points Depression of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimizuka, Norihito; Suzuki, Toru

    We measured the ice nucleation temperature depression , ?Tf , and equilibrium melting points depression, ?Tm, of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos with different cryoprotectant (ethylene glycol, 1.3-propanediol, 1.4-butanediol, glycerol aqueous solutions) treatments. Our obtained results showed the good relationship between the ?Tf ,and ?Tm all samples. In addition the value of ? , which can be obtained from the linear relationship, ?Tf =? ?Tm, were confirmed to show correlation with the value of ? , as obtained by the W/O emulsion method.

  3. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  4. Multi-mode methanol flow boiling under atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.W.; Liao, Y.C.; Lee, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    This is a continuation work of Lin and Lee (1996 National Heat Transfer Conference, Houston) while reporting the experimental results of multi-mode methanol flow boiling under atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures. An axial (discrete) heat flux distribution with neutral stability at which nucleate and film boiling can coexist steadily is identified under various system pressures and crossflow rates. Below this heat flux distribution, nucleate boiling mode is more stable. Above this distribution, film boiling becomes the more stable mode. An equal-area criterion based on the difference between bottom heat flux and surface boiling heat flux, and the wall superheat temperature relationship is employed for interpreting the experimental data. Effects of system pressure, mass flowrate, liquid subcooling and bottom heat flux on the relative stability of nucleate and film boiling modes are discussed.

  5. Triple point temperature of neon isotopes: Dependence on nitrogen impurity and sealed-cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.; Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper illustrates a study conducted at INRIM, to further check how some quantities influence the value of the triple point temperature of the neon high-purity isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. The influence of nitrogen as a chemical impurity in neon is critical with regard to the present best total uncertainty achieved in the measurement of these triple points, but only one determination is available in the literature. Checks are reported, performed on two different samples of {sup 22}Ne known to contain a N{sub 2} amount of 157?10{sup ?6}, using two different models of sealed cells. The model of the cell can, in principle, have some effects on the shape of the melting plateau or on the triple point temperature observed for the sample sealed in it. This can be due to cell thermal parameters, or because the INRIM cell element mod. c contains many copper wires closely packed, which can, in principle, constrain the interface and induce a premelting-like effect. The reported results on a cell mod. Bter show no evident effect from the cell model and provide a value for the effect of N{sub 2} in Ne liquidus point of 8.6(1.9) ?K ppm N{sub 2}{sup ?1}, only slightly different from the literature datum.

  6. Temperature dependence of three-point correlation functions of viscous liquids: the case of glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle-Ferrier, Cécile; Eibl, Stefan; Pappas, Catherine; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2008-12-01

    What causes the dramatic slowing down of flow and relaxation that leads to glass formation in liquids as temperature decreases is hardly understood so far and is the subject of intensive research work. It is tempting to ascribe the strong temperature dependence of the dynamics, irrespective of molecular details, to a collective or cooperative behavior characterized by a length scale that grows as one approaches the glass transition. To access this length experimentally, we use the recently introduced three-point dynamic susceptibility, from which the number of molecules dynamically correlated during the structural relaxation, Ncorr, can be extracted. The three-point functions are related to the sensitivity of the averaged two-time dynamics to external control parameters, such as temperature and density. We studied Ncorr values in an important temperature range for a large number of liquids, and found that it systematically grows when approaching the glass transition. Here we specially emphasize the case of glycerol for which we combined dielectric and neutron spin echo spectroscopy to cover more than 16 decades in relaxation time.

  7. Stability monitoring for boiling water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecenas-Falcon, Miguel

    1999-11-01

    A methodology is presented to evaluate the stability properties of Boiling Water Reactors based on a reduced order model, power measurements, and a non-linear estimation technique. For a Boiling Water Reactor, the feedback reactivity imposed by the thermal-hydraulics has an important effect in the system stability, where the dominant contribution to this feedback reactivity is provided by the void reactivity. The feedback reactivity is a function of the operating conditions of the system, and cannot be directly measured. However, power measurements are relatively easy to obtain from the nuclear instrumentation and process computer, and are used in conjunction with a reduced order model to estimate the gain of the thermal-hydraulics feedback using an Extended Kalman Filter. The reduced order model is obtained by estimating the thermal-hydraulic transfer function from the frequency-domain BWR code LAPUR, and the stability properties are evaluated based on the pair of complex conjugate eigenvalues. Because of the recursive nature of the Kalman Filter, an estimate of the decay ratio is generated every sampling time, allowing continuous estimation of the stability parameters. A test platform based on a nuclear-coupled boiling channel is developed to validate the capability of the BWR stability monitoring methodology. The thermal-hydraulics for the boiling channel is modeled and coupled with neutron kinetics to analyze the non-linear dynamics of the closed-loop system. The model uses point kinetics to study core-wide oscillations, and normalized modal kinetics are introduced to study out-of-phase oscillations. The coolant flow dynamics is dominant in the power fluctuations observed by in-core nuclear instrumentation, and additive white noise is added to the solution for the channel flow in the thermal-hydraulic model to generate noisy power time series. The operating conditions of the channel can be modified to accommodate a wide range of stability conditions. Autoregressive analysis performed with the computer-generated series agrees with the stability properties of the boiling channel and with the results of the reduced order model method. Finally, a method to separate the fundamental and first harmonic modes form LPRM readings is presented and tested with computer simulations and plant data.

  8. Rotational and vibrational temperatures in a hydrogen discharge with a magnetic X-point

    SciTech Connect

    Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Toko, Kaoru

    2012-12-15

    A novel plasma source with a magnetic X-point has been developed to probe an alternative for cesium-free negative hydrogen ion production. This study presents first results for the gas and vibrational temperatures in the source at 1 Pa and various RF powers. The temperatures are obtained from analysis of the intensity distribution of the molecular Fulcher-{alpha} bands. The gas temperature increases with the RF power, while the vibrational temperature remains constant in the studied range of RF powers. Both quantities show no appreciable spatial dependence. The obtained high values of the vibrational temperatures indicate a high population of the vibrational levels, favourable for the volume negative ion production. A theoretical concept indicates the presence of an optimum value for the vibrational temperature at which the negative hydrogen ion yield by volume processes has a maximum. Coincidently, the measured value is close to this optimum. This indicates that the novel concept can provide certain advantages compared to other sources based on volume production.

  9. Evaluation of local temperature around the impact points of fast ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Kitayama, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Nakajima, K.; Narumi, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Toulemonde, M.; Kimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gold and platinum nanoparticles of few-nm size were deposited on amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN) films. These samples were irradiated with 1.1 MeV C603+ ions to a fluence of ?5 × 1010 ions/cm2 and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ion tracks were clearly seen as bright spots and the metal nanoparticles disappeared from a neighboring region (5-10 nm) around each ion track. The platinum-nanoparticle-cleared region is slightly smaller than that of gold nanoparticles. This trend can be reproduced by the u-TS calculations assuming that the nanoparticles are desorbed when the local temperature surpasses the melting point of nanoparticles as was predicted by molecular dynamics simulations (Anders et al., 2009). This indicates that the temperature distribution in a nanometer region can be evaluated by observing the desorption of nanoparticles of different metals having different melting temperatures.

  10. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the gas... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section...

  11. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the gas... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the gas... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the gas... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section...

  14. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the gas... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  1. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  2. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  3. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  4. Zero Boil-Off System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, D. W.; Johnson, W. L.; Feller, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASA's future space exploration plans due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for long duration missions. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler temperature to control tank pressure. The technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center in a vacuum chamber and cryoshroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  5. Numerical investigation on boiling flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical tube using bubble number density approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xuefeng; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Rongshun

    2015-06-01

    An average bubble number density (ABND) model was formulated and numerically resolved for the subcooled flow boiling of liquid nitrogen. The effects of bubble coalescence and breakup were taken into account. Some new closure correlations describing bubble nucleation and departure on the heating surface were selected as well. For the purpose of comparison, flow boiling of liquid nitrogen was also numerically simulated using a modified two-fluid model. The results show that the simulations performed by using the ABND model achieve encouraging improvement in accuracy in predicting heat flux and wall temperature of a vertical tube. Moreover, the influence of the bubble coalescence and breakup is shown to be great on predicting overall pressure beyond the transition point.

  6. Improving coal-liquid quality by heavy-distillate recycle. [Product boiling below 590/sup 0/F

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent runs in the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction unit show that heavy distillate can be recycled to extinction; i.e., a product boiling entirely below 590/sup 0/F (or other selected boiling point) is feasible. Distillate yield was not reduced. Gas make was unaffected. And hydrogen consumption increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of light products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. The product endpoint is well below 700/sup 0/F, the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  7. Developing a numerical model of frost boils dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, D. J.; Tipenko, G. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2003-12-01

    The research was initiated as a part of biocomplexity project, which investigates cryoturbation in continuous permafrost regions in the Arctic. The project explores influence of climate (mean annual and summer temperatures, and snow cover depth and density), vegetation layer composition and physical properties, soil textures and moisture content on evolution of frost boils. The work deals with analysis of temperature regimes and moisture distribution and dynamics during seasonal cycles of freezing and thawing. The research focuses on the development of a computational approach to the study of frost boils as a self-organized system. The model is calibrated using temperature and moisture content data collected from a field experiment at two study sites. A thermo-mechanical model of the frost boil phenomena based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics will be presented. The model includes the energy and mass conservation equations, continuity equation, the Clausius-Claiperon equation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for temperature, pore water pressure and porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of equations, which was solved iteratively. The model describes dynamics of frost boils and helps to explain geometric form and size of distinctly visible patterned ground north of the Alaska's Brook Range.

  8. Zero Boil-Off System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASA's future space exploration due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages suitable for transporting 10s to 100s of metric tons of payload mass to destinations outside of low earth orbit and for their return. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for missions with durations greater than several months. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler to control tank pressure. The active thermal control technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center, in a vacuum chamber and cryoshroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. Testing consisted of three passive tests with the active cryocooler system off, and 7 active tests, with the cryocooler powered up. The test matrix included zero boil-off tests performed at 90 full and 25 full, and several demonstrations at excess cooling capacity and reduced cooling capacity. From this, the tank pressure response with varied cryocooler power inputs was determined. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  9. Effect of additives on the cloud point temperature of 2-hydroxy-3-isopropoxypropyl starch solutions.

    PubMed

    Ju, Benzhi; Cao, Shouqin; Zhang, Shufen

    2013-10-01

    Temperature-responsive polymers with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) have attracted much attention in biomedical and biotechnological fields. It is important to tune their cloud point temperature (Tc) in a broad temperature range as desired by the applications. In this study, new thermo-responsive 2-hydroxy-3-isopropoxypropyl starches (HIPS) was synthesized using Hylon V starch as raw material and isopropyl glycidyl ether as hydrophobic reagent. The phase transition behavior of HIPS and their Tc were determined by spectrophotometry. The effects of several conditions on the Tc of the HIPS were also investigated, which indicated that varying the molar substitution (MS) of HIPS can adjust Tc in a broad temperature range from 69 to 28 °C by changing the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of starch. The phase transition became fast and the Tc decreased with increasing polymer concentration. The effect of a series of sodium salts on the Tc of aqueous HIPS solutions was reported and the effectiveness of ions follows a trend, known as Hofmeister series. Several organic solvents were selected and the organic additives with small molecular weight can also regulate the Tc of HIPS in a certain range by changing the polymer-water interactions. PMID:24007363

  10. The Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Chao, David; Vergilii, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Boiling is an effective means of cooling by removing heat from surfaces through vaporization of a working fluid. It is also affected by both the magnitude and direction of gravity. By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy n the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. The Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) is being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox. This facility will conduct two pool boiling studies. The first study the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment (MABE) uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 mm and 7.0 mm in size, to measure localized hear fluxes while operating at a constant temperature. The other experiment, the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment (NPBX) uses a 85 mm diameter heater wafer that has been "seeded" with five individually-controlled nucleation sites to study bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and departure. The BXF uses normal-perfluorohexane as the test fluid and will operate between pressures of 60 to 244 Pa. and temperatures of 35 to 60 C. Both sets of experimental heaters are highly instrumented. Pressure and bulk fluid temperature measurements will be made with standard rate video. A high speed video system will be used to visualize the boiling process through the bottom of the MABE heater arrays. The BXF is currently scheduled to fly on Utilization Flight-13A.1 to the ISS with facility integration into the MSG and operation during Increment 15

  11. Research on radiation detectors, boiling transients, and organic lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The accomplishments of a space projects research facility are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) a study of radiation resistant semiconductor devices, (2) synthesis of high temperature organic lubricants, (3) departure from phase equilibrium during boiling transients, (4) effects of neutron irradiation on defect state in tungsten, and (5) determination of photon response function of NE-213 liquid scintillation detectors.

  12. Temperature evolution of subharmonic gap structures in MgB 2/Nb point-contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, F.; Bobba, F.; Scarfato, A.; Piano, S.; Aprili, M.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2007-09-01

    We have performed point-contact spectroscopy experiments on superconducting micro-constrictions between Nb tips and high quality MgB2 pellets. We measured the temperature evolution (between 4.2 K and 300 K) of the current-voltage (I-V) and of the dynamical conductance (dI/dV-V) characteristics. Above the Nb critical temperature TCNb , the conductance of the constrictions behaves as predicted by the BTK model for S/N contacts being Nb in its normal state below TCNb , the contacts show Josephson current and subharmonic gap structures, due to multiple Andreev reflections. These observations clearly indicate the coupling of the MgB2 3D ?-band with the Nb superconducting order parameter. We found ?? = 2.4 ± 0.2 meV for the three-dimensional gap of MgB2.

  13. Self-validating type C thermocouples to 2300 °C using high temperature fixed points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.; Elliott, C. J.; Machin, G.; Ongrai, O.

    2013-09-01

    Above 1500 °C, tungsten-rhenium (W-Re) thermocouples are the most commonly used contact thermometers because they are practical and inexpensive. However in general loss of calibration is very rapid, and, due to their embrittlement at high temperature, it is generally not possible to remove them for recalibration from the process environments in which they are used. Even if removal for recalibration was possible this would be of, at best, very limited use due to large inhomogeneity effects. Ideally, these thermocouples require some mechanism to monitor their drift in-situ. In this study, we describe self-validation of Type C (W5%Re/W26%Re) thermocouples by means of miniature high temperature fixed points comprising crucibles containing respectively Co-C, Pt-C, Ru-C, and Ir-C eutectic alloys. An overview of developments in this area is presented.

  14. Characterization of Monodispersed ?-Al2O3 Particles, Synthesized by Homogeneous Precipitation under Reflux Boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Ikram Ul; Akhtar, Khalida; Khan, Zia Ullah

    2015-07-01

    In this study, micron size uniform particles of aluminum compounds were synthesized by the homogeneous precipitation method under reflux boiling, using aluminum nitrate, urea and potassium sulfate as starting materials. In this method, varying amounts of the reactants were heated in a Pyrex glass round bottom flask at the boiling temperature for various periods of time, which led to the production of precipitated particles in the reactant mixtures. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of the precipitated particles revealed that uniformity in particle morphology of the precipitated particles was dependent on the applied experimental conditions. As such, the latter were extensively optimized for obtaining particles of uniform morphology and size. Some of the batches of the precipitated particles were calcined at the elevated temperature (800 and 1000 °C) for transformation into crystalline solids. Similarly, the as prepared and calcined particles were characterized by SEM, XRD, TGA/DTA and FTIR. XRD results revealed that at 1000 °C of calcinations, the as prepared amorphous alumina transformed in to crystalline state, while below this temperature, i.e. at 800 °C calcination, the powder was amorphous in nature. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the desired sample was estimated by the salt addition method.

  15. Thermohydrodynamics of boiling in binary compressible fluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiewei; Do-Quang, Minh; Amberg, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    We numerically study the thermohydrodynamics of boiling for a CO_{2} + ethanol mixture on lyophilic and lyophobic surfaces in both closed and open systems, based on a diffuse interface model for a two-component system. The corresponding wetting boundary conditions for an isothermal system are proposed and verified in this paper. New phenomena due to the addition of another component, mainly the preferential evaporation of the more volatile component, are observed. In the open system and the closed system, the physical process shows very different characteristics. In the open system, except for the movement of the contact line, the qualitative features are rather similar for lyophobic and lyophilic surfaces. In the closed system, the vortices that are observed on a lyophobic surface are not seen on a lyophilic surface. More sophisticated wetting boundary conditions for nonisothermal, two-component systems might need to be further developed, taking into account the variations of density, temperature, and surface tension near the wall, while numerical results show that the boundary conditions proposed here also work well even in boiling, where the temperature is nonuniform. PMID:26565342

  16. Thermohydrodynamics of boiling in binary compressible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiewei; Do-Quang, Minh; Amberg, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    We numerically study the thermohydrodynamics of boiling for a CO2 + ethanol mixture on lyophilic and lyophobic surfaces in both closed and open systems, based on a diffuse interface model for a two-component system. The corresponding wetting boundary conditions for an isothermal system are proposed and verified in this paper. New phenomena due to the addition of another component, mainly the preferential evaporation of the more volatile component, are observed. In the open system and the closed system, the physical process shows very different characteristics. In the open system, except for the movement of the contact line, the qualitative features are rather similar for lyophobic and lyophilic surfaces. In the closed system, the vortices that are observed on a lyophobic surface are not seen on a lyophilic surface. More sophisticated wetting boundary conditions for nonisothermal, two-component systems might need to be further developed, taking into account the variations of density, temperature, and surface tension near the wall, while numerical results show that the boundary conditions proposed here also work well even in boiling, where the temperature is nonuniform.

  17. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    E-print Network

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V

    2015-01-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  18. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    E-print Network

    Anastasiya V. Pimenova; Denis S. Goldobin

    2015-10-08

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  19. Realization of tin freezing point using a loop heat pipe-based hydraulic temperature control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Wukchul; Gam, Kee Sool; Kim, Yong-Gyoo

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the freezing point of tin (Sn FP) was realized by inside nucleation where the supercooling of tin and the reheating of the sample after the nucleation were achieved without extracting the cell from an isothermal apparatus. To this end, a novel hydraulic temperature control technique, which was based on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of a pressure-controlled loop heat pipe (LHP), was employed to provide a slow cooling of the sample for deep supercooling and fast reheating after nucleation to minimize the amount of initial freeze of the sample. The required temperature controls were achieved by the active pressure control of a control gas inside the compensation chamber of the pressure-controlled LHP, and slow cooling at??-0.05 K min-1 for the deep supercooling of tin and fast heating at 2 K min-1 for reheating the sample after nucleation was attained. Based on this hydraulic temperature control technique, the nucleation of tin was realized at supercooling of around 19 K, and a satisfactorily fast reheating of the sample to the plateau-producing temperature (i.e. 0.5 K below the Sn FP) was achieved without any temperature overshoots of the isothermal region. The inside-nucleated Sn FP showed many desirable features compared to the Sn FP realized by the conventional outside nucleation method. The longer freezing plateaus and the better immersion characteristics of the Sn FP were obtained by inside nucleation, and the measured freezing temperature of the inside-nucleated Sn FP was as much as 0.37 mK higher than the outside-nucleated Sn FP with an expanded uncertainty of 0.19 mK. Details on the experiment are provided and explanations for the observed differences are discussed.

  20. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. A miniature high-temperature fixed point for self-validation of type C thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongrai, O.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2011-10-01

    Reliable high-temperature (>1500 °C) measurement is crucial for a wide range of industrial processes as well as specialized applications, e.g. aerospace. The most common type of sensor used for high-temperature measurement is the thermocouple. At and above 1500 °C, tungsten-rhenium (W-Re) thermocouples are the most commonly used temperature sensors due to their utility up to 2300 °C. However, the achievable accuracy of W-Re thermocouples is seriously limited by the effects of their inhomogeneity, drift and hysteresis. Furthermore, due to their embrittlement at high temperature, the removal of these thermocouples from environments such as nuclear power plants or materials processing furnaces for recalibration is generally not possible. Even if removal for recalibration were possible, this would be of, at best, very limited use due to large inhomogeneity effects. Ideally, these thermocouples require some mechanism to monitor their drift in situ. In this study, we describe a miniature Co-C eutectic fixed-point cell to evaluate the stability of type C (W5%Re/W26%Re) thermocouples by means of in situ calibration.

  2. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  3. Assessment of RETRAN-3D Boiling Models Against Experimental Subcooled Boiling Tube Data

    SciTech Connect

    Macian, Rafael; Coddington, Paul; Stangroom, Paul

    2003-04-15

    Subcooled and saturated nucleate boiling are important physical processes in boiling water reactors (BWRs) under operating and transient conditions and in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) under transient conditions. Good predictions of such processes by system codes such as RETRAN-3D are, therefore, important from a safety and operational point of view.For this reason, and continuing the validation efforts carried out in the STARS Project at Paul Scherrer Institute, data from experiments in a uniformly heated tube carried out by Bartolomey et al. have been used to assess the subcooled and saturated nucleate boiling models in RETRAN-3D. These experiments were performed at high ({approx}15-MPa) and medium ({approx}7-, 4-, and 3-MPa) pressures. The heat flux (2210 to 420 kW/m{sup 2}) and mass flux (2123 to 405 kg/s m{sup 2}) were selected to cover a range of values spanning operating and transient situations in both BWRs and PWRs.This paper reports on the results obtained with both the four- and five-equation RETRAN-3D flow models. The results show that both models used in RETRAN-3D provide good estimates of subcooled and saturated nucleate boiling in heated tubes. The four-equation model, which makes use of the Electric Power Research Institute void fraction profile fitting model for the reactivity feedback only, shows the best performance for high mass fluxes, whereas the five-equation model, which directly computes the vaporization rate, performs better at low mass fluxes and relatively high heat fluxes.In addition to the results from RETRAN-3D, results obtained with the system code RELAP-5 are included in the plots and used to support the conclusions and to perform a comparative analysis of the methods used by the codes.

  4. Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate the post-DNB heater temperature up to the point of heater melting. Validation of the proposed model was performed using detailed measured wall boiling parameters near CHF, thereby bypassing most needed constitutive relations. It was found that under limiting nucleation conditions; a peak wall temperature at the time of bubble departure can be reached at CHF preventing wall cooling by quenching. The simulations show that the resulting dry patch can survive the surrounding quenching event, preventing further nucleation and leading to a fast heater temperature increase. For more practical applications, the model was applied at known CHF conditions in simple geometry coupled with one-dimensional and three-dimensional (CFD) codes. It was found that, in the case where CHF occurs under bubbly flow conditions, the local wall superheat underneath nucleating bubbles is predicted to reach the Leidenfrost temperature. However, a better knowledge of statistical variations in wall boiling parameters would be necessary to correctly capture the CHF trends with mass flux (or Weber number). In addition, consideration of relevant parameter influences on the Leidenfrost temperature and consideration of interfacial microphysics at the wall would allow improved simulation of the wall rewetting prevention and subsequent dry patch spreading.

  5. Lifshitz transitions and zero point lattice fluctuations in sulfur hydride showing near room temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Antonio; Jarlborg, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Emerets's experiments on pressurized sulfur hydride have shown that H3S metal has the highest known superconducting critical temperature Tc = 203 K. The Emerets data show pressure induced changes of the isotope coefficient between 0.25 and 0.5, in disagreement with Eliashberg theory which predicts a nearly constant isotope coefficient.We assign the pressure dependent isotope coefficient to Lifshitz transitions induced by pressure and zero point lattice fluctuations. It is known that pressure could induce changes of the topology of the Fermi surface, called Lifshitz transitions, but were neglected in previous papers on the H3S superconductivity issue. Here we propose thatH3S is a multi-gap superconductor with a first condensate in the BCS regime (located in the large Fermi surface with high Fermi energy) which coexists with second condensates in the BCS-BEC crossover regime (located on the Fermi surface spots with small Fermi energy) near the and Mpoints.We discuss the Bianconi-Perali-Valletta (BPV) superconductivity theory to understand superconductivity in H3S since the BPV theory includes the corrections of the chemical potential due to pairing and the configuration interaction between different condensates, neglected by the Eliashberg theory. These two terms in the BPV theory give the shape resonance in superconducting gaps, similar to Feshbach resonance in ultracold fermionic gases, which is known to amplify the critical temperature. Therefore this work provides some key tools useful in the search for new room temperature superconductors.

  6. Melting hadrons, boiling quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. The material of this review is complemented by two early and unpublished reports containing the prediction of the different forms of hadron matter, and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the discussion of strangeness, and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.

  7. Evaluation of Correlations of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer of R22 in Horizontal Channels

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels. PMID:23956695

  8. The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner 

    E-print Network

    Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Co ntrol Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-4 The Influence of Operation Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner Jinghua Yu Changzhi Yang...

  9. Critical temperature of the leadbismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy Abdul-Majeed Azad *

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    ­52 www.elsevier.com/locate/jnucmat #12;etc. On the other hand metals such as Bi (melting point = 544 K; boiling point = 2022 K) and Pb (melting point = 600 K; boiling point = 1837 K) as well as the Pb­Bi eutectic alloy (LBE, melting point = 396 K; boil- ing point = 1943 K) have been serious contenders for use

  10. Sandwich heating film boiling heat transfer research in narrow rectangle channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. H.; Ni, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    The narrow rectangle channel heat transfer technique is a new developing heat transfer technique in recent years. In the narrow rectangle channel, film boiling is an important two-phase flow heat transfer process in many engineering application, including steam generator, nuclear reactor and engineering metallurgy. As the temperature of droplet, steam and wall are decided by forced convection heat transfer between the steam and the wall, the droplet and the wall, the steam and the droplet and radiation heat transfer process, which makes heat transfer mechanism of film boiling be difficultly interpretative. Film boiling in narrow rectangle channel is analyzed in the paper, investigating the influence of all kinds of heat transfer processes on film boiling. A rectangle channel film boiling model has been built up using thermodynamic non-equilibrium model.

  11. Physics of a disordered Dirac point in epitaxial graphene from temperature-dependent magnetotransport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Baker, A. M. R.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Antonov, V.; Yager, T.; Lara-Avila, S.; Kubatkin, S.; Yakimova, R.; Nicholas, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    We report a study of disorder effects on epitaxial graphene in the vicinity of the Dirac point by magnetotransport. Hall effect measurements show that the carrier density increases quadratically with temperature, in good agreement with theoretical predictions which take into account intrinsic thermal excitation combined with electron-hole puddles induced by charged impurities. We deduce disorder strengths in the range 10.2 -31.2 meV , depending on the sample treatment. We investigate the scattering mechanisms and estimate the impurity density to be 3.0 -9.1 ×1010cm-2 for our samples. A scattering asymmetry for electrons and holes is observed and is consistent with theoretical calculations for graphene on SiC substrates. We also show that the minimum conductivity increases with increasing disorder strength, in good agreement with quantum-mechanical numerical calculations.

  12. Computations of Boiling in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Jacqmin, David

    1999-01-01

    The absence (or reduction) of gravity, can lead to major changes in boiling heat transfer. On Earth, convection has a major effect on the heat distribution ahead of an evaporation front, and buoyancy determines the motion of the growing bubbles. In microgravity, convection and buoyancy are absent or greatly reduced and the dynamics of the growing vapor bubbles can change in a fundamental way. In particular, the lack of redistribution of heat can lead to a large superheat and explosive growth of bubbles once they form. While considerable efforts have been devoted to examining boiling experimentally, including the effect of microgravity, theoretical and computational work is limited to very simple models. In this project, the growth of boiling bubbles is studied by direct numerical simulations where the flow field is fully resolved and the effects of inertia, viscosity, surface deformation, heat conduction and convection, as well as the phase change, are fully accounted for. The proposed work is based on previously funded NASA work that allowed us to develop a two-dimensional numerical method for boiling flows and to demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate film boiling. While numerical simulations of multi-fluid flows have been advanced in a major way during the last five years, or so, similar capability for flows with phase change are still in their infancy. Although the feasibility of the proposed approach has been demonstrated, it has yet to be extended and applied to fully three-dimensional simulations. Here, a fully three-dimensional, parallel, grid adaptive code will be developed. The numerical method will be used to study nucleate boiling in microgravity, with particular emphasis on two aspects of the problem: 1) Examination of the growth of bubbles at a wall nucleation site and the instabilities of rapidly growing bubbles. Particular emphasis will be put on accurately capturing the thin wall layer left behind as a bubble expands along a wall, on computing instabilities on bubble surfaces as bubbles grow, and on quantifying the effects of both these phenomena on heat transfer; and 2) Examination of the effect of shear flow on bubble growth and heat transfer.

  13. Variation of Subcooled Film Boiling State in He II with the Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, M.; Murakami, M.; Yamamoto, I.; Kimura, N.

    2004-06-23

    The characteristic feature of subcooled film boiling in He II was experimentally studied. The visual observation and the transient pressure and temperature measurements were performed to investigate the variation of the subcooled film boiling state with the pressure. In the highly subcooled state, the boiling state was relatively stable and little dynamic behavior of the vapor layer was observed. The pressure and temperature oscillations were hardly detected. As the pressure is reduced and consequently the degree of subcooling decreases, the thickness of vapor layer becomes thick and the dynamic behavior gradually becomes violent. The pressure and temperature oscillations appear with a very high frequency around several kHz. As the pressure further decreases to near the lambda pressure, the boiling state changes to much more violent boiling state with a frequency of several hundred Hz. A vapor bubble repeats formation and crush periodically, which apparently resembles noisy film boiling in saturated He II. The boundary between the stable and the unstable boilings seems to be in the pressure higher than the lambda pressure.

  14. The effects of freezing, boiling and degreasing on the microstructure of bone.

    PubMed

    Lander, S L; Brits, D; Hosie, M

    2014-04-01

    The histology of bone has been a useful tool in research. It is commonly used to estimate the age of an individual at death, to assess if the bone is of human or non-human origin and in trauma analysis. Factors that affect the histology of bone include age, sex, population affinity and burning to name but a few. Other factors expected to affect bone histology are freezing, boiling and degreasing but very little information is available for freezing and the effect thereof, and it is unknown if boiling and degreasing affects bone histology. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of freezing, freezing and boiling, and freezing, boiling and degreasing on the histological structure of compact bone. Five cadaver tibiae were frozen at -20°C for 21 days followed by segments being boiled in water for three days and degreased in trichloroethylene at 82°C for three days. Anterior midshaft sections were prepared as ground sections and for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Quantitatively, there were no significant differences between freezing, boiling and degreasing; however, qualitative differences were observed using SEM. After being frozen the bone displayed cracks and after boiling the bones displayed erosion pits on the surface. It is suggested that further research, using different durations and temperatures for boiling and freezing be undertaken on bone samples representing different ages and various skeletal elements. PMID:24331160

  15. A WENO Algorithm of the Temperature and Ionization Profiles around a Point Source

    E-print Network

    Qiu, J M; Shu, C W; Fang, L Z; Qiu, Jing-Mei; Feng, Long-Long; Shu, Chi-Wang; Fang, Li-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    We develop a numerical solver for radiative transfer problems based on the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) scheme modified with anti-diffusive flux corrections, in order to solve the temperature and ionization profiles around a point source of photons in the reionization epoch. Algorithms for such simulation must be able to handle the following two features: 1. the sharp profiles of ionization and temperature at the ionizing front (I-front) and the heating front (T-front), and 2. the fraction of neutral hydrogen within the ionized sphere is extremely small due to the stiffness of the rate equations of atom processes. The WENO scheme can properly handle these two features, as it has been shown to have high order of accuracy and good convergence in capturing discontinuities and complicated structures in fluid as well as to be significantly superior over piecewise smooth solutions containing discontinuities. With this algorithm, we show the time-dependence of the preheated shell around a UV photon sou...

  16. POINT 2012: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2012-02-26

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B [R1]. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes: (1) publicly available nuclear data (the current ENDF/B data, available on-line at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/) and, (2) publicly available computer codes (the current PREPRO codes, available on-line at the Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/ndspub/endf/prepro/) and, (3) My own personal computer located in my home. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and described in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results: by its very nature I consider this data to be born in the public domain.

  17. Determination of the furnace effect of two high-temperature furnaces on metal-carbon eutectic points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Rougié, B.; Sadli, M.

    2013-09-01

    A method for the determination of the temperature distribution in the range from 1300 °C to 2500°C is introduced in this paper. This method was adapted to characterize the two high temperature furnaces used at LNE-Cnam: the Chino IR-R80 and the VNIIOFI HTBB 3200pg. Temperature profiles are given at three furnace temperatures, corresponding to the three most studied metal-carbon eutectic points: Co-C (1324 °C), Pt-C (1738 °C) and Re-C (2474 °C). These three fixed points were then studied in the two furnaces in different known temperature profiles, in order to determine their sensitivity to the temperature distribution. Finally, a discussion on what can be included in the term "furnace effect" is proposed.

  18. Flow boiling heat transfer in two-phase micro-channel heat sinksI. Experimental investigation and assessment

    E-print Network

    Qu, Weilin

    Flow boiling heat transfer in two-phase micro-channel heat sinks­­I. Experimental investigation is the first of a two-part study concerning measurement and prediction of saturated flow boiling heat transfer the point of zero thermodynamic equilibrium quality, and reveal the dominant heat transfer mechanism

  19. The Physics of Boiling at Burnout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theofanous, T. G.; Tu, J. P.; Dinh, T. N.; Salmassi, T.; Dinh, A. T.; Gasljevic, K.

    2000-01-01

    The basic elements of a new experimental approach for the investigation of burnout in pool boiling are presented. The approach consists of the combined use of ultrathin (nano-scale) heaters and high speed infrared imaging of the heater temperature pattern as a whole, in conjunction with highly detailed control and characterization of heater morphology at the nano and micron scales. It is shown that the burnout phenomenon can be resolved in both space and time. Ultrathin heaters capable of dissipating power levels, at steady-state, of over 1 MW/square m are demonstrated. A separation of scales is identified and it is used to transfer the focus of attention from the complexity of the two-phase mixing layer in the vicinity of the heater to a micron-scaled microlayer and nucleation and associated film-disruption processes within it.

  20. Nucleate pool boiling in the long duration low gravity environment of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Knoll, R. H.; Bentz, M. D.; Meserole, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The results are presented of an experimental study of nucleate pool boiling performed in the low gravity environment of the space shuttle. Photographic observations of pool boiling in Freon 113 were obtained during the 'Tank Pressure Control Experiment,' flown on the Space Transportation System, STS-43 in August 1991. Nucleate boiling data from large (relative to bubble size) flat heating surfaces (0.1046 by 0.0742 m) was obtained at very low heat fluxes (0.22 to 1.19 kW/sq m). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied in the range of 40 to 60 kPa and 3 to 5 C respectively. Thirty-eight boiling tests, each of 10-min duration for a given heat flux, were conducted. Measurements included the heater power, heater surface temperature, the liquid temperature and the system pressure as functions of heating time. Video data of the first 2 min of heating was recorded for each test. In some tests the video clearly shows the inception of boiling and the growth and departure of bubbles from the surface during the first 2 min of heating. In the absence of video data, the heater temperature variation during heating shows the inception of boiling and stable nucleate boiling. During the stable nucleate boiling, the wall superheat varied between 2.8 to 3.8 C for heat fluxes in the range of 0.95 to 1.19 kW/sq m. The wall superheat at the inception of boiling varied between 2 to 13 C.

  1. Nucleate pool boiling in the long duration low gravity environment of the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Knoll, R. H.; Bentz, M. D.; Meserole, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The results are presented of an experimental study of nucleate pool boiling performed in the low gravity environment of the space shuttle. Photographic observations of pool boiling in Freon 113 were obtained during the 'Tank Pressure Control Experiment', flown on the Space Transportation System STS-43 in August 1991. Nucleate boiling data from large (relative to bubble size) flat heating surfaces (0.1046 by 0.0742 m) was obtained at very low heat fluxes (0.22 to 1.19 kw/so m). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied in the range of 40 to 60 kPa and 3 to 5 C respectively. Thirty-eight boiling tests, each of 10 min duration for a given heat flux, were conducted. Measurements included the heater power, heater surface temperature, the liquid temperature and the system pressure as functions of heating time. Video data of the first 2 min of heating was recorded for each test. In some tests the video clearly shows the inception of boiling and the growth and departure of bubbles from the surface during the first 2 min of heating. In the absence of video data, the heater temperature variation during heating shows the inception of boiling and stable nucleate boiling. During the stable nucleate boiling, the wall superheat varied between 2.8 to 3.8 C for heat fluxes in the range of 0.95 to 1.19 kw/so m. The wall superheat at the inception of boiling varied between 2 to 13 C.

  2. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

  3. A WENO Algorithm of the Temperature and Ionization Profiles around a Point Source

    E-print Network

    Jing-Mei Qiu; Long-Long Feng; Chi-Wang Shu; Li-Zhi Fang

    2006-12-28

    We develop a numerical solver for radiative transfer problems based on the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) scheme modified with anti-diffusive flux corrections, in order to solve the temperature and ionization profiles around a point source of photons in the reionization epoch. Algorithms for such simulation must be able to handle the following two features: 1. the sharp profiles of ionization and temperature at the ionizing front (I-front) and the heating front (T-front), and 2. the fraction of neutral hydrogen within the ionized sphere is extremely small due to the stiffness of the rate equations of atom processes. The WENO scheme can properly handle these two features, as it has been shown to have high order of accuracy and good convergence in capturing discontinuities and complicated structures in fluid as well as to be significantly superior over piecewise smooth solutions containing discontinuities. With this algorithm, we show the time-dependence of the preheated shell around a UV photon source. In the first stage the I-front and T-front are coincident, and propagate with almost the speed of light. In later stage, when the frequency spectrum of UV photons is hardened, the speeds of propagation of the ionizing and heating fronts are both significantly less than the speed of light, and the heating front is always beyond the ionizing front. In the spherical shell between the I- and T-fronts, the IGM is heated, while atoms keep almost neutral. The time scale of the preheated shell evolution is dependent on the intensity of the photon source. We also find that the details of the pre-heated shell and the distribution of neutral hydrogen remained in the ionized sphere are actually sensitive to the parameters used. The WENO algorithm can provide stable and robust solutions to study these details.

  4. Heat Transfer Performances of Pool Boiling on Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    2000-01-01

    Nucleate boiling, especially near the critical heat flux (CHF), can provide excellent economy along with high efficiency of heat transfer. However, the performance of nucleate boiling may deteriorate in a reduced gravity environment and the nucleate boiling usually has a potentially dangerous characteristic in CHF regime. That is, any slight overload can result in burnout of the boiling surface because the heat transfer will suddenly move into the film-boiling regime. Therefore, enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer becomes more important in reduced gravity environments. Enhancing nucleate boiling and critical heat flux can be reached using micro-configured metal-graphite composites as the boiling surface. Thermocapillary force induced by temperature difference between the graphite-fiber tips and the metal matrix, which is independent of gravity, will play an important role in bubble detachment. Thus boiling heat transfer performance does not deteriorate in a reduced-gravity environment. Based on the existing experimental data, and a two-tier theoretical model, correlation formulas are derived for nucleate boiling on the copper-graphite and aluminum-graphite composite surfaces, in both the isolated and coalesced bubble regimes. Experimental studies were performed on nucleate pool boiling of pentane on cooper-graphite (Cu-Gr) and aluminum-graphite (Al-Gr) composite surfaces with various fiber volume concentrations for heat fluxes up to 35 W per square centimeter. It is revealed that a significant enhancement in boiling heat transfer performance on the composite surfaces is achieved, due to the presence of micro-graphite fibers embedded in the matrix. The onset of nucleate boiling (the isolated bubble regime) occurs at wall superheat of about 10 C for the Cu-Gr surface and 15 C for the Al-Gr surface, much lower than their respective pure metal surfaces. Transition from an isolated bubble regime to a coalesced bubble regime in boiling occurs at a superheat of about 14 C on Cu-Gr surface and 19 C on Al-Gr surface.

  5. A study of forced convection boiling under reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of activities conducted over the period 1/2/85-12/31/90, in which the study of forced convection boiling under reduced gravity was initiated. The study seeks to improve the understanding of the basic processes that constitute forced convection boiling by removing the buoyancy effects which may mask other phenomena. Specific objectives may also be expressed in terms of the following questions: (1) what effects, if any, will the removal of body forces to the lowest possible levels have on the forced convection boiling heat transfer processes in well-defined and meaningful circumstances? (this includes those effects and processes associated with the nucleation or onset of boiling during the transient increase in heater surface temperature, as well as the heat transfer and vapor bubble behaviors with established or steady-state conditions); and (2) if such effects are present, what are the boundaries of the relevant parameters such as heat flux, heater surface superheat, fluid velocity, bulk subcooling, and geometric/orientation relationships within which such effects will be produced?

  6. Experimental demonstration of contaminant removal from fractured rock by boiling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Liu, Xiaoling; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2010-08-15

    This study was conducted to experimentally demonstrate removal of a chlorinated volatile organic compound from fractured rock by boiling. A Berea sandstone core was contaminated by injecting water containing dissolved 1,2-DCA (253 mg/L) and sodium bromide (144 mg/L). During heating, the core was sealed except for one end, which was open to the atmosphere to simulate an open fracture. A temperature gradient toward the outlet was observed when boiling occurred in the core. This indicates that steam was generated and a pressure gradient developed toward the outlet, pushing steam vapor and liquid water toward the outlet. As boiling occurred, the concentration of 1,2-DCA in the condensed effluent peaked up to 6.1 times higher than the injected concentration. When 38% of the pore volume of condensate was produced, essentially 100% of the 1,2-DCA was recovered. Nonvolatile bromide concentration in the condensate was used as an indicator of the produced steam quality (vapor mass fraction) because it can only be removed as a solute, and not as a vapor. A higher produced steam quality corresponds to more concentrated 1,2-DCA removal from the core, demonstrating that the chlorinated volatile compound is primarily removed by partitioning into vapor phase flow. This study has experimentally demonstrated that boiling is an effective mechanism for CVOC removal from the rock matrix. PMID:20666474

  7. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  8. Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches.

  9. Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches. PMID:26281890

  10. Steady State Film Boiling Heat Transfer Simulated With Trace V4.160

    SciTech Connect

    Audrius Jasiulevicius; Rafael Macian-Juan

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the assessment and analysis of TRACE v4.160 heat transfer predictions in the post-CHF (critical heat flux) region and discusses the possibilities to improve the TRACE v4.160 code predictions in the film boiling heat transfer when applying different film boiling correlations. For this purpose, the TRACE v4.160-calculated film boiling heat flux and the resulting maximum inner wall temperatures during film boiling in single tubes were compared with experimental data obtained at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. The experimental database included measurements for pressures ranging from 30 to 200 bar and coolant mass fluxes from 500 to 3000 kg/m{sup 2}s. It was found that TRACE v4.160 does not produce correct predictions of the film boiling heat flux, and consequently of the maximum inner wall temperature in the test section, under the wide range of conditions documented in the KTH experiments. In particular, it was found that the standard TRACE v4.160 under-predicts the film boiling heat transfer coefficient at low pressure-low mass flux and high pressure-high mass flux conditions. For most of the rest of the investigated range of parameters, TRACE v4.160 over-predicts the film boiling heat transfer coefficient, which can lead to non-conservative predictions in applications to nuclear power plant analyses. Since no satisfactory agreement with the experimental database was obtained with the standard TRACE v4.160 film boiling heat transfer correlations, we have added seven film boiling correlations to TRACE v4.160 in order to investigate the possibility to improve the code predictions for the conditions similar to the KTH tests. The film boiling correlations were selected among the most commonly used film boiling correlations found in the open literature, namely Groeneveld 5.7, Bishop (2 correlations), Tong, Konkov, Miropolskii and Groeneveld-Delorme correlations. The only correlation among the investigated, which resulted in a significant improvement of TRACE predictions, was the Groeneveld 5.7. It was found, that replacing the current film boiling correlation (Dougall-Rohsenow) for the wall-togas heat transfer with Groeneveld 5.7 improves the code predictions for the film boiling heat transfer at high qualities in single tubes in the entire range of pressure and coolant mass flux considered. (authors)

  11. Turning point temperature and competition between relativistic and ponderomotive effects in self-focusing of laser beam in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R.; Jafari Milani, M. R.

    2013-10-15

    The propagation characters of Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities. The second-order differential equation of dimensionless beam width parameter is solved numerically, taking into account the effect of electron temperature. The results show that the ponderomotive force does not facilitate the relativistic self-focusing in all intensity ranges. In fact, there exists a certain intensity value that, if below this value, the ponderomotive nonlinearity can contribute to the relativistic self-focusing, or obstruct it, if above. It is also indicated that there is a temperature interval in which self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of this region. In addition, the results represent the existence of a “turning point temperature” in the mentioned interval that the self-focusing has the strongest power. The value of the turning point is dependent on laser intensity in which higher intensities result in higher turning point.

  12. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. PMID:26117498

  13. Cryogenic temperature monitoring in superconducting power transmission line at CERN with hybrid multi-point and distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Palmieri, L.; Consales, M.; Giordano, M.; Bajas, H.; Galtarossa, A.; Bajko, M.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    Distributed and multi-point fiber-optic based measurements of cryogenic temperature down to 30 K are presented. Measurements have been performed along the cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at CERN over a length of about 20 m. Multi-point measurements were based on two kinds of FBG with different coatings (epoxy and PMMA). In addition, distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimmide). Results confirm the viability of these approaches to monitor cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  14. Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Charignon, T; Lloveras, P; Chatain, D; Truskinovsky, L; Vives, E; Beysens, D; Nikolayev, V S

    2015-05-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough. PMID:26066249

  15. Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charignon, T.; Lloveras, P.; Chatain, D.; Truskinovsky, L.; Vives, E.; Beysens, D.; Nikolayev, V. S.

    2015-05-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough.

  16. Boils

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News 4/3/2014 The Burning Truth 12/19/2013 Osteopathic Training Statement 7/2/2013 The Truth About Tanning 4/24/2013 Sun Safety IQ Online Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  17. Polarized optical properties of forsterite from room temperature up to the melting point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, M.; Gibert, B.; De Sousa Meneses, D.; Malki, M.; Echegut, P.

    2012-12-01

    Olivines are the most abundant phases of the Earth's upper mantle. Determining their optical properties under extreme conditions is essential to investigate their lattice dynamics and related structural evolution and to quantify their thermophysical properties. Optical properties of forsterite were determined by acquiring infrared emittance spectra from room temperature up to the melting point along the [100], [010] and [001] polarization directions and over a wide spectral range, from 50 to 15000 cm-1. The fitting of the experimental data by using a semi-quantum dielectric function model provides new results on lattice vibrations and phonon-phonon interactions in forsterite. In particular, a sudden enhancement of anharmonicity at high temperature is observed and is concomitant with the disappearance or brutal change of some modes around 1000K. The normal modes involving Mg1 cation motions are the more impacted and some of them vanish around 1200K. The polarization along [001] direction is more specifically impacted and this change can be linked to the magnesium mobility within M1 sites. This result is consistent with ab initio calculations1 and experimental data on tracer diffusion2 in forsterite that show the presence of an enhanced diffusion of magnesium via M1 sites along [001] direction. These data contribute to explain literature results that show evidences of a change of vibrational behaviour around 1000K, and in particular a strenghtening of lattice anharmonicity 3,4. This vibrational change may impact some important geophysical properties that depends on ionic diffusion, such as creep or electrical conductivity, were magnesium diffusion plays a key role. Finally, absorption coefficient has been calculated over the whole IR range from optical indices, allowing for the evaluation of the contribution of heat transport by radiation in forsterite. 1. J. Brodholt, Am. Mineral. 82, 1049-1053 (1997). 2. S. Chakraborty, J. R. Farver, R. A. Yund, D. C. Rubie, Phys. Chem. Miner. 21, 489-500 (1994). 3. P. Gillet, P. Richet, F. Guyot, G. Fiquet, J. Geophys. Research. B7, 96: 11805-11816 (1991). 4. F. Guyot, Y. Wang, P. Gillet, Y. Ricard, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter. 98, 17-29 (1996).

  18. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  19. Boiling Fluids Behave Quite Differently in Space - Duration: 19 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The boiling process is really different in space, since the vapor phase of a boiling liquid does not rise via buoyancy. Spacecraft and Earth-based systems use boiling to efficiently remove large am...

  20. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Five Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    1997-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many earthbound applications in steamgeneration power plants, petroleum plants, and other chemical plants. In addition, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  1. Overcoming the Limitations of the SIE and OME Methods in Assessing the Effects of Impurities in Temperature Fixed Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, M.; Cundy, D. S.

    2015-08-01

    Impurities are still among the primary concerns regarding the realization of many fixed points of the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). Several methods have been suggested to correct for these effects. The most promising strategy, with regard to the achievable uncertainty level, is the `sum of the individual estimates' (SIE) method. It involves a chemical analysis of the material and a calculation of each of the detected chemical species' effect on the phase-transition temperature of the fixed-point substance. This correction can be accurate only if all the detected impurities are completely dissolved. Given the recent evidence for insoluble impurities in metal fixed points, this strategy needs to be modified; otherwise, it may lead to an inaccurate estimation of the impurity-related effect on the fixed-point temperature. In this article, a correction method is set out that reflects the crucial distinction between soluble, insoluble, and partially soluble impurities. This `sum of the individual estimates for the dissolved species' (SIEDS) method starts from a chemical analysis but takes into account only the dissolved particles. For this purpose, different types of substances are considered as possible dissolved impurities and are discussed from a chemical point of view. For those impurities where data are insufficient, only an uncertainty estimation is possible. For this purpose, the `overall maximum estimate of the dissolved species' (OMEDS) method is derived from the SIEDS method as the new counterpart to the well-known `overall maximum estimate' (OME) method.

  2. Modeling and analysis of low heat flux natural convection sodium boiling in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.

    1982-09-01

    Flow excursion induced dryout at low heat flux natural convection boiling, typical of liquid metal fast breeder reactor, is addressed. Steady state calculations indicate that low quality boiling is possible up to the point of Ledinegg instability leading to flow excursion and subsequent dryout in agreement with experimental data. A flow regime-dependent dryout heat flux relationship based upon saturated boiling criterion is also presented. Transient analysis indicates that premature flow excursion can not be ruled out and sodium boiling is highly transient dependent. Analysis of a high heat flux forced convection, loss-of-flow transient shows a significantly faster flow excursion leading to dryout in excellent agreement with parallel calculations using the two-dimensional THORAX code. 31 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Flow boiling heat transfer in vertical tubes correlated by an asymptotic model

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Taborek, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In flow boiling, the nucleate an convective components are superimposed by a very complex mechanism, which so far is not well understood. Two models exist in this paper, one by Chen, using addition of the two components with a suppression factor; and one by Shah, using the greater of the two components with a Bo-number simplified correlation. Neither model presents a satisfactory solution, as attested by the numerous methods published since them, mostly based only on regression analysis-derived correction factors. In this article a new model, based on asymptotic addition of the two boiling components, is introduced. It follows the established principles of flow boiling and converges correctly to the extremes of all parameters. Tested on the University of Karlsruhe data bank containing over 13,000 data points in vertical flow boiling, results superior to previous correlations are demonstrated.

  4. The initial freezing point temperature of beef rises with the rise in pH: a short communication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Kemp, R M; Cartwright, S; North, M

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the initial freezing point temperature of meat is affected by pH. Sixty four bovine M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum were classified into two ultimate pH groups: low (<5.8) and high pH (>6.2) and their cooling and freezing point temperatures were determined. The initial freezing temperatures for beef ranged from -0.9 to -1.5°C (?=0.6°C) with the higher and lower temperatures associated with high and low ultimate pH respectively. There was a significant correlation (r=+0.73, P<0.01) between beef pH and freezing point temperature in the present study. The outcome of this study has implications for the meat industry where evidence of freezing (ice formation) in a shipment as a result of high pH meat could result in a container load of valuable chilled product being downgraded to a lower value frozen product. PMID:23410892

  5. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature series over southwest Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents results of trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation, and mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN) time series of the period 1950-2007. Investigations were carried out for 50 precipitation stations and 39 temperature stations located in southwest Iran. Three statistical tests including Pettitt's test, Sequential Mann-Kendall test (SQ-MK test) and Mann-Kendall rank test (MK-test) were used for the analysis. The results obtained for precipitation series indicated that most stations showed insignificant trends in annual and seasonal series. Out of the stations which showed significant trends, highest numbers were observed during winter season while no significant trends were detected in summer precipitation. Moreover, no decreasing significant trends were detected by statistical tests in annual and seasonal precipitation series. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was more stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable compared to summer, spring and autumn seasons. The results of change point detection indicated that most of the positive significant mutation points in TM, TMAX and TMIN began in the 1990s.

  6. A New Theory of Nucleate Pool Boiling in Arbitrary Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Y. A.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Heat transfer rates specific to nucleate pool boiling under various conditions are determined by the dynamics of vapour bubbles that are originated and grow at nucleation sites of a superheated surface. A new dynamic theory of these bubbles has been recently developed on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. In contrast to other existing models based on empirically postulated equations for bubble growth and motion, this theory does not contain unwarrantable assumptions, and both the equations are rigorously derived within the framework of a unified approach. The conclusions of the theory are drastically different from those of the conventional models. The bubbles are shown to detach themselves under combined action of buoyancy and a surface tension force that is proven to add to buoyancy in bubble detachment, but not the other way round as is commonly presumed. The theory ensures a sound understanding of a number of so far unexplained phenomena, such as effect caused by gravity level and surface tension on the bubble growth rate and dependence of the bubble characteristics at detachment on the liquid thermophysical parameters and relevant temperature differences. The theoretical predictions are shown to be in a satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations. When being applied to heat transfer at nucleate pool boiling, this bubble dynamic theory offers an opportunity to considerably improve the main formulae that are generally used to correlate experimental findings and to design boiling heat removal in various industrial applications. Moreover, the theory makes possible to pose and study a great deal of new problems of essential impact in practice. Two such problems are considered in detail. One problem concerns the development of a principally novel physical model for the first crisis of boiling. This model allows for evaluating critical boiling heat fluxes under various conditions, and in particular at different gravity levels, with a good agreement with experimental evidence. The other problem bears upon equilibrium shapes of a detached bubble near a heated surface in exceedingly low gravity. In low gravity or in weightlessness, the bubble can remain in the close vicinity of the surface for a long time, and its shape is greatly affected by the Marangoni effect due to both temperature and possible surfactant concentration being nonuniform along the interface. The bubble performs at these conditions like a heat pipe, with evaporation at the bubble lower boundary and condensation at its upper boundary, and ultimately ensures a substantial increase in heat removal as compared with that in normal gravity. Some other problems relevant to nucleate pool and forced convection boiling heat transfer are also discussed.

  7. Loop Heat Pipe Transient Behavior Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control with Thermoelectric Converter on Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly done by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. With this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within 0.5K or better. However, because the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if the LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP was carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor was placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir was cold-biased and was heated by a control heater. Test results show that it was feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. In particular, when a thermoelectric converter was used as the reservoir control heater, the heat source temperature could be maintained within a tight range using a proportional-integral-derivative or on/off control algorithm. Moreover, because the TEC could provide both heating and cooling to the reservoir, temperature oscillations during fast transients such as loop startup could be eliminated or substantially reduced when compared to using an electrical heater as the control heater.

  8. The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration Low-Melting-Temperature Metals

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    /gm. Boiling point of bismuth alloys 1600 C. Specific heat 0.13 J/gm. 200 J for T = 1500 C. no boiling: Eddy currents; boiling. 2 #12;The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration Element Atomic Density Melting Boiling Heat Heat of Thermal Number Temp. Temp. Capacity Vapor. Cond. (gm/cm3 ) ( C) ( C

  9. Acoustically Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Z. W. Douglas; M. K. Smith; A. Glezer

    2008-01-07

    An acoustic field is used to increase the critical heat flux (CHF) of a flat-boiling-heat-transfer surface. The increase is a result of the acoustic effects on the vapor bubbles. Experiments are performed to explore the effects of an acoustic field on vapor bubbles in the vicinity of a rigid-heated wall. Work includes the construction of a novel heater used to produce a single vapor bubble of a prescribed size and at a prescribed location on a flatboiling surface for better study of an individual vapor bubble's reaction to the acoustic field. Work also includes application of the results from the single-bubble heater to a calibrated-copper heater used for quantifying the improvements in CHF.

  10. Propulsion apparatus and method using boil-off gas from a cryogenic liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, D. H. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system and method are disclosed for controlling the attitude and drag of a space vehicle. A helium dewar contains liquid helium which cools an experiment package. The helium is heated or vented to keep the temperature between 1.5 and 1.7 degrees K to maintain adequate helium boil-off gas as a propellant without adversely affecting the experiment package which is contained in the helium dewar for protection from solar heating. The apparatus includes auxiliary heater and temperature sensor for controlling the temperature of the helium. The boil-off gas propellant is delivered to thruster modules to control vehicle attutude and compensate for drag.

  11. Development of a general purpose subgrid wall boiling model from improved physical understanding for use in computational fluid dynamics

    E-print Network

    Gilman, Lindsey Anne

    2014-01-01

    Advanced modeling capabilities were developed for application to subcooled flow boiling through this work. The target was to introduce, and demonstrate, all necessary mechanisms required to accurately predict the temperature ...

  12. Film boiling on the inside of vertical tubes with upward flow of the fluid at low qualities

    E-print Network

    Dougall, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    Flow regimes, local heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions along the wall have been studied for film boiling inside a vertical tube with upward flow of a saturated liquid. The area of interest has been ...

  13. Zero Boil Off Cryogen Storage for Future Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentian, D.; Plachta, D.; Kittel, P.; Hastings, L. J.; Salerno, Louis J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Zero boil off (ZBO) cryogen storage using both cryocoolers and passive insulation technologies will enable long-term exploration missions by allowing designers to optimize tankage without the need for excess cryogen storage to account for boil off. Studies of ZBO (zero boil off) have been on-going in the USA for several years. More recently, a review of the needs of advanced space propulsion took place in Europe. This showed the interest of the European community in cryogenic propulsion for planetary missions as well as the use of liquid hydrogen for large power electric propulsion (manned Mars missions). Although natural boiling could be acceptable for single leg missions, passive insulation techniques yield roughly a I% per month cryogen loss and this would not be cost effective for robotic planetary missions involving storage times greater than one year. To make economic sense, long-term exploration missions require lower tank capacity and longer storage times. Recent advances in cryocooler technology, resulting in vast improvements in both cooler efficiency and reliability, make ZBO is a clear choice for planetary exploration missions. Other, more near term applications of ZBO include boil-off reduction or elimination applied to first and upper stages of future earth-to-orbit (ETO) launchers. This would extend launch windows and reduce infrastructure costs. Successors to vehicles like Ariane 5 could greatly benefit by implementing ZBO. Zero Boil Off will only be successful in ETO launcher applications if it makes economic sense to implement. The energy cost is only a fraction of the total cost of buying liquid cryogen, the rest being transportation and other overhead. Because of this, higher boiling point cryogens will benefit more from on-board liquefaction, thus reducing the infrastructure costs. Since hydrogen requires a liquefier with at least a 17% efficiency just to break even from a cost standpoint, one approach for implementing ZBO in upper stages would be to actively cool the shield in the hydrogen tank to reduce the parasitic losses. This would allow the use of less expensive, presently available coolers (80 K vs. 20 K) and potentially simplify the system by requiring only a single compressor on the pad amd a single disconnect line. The compressor could be a hefty commercial unit, with only the cold head requiring expensive flight development and qualification. While this is actually a reduced boil off configuration rather than a zero-boil off case, if the cryogen loss could be cut significantly, the increase in hold time and reduced need for draining and refilling the propellant tanks could meet the vehicle operations needs in the majority of instances.Bearing in mind the potential benefits of ZBO, NASA AMES and SNECMA Moteurs decided to exchange their technical views on the subject. This paper will present a preliminary analysis for a multi-mission module using a fairly low thrust cryogenic engine and ZBO during cruise. Initial mass is 5.5. tons (in ETO). The cryogenic engine will be used near each periapsis in order to minimize the AV requirement. The payload obtained by this propulsion system is compared to a classical storable bipropellant propulsion system for several cases (e. g. Mars lander, Jupiter orbiter, Saturn orbiter). For the Jupiter and Saturn cases, the power source could be an RTG or a large parabolic mirror illuminating a solar panel. It is shown -that - due to its much larger specific impulse - the cryogenic ZBO solution provides much higher payloads, especially for exploration missions involving landing on planets, asteroids, comets, or other celestial bodies.

  14. LANDSCAPE SCALE NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION TEMPERATURE ASSESSMENT AND TMDL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS IS AN ONGOING PROJECT. Elevated river temperature is a significant water quality issue in the Pacific Northwest. For example, over 12,000 miles of perennial streams are designated 303(d) water quality limited due to temperature violation in the State of Oregon. Over t...

  15. Boyle temperature as a point of ideal gas in gentile statistics and its economic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

    2014-07-01

    Boyle temperature is interpreted as the temperature at which the formation of dimers becomes impossible. To Irving Fisher's correspondence principle we assign two more quantities: the number of degrees of freedom, and credit. We determine the danger level of the mass of money M when the mutual trust between economic agents begins to fall.

  16. A single-point mutation in HCF causes temperature-sensitive cell-cycle arrest and disrupts VP16 function.

    PubMed

    Goto, H; Motomura, S; Wilson, A C; Freiman, R N; Nakabeppu, Y; Fukushima, K; Fujishima, M; Herr, W; Nishimoto, T

    1997-03-15

    The temperature-sensitive BHK21 hamster cell line tsBN67 ceases to proliferate at the nonpermissive temperature after a lag of one to a few cell divisions, and the arrested cells display a gene expression pattern similar to that of serum-starved cells. The temperature-sensitive phenotype is reversible and results from a single missense mutation--proline to serine at position 134--in HCF, a cellular protein that, together with the viral protein VP16, activates transcription of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate-early genes. The tsBN67 HCF mutation also prevents VP16 activation of transcription at the nonpermissive temperature. The finding that the same point mutation in HCF disrupts both VP16 function and the cell cycle suggests that HCF plays a role in cell-cycle progression in addition to VP16-dependent transcription. PMID:9087427

  17. Temperature and pressure dependence of the mode Grüneisen parameters close to the melting point in hexagonal ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacali, H.; Yurtseven, H.

    2007-02-01

    We reexamine the Pippard relations in this study by relating the specific heat CP to the Raman frequency shifts 1/?? and the thermal expansivity ?p to the 1/??, when the mode Grüneisen parameter depends on the temperature and pressure close to the melting point in hexagonal ice. From linear relations between them, the values of the slope {dP}/{dT} are deduced in this crystal. Our slope values calculated here do not change significantly compared to those obtained when the mode Grüneisen parameter is taken as a constant close to the melting point in hexagonal ice.

  18. Investigation of the effects of pressure gradient, temperature and wall temperature ratio on the stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders and gas turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.

  19. Critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David Douglas

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was investigated for water flow in tubes with particular emphasis on the development of methods for predicting CHF in the subcooled flow boiling regime. The Purdue University Boiling and Two-Phase Flow Laboratory (PU-BTPFL) CHF database for water flow in a uniformly heated tube was compiled from the world literature dating back to 1949 and represents the largest CHF database ever assembled with 32,544 data points from over 100 sources. The superiority of this database was proven via a detailed examination of previous databases. The PU-BTPFL CHF database is an invaluable tool for the development of CHF correlations and mechanistic models that are superior to existing ones developed with smaller, less comprehensive CHF databases. In response to the many inaccurate and inordinately complex correlations, two nondimensional, subcooled CHF correlations were formulated, containing only five adjustable constants and whose unique functional forms were determined without using a statistical analysis but rather using the parametric trends observed in less than 10% of the subcooled CHF data. The correlation based on inlet conditions (diameter, heated length, mass velocity, pressure, inlet quality) was by far the most accurate of all known subcooled CHF correlations, having mean absolute and root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 10.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The outlet (local) conditions correlation was the most accurate correlation based on local CHF conditions (diameter, mass velocity, pressure, outlet quality) and may be used with a nonuniform axial heat flux. Both correlations proved more accurate than a recent CHF look-up table commonly employed in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic computer codes. An interfacial lift-off, subcooled CHF model was developed from a consideration of the instability of the vapor-liquid interface and the fraction of heat required for liquid-vapor conversion as opposed to that for bulk liquid heating. Severe vapor effusion in an upstream wetting front lifts the vapor-liquid interface off the surface, triggering CHF. Since the model is entirely based on physical observations, it has the potential to accurately predict CHF for other fluids and flow geometries which are beyond the conditions for which it was validated.

  20. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the following procedure: (1) Each reading must be made with the sensor or thermometer required by § 153.440(a)(3) or (c). If a portable thermometer is used, it must be located as prescribed for the temperature sensor in §...

  1. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...the following procedure: (1) Each reading must be made with the sensor or thermometer required by § 153.440(a)(3) or (c). If a portable thermometer is used, it must be located as prescribed for the temperature sensor in §...

  2. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the following procedure: (1) Each reading must be made with the sensor or thermometer required by § 153.440(a)(3) or (c). If a portable thermometer is used, it must be located as prescribed for the temperature sensor in §...

  3. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...the following procedure: (1) Each reading must be made with the sensor or thermometer required by § 153.440(a)(3) or (c). If a portable thermometer is used, it must be located as prescribed for the temperature sensor in §...

  4. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the following procedure: (1) Each reading must be made with the sensor or thermometer required by § 153.440(a)(3) or (c). If a portable thermometer is used, it must be located as prescribed for the temperature sensor in §...

  5. Rotational cars application to simultaneous and multiple-point temperature and concentration determination in a turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, J. B.; Murphy, D. V.; Chang, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) from the pure rotational Raman lines of N2 is employed to measure the instantaneous rotational temperature of N2 gas at room temperature and below with good spatial resolution. A broad-bandwidth dye laser is used to obtain the entire rotational spectrum from a signal laser pulse; the CARS signal is then dispersed by a spectrograph and recorded on an optical multichannel analyzer. A best-fit temperature is found in several seconds with the aid of a computer for each experimental spectrum by a least squares comparison with calculated spectra. The model used to calculate the theoretical spectra incorporates the temperature and pressure dependence of the pressure-broadened rotational Raman lines, includes the nonresonant background susceptibility, and assumes that the pump laser has a finite linewidth. Temperatures are fit to experimental spectra recorded over the temperature range of 135 to 296K, and over the pressure range of 0.13 to 15.3 atm. In addition to the spatially resolved single point work, we have used multipoint CARS to obtain information from many spatially resolved volume elements along a cylindrical line (0.1 x 0.1 x 2.0 mm). We also obtained qualitative information on the instantaneous species concentration and temperature at 20 spatially resolved volume elements (0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1 mm) along a line.

  6. Performance of the NO{sub x} emissions advisor and advanced steam temperature control at Possum Point Station

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, M.; Labbe, D.

    1995-10-01

    Virginia Power installed Stone and Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control Systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 during the Spring of 1995 to achieve near-term NO{sub x} compliance objectives and improve thermal performance. The installation of the advanced control and automation systems was integrated into the existing control system using standard hardware and software. The advanced control systems operate under Windows-NT on a Pentium personal computer (PC) in a multi-process environment, exchanging data with the distributed control system (DCS) through a dedicated serial link. Testing has demonstrated NO, reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of the NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units, while maintaining steam temperatures and unit efficiency. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers, producing 107 and 232 MW, respectively.

  7. Enhanced Heat Rejection of Microscale Geometries in Convective Flow Boiling Evaporators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safford Smith, L. M.; Connacher, W. J.; Cheng, J. C.; Pisano, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Four surfaces have been designed, fabricated and tested under convective flow boiling (CFB) conditions in an open loop configuration. They contain features in the 10 micron range and were tested with flow velocities under 3 mm/s. To accomplish these flow rates, this work utilizes a constant pressure potential driving flow, instead of the constant flow rate imposed with a syringe pump. This limited device flooding. The evaporation surfaces were tested to the point of dry-out at three different pressure potentials: 150, 650, and 1150 Pa, across a range of powers from 25 W/cm2 to 50 W/cm2. Temperature data was collected from an IR Camera and showed that fluctuations in the wall temperatures exceed 5 °C in more than 50% of the tests and reached differences as high as 23 °C. The wall temperature instabilities in CFB indicate that one temperature may be inaccurate and that by including time as a variable a better understanding of the behaviour at this scale may be revealed.

  8. Finite-temperature scaling of spin correlations in an experimental realization of the one-dimensional Ising quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, M.; Hüvonen, D.; Guidi, T.; Quintero-Castro, D. L.; Boehm, M.; Regnault, L. P.; Hagiwara, M.; Zheludev, A.

    2015-07-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to study the finite-temperature scaling behavior of the local dynamic structure factor in the quasi-one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni[N ,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)propane-1,3-diamine] (? -NO2) ClO4 (NTENP), at its field-induced Ising quantum critical point. The validity and the limitations of the theoretically predicted scaling relations are tested.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  14. Boiling and condensing pumped loop microgravity experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, V.H.; Fairchild, J.F. )

    1991-01-10

    Aircraft testing of a boiling and condensing (two-phase) pumped loop system was conducted to investigate transient induced by low gravity (Keplerian) maneuvers. The experiment, unchanged, will repeat a selected aircraft test sequence during its flight aboard a suborbital rocket. Such a test of a two-phase system has never been done. A comparison of aircraft and rocket data, particularly equilibrium conditions, may validate aircraft testing of similar systems: Aircraft testing has been completed and preliminary results indicate that local transients induced by Keplerian maneuvers do not generate sizeable or lasting feedback. System feedback, expected to damp exponentially with loop transit time, {theta}{sub loop} (20 s{lt}{theta}{sub loop}{lt}30 s) is negligible compared to local temperature transients having shorter equilibrium times, {theta}{sub local} (5{lt}{theta}{sub local}{lt}10 s). Since {theta}{sub local} is typically 2 to 5 times shorter than the duration of low gravity, {ital t}{sub 0{minus}{ital g}} (20 s{lt}t{sub 0{minus}{ital g}}{lt}25 s), equilibrium conditions are approximated. Transients following a transition from normal to low gravity resulted from destratification of hot and cold fluid, loss of the liquid convection component in laminar flows, and a reduction in condensing heat transfer.

  15. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  16. An InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer and fixed-point blackbodies for temperature scale realization at NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, J.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we describe an InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer (IRT) and new design of fixed-point blackbodies, including Sn, Zn, Al and Cu, for the establishment of a temperature scale from 200 °C to 1085 °C at the National Institute of Metrology of China. The construction and calibration of the IRT with the four fixed-point blackbodies are described. Characteristics of the IRT, such as the size-of-source effect, the amplifier performance and its stability are determined. The design of the four fixed-points, with 10 mm diameter of aperture and 0.9999 emissivity, is described. The uncertainty of the scale realization is elaborated.

  17. An InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer and fixed-point blackbodies for temperature scale realization at NIM

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, J.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper, we describe an InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer (IRT) and new design of fixed-point blackbodies, including Sn, Zn, Al and Cu, for the establishment of a temperature scale from 200 °C to 1085 °C at the National Institute of Metrology of China. The construction and calibration of the IRT with the four fixed-point blackbodies are described. Characteristics of the IRT, such as the size-of-source effect, the amplifier performance and its stability are determined. The design of the four fixed-points, with 10 mm diameter of aperture and 0.9999 emissivity, is described. The uncertainty of the scale realization is elaborated.

  18. Pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Nanofluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in water, and exhibit a very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) at modest nanoparticle concentrations (50.1% by ...

  19. Description of boiling project burnout detector

    E-print Network

    Raymond, M. W.

    1957-01-01

    Introduction: In order to effectively utilize the high heat flux available through the mechanism of nucleate boiling in forced convection heat transfer, it is of primary importance that the maximum flux or "burnout" ...

  20. Part I: Experimental investigation of the boiling of binary mixtures of Freon-11 and refrigeration lube oils

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Eishah, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several experimental runs have been carried out to study nucleate boiling of binary mixtures consisting of Freon-11 and lube oils such as SUNISO 3GS and 4GS in oil concentrations ranging from 0 to 24% by volume. The effect of the heating source temperature on the rate of boiling at various pressures has been studied and the boiling curves at different oil concentrations and pressures have been investigated at an excess temperature of up to 80/sup 0/C. The experimental data have been used to find the effect of pressure, oil concentration and excess temperature on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The P-T relations for both kinds of mixtures have been measured at different oil concentrations. The heat lost to the atmosphere have also been studied as a function of oil concentration for both kinds of mixtures.

  1. Temperature-pressure scaling for air-fluidized grains on approaches to Point J

    E-print Network

    L. J. Daniels; T. K. Haxton; N. Xu; A. J. Liu; D. J. Durian

    2011-10-25

    We present experiments on a monolayer of air-fluidized beads in which a jamming transition is approached by increasing pressure, increasing packing fraction, and decreasing kinetic energy. This is accomplished, along with a noninvasive measurement of pressure, by tilting the system and examining behavior vs depth. We construct an equation of state and analyze relaxation time vs effective temperature. By making time and effective temperature dimensionless using factors of pressure, bead size, and bead mass, we obtain a good collapse of the data but to a functional form that differs from that of thermal hard-sphere systems. The relaxation time appears to diverge only as the effective temperature to pressure ratio goes to zero.

  2. Design, Construction, and Qualification of a Microscale Heater Array for Use in Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, T. D.; Kim, J.; Kalkur, T. S.

    1998-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of wall temperature and heat flux near the wall would add to the database of knowledge which is necessary to understand the mechanisms of nucleate boiling. A heater array has been developed which contains 96 heater elements within a 2.5 mm square area. The temperature of each heater element is held constant by an electronic control system similar to a hot-wire anemometer. The voltage that is being applied to each heater element can be measured and digitized using a high-speed A/D converter, and this digital information can be compiled into a series of heat-flux maps. Information for up to 10,000 heat flux maps can be obtained each second. The heater control system, the A/D system and the heater array construction are described in detail. Results are presented which show that this is an effective method of measuring the local heat flux during nucleate and transition boiling. Heat flux maps are obtained for pool boiling in FC-72 on a horizontal surface. Local heat flux variations are shown to be three to six times larger than variations in the spatially averaged heat flux.

  3. Flow boiling heat transfer in two-phase micro-channel heat sinksII. Annular two-phase flow model

    E-print Network

    Qu, Weilin

    Flow boiling heat transfer in two-phase micro-channel heat sinks­­II. Annular two-phase flow model devoted to measurement and prediction of the saturated flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in water near the point of zero thermodynamic equilibrium quality, and the decrease in heat transfer coefficient

  4. Pool boiling of water on nano-structured micro wires at sub-atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Mahendra; Khandekar, Sameer; Pratap, Dheeraj; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-10-01

    Past decades have seen active research in enhancement of boiling heat transfer by surface modifications. Favorable surface modifications are expected to enhance boiling efficiency. Several interrelated mechanisms such as capillarity, surface energy alteration, wettability, cavity geometry, wetting transitions, geometrical features of surface morphology, etc., are responsible for change in the boiling behavior of modified surfaces. Not much work is available on pool boiling at low pressures on microscale/nanoscale geometries; low pressure boiling is attractive in many applications wherein low operating temperatures are desired for a particular working fluid. In this background, an experimental setup was designed and developed to investigate the pool boiling performance of water on (a) plain aluminum micro wire (99.999 % pure) and, (b) nano-porous alumina structured aluminum micro wire, both having diameter of 250 µm, under sub-atmospheric pressure. Nano-structuring on the plain wire surface was achieved via anodization. Two samples, A and B of anodized wires, differing by the degree of anodization were tested. The heater length scale (wire diameter) was much smaller than the capillary length scale. Pool boiling characteristics of water were investigated at three different sub-atmospheric pressures of 73, 123 and 199 mbar (corresponding to T sat = 40, 50 and 60 °C). First, the boiling characteristics of plain wire were measured. It was noticed that at sub-atmospheric pressures, boiling heat transfer performance for plain wire was quite low due to the increased bubble sizes and low nucleation site density. Subsequently, boiling performance of nano-structured wires (both Sample A and Sample B) was compared with plain wire and it was noted that boiling heat transfer for the former was considerably enhanced as compared to the plain wire. This enhancement is attributed to increased nucleation site density, change in wettability and possibly due to enhanced pore scale evaporation. A preliminary estimation of the bubble growth rates, measured by high speed videography, was undertaken and compared with classical bubble growth rate correlations. It was observed that the average bubble departure sizes on Sample B were larger as compared to plain wire, due to larger surface forces holding the bubble before departure. Bubble condensation in the thermal boundary layer was also captured.

  5. Quantum point contact displacement transducer for a mechanical resonator at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Yuma; Mahboob, Imran; Onomitsu, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-11-04

    Highly sensitive displacement transduction of a 1.67 MHz mechanical resonator with a quantum point contact (QPC) formed in a GaAs heterostructure is demonstrated. By positioning the QPC at the point of maximum mechanical strain on the resonator and operating at 80 mK, a displacement responsivity of 3.81 A/m is measured, which represents a two order of magnitude improvement on the previous QPC based devices. By further analyzing the QPC transport characteristics, a sub-Poisson-noise-limited displacement sensitivity of 25 fm/Hz{sup 1/2} is determined which corresponds to a position resolution that is 23 times the standard quantum limit.

  6. Microgravity experiments on boiling behavior of self-wetting fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Iwasaki, A.

    Although most of fluids show a decrease in the surface tension with increasing temperature, some fluids show abnormal behavior- the surface tension increases with the increase in temperature. In the case of boiling phenomena, the thermocapillary flow due t o temperature gradient at the liquid/vapor interface should induce a liquid supply to a dry patch or hot spot developed under bubble. "Self- wetting" termed in this paper came from such a behavior of spontaneous liquid supply. Aqueous solutions of high carbon alcohols have been known as a fluid with such an abnormal surface tension behavior. In addition to the thermocapillary flow induced by temperature gradient, the Marangoni effect due to concentration gradient around liquid/vapor interface should occur, since the component of vapor phase is characterized to be either alcohol-rich or water-rich by preferential evaporation, as far as non-azeotropic components are concerned. In some components, the direction of thermocapillary flow is the same as the direction of the Marangoni flow induced by concentration gradient, which should even enhance the self-wettability. The present authors have carried out a series of microgravity experiments at JAMIC to observe the fundamental boiling behavior of self-wetting fluid (1-butanol aqueous solution, in the present study), and compared with CFC -113 and ethanol aqueous solution. The flow around adjacent dual bubbles and the flow under a single bubble are discussed.

  7. Characteristics of Pool Boiling on Graphite-Copper Composite Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    2002-01-01

    Nucleate pool boiling performance of different liquids on graphite-copper composite (Gr-Cu) surfaces has been experimentally studied and modeled. Both highly wetting fluids, such as freon-113 and pentane, and a moderately wetting fluid (water) were tested on the Gr-Cu surfaces with different graphite-fiber volume fractions to reveal the enhancement effects of the composite surfaces on the nucleate pool boiling. Results of the experiments show that the graphite-fiber volume fraction has an optimum value. The Gr-Cu composite surface with 25 percent graphite-fiber volume (f=0.25) has a maximum enhancement effect on the nucleate boiling heat transfer comparing to the pure copper surface. For the highly wetting fluid, the nucleate boiling heat transfer is generally enhanced on the Gr- Cu composite surfaces by 3 to 6 times shown. In the low heat flux region, the enhancement is over 6 times, but in the high heat flux region, the enhancement is reduced to about 40%. For the moderately wetting fluid (water), stronger enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer is achieved on the composite surface. It shown the experimental results in which one observes the nucleate boiling heat transfer enhancement of 5 to 10 times in the low heat flux region and an enhancement of 3 to 5 times in the high heat flux region. Photographs of bubble departure during the initial stage of nucleate boiling indicate that the bubbles detached from the composite surface are much smaller in diameter than those detached from the pure copper surface. Typical photographs are presented.It shows that the bubbles departed from the composite surface have diameters of only O(0.1) mm, while those departed from the pure copper surface have diameters of O(1) mm. It is also found that the bubbles depart from the composite surface at a much higher frequency, thus forming vapor columns. These two phenomena combined with high thermal conductivity of the graphite fiber are considered the mechanisms for such a significant augmentation in nucleate boiling heat transfer on the composite surfaces. A physical model is developed to describe the phenomenon of bubble departure from the composite surface: The preferred site of bubble nucleation is the fiber tip because of higher tip temperature than the surrounding copper base and poor wettability of the graphite tip compared with that of the base material (copper). The high evaporation rate near the contact line produces the vapor cutback due to the vapor recoil pushing the three-phase line outwards from the fiber tip, and so a neck of the bubble is formed near the bubble bottom. Evaporation and surface tension accelerate the necking process and finally result in the bubble departure while a new small bubble is formed at the tip when the surface tension pushes the three-phase line back to the tip. The process is schematically shown. The proposed model is based on and confirmed by experimental results.

  8. An optical fibre sensor for combined point pressure measurement and spatially resolved temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Poeggel, Sven; Lehzen, Kevin; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Leen, Gabriel; Newe, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, two optical fibre sensors are presented: 1) based on extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (EFPI) with Fibre Bragg Grating array and 2) and EFPI sensor with a chirped Fibre Bragg grating (CFBG). The CFBG with EFPI sensor fabrication technique is described and temperature response of both sensors is presented. Such sensors have many potential applications including applications in the aerospace industry and medical industry (e.g. radio frequency thermal ablation of tumors).

  9. Sensing Atomic Motion from the Zero Point to Room Temperature with Ultrafast Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Monroe, C.

    2015-11-01

    We sense the motion of a trapped atomic ion using a sequence of state-dependent ultrafast momentum kicks. We use this atom interferometer to characterize a nearly pure quantum state with n =1 phonon and accurately measure thermal states ranging from near the zero-point energy to n ¯˜104, with the possibility of extending at least 100 times higher in energy. The complete energy range of this method spans from the ground state to far outside of the Lamb-Dicke regime, where atomic motion is greater than the optical wavelength. Apart from thermometry, these interferometric techniques are useful for characterizing ultrafast entangling gates between multiple trapped ions.

  10. Investigation of the Equivalence of National Dew-Point Temperature Realizations in the -50 °C to + 20 °C Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Martti; Anagnostou, Miltiadis; Bell, Stephanie; Stevens, Mark; Benyon, Robert; Bergerud, Reidun Anita; Bojkovski, Jovan; Bosma, Rien; Nielsen, Jan; Böse, Norbert; Cromwell, Plunkett; Kartal Dogan, Aliye; Aytekin, Seda; Uytun, Ali; Fernicola, Vito; Flakiewicz, Krzysztof; Blanquart, Bertrand; Hudoklin, Domen; Jacobson, Per; Kentved, Anders; Lóio, Isabel; Mamontov, George; Masarykova, Alexandra; Mitter, Helmut; Mnguni, Regina; Otych, Jan; Steiner, Anton; Szilágyi Zsófia, Nagyné; Zvizdic, Davor

    2012-09-01

    In the field of humidity quantities, the first CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6 is at its end. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was completed in early 2008, about 4 years after the starting initial measurements in the project. In total, 24 NMIs from different countries took part in the comparison. This number includes 22 EURAMET countries, and Russia and South Africa. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was carried out in three parallel loops, each with two chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. It is shown that the standard uncertainty due to the long-term instability was smaller than 0.008 °C in all loops. The standard uncertainties due to links between the loops were found to be smaller than 0.025 °C at -50 °C and 0.010 °C elsewhere. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from the EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Taking into account 16 different primary dew-point realizations and 8 secondary realizations, the results demonstrate the equivalence of a large number of laboratories at an uncertainty level that is better than achieved in other multilateral comparisons so far in the humidity field.

  11. Predicting critical temperatures of ionic and non-ionic fluids from thermophysical data obtained near the melting point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Volker C.

    2015-10-01

    In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of ?eff = 0.5 than by ?eff = 0.33.

  12. Predicting critical temperatures of ionic and non-ionic fluids from thermophysical data obtained near the melting point.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Volker C

    2015-10-14

    In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of ?eff = 0.5 than by ?eff = 0.33. PMID:26472385

  13. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, David W.; Guzik, Monica C.

    2014-03-01

    A computational model of the cryogenic boil-off reduction system being developed by NASA as part of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer technology maturation project has been applied to a range of propellant storage tanks sizes for high-performing in-space cryogenic propulsion applications. This effort focuses on the scaling of multi-layer insulation (MLI), cryocoolers, broad area cooling shields, radiators, solar arrays, and tanks for liquid hydrogen propellant storage tanks ranging from 2 to 10 m in diameter. Component scaling equations were incorporated into the Cryogenic Analysis Tool, a spreadsheet-based tool used to perform system-level parametric studies. The primary addition to the evolution of this updated tool is the integration of a scaling method for reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocoolers, as well as the development and inclusion of Self-Supporting Multi-Layer Insulation. Mass, power, and sizing relationships are traded parametrically to establish the appropriate loiter period beyond which this boil-off reduction system application reduces mass. The projected benefit compares passive thermal control to active thermal control, where active thermal control is evaluated for reduced boil-off with a 90 K shield, zero boil-off with a single heat interception stage at the tank wall, and zero boil-off with a second interception stage at a 90 K shield. Parametric studies show a benefit over passive storage at loiter durations under one month, in addition to showing a benefit for two-stage zero boil-off in terms of reducing power and mass as compared to single stage zero boil-off. Furthermore, active cooling reduces the effect of varied multi-layer insulation performance, which, historically, has been shown to be significant.

  14. Influence of temperature on measurements of the CO2 compensation point: differences between the Laisk and O2-exchange methods.

    PubMed

    Walker, Berkley J; Cousins, Asaph B

    2013-04-01

    The CO2 compensation point in the absence of day respiration (?*) is a key parameter for modelling leaf CO2 exchange. ?* links the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) with the stoichiometry of CO2 released per Rubisco oxygenation from photorespiration (?), two essential components of biochemical models of photosynthesis. There are two main gas-exchange methods for measuring ?*: (i) the Laisk method, which requires estimates of mesophyll conductance to CO2 (g m) and (ii) measurements of O2 isotope exchange, which assume constant values of ? and a fixed stoichiometry between O2 uptake and Rubisco oxygenation. In this study, the temperature response of ?* measured using the Laisk and O2-exchange methods was compared under ambient (25 °C) and elevated (35 °C) temperatures to determine whether both methods yielded similar results. Previously published temperature responses of ?* estimated with the Laisk and O2-exchange methods in Nicotiana tabacum demonstrated that the Laisk-derived model of ?* was more sensitive to temperature compared with the O2-exchange model. Measurements in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that the Laisk and O2-exchange methods produced similar ?* at 25 °C; however, ?* values from O2 exchange were lower at 35 °C compared with the Laisk method. Compared with a photorespiratory mutant (pmdh1pmdh2hpr) with increased ?, wild-type (WT) plants had lower Laisk values of ?* at 25 °C but were not significantly different at 35 °C. These differences between Laisk and O2 exchange values of ?* at 35 °C could be explained by temperature sensitivity of ? in WT and/or errors in the assumptions of O2 exchange. The differences between ?* measured using the Laisk and O2-exchange method with temperature demonstrate that assumptions used to measure ?*, and possibly the species-specific validity of these assumptions, need to be considered when modelling the temperature response of photosynthesis. PMID:23630324

  15. Relationships between membrane water molecules and Patman equilibration kinetics at temperatures far above the phosphatidylcholine melting point.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Bell, Thomas A; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Askew, Caitlin; Franchino, Hannabeth; Hirsche, Kelsey; Kemsley, Linea; Melchor, Stephanie; Moulton, Emma; Schwab, Morgan; Nelson, Jennifer; Bell, John D

    2015-04-01

    The naphthalene-based fluorescent probes Patman and Laurdan detect bilayer polarity at the level of the phospholipid glycerol backbone. This polarity increases with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase of phosphatidylcholines and was observed even 90°C above the melting temperature. This study explores mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. Measurements of probe anisotropy and experiments conducted at 1M NaCl or KCl (to reduce water permittivity) revealed that this effect represents interactions of water molecules with the probes without proportional increases in probe mobility. Furthermore, comparison of emission spectra to Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the increased polarity represents elevation in probe access to water molecules rather than increased mobility of relevant bilayer waters. Equilibration of these probes with the membrane involves at least two steps which were distinguished by the membrane microenvironment reported by the probe. The difference in those microenvironments also changed with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase in that the equilibrium state was less polar than the initial environment detected by Patman at temperatures near the melting point, more polar at higher temperatures, and again less polar as temperature was raised further. Laurdan also displayed this level of complexity during equilibration, although the relationship to temperature differed quantitatively from that experienced by Patman. This kinetic approach provides a novel way to study in molecular detail basic principles of what happens to the membrane environment around an individual amphipathic molecule as it penetrates the bilayer. Moreover, it provides evidence of unexpected and interesting membrane behaviors far from the phase transition. PMID:25559316

  16. Apparatus for pumping liquids at or below the boiling point

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A pump comprises a housing having an inlet and an outlet. An impeller assembly mounted for rotation within the housing includes a first impeller piece having a first mating surface thereon and a second impeller piece having a second mating surface therein. The second mating surface of the second impeller piece includes at least one groove therein so that at least one flow channel is defined between the groove and the first mating surface of the first impeller piece. A drive system operatively associated with the impeller assembly rotates the impeller assembly within the housing.

  17. On the Boiling Points of the Alkyl Halides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, John

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the variety of explanations in organic chemistry textbooks of a physical property of organic compounds. Focuses on those concepts explaining attractive forces between molecules. Concludes that induction interactions play a major role in alkyl halides and other polar organic molecules and should be given wider exposure in chemistry texts.…

  18. Our Educational Melting Pot: Have We Reached the Boiling Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauderdale, Katherine Lynn, Ed.; Bonilla, Carlos A., Ed.

    The articles and excerpts in this collection illustrate the complexity of the melting pot concept. Multiculturalism has become a watchword in American life and education, but it may be that in trying to atone for past transgressions educators and others are simply going too far. These essays illustrate some of the problems of a multicultural…

  19. Effects of boiling on electrical resistivity of microporous rocks from the Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.; Duba, A.; Bonner, B.; Kasameyer, P.

    1997-12-31

    In a laboratory study of cores from borehole SB-15-D in The Geysers geothermal area, we measured the electrical resistivity of metashale with and without pore-pressure control, with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures between 20 and 150{degrees}C, to determine how the pore-size distribution and capillarity affected boiling. We observed a gradual increase in resistivity when the downstream pore pressure or confining pressure decreased below the phase boundary of free water. For the conditions of this experiment, boiling, as indicated by an increase in resistivity, is initiated at pore pressures of approximately 0.5 to 1 bar (0.05 to 0.1 MPa) below the free-water boiling curve, and it continues to increase gradually as pressure is lowered to atmospheric. A simple model of the effects of capillarity suggests that at 145{degrees}C, less than 15% of the pore water can boil in these rocks. If subsequent experiments bear out these preliminary observations, then boiling within a geothermal reservoir is controlled not just by pressure and temperature but also by pore-size distribution. Thus, it may be possible to determine reservoir characteristics by monitoring changes in electrical resistivity as reservoir conditions change.

  20. Sensing Atomic Motion from the Zero Point to Room Temperature with Ultrafast Atom Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K G; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Wong-Campos, J D; Monroe, C

    2015-11-20

    We sense the motion of a trapped atomic ion using a sequence of state-dependent ultrafast momentum kicks. We use this atom interferometer to characterize a nearly pure quantum state with n=1 phonon and accurately measure thermal states ranging from near the zero-point energy to n[over ¯]?10^{4}, with the possibility of extending at least 100 times higher in energy. The complete energy range of this method spans from the ground state to far outside of the Lamb-Dicke regime, where atomic motion is greater than the optical wavelength. Apart from thermometry, these interferometric techniques are useful for characterizing ultrafast entangling gates between multiple trapped ions. PMID:26636850

  1. Temperature-plant pigment-optical relations in a recurrent offshore mesoscale eddy near Point Conception, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James J.; Pelaez, Jose; Haury, Loren R.; Wiesenhahn, David; Koblinsky, Chester J.

    1986-01-01

    The temperature-plant pigment-optical structure of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy consistently found in shipboard surveys and satellite-sensed data several hundred kilometers southwest of Point Conception, CA, is described on three different time scales (100-day mesoscale, annual, and several-year). The satellite coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) ocean color imagery detected the near-surface chlorophyll structure of the eddy, but in situ optical and plant pigment data suggest that such imagery does not provide a good estimate of the integrated chlorophyll field of the eddy. The temperature and plant pigment boundaries of the eddy, as determined from two-dimensional gradients of advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and CZCS imagery, do not coincide spatially. This and in situ temperature, plant pigment, and optical structure provide additional evidence that some eddy systems in the California Current are not isolated vortex systems but rather continuously entrain waters of nonlocal origin laterally into their upper layers. Within the California Current a ratio of AVHRR/CZCS data is useful for separating inshore from oceanic water masses and following their surface entrainment by offshore vortices. The historical 28-year California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations data for the Point Conception region of the California Current and remotely sensed data over this region show that the Point Conception eddy is a recurrent feature in the offshore California Current. Moreover, the available data provide evidence that a large number of warm-core mesoscale eddies occur simultaneously in a transition zone between coastal and oceanic regimes, that these features recur at preferred locations within the transition zone, and that this family of eddies should impose a significant offshore boundary condition on the flow of the California Current.

  2. Temperature—plant pigment—optical relations in a recurrent offshore mesoscale eddy near Point Conception, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, James J.; Koblinsky, Chester J.; PeláEz, José; Haury, Loren R.; Wiesenhahn, David

    1986-11-01

    The temperature—plant pigment—optical structure of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy consistently found in shipboard surveys and satellite-sensed data several hundred kilometers southwest of Point Conception, California, is described on three different time scales (100-day mesoscale, annual, and several-year). The satellite coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) ocean color imagery detected the near-surface chlorophyll structure of the eddy, but in situ optical and plant pigment data suggest that such imagery does not provide a good estimate of the integrated chlorophyll field of the eddy. The temperature and plant pigment boundaries of the eddy, as determined from two-dimensional gradients of advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and CZCS imagery, do not coincide spatially. This and in situ temperature, plant pigment, and optical structure provide additional evidence that some eddy systems in the California Current are not isolated vortex systems but rather continuously entrain waters of nonlocal origin laterally into their upper layers. Within the California Current a ratio of AVHRR/CZCS data is useful for separating inshore from oceanic water masses and following their surface entrainment by offshore vortices. The historical 28-year California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations data for the Point Conception region of the California Current and remotely sensed data over this region show that the Point Conception eddy is a recurrent feature in the offshore California Current. Moreover, the available data provide evidence that a large number of warm-core mesoscale eddies occur simultaneously in a transition zone between coastal and oceanic regimes, that these features recur at preferred locations within the transition zone, and that this family of eddies should impose a significant offshore boundary condition on the flow of the California Current.

  3. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Boiling Using a Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open-ended…

  4. Flow boiling inside enhanced heat transfer tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, G.M.; Hu, H.Y.; Peng, X.F.; Wang, B.X.

    1996-12-31

    A tube with longitudinal microchannels on the inside wall was developed to enhance flow boiling heat transfer. The experimental investigation was conducted to identify the flow boiling heat transfer performance of liquid through the enhanced tubes. The flow boiling heat transfer in the enhanced tubes is greatly intensified, especially for the fully-developed nucleate boiling regime. The heat transfer coefficient in microchanneled tubes with smaller diameter is increased with a magnitude of 170% compared with the identical smooth tubes. The geometric configuration of microchannels and tubes would have significant effect of the flow boiling inside microchanneled tubes. The heat transfer performance of the microchanneled tubes is as good as or even better than that of other existing enhanced tubes. Liquid-vapor phase change heat and mass transport phenomenon is frequently encountered in many practical applications, such as in chemical and petrochemical industry, power generation, air conditioning and refrigeration. Phase change heat exchangers and equipment, including evaporators, condenser and reboilers, are widely used in these cases.

  5. STUDY OF THE CRITICAL POINT IN LATTICE QCD AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-07-30

    We propose a method to probe the nature of phase transitions in lattice QCD at finite temperature and density, which is based on the investigation of an effective potential as a function of the average plaquette. We analyze data obtained in a simulation of two-flavor QCD using p4-improved staggered quarks with bare quark mass m/T = 0.4, and find that a first order phase transition line appears in the high density regime for {mu}{sub q}/T {approx}> 2.5. The effective potential as a function of the quark number density is also studied. We calculate the chemical potential as a function of the density from the canonical partition function and discuss the existence of the first order phase transition line.

  6. A dual-unit pressure sensor for on-chip self-compensation of zero-point temperature drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2014-08-01

    A novel dual-unit piezoresistive pressure sensor, consisting of a sensing unit and a dummy unit, is proposed and developed for on-chip self-compensation for zero-point temperature drift. With an MIS (microholes inter-etch and sealing) process implemented only from the front side of single (1?1?1) silicon wafers, a pressure sensitive unit and another identically structured pressure insensitive dummy unit are compactly integrated on-chip to eliminate unbalance factors induced zero-point temperature-drift by mutual compensation between the two units. Besides, both units are physically suspended from silicon substrate to further suppress packaging-stress induced temperature drift. A simultaneously processes ventilation hole-channel structure is connected with the pressure reference cavity of the dummy unit to make it insensitive to detected pressure. In spite of the additional dummy unit, the sensor chip dimensions are still as small as 1.2?mm × 1.2?mm × 0.4?mm. The proposed dual-unit sensor is fabricated and tested, with the tested sensitivity being 0.104?mV?kPa-1 3.3?V-1, nonlinearity of less than 0.08% · FSO and overall accuracy error of ± 0.18% · FSO. Without using any extra compensation method, the sensor features an ultra-low temperature coefficient of offset (TCO) of 0.002%?°C-1 · FSO that is much better than the performance of conventional pressure sensors. The highly stable and small-sized sensors are promising for low cost production and applications.

  7. Comparison of the triple-point temperatures of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 22}Ne and normal Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, T.; Tamura, O.; Nagao, K.

    2013-09-11

    At the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the triple points of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne were realized using modular sealed cells, Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22, made by the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM) in Italy. The difference of the triple-point temperatures of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne was estimated by using the sub-range of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) calibrated by NMIJ on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The melting curves obtained with the Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells show narrow widths (0.1 mK) over a wide range of the inverse of the melted fraction (1/F) from 1/F=1 to 1/F=10. The liquidus point T{sub tp} estimated by the melting curves from F?0.5 to F?0.85 using the Ec8Ne22 is 0.146 29 (4) K higher than that using the Ec3Ne20 cell, which is in good agreement with that observed by INRiM using the same cells. After correction of the effect of impurities and other isotopes for Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells, the difference of T{sub tp} between pure {sup 20}Ne and pure {sup 22}Ne is estimated to be 0.146 61 (4) K, which is consistent with the recent results reported elsewhere. The sub-ranges of SPRTs computed by using the triple point of {sup 20}Ne or {sup 22}Ne realized by the Ec3Ne20 cell or the Ec8Ne22 cell in place of the triple point of Ne for the defining fixed point of the ITS-90 are in good agreement with those realized on the basis of the ITS-90 at NMIJ within 0.03 mK, which is much smaller than the non-uniqueness and the sub-range inconsistency of SPRTs.

  8. Temperature mapping in bread dough using SE and GE two-point MRI methods: experimental and theoretical estimation of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Tiphaine; Musse, Maja; Bornert, Mélanie; Davenel, Armel; Quellec, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D)-SE, 2D-GE and tri-dimensional (3D)-GE two-point T(1)-weighted MRI methods were evaluated in this study in order to maximize the accuracy of temperature mapping of bread dough during thermal processing. Uncertainties were propagated throughout each protocol of measurement, and comparisons demonstrated that all the methods with comparable acquisition times minimized the temperature uncertainty to similar extent. The experimental uncertainties obtained with low-field MRI were also compared to the theoretical estimations. Some discrepancies were reported between experimental and theoretical values of uncertainties of temperature; however, experimental and theoretical trends with varying parameters agreed to a large extent for both SE and GE methods. The 2D-SE method was chosen for further applications on prefermented dough because of its lower sensitivity to susceptibility differences in porous media. It was applied for temperature mapping in prefermented dough during chilling prior to freezing and compared locally to optical fiber measurements. PMID:22227351

  9. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V. Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P.; Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C.

    2014-10-21

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27?nm thick Al?O? gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100?°C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100?°C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100?°C.

  10. Position-dependent velocity of an effective temperature point for the estimation of the thermal diffusivity of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Settu; Shivaprakash, N. C.; Kameswara Rao, L.

    2016-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to estimate the thermal diffusivity of optically transparent solids at ambient temperature based on the velocity of an effective temperature point (ETP), and by using a two-beam interferometer the proposed concept is corroborated. 1D unsteady heat flow via step-temperature excitation is interpreted as a ‘micro-scale rectilinear translatory motion’ of an ETP. The velocity dependent function is extracted by revisiting the Fourier heat diffusion equation. The relationship between the velocity of the ETP with thermal diffusivity is modeled using a standard solution. Under optimized thermal excitation, the product of the ‘velocity of the ETP’ and the distance is a new constitutive equation for the thermal diffusivity of the solid. The experimental approach involves the establishment of a 1D unsteady heat flow inside the sample through step-temperature excitation. In the moving isothermal surfaces, the ETP is identified using a two-beam interferometer. The arrival-time of the ETP to reach a fixed distance away from heat source is measured, and its velocity is calculated. The velocity of the ETP and a given distance is sufficient to estimate the thermal diffusivity of a solid. The proposed method is experimentally verified for BK7 glass samples and the measured results are found to match closely with the reported value.

  11. How does surface wettability influence nucleate boiling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Hai Trieu; Caney, Nadia; Marty, Philippe; Colasson, Stéphane; Gavillet, Jérôme

    2009-05-01

    Although the boiling process has been a major subject of research for several decades, its physics still remain unclear and require further investigation. This study aims at highlighting the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nanocoating techniques were used to vary the water contact angle from 20° to 110° by modifying nanoscale surface topography and chemistry. The experimental results obtained disagree with the predictions of the classical models. A new approach of nucleation mechanism is established to clarify the nexus between the surface wettability and the nucleate boiling heat transfer. In this approach, we introduce the concept of macro- and micro-contact angles to explain the observed phenomenon. To cite this article: H.T. Phan et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  12. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include the following: (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750 C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/sq cm. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. Results of these studies are presented.

  13. Design and test of a compact optics system for the pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Laubenthal, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The experiment described seeks to improve the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. The vehicle for accomplishing this is an investigation, including tests to be conducted in microgravity and coupled with appropriate analyses, of the heat transfer and vapor bubble dynamics associated with nucleation, bubble growth/collapse and subsequent motion, considering the interrelations between buoyancy, momentum and surface tension which will govern the motion of the vapor and surrounding liquid, as a function of the heating rate at the heat transfer surface and the temperature level and distribution in the bulk liquid. The experiment is designed to be contained within the confines of a Get-Away-Special Canister (GAS Can) installed in the bay of the space shuttle. When the shuttle reaches orbit, the experiment will be turned on and testing will proceed automatically. In the proposed Pool Boiling Experiment a pool of liquid, initially at a precisely defined pressure and temperature, will be subjected to a step imposed heat flux from a semitransparent thin-film heater forming part of one wall of the container such that boiling is initiated and maintained for a defined period of time at a constant pressure level. Transient measurements of the heater surface and fluid temperatures near the surface will be made, noting especially the conditions at the onset of boiling, along with motion photography of the boiling process in two simultaneous views, from beneath the heating surface and from the side. The conduct of the experiment and the data acquisition will be completely automated and self-contained. For the initial flight, a total of nine tests are proposed, with three levels of heat flux and three levels of subcooling. The design process used in the development and check-out of the compact photographic/optics system for the Pool Boiling Experiment is documented.

  14. Enhanced Boiling on Micro-Configured Composite Surfaces Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chai, An-Ti

    1999-01-01

    In order to accommodate the growing thermal management needs of future space platforms, several two-phase active thermal control systems (ATCSs) have evolved and were included in the designs of space stations. Compared to the pumped single-phase liquid loops used in the conventional Space Transportation System and Spacelab, ATCSs offer significant benefits that may be realized by adopting a two-phase fluid-loop system. Alternately, dynamic power systems (DPSs), based on the Rankine cycle, seem inevitably to be required to supply the electrical power requirements of expanding space activities. Boiling heat transfer is one of the key technologies for both ATCSs and DPSs. Nucleate boiling near critical heat flux (CHF) can transport very large thermal loads with much smaller device size and much lower pumping power. However, boiling performance deteriorates in a reduced gravity environment and operation in the CHF regime is precarious because any slight overload will cause the heat transfer to suddenly move to the film boiling regime, which in turn, will result in burnout of the heat transfer surfaces. New materials, such as micro-configured metal-graphite composites, can provide a solution for boiling enhancement. It has been shown experimentally that this type of material manifests outstanding boiling heat transfer performance and their CHF is also extended to higher values. Due to the high thermal conductivity of graphite fiber (up to 1,200 W/m-K in the fiber direction), the composite surfaces are non-isothermal during the boiling process. The composite surfaces are believed to have a much wider safe operating region (a more uniform boiling curve in the CHF regime) because non-isothermal surfaces have been found to be less sensitive to variations of wall superheat in the CHF regime. The thermocapillary forces formed by the temperature difference between the fiber tips and the metal matrix play a more important role than the buoyancy in the bubble detachment, for the bubble detachment manifests itself by a necking process which should not be weakened by reduced gravity. In addition, the composite surfaces introduce no extra pressure drop, no fouling and do not impose significant primary or maintenance costs. All of these suggest that this type of composite is an ideal material for the challenge of accounting for both reliability and economy of the relevant components applied in the ATCSs, the DPSs and other devices in future space missions. The aim of the proposed work is to experimentally investigate high nucleate pool boiling performance on a micro-configured metal-graphite composite surface and to determine the mechanisms of the nucleate boiling heat transfer both experimentally and theoretically. Freon-113 and water will be used as the test liquids to investigate wettability effects on boiling characteristics. The Cu-Gr and Al-Gr composites with various volume fractions of graphite fibers will be tested to obtain the heat transfer characteristic data in the nucleate boiling region and in the CHF regime. In the experiments, the bubble emission and coalescence processes will be recorded by a video camera with a magnifying borescope probe immersed in the working fluid. The temperature profile in the thermal boundary layer on the composite surfaces will be measured by a group of micro thermocouples consisting of four ultra fine micro thermocouples. This instrument was developed and successfully used to measure the temperature profile of evaporating liquid thin layers by the proposers in a study performed at the NASA/Lewis Research Center. A two tier model to explain the nucleate boiling process and the performance enhancement on the composite surfaces has been suggested by the authors. According to the model, the thicknesses of the microlayer and the macrolayer underneath the bubbles and mushrooms, can be estimated by the geometry of the composite surface. The experimental results will be compared to the predictions from the model, and in turn, to revise and improve it.

  15. Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Study of Boiling Practice and Microbiological Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container. PMID:22826487

  16. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in Subcooled Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Masao; Furukawa, Masahiro; Nishizumi, Takeharu; Ozaki, Shinji; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    A theoretical prediction model of the boiling heat transfer coefficient in the subcooled region for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution flowing in a rectangular channel is proposed. In the present heat transfer model, a heat flux is assumed to consist of both the forced convective and the boiling effect components. The forced convective component is evaluated from the empirical correlation of convective heat transfer coefficient for single-phase flow considering the effect of increase of liquid velocity due to net vapor generation. Empirical correlations for determining the heat flux due to the boiling effect and the quality at the onset point of net vapor generation are obtained from the data presented in the first report1). Agreement between the present theoretical prediction and the experimental data is satisfactorily good both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution.

  17. Enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer with electrohydrodynamics and its fundamental study 

    E-print Network

    Raghupathi, Sri Laxmi Priya

    1998-01-01

    OkV. To conduct this study, an existing low pressure pool boiling apparatus was modified and another high pressure apparatus was designed and built. The fluids were tested on the smooth tube at operating temperatures of 4C and 20'C, and 19 fins per inch tube at 4C...

  18. Control and effect of dissolved air in water during flow boiling in microchannels

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    . The amount or solubility of a gas in a fluid can be determined using thermodynamic and ideal gas laws of the dissolved gas in the liquid, H is the Henry's law constant specific for each gas and temperature dependent gas; Flow boiling 1. Introduction Dissolved gases are present in water at different levels depending

  19. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  20. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154.706 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control...

  1. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  2. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154.706 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control...

  3. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  4. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2009-05-15

    never-ending love, patience, support and motivation. viii NOMENCLATURE ACu - Top circular area of copper block (cm2) Ab - Total bare surface area on the test surface (cm2) Aw - Test surface area exposed to boiling (cm2...) An - Total area of nano-patterned squares on the test surface (cm2) Anc - Total nano-finned area exposed to boiling (cm2) h - Height of nano-fin (cylindrical or frustum of cone) (nm) kCu - Thermal conductivity of copper (W/mK) l - Slant height of nano...

  5. Apparatus to measure liquid helium boil-off from low-loss superconducting current leads

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Niemann, R.C.; Hull, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    A low-loss liquid helium dewar was constructed to measure the liquid helium boil-off rate from high-temperature superconducting current leads. The dewar has a measured background heat leakage rate of 12 mW. Equations calculating the heat leakage rate from the measured vapor mass flow rate in liquid helium boil-off experiments are derived. Parameters that affect the experiments, such as density ratio, absolute pressure, and rate of pressure variation, are discussed. This study is important as superconducting current leads may be used in superconducting magnetic energy storage systems.

  6. Evolution of SF[sub 6] pressure at constant volume versus temperature between liquefaction point and +20[degree]C

    SciTech Connect

    Thuries, E.; Girodet, A.; Collet, M. . Research Center)

    1994-07-01

    Switchgear must be able to operate within a temperature range anywhere from [minus]50 C to +55 C. The practical problem of how to perform significant tests at +20 C then presents itself. It becomes mandatory to know the equivalent of the density at the lowest temperature to which the switchgear will be subjected. A perfect mathematical knowledge of SF[sub 6] evolution at constant volume versus temperature between the liquefaction point and +20 C is then very important. There exists today three main state equations used by SF[sub 6] switchgear users and manufacturers and they do not truly agree between themselves. The authors evaluate them and also describe a simple experiment as defined by E. Thuries to check these state equations. The last part of the paper describes various experimental data that drive one to establish a state equation using the new notion of fugacity. The last part of the paper compares this state equation based on fugacity and the other equations as used today against the results of the new SF[sub 6] Thuries experiment.

  7. Development, solar test, and evaluation of a high-temperature air receiver for point-focusing parabolic dish applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanseth, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature solar receiver was fabricated and tested in excess of 1370 C on an 11-meter-diameter test bed concentrator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, California. The 60-kilowatt thermal receiver design utilizes state-of-the-art silicon carbide honeycomb matrix panels to receive and transfer the solar energy and mullite elements for thermal buffer storage. Solar tests were conducted with indicated air exit temperatures ranging from 885 C (1625 F) to 1427 C (2600 F), mass flow rates of 75 to 105 g/sec (0.16 to 0.23 lbm/sec), and pressures up to 265 kPa absolute (38.4 psia). Estimates of efficiency are 59.7% at 1120 C (2048 F) to 80.6% at 885 C (1625 F) when aperture spillage losses are considered separately. Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative receiver concept for point-focusing parabolic dish applications over a wide temperature range.

  8. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

    E-print Network

    Mizerak, Jordan P.

    Boiling—a process that has powered industries since the steam age—is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase ...

  9. Boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure

    E-print Network

    Bar-Cohen Avram

    1971-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure, with water and Freon- 113 as the working fluids, is described. The operating characteristics of a boiling system, ...

  10. An Investigation of Graduate Scientists' Understandings of Evaporation and Boiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Uses a video presentation of six situations relating to the evaporation and boiling of liquids and the escape of dissolved gases from solution and investigates graduate scientists' understanding of the concepts of boiling and evaporation. (Author/YDS)

  11. Nucleate pool boiling: High gravity to reduced gravity; liquid metals to cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Requirements for the proper functioning of equipment and personnel in reduced gravity associated with space platforms and future space station modules introduce unique problems in temperature control; power generation; energy dissipation; the storage, transfer, control and conditioning of fluids; and liquid-vapor separation. The phase change of boiling is significant in all of these. Although both pool and flow boiling would be involved, research results to date include only pool boiling because buoyancy effects are maximized for this case. The effective application of forced convection boiling heat transfer in the microgravity of space will require a well grounded and cogent understanding of the mechanisms involved. Experimental results are presented for pool boiling from a single geometrical configuration, a flat surface, covering a wide range of body forces from a/g = 20 to 1 to a/g = 0 to -1 for a cryogenic liquid, and from a/g = 20 to 1 for water and a liquid metal. Similarities in behavior are noted for these three fluids at the higher gravity levels, and may reasonably be expected to continue at reduced gravity levels.

  12. Flash Points of Secondary Alcohol and n-Alkane Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Esina, Zoya N; Miroshnikov, Alexander M; Korchuganova, Margarita R

    2015-11-19

    The flash point is one of the most important characteristics used to assess the ignition hazard of mixtures of flammable liquids. To determine the flash points of mixtures of secondary alcohols with n-alkanes, it is necessary to calculate the activity coefficients. In this paper, we use a model that allows us to obtain enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of the pure components to calculate the liquid-solid equilibrium (LSE) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). Enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of secondary alcohols in the literature are limited; thus, the prediction of these characteristics was performed using the method of thermodynamic similarity. Additionally, the empirical models provided the critical temperatures and boiling temperatures of the secondary alcohols. The modeled melting enthalpy and enthalpy of vaporization as well as the calculated LSE and VLE flash points were determined for the secondary alcohol and n-alkane mixtures. PMID:26491811

  13. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    1991-01-01

    Future space exploration and commercialization will require more efficient heat rejection systems. For the required heat transfer rates, such systems must use advanced heat transfer techniques. Forced two phase flow boiling heat transfer with enhancements falls in this category. However, moderate to high quality two phase systems tend to require higher pressure losses. This report is divided into two major parts: (1) Multidimensional wall temperature measurement and heat transfer enhancement for top heated horizontal channels with flow boiling; and (2) Improved analytical heat transfer data reduction for a single side heated coolant channel. Part 1 summarizes over forty experiments which involve both single phase convection and flow boiling in a horizontal channel heated externally from the top side. Part 2 contains parametric dimensionless curves with parameters such as the coolant channel radius ratio, the Biot number, and the circumferential coordinate.

  14. Boil-off experiments with the EIR-NEPTUN Facility: Analysis and code assessment overview report

    SciTech Connect

    Aksan, S.N.; Stierli, F.; Analytis, G.T.

    1992-03-01

    The NEPTUN data discussed in this report are from core uncovery (boil-off) experiments designed to investigate the mixture level decrease and the heat up of the fuel rod simulators above the mixture level for conditions simulating core boil-off for a nuclear reactor under small break loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The first series of experiments performed in the NEPTUN test facility consisted of ten boil-off (uncovery) and one adiabatic heat-up tests. In these tests three parameters were varied: rod power, system pressure and initial coolant subcooling. The NEPTUN experiments showed that the external surface thermocouples do not cause a significant cooling influence in the rods to which they are attached under boil-off conditions. The reflooding tests performed later on indicated that the external surface thermocouples have some effect during reflooding for NEPTUN electrically heated rod bundle. Peak cladding temperatures are reduced by about 30--40C and quench times occur 20--70 seconds earlier than rods with embedded thermocouples. Additionally, the external surface-thermocouples give readings up to 20 K lower than those obtained with internal surface thermocouples (in the absence of external thermocouples) in the peak cladding temperature zone. Some of the boil-off data obtained from the NEPTUN test facility are used for the assessment of the thermal-hydraulic transient computer codes. These calculations were performed extensively using the frozen version of TRAC-BD1/MOD1 (version 22). A limited number of assessment calculations were done with RELAP5/MOD2 (version 36.02). In this report the main results and conclusions of these calculations are presented with the identification of problem areas in relation to models relevant to boil-off phenomena. On the basis of further analysis and calculations done, changing some of the models such as the bubbly/slug flow interfacial friction correlation which eliminate some of the problems are recommended.

  15. Boiling Water CanningProject Manual

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    to preserving, 2011 or most current edition canning Fruits, pnW 199 http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications /pnw county HealthyLifestyles HomeFood PreservationSeries #12;4-H Home Food Preservation Series the home food preservation series contains four manuals: Freezing for ages 8­18 Drying for ages 8­18 Boiling water canning

  16. Electrohydrodynamic Pool Boiling in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.; Stahl, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research is concerned with studying the effects of applied electric fields on pool boiling in a reduced-gravity environment. Experiments are conducted at the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec Drop tower using a drop rig constructed at UC Davis. In the experiments, a platinum wire is heated while immersed in saturated liquid refrigerants (FC-72 and FC-87), or water, causing vapor formation at the wire surface. Electric fields are applied between the wire surface and an outer screen electrode that surrounds the wire. Preliminary normal-gravity experiments with water have demonstrated that applied electric fields generated by the rig electronics can influence boiling characteristics. Reduced-gravity experiments will be performed in the summer of 1996. The experiments will provide fundamental data on electric field strengths required to disrupt film boiling (for various wire heat generation input rates) in reduced gravity for a cylindrical geometry. The experiments should also shed light on the roles of characteristic bubble generation times and charge relaxation times in determining the effects of electric fields on pool boiling. Normal-gravity comparison experiments will also be performed.

  17. Big Bubbles in Boiling Liquids: Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit students' conceptions about big bubbles in boiling liquids (water, ethanol and aqueous CuSO[subscript 4] solution). The study is based on twenty-four students at different ages and grades. The clinical interviews technique was conducted to solicit students' conceptions and the interviews were analyzed to…

  18. The Plausibility of Boiling Geysers on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    A mechanism is suggested and modeled whereby there may be boiling geysers on Triton. The geysers would be of nitrogen considering that Voyager detected cryovolcanic activity, that solid nitrogen conducts heat much less than water ice, and that there is internal heat on Triton.

  19. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling water. The device is intended to sterilize dental and surgical instruments by submersion in the boiling water in the container. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). [55 FR 48439,...

  20. Mechanism of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to sodium and the criterion for stable boiling

    E-print Network

    Shai, Isaac

    1967-01-01

    A comparison between liquid metals and other common fluids, like water, is made as regards to the various stages of nucleate pool boiling. It is suggested that for liquid metals the stage of building the thermal layer plays ...

  1. Finite-temperature scaling at the quantum critical point of the Ising chain in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haelg, Manuel; Huvonen, Dan; Guidi, Tatiana; Quintero-Castro, Diana Lucia; Boehm, Martin; Regnault, Louis-Pierre; Zheludev, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to study the finite-temperature scaling behavior of spin correlations at the quantum critical point in an experimental realization of the one-dimensional Ising model in a transverse field. The target compound is the well-characterized, anisotropic and bond-alternating Heisenberg spin-1 chain material NTENP. The validity and the limitations of the dynamic structure factor scaling are tested, discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. For this purpose neutron data have been collected on the three-axes spectrometers IN14 at ILL and FLEXX at HZB as well as on the time of flight multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS. In addition to the general statement about quantum criticality and universality, present study also reveals new insight into the properties of the spin chain compound NTENP in particular.

  2. Thermal conductivity measurements of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires by the four-point-probe 3-? technique at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2013-05-01

    We have successfully investigated the thermal conductivity (?) of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires (BiNWs) with [110] growth direction, via a straightforward and powerful four-point-probe 3-? technique in the temperature range 10-280 K. The BiNWs, which are well known as the most effective material for thermoelectric (TE) device applications, were synthesized by compressive thermal stress on a SiO2/Si substrate at 250-270?°C for 10 h. To understand the thermal transport mechanism of BiNWs, we present three kinds of experimental technique as follows, (i) a manipulation of a single BiNW by an Omni-probe in a focused ion beam (FIB), (ii) a suspended bridge structure integrating a four-point-probe chip by micro-fabrication to minimize the thermal loss to the substrate, and (iii) a simple 3-? technique system setup. We found that the thermal transport of BiNWs is highly affected by boundary scattering of both phonons and electrons as the dominant heat carriers. The thermal conductivity of a single BiNW (d ˜ 123 nm) was estimated to be ˜2.9 W m-1 K-1 at 280 K, implying lower values compared to the thermal conductivity of the bulk (˜11 W m-1 K-1 at 280 K). It was noted that this reduction in the thermal conductivity of the BiNWs could be due to strongly enhanced phonon-boundary scattering at the surface of the BiNWs. Furthermore, we present temperature-dependent (10-280 K) thermal conductivity of the BiNWs using the 3-? technique.

  3. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p < 0.05) on the palmaris longus tendon and biceps brachii muscle. However, no difference was observed when comparing the different compressive forces (p > 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin. PMID:26070073

  4. Indo-Pacific Warm Pool Area Expansion, Modoki Activity, and Tropical Cold-Point Tropopause Temperature Variations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fei; Li, Jianping; Tian, Wenshou; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The tropical cold-point tropopause temperature (CPTT), a potentially important indicator of global climate change, is of particular importance for understanding changes in stratospheric water vapor levels. Since the 1980s, the tropical CPTT has shown not only interannual variations, but also a decreasing trend. However, the factors controlling the variations in the tropical CPTT since the 1980s remain elusive. The present study reveals that the continuous expansion of the area of the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) since the 1980s represents an increase in the total heat energy of the IPWP available to heat the tropospheric air, which is likely to expand as a result. This process lifts the tropical cold-point tropopause height (CPTH) and leads to the observed long-term cooling trend of the tropical CPTT. In addition, our analysis shows that Modoki activity is an important factor in modulating the interannual variations of the tropical CPTT through significant effects on overshooting convection. PMID:24686481

  5. Indo-Pacific warm pool area expansion, Modoki activity, and tropical cold-point tropopause temperature variations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Li, Jianping; Tian, Wenshou; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The tropical cold-point tropopause temperature (CPTT), a potentially important indicator of global climate change, is of particular importance for understanding changes in stratospheric water vapor levels. Since the 1980s, the tropical CPTT has shown not only interannual variations, but also a decreasing trend. However, the factors controlling the variations in the tropical CPTT since the 1980s remain elusive. The present study reveals that the continuous expansion of the area of the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) since the 1980s represents an increase in the total heat energy of the IPWP available to heat the tropospheric air, which is likely to expand as a result. This process lifts the tropical cold-point tropopause height (CPTH) and leads to the observed long-term cooling trend of the tropical CPTT. In addition, our analysis shows that Modoki activity is an important factor in modulating the interannual variations of the tropical CPTT through significant effects on overshooting convection. PMID:24686481

  6. Induction heating pure vapor source of high temperature melting point materials on electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsumi, Osamu; Kato, Yushi; Matsui, Yuuki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Uchida, Takashi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    2010-02-15

    Multicharged ions that are needed are produced from solid pure material with high melting point in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating (IH) with multilayer induction coil, which is made from bare molybdenum or tungsten wire without water cooling and surrounding the pure vaporized material. We optimize the shapes of induction coil and vaporized materials and operation of rf power supply. We conduct experiment to investigate the reproducibility and stability in the operation and heating efficiency. IH evaporator produces pure material vapor because materials directly heated by eddy currents have no contact with insulated materials, which are usually impurity gas sources. The power and the frequency of the induction currents range from 100 to 900 W and from 48 to 23 kHz, respectively. The working pressure is about 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} Pa. We measure the temperature of the vaporized materials with different shapes, and compare them with the result of modeling. We estimate the efficiency of the IH vapor source. We are aiming at the evaporator's higher melting point material than that of iron.

  7. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux. This document consists solely of the plato file index from 11/87 to 11/90.

  8. Design inputs document: Boiling behavior during flow instability

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The coolant flow in a nuclear reactor core under normal operating conditions is kept as a subcooled liquid. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout the multiple flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. If the coolant flow is reduced, the flow through individual channels will also decrease. A decrease in coolant flow will result in higher coolant temperatures if the heat flux is not reduced. When flow is significantly decreased, localized boiling may occur. This localized boiling can restrict coolant flow and the ability to transfer heat out of the reactor system. The maximum operating power for the reactor may be limited by how the coolant system reacts to a flow instability. One of the methods to assure safe operation during a reducing flow instability, is to operate at a power level below that necessary to initiate a flow excursion. Several correlations have been used to predict the conditions which precede a flow excursion. These correlations rely on the steady state behavior of the coolant and are based on steady state testing. This task will evaluate if there are any deviations between the actual transient flow excursion behavior and the flow excursion behavior based on steady state correlations (ONB, OSV, and CHF). Correlations will be developed which will allow a comparison between the time to excursive behavior predicted using steady state techniques and the actual time to excursive behavior.

  9. Design inputs document: Boiling behavior during flow instability

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The coolant flow in a nuclear reactor core under normal operating conditions is kept as a subcooled liquid. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout the multiple flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. If the coolant flow is reduced, the flow through individual channels will also decrease. A decrease in coolant flow will result in higher coolant temperatures if the heat flux is not reduced. When flow is significantly decreased, localized boiling may occur. This localized boiling can restrict coolant flow and the ability to transfer heat out of the reactor system. The maximum operating power for the reactor may be limited by how the coolant system reacts to a flow instability. One of the methods to assure safe operation during a reducing flow instability, is to operate at a power level below that necessary to initiate a flow excursion. Several correlations have been used to predict the conditions which precede a flow excursion. These correlations rely on the steady state behavior of the coolant and are based on steady state testing. This task will evaluate if there are any deviations between the actual transient flow excursion behavior and the flow excursion behavior based on steady state correlations (ONB, OSV, and CHF). Correlations will be developed which will allow a comparison between the time to excursive behavior predicted using steady state techniques and the actual time to excursive behavior.

  10. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  11. [Keeping quality of hard boiled eggs].

    PubMed

    Partmann, W; Wedler, A

    1979-09-01

    Only a few and contradictory results are available on the storage stability of hard boiled eggs which are of considerable importance for institutional feeding. Therefore four storage experiments on about 500 hard boiled eggs each were carried out and chemical and sensorial changes occurring during storage investigated. The one-day-old eggs of the same origin were boiled for 17 minutes under standard conditions and subsequently stored in air at a relative humidity between 73 and 85% at 4 degrees C (experiment No. 1), at 20 degrees C (experiments No. 2 and 3) and in pure carbon dioxide at 20 degrees C (experiment No. 4). Immediately after boiling, the eggs used for experiments No. 3 were dipped into coloured resin for egg shells (natural Manila-Kopa; dissolved in ethanol and stained with "Acillantechtgrün). Losses in weight during storages were distincly lower in the lacquered eggs than in the non-lacquered samples otherwise treated in the same manner. The weight decrease caused by the loss of water was extraordinarily high in pure CO2 and is due mainly the the decrease of the pH in the egg whites caused by the uptake of CO2. A few days after boiling the concentration of the free amino acids reached approximately the same level in albumen and yolk and remained practically constant over the following 3 weeks. For the breakdown of lecithine in yolk determined according to Grossfeld and Peter, a "deterioration quotient" of 6, like in unboiled eggs, was fixed as the limit value for unspoiled condition. Accordingly a possible storage time of 3 to 4 weeks resulted for the eggs stored at 4 degrees C and for the eggs treated with stained resin. The non-lacquered eggs stored in air or in CO2 at 20 degrees C reached the critical value in about 10 days. From the vitamins A, B1 and B2 only vitamin A showed considerable losses during storage. On the basis of the microbiological (3) and chemical findings and of the sensorial evaluation of colour, consistency, odour and taste of egg whites and yolks, the following storage times were determined for eggs in the quality class "saleable" requiring an overall rating not lower than 6 (satisfactory): 14 to 16 days, for non-lacquered eggs stored at 4 degrees C and for lacquered eggs at 20 degrees C whereas 5 days were found to be the maximum storage time for untreated eggs stored at 20 degrees C. If boiled eggs are stored in pure carbon dioxide at 20 degrees C, a distinct quality loss is observed already after a few days. PMID:575006

  12. Two-phase structure above hot surfaces in jet impingement boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanic, L.; Auracher, H.; Ziegler, F.

    2009-05-01

    Jet impingement boiling is very efficient in cooling of hot surfaces as a part of the impinging liquid evaporates. Several studies have been carried out to measure and correlate the heat transfer to impinging jets as a function of global parameters such as jet subcooling, jet velocity, nozzle size and distance to the surface, etc. If physically based mechanistic models are to be developed, studies on the fundamentals of two-phase dynamics near the hot surface are required. In the present study the vapor-liquid structures underneath a subcooled (20 K) planar (1 mm × 9 mm) water jet, impinging the heated plate vertically with a velocity of 0.4 m/s, were analyzed by means of a miniaturized optical probe. It has a tip diameter of app. 1.5 ?m and is moved toward the plate by a micrometer device. The temperature controlled experimental technique enabled steady-state experiments in all boiling regimes. The optical probe data provides information about the void fraction, the contact frequencies and the distribution of the vapor and liquid contact times as a function of the distance to the surface. The measured contact frequencies range from 40 Hz at the onset of nucleate boiling to nearly 20,000 Hz at the end of the transition boiling regime. Due to condensation in the subcooled jet vapor disappears at a distance to the surface of app. 1.2 mm in nucleate boiling. This vapor layer becomes smaller with increasing wall superheat. In film boiling a vapor film thickness of 8 ± 2 ?m was found.

  13. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  14. (Investigation of subcooled hydrothermal boiling in ground water flow channels as a source of harmonic tremors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    As a first step toward assessing the ability of hydrothermal boiling to explain geothermal ground noise and volcanic tremor observations, we are investigating the acoustic power spectrum of boiling (the source'' spectrum in the above model). We simulate boiling in the lab by injecting high pressure steam from a boiler into a pressure vessel filled with water. The water pressure fluctuations that result from the repeated formation and collapse of steam bubbles at the steam inlet vents are recorded by a hydrophone whose output is digitized at 2 {times} 10{sup 4} samples/second by a computer. The range of pressure and temperature conditions attainable within the pressure vessel is limited to <3.5 bars, <139{degree}C, due to the finite strength of observation windows affixed to the pressure vessel. Therefore, dimensional analysis will be used to correlate the experimental results with the pertinent experimental variables. Besides the overall shape of the boiling power spectrum, we are investigating the absolute spectral levels in frequency bands typical of geothermal ground noise and volcanic tremor (0.5 Hz-10 Hz), and the ratio of acoustic power liberated to total available power. The values of these parameters are critical to hydrothermal boiling's ability to generate ground motion amplitudes in accordance with observation. If it can be shown that the range of observed ground noise/tremor amplitudes can be accounted for by hydrothermal boiling at reasonable heat transfer rates, this knowledge would be invaluable to designers of seismic monitoring experiments who are interested in geothermal resource exploration/evaluation and volcanic eruption prediction.

  15. Heat and mass transfer in porous media phase separation at temperatures below the lambda-point of He-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1986-01-01

    Newtonian fluid motion, coupled to heat transfer via latent heat of phase transition, is well known from numerous studies of condensation and boiling. Considerably less knowledge is available for vapor-liquid phase separation in the absence of gravity effect on the transport phenomena. The present studies are focused on heat and mass transfer associated with vapor-liquid phase separation required for long-term storage of the cryogen liquid He II in space vessels. Though space conditions are the dominant mode of interest in advanced equipment, e.g. IR telescopes, the systems may be operated in principle during terrestrial conditions. The latter are considered in the present work. It emphasizes the linear regime including an extrapolation based on variable thermophysical properties. Data taken with a phase separation approach show departures from the linear regime prediction. They agree with a transport equation proposed for the nonlinear, turbulent regime.

  16. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  17. Conjugate thermal and hydrodynamic analyses of saturated film boiling from a horizontal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, D.; Son, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    Film boiling is characterized by the existence of a continuous vapor layer between a heated solid surface and a liquid layer. The evolution of the vapor-liquid interface during film boiling on a horizontal surface is determined by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. To predict the heat transfer rates in film boiling, many studies have been reported in literature. Early attempts to model this phenomenon had used semi-empirical correlations. Recent work on simulation of the evolution of vapor-liquid interface without assuming any empirical vapor-liquid interface shape and by assuming the solid surface temperature to be constant has shown that the convective heat transfer coefficients, associated with the interface, vary both spatially and temporally. Consequently, the assumption of constant solid surface temperature in film boiling is not strictly valid. In this work, saturated film boiling on a horizontal surface is simulated numerically. Finite difference method is used to simultaneously solve the equations governing conservation of mass, momentum and energy in the vapor and liquid layers. The equations for the two fluid phases are coupled through matching of normal and tangential stresses and continuity of mass and energy at the liquid vapor interface. Second order projection method is used along with numerical grid generation to construct a grid system which is aligned with the vapor-liquid interface. The heat conduction equation is solved separately in the solid, to obtain the wall temperature. The results show that for most surfaces little coupling takes place between thermal response of the solid substrate and hydrodynamics of evolution of the interface. However, for thin plate heaters of relatively low thermal conductivity materials, the thermal response of the solid can significantly affect the hydrodynamics of the interface and in turn the local heat transfer.

  18. Heat transfer in nucleate boiling of mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schlunder, E.U.

    1983-10-01

    An equation for predicting heat transfer coefficients for nucleate boiling of mixtures is derived. This expression contains only one adjustable parameter and the liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient. If the adjustable parameter is put equal to unity, comparison with the most recent data for the SF/sub 6/-CF/sub 2/-Cl/sub 2/ system gives a mass transfer coefficient of 2 X 10/sup -4/ m/s, which is of the same order of magnitude as the value obtained in physical and chemical absorption and in fallingfilm vaporization. The new equation corresponds particularly well with the experimental observation that the heat transfer coefficient is less dependent on the heat flux density and the pressure for nucleate boiling of mixtures than in the case of the pure components.

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound monitoring using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) under boiling or slow denaturation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Apostolakis, Iason-Zacharias; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-07-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method that utilizes an amplitude-modulated therapeutic ultrasound beam to induce an oscillatory radiation force at the HIFU focus and estimates the focal tissue displacement to monitor the HIFU thermal treatment. In this study, the performance of HMIFU under acoustic, thermal, and mechanical effects was investigated. The performance of HMIFU was assessed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 13) under slow denaturation or boiling regimes. A passive cavitation detector (PCD) was used to assess the acoustic cavitation activity, and a bare-wire thermocouple was used to monitor the focal temperature change. During lesioning with slow denaturation, high quality displacements (correlation coefficient above 0.97) were observed under minimum cavitation noise, indicating the tissue initial-softening-then- stiffening property change. During HIFU with boiling, HMIFU monitored a consistent change in lesion-to-background displacement contrast (0.46 ± 0.37) despite the presence of strong cavitation noise due to boiling during lesion formation. Therefore, HMIFU effectively monitored softening-then-stiffening during lesioning under slow denaturation, and detected lesioning under boiling with a distinct change in displacement contrast under boiling in the presence of cavitation. In conclusion, HMIFU was shown under both boiling and slow denaturation regimes to be effective in HIFU monitoring and lesioning identification without being significantly affected by cavitation noise. PMID:26168177

  20. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Control of Bubble Motion in Microgravity Using Electric Fields - BCOEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Acquaviva, Tom; Coho, Bill; Grant, Nechelle; Nahra, Henry; Sankaran, Subramanian; Taylor, Al; Julian, Ed; Robinson, Dale; VanZandt, Dave

    2001-01-01

    The BCOEL project focuses on improving pool boiling heat transfer and bubble control in microgravity by exposing the fluid to electric fields. The electric fields induce a body force that can replace gravity in the low gravity environment, and enhance bubble removal from thc heated surface. A better understanding of microgravity effects on boiling with and without electric fields is critical to the proper design of the phase-change-heat-removal equipment for use in space-based applications. The microgravity experiments will focus on the visualization of bubble formation and shape during boiling. Heat fluxes on the boiling surface will be measured, and, together with the measured driving temperature differences, used to plot boiling curvcs for different electric field magnitudes. Bubble formation and boiling processes were found to be extremely sensitive to g-jitter. The duration of the experimental run is critical in order to achieve steady state in microgravity experiments. The International Space Station provides conditions suitable for such experiments. The experimental appararus to be used in the study is described in the paper. The apparatus will be tested in the KC-135 first, and microgravity experiments will be conducted on board of the International Space Station using the Microgravity Science Glovebox as the experimental platform.

  1. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Control of Bubble Motion in Microgravity Using Electric Fields (BCOEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Acquaviva, Tom; Coho, Bill; Grant, Nechelle; Nahra, Henry; Taylor, Al; Julian, Ed; Robinson, Dale; VanZandt, Dave

    2001-01-01

    The BCOEL project focuses on improving pool boiling heat transfer and bubble control in microgravity by exposing the fluid to electric fields. The electric fields induce a body force that can replace gravity in the low gravity environment, and enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. A better understanding of microgravity effects on boiling with and without electric fields is critical to the proper design of the phase-change-heat-removal equipment for use in spacebased applications. The microgravity experiments will focus on the visualization of bubble formation and shape during boiling. Heat fluxes on the boiling surface will be measured, and, together with the measured driving temperature differences, used to plot boiling curves for different electric field magnitudes. Bubble formation and boiling processes were found to be extremely sensitive to g-jitter. The duration of the experimental run is critical in order to achieve steady state in microgravity experiments. The International Space Station provides conditions suitable for such experiments. The experimental apparatus to be used in the study is described in the paper. The apparatus will be tested in the KC-135 first, and microgravity experiments will be conducted on board of the International Space Station using the Microgravity Science Glovebox as the experimental platform.

  2. Bubble Dynamics, Two-Phase Flow, and Boiling Heat Transfer in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jacob N.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains two independent sections. Part one is titled "Terrestrial and Microgravity Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical heat flux phenomenon in an acoustic standing wave." Terrestrial and microgravity pool boiling heat transfer experiments were performed in the presence of a standing acoustic wave from a platinum wire resistance heater using degassed FC-72 Fluorinert liquid. The sound wave was created by driving a half wavelength resonator at a frequency of 10.15 kHz. Microgravity conditions were created using the 2.1 second drop tower on the campus of Washington State University. Burnout of the heater wire, often encountered with heat flux controlled systems, was avoided by using a constant temperature controller to regulate the heater wire temperature. The amplitude of the acoustic standing wave was increased from 28 kPa to over 70 kPa and these pressure measurements were made using a hydrophone fabricated with a small piezoelectric ceramic. Cavitation incurred during experiments at higher acoustic amplitudes contributed to the vapor bubble dynamics and heat transfer. The heater wire was positioned at three different locations within the acoustic field: the acoustic node, antinode, and halfway between these locations. Complete boiling curves are presented to show how the applied acoustic field enhanced boiling heat transfer and increased critical heat flux in microgravity and terrestrial environments. Video images provide information on the interaction between the vapor bubbles and the acoustic field. Part two is titled, "Design and qualification of a microscale heater array for use in boiling heat transfer." This part is summarized herein. Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of wall temperature and heat flux near the wall would add to the database of knowledge which is necessary to understand the mechanisms of nucleate boiling. A heater array has been developed which contains 96 heater elements within a 2.5 mm square area. The temperature of each heater element is held constant by an electronic control system similar to a hot-wire anemometer. The voltage that is being applied to each heater element can be measured and digitized using a high-speed Analog to Digital (A/D) converter, and this digital information can be compiled into a series of heat-flux maps. Information for up to 10,000 heat flux maps can be obtained each second. The heater control system, the A/D system and the heater array construction are described in detail. Results are presented which show that this is an effective method of measuring the local heat flux during nucleate and transition boiling. Heat flux maps are obtained for pool boiling in FC-72 on a horizontal surface. Local heat flux variations are shown to be three to six times larger than variations in the spatially averaged heat flux.

  3. Use of high-boiling alcohols to produce shale oil from Green River shale

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Blanche, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the results of experiments in which Green River shale was treated with mono-, di-, or trifunctional alcohols in an attempt to produce high oil yields under lower pressure treatment conditions. The experiment using 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol) and water resulted in a yield of 81 weight percent based on recovered liquid organic matter, a yield equivalent ro 124% of Fischer assay. The experiments using other di- and trifunctional alcohols were not successful in recovering large amounts of oil from the shale. The 1, 2-ethanediol experiments suggests that it may be possible to recover oil from shale in yields much higher than those of conventional retorting precesses at pressures well below supercritical methanol-water. Solvents with boiling points up to 200C, such as n-octanol boiling at 194C and 1,2-ethanediol boiling at 198C, can be removed from liquid product using rotary evaporation under reduced pressure. Higher-boiling alcohols such as glycerin and diethylene glycol would probably not be satisfactory solvents even if recoveries were high because of complicated separation requirements. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Boiling inside tubes: General aspects and estimated wet-wall heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-12-01

    Data item ESDU 85041, a part of the Heat Transfer Sub-series, discusses the problems met in thermal rating a vaporizer in terms of the flow patterns in boiling flow, the conditions for nucleate boiling, considerations of burnout and dryout, the use of mixtures, and the flow instabilities that can occur. Nine correlations for wet-wall boiling of a pure liquid are evaluated against over 3000 experimental points taken from the literature and the results tabulated. The most reliable prediction method was chosen and a graph shows its performance against experimental data for water, ethylene glycol, and a number of refrigerants. A calculation procedure based on that correlation is provided, including checks on whether nucleate boiling or statified flow exists. The calculation of the surface area required to reach a selected flow quality is also given. A practical worked example illustrates the use of the method. It applies to steam generators and to vaporizers for process fluids. Large water tube boilers used in power generation are outside the scope, however.

  5. Accurate experimental determination of the isotope effects on the triple point temperature of water. II. Combined dependence on the 18O and 17O abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, V.; Kozicki, M.; Aerts-Bijma, A. T.; Jansen, H. G.; Spriensma, J. J.; Peruzzi, A.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is the second of two articles on the quantification of isotope effects on the triple point temperature of water. In this second article, we address the combined effects of 18O and 17O isotopes. We manufactured five triple point cells with waters with 18O and 17O abundances exceeding widely the natural abundance range while maintaining their natural 18O/17O relationship. The 2H isotopic abundance was kept close to that of VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). These cells realized triple point temperatures ranging between???220 ?K to 1420 ?K with respect to the temperature realized by a triple point cell filled with VSMOW. Our experiment allowed us to determine an accurate and reliable value for the newly defined combined 18, 17O correction parameter of AO??=??630 ?K with a combined uncertainty of 10 ?K. To apply this correction, only the 18O abundance of the TPW needs to be known (and the water needs to be of natural origin). Using the results of our two articles, we recommend a correction equation along with the coefficient values for isotopic compositions differing from that of VSMOW and compare the effect of this new equation on a number of triple point cells from the literature and from our own institute. Using our correction equation, the uncertainty in the isotope correction for triple point cell waters used around the world will be??<1 ?K.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila

    1996-01-01

    Boiling is an effective mode of heat transfer since high heat flux levels are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences. The high heat transfer coefficients associated with boiling have made the use of these processes increasingly attractive to aerospace engineering. Applications of this type include compact evaporators in the thermal control of aircraft avionics and spacecraft environments, heat pipes, and use of boiling to cool electronic equipment. In spite of its efficiency, cooling based on liquid-vapor phase change processes has not yet found wide application in aerospace engineering due to specific problems associated with the low gravity environment. After a heated surface has reached the superheat required for the initiation of nucleate boiling, bubbles will start forming at nucleation sites along the solid interface by evaporation of the liquid. Bubbles in contact with the wall will continue growing by this mechanism until they detach. In terrestrial conditions, bubble detachment is determined by the competition between body forces (e.g. buoyancy) and surface tension forces that act to anchor the bubble along the three phase contact line. For a given body force potential and a balance of tensions along the three phase contact line, bubbles must reach a critical size before the body force can cause them to detach from the wall. In a low gravity environment the critical bubble size for detachment is much larger than under terrestrial conditions, since buoyancy is a less effective means of bubble removal. Active techniques of heat transfer enhancement in single phase and phase change processes by utilizing electric fields have been the subject of intensive research during recent years. The field of electrohydrodynamics (EHD) deals with the interactions between electric fields, flow fields and temperature fields. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50 as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. Imposing an external electric field holds the promise to improve pool boiling heat transfer in low gravity, since a phase separation force other than gravity is introduced. The goal of our research is to experimentally investigate the potential of EHD and the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions.

  7. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.

  8. The Parable of the Boiled System Safety Professional: Drift to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Recall from the Parable of the Boiled Frog, that tossing a frog into boiling water causes the frog to jump out and hop away while placing a frog in suitable temperature water and slowly bringing the water to a boil results in the frog boiling due to not being aware of the slowly increasing danger, theoretically, of course. System safety professionals must guard against allowing dangers to creep unnoticed into their projects and be ever alert to notice signs of impending problems. People have used various phrases related to the idea, most notably, latent conditions, James Reason in Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents (1, pp 10-11), Drift to Failure, Sydney Dekker (2, pp 82-86) in Resilience Engineering: Chronicling the Emergence of Confused Consensus in Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts, Hollnagel, Woods and Leveson, and normalization of deviance, Diane Vaughan in The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA (3). Reason also said, If eternal vigilance is the price of liberty, then chronic unease is the price of safety (1, p 37). Our challenge as system safety professionals is to be aware of the emergence of signals that warn us of slowly eroding safety margins. This paper will discuss how system safety professionals might better perform in that regard.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila

    1999-01-01

    In boiling high heat fluxes are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences, which make its use increasingly attractive in aerospace applications. The objective of the research is to develop ways to overcome specific problems associated with boiling in the low gravity environment by substituting the buoyancy force with the electric force to enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50, as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. The goal of our research is to experimentally explore the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions, by visualizing the temperature distributions in the vicinity of the heated surface and around the bubble during boiling using real-time holographic interferometry (HI) combined with high-speed cinematography. In the first phase of the project the influence of the electric field on a single bubble is investigated. Pool boiling is simulated by injecting a single bubble through a nozzle into the subcooled liquid or into the thermal boundary layer developed along the flat heater surface. Since the exact location of bubble formation is known, the optical equipment can be aligned and focused accurately, which is an essential requirement for precision measurements of bubble shape, size and deformation, as well as the visualization of temperature fields by HI. The size of the bubble and the frequency of bubble departure can be controlled by suitable selection of nozzle diameter and mass flow rate of vapor. In this approach effects due to the presence of the electric field can be separated from effects caused by the temperature gradients in the thermal boundary layer. The influence of the thermal boundary layer can be investigated after activating the heater at a later stage of the research. For the visualization experiments a test cell was developed. All four vertical walls of the test cell are transparent, and they allow transillumination with laser light for visualization experiments by HI. The bottom electrode is a copper cylinder, which is electrically grounded. The copper block is heated with a resistive heater and it is equipped with 6 thermocouples that provide reference temperatures for the measurements with HI. The top electrode is a mesh electrode. Bubbles are injected with a syringe into the test cell through the bottom electrode. The working fluids presently used in the interferometric visualization experiments, water and PF 5052, satisfy requirements regarding thermophysical, optical and electrical properties. A 30kV power supply equipped with a voltmeter allows to apply the electric field to the electrodes during the experiments. The magnitude of the applied voltage can be adjusted either manually or through the LabVIEW data acquisition and control system connected to a PC. Temperatures of the heated block are recorded using type-T thermocouples, whose output is read by a data acquisition system. Images of the bubbles are recorded with 35mm photographic and 16mm high-speed cameras, scanned and analyzed using various software packages. Visualized temperature fields HI allows the visualization of temperature fields in the vicinity of bubbles during boiling in the form of fringes. Typical visualized temperature distributions around the air bubbles injected into the thermal boundary layer in PF5052 are shown. The temperature of the heated surface is 35 C. The temperature difference for a pair of fringes is approximately 0.05 C. The heat flux applied to the bottom surface is moderate, and the fringe patterns are regular. In the image a bubble penetrating the thermal boundary layer is visible. Because of the axial symmetry of the problem, simplified reconstruction techniques can be applied to recover the temperature field. The thermal plume developing above the heated surface for more intensive heating is shown. The temperature distribution in the liquid is clearly 3D, and

  10. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2?h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat. PMID:24744813

  11. Resistivity During Boiling in the SB-15-D Core from the Geysers Geothermal Field: The Effects of Capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.; Duba, A.; Bonner, B.; Kasameyer, P.

    1997-01-01

    In a laboratory study of cores from borehole SB-15-D in The Geysers geothermal area, we measured the electrical resistivity of metashale with and without pore-pressure control, with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures between 20 and 150 C, to determine how the pore-size distribution and capillarity affected boiling. We observed a gradual increase in resistivity when the downstream pore pressure or confining pressure decreased below the phase boundary of free water. For the conditions of this experiment, boiling, as indicated by an increase in resistivity, is initiated at pore pressures of approximately 0.5 to 1 bar (0.05 to 0.1 MPa) below the free-water boiling curve, and it continues to increase gradually as pressure is lowered to atmospheric. A simple model of the effects of capillarity suggests that at 145 C, less than 15% of the pore water can boil in these rocks. If subsequent experiments bear out these preliminary observations, then boiling within a geothermal reservoir is controlled not just by pressure and temperature but also by pore-size distribution. Thus, it may be possible to determine reservoir characteristics by monitoring changes in electrical resistivity as reservoir conditions change.

  12. The heat-pipe resembling action of boiling bubbles in endovenous laser ablation.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Cees W M; van den Bos, Renate R; van Ruijven, Peter W M; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H A Martino; van Gemert, Martin J C

    2010-11-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) produces boiling bubbles emerging from pores within the hot fiber tip and traveling over a distal length of about 20 mm before condensing. This evaporation-condensation mechanism makes the vein act like a heat pipe, where very efficient heat transport maintains a constant temperature, the saturation temperature of 100 degrees C, over the volume where these non-condensing bubbles exist. During EVLA the above-mentioned observations indicate that a venous cylindrical volume with a length of about 20 mm is kept at 100 degrees C. Pullback velocities of a few mm/s then cause at least the upper part of the treated vein wall to remain close to 100 degrees C for a time sufficient to cause irreversible injury. In conclusion, we propose that the mechanism of action of boiling bubbles during EVLA is an efficient heat-pipe resembling way of heating of the vein wall. PMID:20644976

  13. The heat-pipe resembling action of boiling bubbles in endovenous laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Renate R.; van Ruijven, Peter W. M.; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H. A. Martino; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) produces boiling bubbles emerging from pores within the hot fiber tip and traveling over a distal length of about 20 mm before condensing. This evaporation-condensation mechanism makes the vein act like a heat pipe, where very efficient heat transport maintains a constant temperature, the saturation temperature of 100°C, over the volume where these non-condensing bubbles exist. During EVLA the above-mentioned observations indicate that a venous cylindrical volume with a length of about 20 mm is kept at 100°C. Pullback velocities of a few mm/s then cause at least the upper part of the treated vein wall to remain close to 100°C for a time sufficient to cause irreversible injury. In conclusion, we propose that the mechanism of action of boiling bubbles during EVLA is an efficient heat-pipe resembling way of heating of the vein wall. PMID:20644976

  14. Explosive boiling of a metallic glass superheated by nanosecond pulse laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M. Q. E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn; Wei, Y. P.; Wilde, G.; Dai, L. H. E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn

    2015-01-12

    We report an explosive boiling in a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1) bulk metallic glass irradiated by a nanosecond pulse laser with a single shot. This critical phenomenon is accompanied by the ejection of high-temperature matter from the target and the formation of a liquid-gas spinodal pattern on the irradiated area. An analytical model reveals that the glassy target experiences the normal heating (melting) and significant superheating, eventually culminating in explosive boiling near the spinodal limit. Furthermore, the time lag of nucleation and the critical radius of vapor bubbles are theoretically predicted, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. This study provides the investigation on the instability of a metallic glass liquid near the thermodynamic critical temperature.

  15. Analysis of transient film boiling of high-pressure water in a rod bundle. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Yoder, G.L.

    1982-03-01

    The following six dispersed-flow film-boiling correlations were assessed using data from three ORNL transient film-boiling experiments conducted in the THTF: Dougall-Rohsenow; Dougall-Rohsenow (with Prandtl number evaluated at the wall temperature, as used in RELAP4-MOD7); Groeneveld 5.9; Groeneveld 5.7; Groeneveld-Delorme; and Condie-Bengston IV. The correlations were evaluated with bundle fluid conditions calculated using a homogeneous two-phase flow and thermodynamic equilibrium thermal-hydraulics code. Equilibrium bundle fluid conditions are reported along with fuel rod simulator surface temperature and heat flux. Calculated experimental heat transfer coefficients are also reported. Uncertainties are reported for calculated heat transfer parameters for one of the transient tests. Thermodynamic nonequilibrium in the three transient tests was examined with an advanced two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code.

  16. Maximum power point search method for photovoltaic panels which uses a light sensor in the conditions of real shading and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroczka, Janusz; Ostrowski, Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Disadvantages of photovoltaic panels are their low efficiency and non-linear current-voltage characteristic. Therefore it is necessary to apply the maximum power tracking systems which are dependent on the sun exposure and temperature. Trackers, that are used in photovoltaic systems, differ from each other in the speed and accuracy of tracking. Typically, in order to determine the maximum power point, trackers use measure of current and voltage. The perturb and observe algorithm or the incremental conductance method are frequent in the literature. The drawback of these solutions is the need to search the entire current-voltage curve, resulting in a significant loss of power in the fast-changing lighting conditions. Modern solutions use an additional measurement of temperature, short-circuit current or open circuit voltage in order to determine the starting point of one of the above methods, what decreases the tracking time. For this paper, a sequence of simulations and tests in real shading and temperature conditions for the investigated method, which uses additional light sensor to increase the speed of the perturb and observe algorithm in fast-changing illumination conditions was performed. Due to the non-linearity of the light sensor and the photovoltaic panel and the influence of temperature on the used sensor and panel characteristics, we cannot directly determine the relationship between them. For this reason, the tested method is divided into two steps. In the first step algorithm uses the correlation curve of the light sensor and current at the maximum power point and determines the current starting point with respect of which the perturb and observe algorithm is run. When the maximum power point is reached, in a second step, the difference between the starting point and the actual maximum power point is calculated and on this basis the coefficients of correlation curve are modified.

  17. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  18. Optimizing the Combination of Smoking and Boiling on Quality of Korean Traditional Boiled Loin (M. longissimus dorsi)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of smoking and boiling on the proximate composition, technological quality traits, shear force, and sensory characteristics of the Korean traditional boiled loin were studied. Cooking loss, processing loss, and shear force were lower in the smoked/boiled samples than those in the control (without smoking treatment) (p<0.05). The results showed that the boiled loin samples between the control and treatment did not differ significantly in protein, fat, or ash contents, or pH values (p>0.05). The treated samples had higher score for overall acceptability than the control (p<0.05). Thus, these results show that the Korean traditional boiled loin treated with smoking for 60 min before boiling had improved physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics.

  19. Bubble departure in the direct-contact boiling field with a continuous liquid-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoguchi, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-15

    Behavior of vapor bubbles was experimentally investigated in the boiling field where a volatile liquid layer of per-fluorocarbon PF5050 (boiling point 306K) was directly in contact with an immiscible hot liquid layer of water above it. Heat was supplied to the continuous liquid-liquid interface by the impingement of the downward hot water jet. Vapor bubbles were generated not only from this continuous interface but from a large number of PF5050 droplets floating on it. According to precise observation, incipience of boiling did not occur at the liquid-liquid interface but in the PF5050 liquid close to the interface in both cases of continuous and dispersed interfaces. As a result, the bubbles broke up the thin PF5050 liquid film above them and rose up into the water layer. This bubble departure phenomenon, which does not occur in the ordinary pool boiling field on the solid heating wall, is very important to evaluate the heat transfer performance in the present direct-contact boiling system. For modeling this behavior, sizes of the bubbles were measured at the moment just after they were released into the water pool. Volumes of the bubbles were larger in the case of departing from the continuous liquid-liquid interface than from the droplets. This tendency could be explained by taking into account the buoyancy force acting on unit area of the thin PF5050 liquid film above the bubble before departure, which was one of the most important parameters for the liquid film breakdown. (author)

  20. Experimental method for characterizing CVOC removal from fractured clays during boiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Tan, Tianwu; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2013-09-01

    Conventional remediation methods that rely on contact with contaminants can be ineffective in fractured media, but thermal methods of remediation involving CVOC stripping at boiling temperature show promise. However, limited experimental data are available to characterize thermal remediation because of challenges associated with high temperature. This research reports an experimental method using uniformly contaminated clay packed into two types of experimental cells, a rigid-wall stainless steel tube and a flexible-wall Teflon tube in a pressurized chamber. Both tubes are 5 cm in diameter and approximately 25 cm long. This laboratory apparatus was developed as a 1D physical model for contaminant transport in a cylindrical matrix towards a fracture, which is represented by one end of the cylinder and serves as the outlet of vapor and contaminant. The clay was contaminated with dissolved 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and bromide, and the columns were heated to more than 100 °C and then the top end was depressurized to atmospheric pressure to induce boiling. The outflow was condensed and analyzed for contaminant mass. The flexible-wall cell was confined to 100 kPa (gage), allowing equilibrium boiling temperatures of approximately 120 °C to be maintained. The clay was sampled before and after heating and extracted to determine the DCA distribution along the length of the column. During a typical test in the rigid-wall cell, internal temperatures and pressures along the column during heating reached the saturated vapor pressure curve. DCA concentrations in the recovered condensate were up to 12 times of the initial pore concentration in the clay. Less than 5% of non-volatile bromide was recovered. Significant removal of DCA and water occurred along the entire length of the clay column. This suggests that boiling was occurring in the clay matrix. PMID:23872027

  1. Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Earth and Low Gravity: Boundary Condition and Heater Aspect Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2004-01-01

    Boiling is a complex phenomenon where hydrodynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and interfacial phenomena are tightly interwoven. An understanding of boiling and critical heat flux in microgravity environments is of importance to space based hardware and processes such as heat exchange, cryogenic fuel storage and transportation, electronic cooling, and material processing due to the large amounts of heat that can be removed with relatively little increase in temperature. Although research in this area has been performed in the past four decades, the mechanisms by which heat is removed from surfaces in microgravity are still unclear. Recently, time and space resolved heat transfer data were obtained in both earth and low gravity environments using an array of microheaters varying in size between 100 microns to 700 microns. These heaters were operated in both constant temperature as well as constant heat flux mode. Heat transfer under nucleating bubbles in earth gravity were directly measured using a microheater array with 100 m resolution operated in constant temperature mode with low and high subcooled bulk liquid along with images from below and from the side. The individual bubble departure diameter and energy transfer were larger with low subcooling but the departure frequency increased at high subcooling, resulting in higher overall heat transfer. The bubble growth for both subcoolings was primarily due to energy transfer from the superheated liquid layer relatively little was due to wall heat transfer during the bubble growth process. Oscillating bubbles and sliding bubbles were also observed in highly subcooled boiling. Transient conduction and/or microconvection was the dominant heat transfer mechanism in the above cases. A transient conduction model was developed and compared with the experimental data with good agreement. Data was also obtained with the heater array operated in a constant heat flux mode and measuring the temperature distribution across the array during boiling. The instantaneous heat transfer into the substrate was numerically determined and subtracted from the supplied heat to obtain the wall to liquid heat flux.

  2. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 2

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux.

  3. 6. View of first panel point from south end showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of first panel point from south end showing chord, diagonals and vertical member connection at pin - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  4. Numerical Simulation on Subcooled Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water-Cooled W/Cu Divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Xu, Tiejun

    2015-04-01

    In order to realize safe and stable operation of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor under high heating condition, the exact knowledge of its subcooled boiling heat transfer characteristics under different design parameters is crucial. In this paper, subcooled boiling heat transfer in a water-cooled W/Cu divertor was numerically investigated based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The boiling heat transfer was simulated based on the Euler homogeneous phase model, and local differences of liquid physical properties were considered under one-sided high heating conditions. The calculated wall temperature was in good agreement with experimental results, with the maximum error of 5% only. On this basis, the void fraction distribution, flow field and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) distribution were obtained. The effects of heat flux, inlet velocity and inlet temperature on temperature distribution and pressure drop of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor were also investigated. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005), Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education (CXLX12_0170), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  5. Transition from Pool to Flow Boiling: The Effect of Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhir, Vijay K.

    2004-01-01

    Applications of boiling heat transfer in space can be found in the areas of thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life support fluids, and for cooling of electronic packages for power systems associated with various instrumentation and control systems. Recent interest in exploration of Mars and other planets, and the concepts of in-situ resource utiliLation on Mars highlights the need to understand the effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at gravity levels varying from 1>= g/g(sub e) >=10(exp -6). The objective of the proposed work was to develop a mechanistic understanding of nucleate boiling and critical heat flux under low and micro-gravity conditions when the velocity of the imposed flow is small. For pool boiling, the effect of reduced gravity is to stretch both the length scale as well as the time scale for the boiling process. At high flow velocities, the inertia of the liquid determines the time and the length scales and as such the gravitational acceleration plays little role. However, at low velocities and at low gravity levels both liquid inertia and buoyancy are of equal importance. At present, we have little understanding of the interacting roles of gravity and liquid inertia on the nucleate boiling process. Little data that has been reported in the literature does not have much practical value in that it can not serve as a basis for design of heat exchange components to be used in space. Both experimental and complete numerical simulations of the low velocity, low-gravity nucleate boiling process were carried out. A building block type of approach was used in that first the growth and detachment process of a single bubble and flow and heat transfer associated with the sliding motion of the bubble over the heater surface after detachment was studied. Liquid subcooling and flow velocity were varied parametrically. The experiments were conducted at 1 g(sub e), while varying the orientation of surface with respect to the gravity vector. In the laboratory experiments, holographic interferometry was used to obtain data on velocity and temperature fields associated with a bubble prior to, and after detachment and during sliding motion. A test rig for conducting experiments in the KC-135 was developed, but experiments could not be conducted due to the unavailability of the aircraft prior to completion of the project. Numerical simulations modeling the micro and macro regions of the bubble were carried out in three dimensions. The results of the experiments were used to validate analytical/numerical models.

  6. SWR 1000: The Innovative Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brettschuh, Werner; Hudson, Greg

    2004-07-01

    Framatome ANP has developed the boiling water reactor SWR 1000 in close cooperation with German nuclear utilities and with support from various European partners. This advanced reactor design marks a new era in the successful tradition of boiling water reactor technology and, with a gross electric output of between 1290 and 1330 MW, is aimed at assuring competitive power generating costs compared to gas- and coal-fired stations. At the same time, the SWR 1000 meets the highest safety standards, including control of a core melt accident these objectives are met by supplementing active safety systems with passive safety equipment of diverse design for accident detection and control and by simplifying systems needed for normal plant operation on the basis of past operating experience. The plant is also protected against airplane crash loads. A short construction period, flexible fuel cycle lengths of between 12 and 24 months and a high fuel discharge burn-up all contribute towards meeting economic goals. The SWR 1000 fulfills international nuclear regulatory requirements and has been offered to TVO for the fifth nuclear unit in Finland. (authors)

  7. Electrohydrodynamically enhanced heat transfer in pool boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Geppert, C.A.; Geppert, L.M.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1995-12-31

    The electrohydrodynamically enhanced heat transfer in pool boiling in the nucleate regime was studied using R-123 as the working fluid. An experimental apparatus was designed and built which allowed accurate measurements. The evaporator consisted of an electrically heated single horizontal smooth tube. Several different electrode designs were investigated. This study included higher heat fluxes than most of those previously reported in the literature. A summary of the previous work is provided. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient at a heat flux of 1.6 kW/m{sup 2} and a voltage of 10 kV was 4.6 times higher than the heat transfer coefficient without the electric field presence. However, the heat transfer coefficient at 52 kW/m{sup 2} and 10 kV was improved only by 38%. These enhancements are significant even at large heat flux levels. The power consumption for establishing the electric fields was on the order of 0.1% of the heat transfer power in the evaporator. When R-123 fluid was contaminated with a few percent ethanol, the boiling heat transfer at 3.3 kW/m{sup 2} was increased by a factor of 12.6 at 15 kV compared to zero kV. Finally, the presence of the electric fields nearly eliminated the hysteresis effect.

  8. Terminology Poikilotherms body temperature = ambient

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    , or evaporation of water · Conductance ­ high to low, bodies in contact ­ Heat flow is dependent upon temperature to boiling ­ 584 cal (2443 J) to transfer 1 g of water to vapor at room temperature ­ 418 J (100 cal) to heatTerminology · Poikilotherms ­ body temperature = ambient temperature over an appreciable range

  9. A method of correlating heat transfer data for surface boiling of liquids

    E-print Network

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01

    A method based an a logical uxplanation of the meani of beat transfer associated with the boiling process is presented for correlating heat transfer data for nucleate boiling of liquids for the case of pool boiling. Tbe ...

  10. 77 FR 38338 - Dairyland Power Cooperative; La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...Cooperative; La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...Background The La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) is owned and...forced-circulation, direct-cycle boiling water reactor as its heat source....

  11. 77 FR 38339 - Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...Background The La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) is owned and...forced-circulation, direct-cycle boiling water reactor as its heat source....

  12. Boiling and condensation heat transfer correlations for refrigerant-oil mixtures flows inside augmented tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, G.I.; Ravigururajan, T.S.

    1996-12-31

    General correlations to predict boiling and condensation heat-transfer-coefficient are proposed. Data analyzed include 134a condensation and evaporation of refrigerants such as R-22, R-12, R-113, and R-134a. Wide ranges of mass flux, heat flux, pressure, and vapor velocities are covered. Both low-fin tubes and the micro-fin tubes are considered. For boiling correlation more than 975 data points from four experimental studies are correlated and for condensation more than 525 data points from three experimental studies are correlated. The efforts resulted in the development of simple correlations for predicting the heat-transfer-coefficients during condensation and evaporation inside augmented tubes. The results show that the boiling heat-transfer-coefficients decreased with increasing oil concentration and vapor quality, and increased with tube enhancement severity factor. Increasing mass flux, however, diminished the adverse effect of oil on the heat-transfer-coefficient. During condensation, the presence of oil diminished the heat-transfer performance of a micro-fin tube. The heat-transfer-coefficient decreased with increasing oil concentration used, and also with increasing severity factor.

  13. Effects of water in film boiling over liquid metal melts

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.; Burson, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid-liquid boiling experiments have been performed with H/sub 2/O and liquid metal melts in the 100-series test matrix (Runs 121, 126, 127) and the VE test matrix. Some of the pre-explosion unstable film boiling data as well as observations from the explosive series have been previously reported.

  14. 18. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Detail of floor with molasses pits below floor level. The remaining floor boards indicate the structure of the floor covering the entire inside of the boiling house. In the left background the base of the centrifugals are in view. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. 17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. Explosive Boiling at Very Low Heat Fluxes: A Microgravity Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Knoll, R. H.; Bentz, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents experimental observations of explosive boiling from a large (relative to bubble sizes) flat heating surface at very low heat fluxes in microgravity. The explosive boiling is characterized as either a rapid growth of vapor mass over the entire heating surface due to the flashing of superheated liquid or a violent boiling spread following the appearance of single bubbles on the heating surface. Pool boiling data with saturated Freon 113 was obtained in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheat for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.2 to 1.2 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 1.0 kW/sq m a wall superheat of 17.9 degrees C was attained in ten minutes of heating. This was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied with a pressure spike and a violent bulk liquid motion. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Stable nucleate boiling continued following the explosive boiling.

  17. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Perceptions on Boiling and Freezing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of prospective primary school teachers on the physical state of water during the processes of boiling and freezing. There were three stages in the investigation: First, open-ended questions concerning the boiling and freezing of water were given to two groups of prospective primary school…

  18. A review of the deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures less than 0.2 of the melting point /K/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures below 0.2 times the absolute melting temperature is reviewed with primary emphasis on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and the ductile-brittle transition. It is concluded that a model based on the high Peierls stress of tungsten best accounts for the observed mechanical behavior at low temperatures. Recent research suggests an important role of electron concentration and bonding on the mechanical behavior of tungsten. Future research on tungsten should include studies to define more clearly the correlation between electron concentration and mechanical behavior of alloys of tungsten and other transition metal alloys.

  19. MELTING POINT: 3,127C BOILING POINT: 5,303C

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    . The average abundance in Earth's crust is very low, about 0.005 grams (0.00018 ounces) per metric ton, and only four osmium-containing minerals, all extr emely rare, are known: erlich- manite, OsS2; omeiite and the more common platinum group metals. Worldwide production is very small, approximately 500 kilograms (1

  20. Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

  1. Experimental verification of heat transfer coefficient for nucleate boiling at sub-atmospheric pressure and small heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaczkowski, Bartosz; Halon, Tomasz; Krolicki, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we study the influence of sub-atmospheric pressure on nucleate boiling. Sixteen correlations for pool boiling available in literature are gathered and evaluated. Analysis is performed in the pressure range 1-10 kPa and for heat flux densities 10-45 kW/m2. Superheats are set between 6.2 and 28.7 K. The results of calculations were compared with experimental values for the same parameters. The experiments were conducted using isolated glass cylinder and water boiling above the copper plate. Results show that low pressure adjust the character of boiling curve—the curve flattened and the natural convection region of boiling is shifted towards higher wall temperature superheats due to the influence of low pressure on the bubble creation and process of its departure. In result, 8 of 16 analyzed correlations were determined as completely invalid in subatmospheric conditions and the remaining set of equations was compared to experimental results. Experimentally obtained values of heat transfer coefficients are between 1 and 2 kW/m2K. With mean absolute deviation (MAD) we have found that the most accurate approximation of heat transfer coefficient is obtained using Mostinski reduced pressure correlation (0.13-0.35 MAD) and Labuntsov correlation (0.12-0.89 MAD).

  2. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOEpatents

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  3. Reliquefaction of boil-off from liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, P.J.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a process for liquifying boil-off gas resulting from the evaporation of liquified natural gas contained in a storage vessel. The boil-off gas is cooled and liquified in a closed-loop refrigeration system and then returned to the storage vessel wherein. The closed-loop refrigeration system comprises the steps: compressing nitrogen as a working fluid in a compressor system to form a compressed working fluid; splitting the compressed working fluid into a first and second stream; isenthalpically expanding the first stream to produce a cooled first stream, then warming against boil-off gas and compressed working fluid; and isentropically expanding the second stream to form a cooled expanded stream which is then warmed against boil-off gas to form at least partially condensed boil-off prior to warming against the working fluid and prior to return to the compressor system.

  4. Boiling jet impingement cooling of simulated microelectronic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergles, E.; Ma, C.-F.

    Jet impingement cooling is a possible means of accommodating the high heat fluxes which result from testing miroelectronic chips at power levels well above those expected during normal operation. An apparatus is described for study of the heat transfer characteristics of chip-size electrically heated test sections with normally impinging circular submerged mets of saturated or subcooled R-113. Data were obtained for several jet velocities, with the jet directed at two positions on the heated surface. Free convection boiling data were taken for reference. The boiling curve hysteresis with jet boiling is less than with free convection. The fully developed saturated jet boiling data merge into an asymptote that coincides closely with the extrapolation of the pool boiling curve. The burnout heat flux is proportional to the cube root of jet velocity. Heat fluxes up to a million W/sq m were recorded.

  5. Environmental factors influencing stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized stainless steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) primary coolant are reviewed, with emphasis on the role the environment plays on both the initiation and propagation processes. Environmental factors discussed include oxygen (corrosion potential), temperature, and dissolved ions in the water and the range of strain rates at which IGSCC occurs. Both crack propagation rates and the range of strain rates at which IGSCC occurs decrease rapidly as temperature is increased above approximately 200/sup 0/C, in essentially the same manner as the solubility of magnetite decreases in acidic solutions. A mechanism of crack propagation is presented base on this observation. To establish water chemistry guidelines for crack-free operation of BWR's containing sensitized stainless steel, more information is needed on the role of absorption of impurities in the surface and deposited oxides and on the interaction between the oxygen and impurity levels required to maintain an electrochemical potential in a range where IGSCC is unlikely to occur. The relative effects of short bursts of impurities and longer term lower concentrations of these same impurities also need to be evaluated.

  6. Experiment and RELAP5 Analysis for the Downcomer Boiling of APR1400 under LBLOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Won Lee; Hee Cheon No; Eu Hwak Lee; Seung Jong Oh; Chul-Hwa Song

    2004-07-01

    The direct vessel injection (DVI) mode of a safety injection system is adopted instead of a conventional cold leg injection (CLI) mode as one of the advanced design features of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MW). From the calculation results of RELAP5 with full plant, it is found out that the sudden boiling happens in the downcomer due to heat transfer from the reactor vessel wall and it can affect the reactor safety. In the present study, experimental tests are carried out to observe the actual boiling phenomena in the downcomer and to validate RELAP5. The heated wall of test section has its thickness of 8.2 cm and the same material as the prototype (APR1400) with chrome coating against rusting. From the experiment, we visually observe the vapor jetting near the heated wall with small bubble migration to the bulk region and liquid circulation. The data shows a rapid wall temperature drop generating a large amount of vapor initially. The calculation results of RELAP5 using the three nodal schemes are compared with experimental ones in aspects of water level, void fraction, wall temperatures and phase velocities. It turns out that the double nodal scheme with circulation produces better results than the nodal scheme without circulation to simulate the boiling phenomena in the downcomer. (authors)

  7. An experimental apparatus to study nucleate pool boiling of R-114 and oil mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasabun, M.

    1984-12-01

    In order to study the nucleate pool-boiling performance of R-114pen1 refrigerant and R-114-oil mixtures from enhanced evaporator tube surfaces, an experimental apparatus was designed, constructed and instrumented. The evaporator was made of a T-shaped Pyrex glass container. Boiling occurred from a smooth, hard-copper tube, 15.9 mm in outer diameter, 12.7 mm in inside diameter and 431.8 mm in length. The tube was heated using a cartridge heater, and was instrumented with 8 thermocouples to measure the wall temperature. A Hewlett-Packard 3497A data acquisition/control unit and a 9826A computer were used to collect and process data. The condenser was cooled by an ethylene glycol-water mixture, which was maintained at about -17 C by means of an R-12 refrigeration system. Nine data runs were completed to de-bug the experimental apparatus and to check for reproducibility. During all data runs, especially at higher heat fluxes (greater than 10 kW/sqm), large temperature variations were observed along and around the active boiling length of the test tube. The data were compared with data found in the literature and reasonable agreement was obtained.

  8. Zero Boil-Off System Design and Thermal Analysis of the Bimodal Thermal Nuclear Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.

    2006-01-20

    Mars exploration studies at NASA are evaluating vehicles that incorporate Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion which use a high temperature nuclear fission reactor and hydrogen to produce thermal propulsion. The hydrogen propellant is to be stored in liquid state for periods up to 18 months. To prevent boil-off of the liquid hydrogen, a system of passive and active components are needed to prevent heat from entering the tanks and to remove any heat that does. This report describes the design of the system components used for the BNTR Crew Transfer Vehicle and the thermal analysis performed. The results show that Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) can be achieved with the electrical power allocated for the ZBO system.

  9. Dispersed-flow film boiling of high-pressure water in a rod bundle. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Yoder, G.L.

    1982-08-01

    The following six dispersed flow film boiling correlations were assessed using data from the third ORNL transient film boiling experiment (Test 3.08.6C) conducted in the THTF: Dougall-Rohsenow; Dougall-Rohsenow (with Prandtl number evaluated at the wall temperature, as used in RELAP4-MOD7); Groeneveld 5.9; Groeneveld 5.7; Groeneveld-Delorme; and Condie-Bengston IV. The correlations were evaluated with bundle fluid conditions calculated using a homogeneous two-phase flow and thermodynamic equilibrium thermal-hydraulics code. Comparisons made between experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients and the individual correlation's heat transfer coefficients indicate that the Dougall-Rohsenow correlations often overpredict the heat transfer coefficients, while the Groeneveld 5.7, Groeneveld 5.9, and Condie-Bengston IV correlations tend to be in good agreement with the data. The Groeneveld-Delorme correlation underpredicts the data.

  10. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    E-print Network

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  11. Mantle eclogites and garnet pyroxenites - the meaning of two-point isochrons, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf closure temperatures and the cooling of the subcratonic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Qiao; Brey, Gerhard P.; Gerdes, Axel; Hoefer, Heidi E.

    2014-03-01

    The Earth's mantle is a huge metamorphic complex which undergoes permanent changes ruled by plate tectonics. It also has enclaves underneath Archean crust which are exempt from the convecting mantle since at least 2.5 Ga. Since then, this mantle may cool slowly as a result of diminishing heat input from the asthenosphere, of declining heat production from radioactive decay and of denudation of the crust. Under such circumstances, two point garnet-clinopyroxene isochrons from mantle xenoliths (here garnet pyroxenites and eclogites) reflect either cooling ages or eruption ages depending on whether the mantle portion under consideration was below or above the closure temperature of a radiogenic system. Available literature data from the Slave and Kaapvaal craton for the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems and our own new data from Bellsbank (Kaapvaal) provide a whole range of two-point isochron ages from younger than the kimberlite eruption age to early Proterozoic. The meaning of ages other than the kimberlite eruption age is unclear. We use here a compilation of Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf two-point isochron age data from this study and the literature, to assess the meaning of such isochrons. This is achieved by plotting the temperature of last equilibration as derived from the Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and clinopyroxene versus the two-point isochron age. There is a low temperature alignment for both systems of increasing age with decreasing temperature and an alignment around the kimberlite eruption ages at high temperatures. We interpret the intersect between the low temperature limb and the kimberlite eruption age as closure temperature which gives about 920 °C for the Lu-Hf system and about 850 °C for the Sm-Nd system. The differences of the cooling ages between the two isotope systems for individual samples combined with the closure temperatures from this study are used to deduce the cooling of the Slave and Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle from the early Proterozoic until today. We deduce that the subcratonic mantle cooled since 2 Ga from a geothermal gradient of 46 mW/m to 38 mW/m at 120 Ma ago with a rate of around 0.1 °C/Ma. This value is in agreement with previous estimates which were based on various geophysical and geological constraints, heat production by radioactive elements and diffusivity of radiogenic elements.

  12. Boiling Performance of Antifreeze Solutions in a Saturate Pool Boiling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Kunihito; Kaminaga, Fumito

    Nucleate boiling of binary mixtures is of particular importance in a various industries. The purpose of the present study is to provide experimental data and prediction method for nucleate boiling heat transfer of anti-freeze solutions, Propylene-glycol (PG)/water and Ethylene-glycol (EG)/water. The pool nucleate boiling experiments were carried out under a saturated and atmospheric condition. The platinum wire of 0.3 mm diameter was used as the heating surface. The mole fractions of solutions are varied from 0.85 to 1. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient gradually decreases with increasing fraction of anti-freeze to water. It was also shown that a small addition of propylene-glycol and ethylene-glycol also decreases the CHF value far below that of pure water. It is concluded that the correlation proposed by Fujita for several binary mixtures can well predict the heat transfer coefficients within almost ±5% accuracy for every concentration of present anti-freeze solutions.

  13. Modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling using an integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Arunkumar

    In modeling Inverted Annular Film Boiling (IAFB), several important phenomena such as interaction between the liquid and the vapor phases and irregular nature of the interface, which greatly influence the momentum and heat transfer at the interface, need to be accounted for. However, due to the complexity of these phenomena, they were not modeled in previous studies. Since two-phase heat transfer equations and relationships rely heavily on experimental data, many closure relationships that were used in previous studies to solve the problem are empirical in nature. Also, in deriving the relationships, the experimental data were often extrapolated beyond the intended range of conditions, causing errors in predictions. In some cases, empirical correlations that were derived from situations other than IAFB, and whose applicability to IAFB was questionable, were used. Moreover, arbitrary constants were introduced in the model developed in previous studies to provide good fit to the experimental data. These constants have no physical basis, thereby leading to questionable accuracy in the model predictions. In the present work, modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling (IAFB) is done using Integral Method. Two-dimensional formulation of IAFB is presented. Separate equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy are derived from first principles, for the vapor film and the liquid core. Turbulence is incorporated in the formulation. The system of second-order partial differential equations is integrated over the radial direction to obtain a system of integral differential equations. In order to solve the system of equations, second order polynomial profiles are used to describe the nondimensional velocity and temperatures. The unknown coefficients in the profiles are functions of the axial direction alone. Using the boundary conditions that govern the physical problem, equations for the unknown coefficients are derived in terms of the primary dependent variables: wall shear stress, interfacial shear stress, film thickness, pressure, wall temperature and the mass transfer rate due to evaporation. A system of non-linear first order coupled ordinary differential equations is obtained. Due to the inherent mathematical complexity of the system of equations, simplifying assumptions are made to obtain a numerical solution. The system of equations is solved numerically to obtain values of the unknown quantities at each subsequent axial location. Derived quantities like void fraction and heat transfer coefficient are calculated at each axial location. The calculation is terminated when the void fraction reaches a value of 0.6, the upper limit of IAFB. The results obtained agree with the experimental trends observed. Void fraction increases along the heated length, while the heat transfer coefficient drops due to the increased resistance of the vapor film as expected.

  14. Rotational CARS application to simultaneous and multiple-point temperature and concentration determination in a turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, J. B.; Murphy, D. V.; Chang, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) from the pure rotational Raman lines of N2 is employed to measure the instantaneous (approximately 10 ns) rotational temperature of N2 gas at room temperature and below with good spatial resolution (0.2 x 0.2 x 3.0 cu mm). A broad bandwidth dye laser is used to obtain the entire rotational spectrum from a single laser pulse; the CARS signal is then dispersed by a spectrograph and recorded on an optical multichannel analyzer. A best fit temperature is found in several seconds with the aid of a computer for each experimental spectrum by a least squares comparison with calculated spectra. The model used to calculate the theoretical spectra incorporates the temperature and pressure dependence of the pressure-broadened rotational Raman lines, includes the nonresonant background susceptibility, and assumes that the pump laser has a finite linewidth. Temperatures are fit to experimental spectra recorded over the temperature range of 135 to 296 K, and over the pressure range of .13 to 15.3 atm.

  15. The effects of quantum zero point energy fluctuations on the variation with concentration of the maximum density temperatures in water alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.; Cronin, B.; O'Leary, D. M.

    2008-11-01

    Unlike the situation for ionic aqueous solutions, the relationship between the density maximum temperature Tmd and solute concentration for aqueous solutions of primary alcohols is known to be strongly non-linear. Using our recent theory for the existence of the maximum density in water in terms of quantum zero point energy effects, we explain why this is so. We also explain why some of the alcohols show a maximum in their Tmd vs. concentration curves but others do not.

  16. Reliquefaction of boil-off from liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stuber, W.G.; Kovak, K.W.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a process for liquifying boil-off gas resulting from the evaporation of liquified natural gas contained in a storage vessel, the boil-off gas being cooled and liquified in a closed-loop nitrogen refrigeration system and then returned to the storage vessel. The closed loop refrigeration system comprises the following steps: compressing nitrogen as a working fluid in a multi-stage compressor system having an initial and final stage to form a compressed working fluid; splitting the compressed working fluid into a first and second stream; isenthalpically expanding the first stream to produce a cooled first stream, then warming against recycle compressed working fluid and boil-off gas; isentropically expanding the second stream to form a cooled expanded stream which is then warmed against boil-off gas and working fluid prior to return to the compressor system; the improvement for reliquefying a boil-off gas containing from about 0 to 10% nitrogen by volume. It comprises: effecting isenthalpic expansion of the first stream under conditions such that at least a liquid fraction is generated; separating any vapor fraction, if generated, from the liquid fraction; warming the vapor fraction, if generated, against boil-off gas and recycle compressed working fluid; pressurizing the liquid fraction formed by pumping; warming the pressurized liquid fraction first against boil-off gas and then in parallel with the warming of the isentropically expanded second stream.

  17. Accurate experimental determination of the isotope effects on the triple point temperature of water. I. Dependence on the 2H abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, V.; Peruzzi, A.; Aerts-Bijma, A. T.; Jansen, H. G.; Spriensma, J. J.; van Geel, J.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Variation in the isotopic composition of water is one of the major contributors to uncertainty in the realization of the triple point of water (TPW). Although the dependence of the TPW on the isotopic composition of the water has been known for years, there is still a lack of a detailed and accurate experimental determination of the values for the correction constants. This paper is the first of two articles (Part I and Part II) that address quantification of isotope abundance effects on the triple point temperature of water. In this paper, we describe our experimental assessment of the 2H isotope effect. We manufactured five triple point cells with prepared water mixtures with a range of 2H isotopic abundances encompassing widely the natural abundance range, while the 18O and 17O isotopic abundance were kept approximately constant and the 18O?????17O ratio was close to the Meijer–Li relationship for natural waters. The selected range of 2H isotopic abundances led to cells that realised TPW temperatures between approximately???140 ?K to??+2500 ?K with respect to the TPW temperature as realized by VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Our experiment led to determination of the value for the ?2H correction parameter of A2H??=??673 ?K / (‰ deviation of ?2H from VSMOW) with a combined uncertainty of 4 ?K (k??=??1, or 1?).

  18. RUBI -a Reference mUltiscale Boiling Investigation for the Fluid Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Nils; Stelzer, Marco; Schoele-Schulz, Olaf; Picker, Gerold; Ranebo, Hans; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Winter, Josef; Tadrist, Lounes; Stephan, Peter; Grassi, Walter; di Marco, Paolo; Colin, Catherine; Piero Celata, Gian; Thome, John; Kabov, Oleg

    Boiling is a two-phase heat transfer process where large heat fluxes can be transferred with small driving temperature differences. The high performance of boiling makes the process very interesting for heat transfer applications and it is widely used in industry for example in power plants, refrigeration systems, and electronics cooling. Nevertheless, due to the large number of involved phenomena and their often highly dynamic nature a fundamental understanding and closed theoretical description is not yet accomplished. The design of systems incorporating the process is generally based on empirical correlations, which are commonly accompanied by large uncertainties and, thus, has to be verified by expensive test campaigns. Hence, strong efforts are currently made to develop applicable numerical tools for a reliable prediction of the boiling heat transfer performance and limits. In order to support and validate this development and, in particular as a precondition, to enhance the basic knowledge about boiling the comprehensive multi-scale experiment RUBI (Reference mUlti-scale Boiling Investigation) for the Fluid Science Laboratory on board the ISS is currently in preparation. The scientific objectives and requirements of RUBI have been defined by the members of the ESA topical team "Boiling and Multiphase Flow" and addresses fundamental aspects of boiling phenomena. The main objectives are the measurement of wall temperature and heat flux distribution underneath vapour bubbles with high spatial and tem-poral resolution by means of IR thermography accompanied by the synchronized high-speed observation of the bubble shapes. Furthermore, the fluid temperature in the vicinity and inside of the bubbles will be measured by a micro sensor array. Additional stimuli are the generation of an electric field above the heating surface and a shear flow created by a forced convection loop. The objective of these stimuli is to impose forces on the bubbles and investigate the resulting bubble behaviour such as bubble sliding on and detaching from the surface. The experiments benefits from the absence of vapour buoyancy and natural convection in the high quality and long-term microgravity of the ISS. Effects and phenomena like thermocapillary convection that are hardly observable in normal gravity conditions can be investigated. Clearly predefined conditions particularly of the thermal layer at the heating surface can be established without disturbances by natural convection. Vapour buoyancy as the main detaching force in normal gravity is missing. Hence, it is possible to study stationary, attached bubbles and alternative detaching forces. With RUBI a long history of boiling experiments is perpetuated that used microgravity as a tool for a deeper understanding of the fundamental phenomena. Several precursor experiments closely related to the RUBI project have already been conducted on parabolic flights. The subject of the paper is to provide an overview on the RUBI project, its scientific objectives and the corresponding experimental principle. The current design of the experiment container that is under development at ASTRIUM Space Transportation in Friedrichshafen will be introduced. Furthermore, results from the precursor experiments are presented. The industrial activities of the RUBI project are funded and the science team is supported by ESA.

  19. Conserved and narrow temperature limits in alpine insects: Thermal tolerance and supercooling points of the ice-crawlers, Grylloblatta (Insecta: Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae).

    PubMed

    Schoville, Sean D; Slatyer, Rachel A; Bergdahl, James C; Valdez, Glenda A

    2015-07-01

    For many terrestrial species, habitat associations and range size are dependent on physiological limits, which in turn may influence large-scale patterns of species diversity. The temperature range experienced by individuals is considered to shape the breadth of the thermal niche, with species occupying temporally and/or geographically stable climates tolerating a narrow temperature range. High-elevation environments experience large temperature fluctuations, with frequent periods below 0 °C, but Grylloblatta (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) occupy climatically stable microhabitats within this region. Here we test critical thermal limits and supercooling points for five Grylloblatta populations from across a large geographic area, to examine whether the stable microhabitats of this group are associated with a narrow thermal niche and assess their capacity to tolerate cold conditions. Thermal limits are highly conserved in Grylloblatta, despite substantial genetic divergence among populations spanning 1500 m elevation and being separated by over 500 km. Further, Grylloblatta show exceptionally narrow thermal limits compared to other insect taxa with little capacity to improve cold tolerance via plasticity. In contrast, upper thermal limits were significantly depressed by cold acclimation. Grylloblatta maintain coordinated movement until they freeze, and they die upon freezing. Convergence of the critical thermal minima, supercooling point and lower lethal limits point to adaptation to a cold but, importantly, constant thermal environment. These physiological data provide an explanation for the high endemism and patchy distribution of Grylloblatta, which relies on subterranean retreats to accommodate narrow thermal limits. These retreats are currently buffered from temperature fluctuations by snow cover, and a declining snowpack thus places Grylloblatta at risk of exposure to temperatures beyond its tolerance capacity. PMID:25956197

  20. Remote Measurement of Breathing Rate in Real Time Using a High Precision, Single-Point Infrared Temperature Sensor

    E-print Network

    O'Kane, Jason

    per minute. Results from preliminary tests show this system effectively captures breathing ratesRemote Measurement of Breathing Rate in Real Time Using a High Precision, Single-Point Infrared-- This paper presents a novel approach for remotely monitoring a user's breathing rate in real-time using

  1. Changes of Locoregional Skin Temperature in Neonates Undergoing Laser Needle Acupuncture at the Acupuncture Point Large Intestine 4

    PubMed Central

    Kurath-Koller, Stefan; Gross, Anna; Freidl, Thomas; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raith, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Laser acupuncture bears a potential risk for the skin surface, especially in neonates whose skin has histological and physiological peculiarities. We evaluated thermal changes of skin temperature in neonates during laser acupuncture by using a thermal camera (Flir i5, Flir Systems Inc., Portland, USA). Laserneedles (Laserneedle GmbH, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Germany) were fixed to the skin at Large Intestine 4 (LI 4, Hegu), bilaterally. Before application of laser acupuncture (685?nm, 15?mW, 500??m), as well as after 1, 5, and 10?min, thermographic pictures of both hands were taken. The measuring was carried out on the 23rd day after birth (20 neonates, mean postmenstrual gestational age 38 + 2, mean weight 2604?g). Compared to the initial temperature of 34.2°C on the right hand, the skin temperature had increased to 35.3°C (P < 0.05) after 5?min and up to 36.1°C (P < 0.05) after 10?min of stimulation. Equally, on the left hand, an increase of the skin temperature from 34.5°C to 35.9°C (P < 0.05) and 35.9°C (P < 0.05) was measured. The highest measured skin temperature after 10?min of stimulation amounted to 38.7°C, without any clinically visible changes on the skin surface. PMID:25922612

  2. Analysis of the magnetic corrosion product deposits on a boiling water reactor cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Andrey; Degueldre, Claude; Kaufmann, Wilfried

    2013-01-15

    The buildup of corrosion product deposits (CRUD) on the fuel cladding of the boiling water reactor (BWR) before and after zinc injection has been investigated by applying local experimental analytical techniques. Under the BWR water chemistry conditions, Zn addition together with the presence of Ni and Mn induce the formation of (Zn,Ni,Mn)[Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}] spinel solid solutions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed inversion ratios of cation distribution in spinels deposited from the solid solution. Based on this information, a two-site ferrite spinel solid solution model is proposed. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) findings suggest the zinc-rich ferrite spinels formation on BWR fuel cladding mainly at lower pin. - Graphical Abstract: Analysis of spinels in corrosion product deposits on boiling water reactor fuel rod. Combining EPMA and XAFS results: schematic representation of the ferrite spinels in terms of the end members and their extent of inversion. Note that the ferrites are represented as a surface between the normal (upper plane, M[Fe{sub 2}]O{sub 4}) and the inverse (lower plane, Fe[MFe]O{sub 4}). Actual compositions red Black-Small-Square for the specimen at low elevation (810 mm), blue Black-Small-Square for the specimen at mid elevation (1800 mm). The results have an impact on the properties of the CRUD material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Buildup of corrosion product deposits on fuel claddings of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under BWR water conditions, Zn addition with Ni and Mn induced formation of (Zn,Ni,Mn)[Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-Ray Adsorption Spectroscopy (XAS) revealed inversion of cations in spinel solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-rich ferrite spinels are formed on BWR fuel cladding mainly at lower pin elevations.

  3. Enhanced Boiling on Micro-Configured Composite Surfaces Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Two experimental setups: High Heat Flux Pool Boiling Setup and Optical system of Measuring Contact Angle and Spreading Parameters were established and a series of experiments was conducted. The experimental work on the nucleate boiling performance of both Freon-113 and water on the composite surfaces has been finished and the results show that the composite surface with 25% volume fraction of graphite fibers in the copper matrix has the best enhancing performance. Stronger enhancement was obtained for water compared to Freon-113. The wall superheat initiating boiling was reduced 40% and 35% and the heat flux of the nucleate boiling was augmented up to ten times and 6.7 times, respectively. A bubble departure model has been presented to explain the enhancement mechanism of the boiling heat transfer on the composite surfaces. A powerful optical method to measure contact angle and spreading parameters of liquids on solid surfaces, including both transparent and non-transparent substrates, has been developed and successfully used in the measurements for various liquid-solid systems. The experimental work on identification of profiles near three-phase line by laser shadowgraphy method has been finished and the characteristics of the three-phase line for different liquid-solid systems were unveiled, which is very important to understand the mechanism of boiling under microgravity conditions. The four basic patterns of sessile profile were discovered through caustics and caustic-diffraction analysis by applying wave theory in shadowgraphy technology, which contributes to clearly explain the different characteristics of wetting and spreading of various liquids on a solid surface, and therefore to further understand the bubble departure mechanisms. A new working pattern of heat pipes using working fluids with positive surface-tension gradient against temperature was discovered and analyzed, and then the new heat pipe systems using this kind of working fluids have been presented. Two patent devices, i.e. Shadowgraphic Method to Measure Properties of Sessile Drops and Heat Pipe Systems Using New Working Fluids, have been developed; the former has been approved by The United States Patent & Trademark Office and the latter is being examined.

  4. Effect of tube inclination on pool boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.G.

    2000-02-01

    An experimental parametric study of a tubular heat exchanger has been carried out under pool boiling conditions to determine effects of the tube inclination angle on pool boiling heat transfer. Through the study, it can be concluded that (1) tube inclination gives much change on pool boiling heat transfer and the effect of the inclination angle is more strongly observed in the smooth tube and (2) if a tube is properly inclined, enhanced heat transfer is expected due to the decrease in bubble slug formation on the tube surface and easy liquid access to the surface.

  5. The Effects of Thermal Radiation on an Unsteady MHD Axisymmetric Stagnation-Point Flow over a Shrinking Sheet in Presence of Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity with Navier Slip

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sabyasachi; Haroun, Nageeb A. H.; Sibanda, Precious

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of an unsteady and electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid in with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, thermal radiation and Navier slip is investigated. The flow is due to a shrinking surface that is shrunk axisymmetrically in its own plane with a linear velocity. The magnetic field is imposed normally to the sheet. The model equations that describe this fluid flow are solved by using the spectral relaxation method. Here, heat transfer processes are discussed for two different types of wall heating; (a) a prescribed surface temperature and (b) a prescribed surface heat flux. We discuss and evaluate how the various parameters affect the fluid flow, heat transfer and the temperature field with the aid of different graphical presentations and tabulated results. PMID:26414006

  6. Comparison of Computational Results with a Low-g, Nitrogen Slosh and Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares a fluid/thermal simulation, in Fluent, with a low-g, nitrogen slosh and boiling experiment. In 2010, the French Space Agency, CNES, performed cryogenic nitrogen experiments in a low-g aircraft campaign. From one parabolic flight, a low-g interval was simulated that focuses on low-g motion of nitrogen liquid and vapor with significant condensation, evaporation, and boiling. The computational results are compared with high-speed video, pressure data, heat transfer, and temperature data from sensors on the axis of the cylindrically shaped tank. These experimental and computational results compare favorably. The initial temperature stratification is in good agreement, and the two-phase fluid motion is qualitatively captured. Temperature data is matched except that the temperature sensors are unable to capture fast temperature transients when the sensors move from wet to dry (liquid to vapor) operation. Pressure evolution is approximately captured, but condensation and evaporation rate modeling and prediction need further theoretical analysis.

  7. Environmental qualification testing of the prototype pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J. Andrew

    1992-01-01

    The prototype Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) flew on the STS-47 mission in September 1992. This report describes the purpose of the experiment and the environmental qualification testing program that was used to prove the integrity of the prototype hardware. Component and box level vibration and thermal cycling tests were performed to give an early level of confidence in the hardware designs. At the system level, vibration, thermal extreme soaks, and thermal vacuum cycling tests were performed to qualify the complete design for the expected shuttle environment. The system level vibration testing included three axis sine sweeps and random inputs. The system level hot and cold soak tests demonstrated the hardware's capability to operate over a wide range of temperatures and gave the project team a wider latitude in determining which shuttle thermal altitudes were compatible with the experiment. The system level thermal vacuum cycling tests demonstrated the hardware's capability to operate in a convection free environment. A unique environmental chamber was designed and fabricated by the PBE team and allowed most of the environmental testing to be performed within the project's laboratory. The completion of the test program gave the project team high confidence in the hardware's ability to function as designed during flight.

  8. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  9. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.; Smith, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    The use of flow boiling for thermal energy transport is intended to provide an alternative for accommodating higher heat fluxes in commercial space systems. The objectives are to: (1) examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls, spiral fins, or both spiral fins and a twisted tape; (2) examine the effects of channel diameter and subcooling; and (3) develop an improved reduction analysis and/or suggest possible heat transfer correlation of the present data. Freon-11 is the working fluid. Two-dimensional (circumferential and axial) wall temperature distributions were measured for coolant channels with the above noted internal geometries. The flow regimes which are being studied are: (1) single phase; (2) subcooled flow boiling; and (3) stratified flow boiling. The inside diameter of all test sections is near 1.0 cm. Cicumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficients at several axial locations were obtained for selected coolant channels for a mass velocity of 210 kg/sq m s, an exit pressure of 0.19 MPa (absolute), and an inlet subcooling of 20.8 C. Overall (averaged over the entire channel) heat transfer coefficients were compared for the above channel geometries. This comparison showed that the channel with large pitch spiral fins had higher heat transfer coefficients at all power levels.

  10. A new ozone standard - The vapor pressure of ozone at liquid argon temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Hanson, D.; Morton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure of ozone has been measured at liquid argon temperatures. At the normal boiling point of argon (-185.9 C) an ozone pressure of 0.0405 torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 1.5 percent. Increases and decreases in liquid argon temperatures raised and lowered the ozone vapor pressure, respectively. During the vapor pressure measurements the purity of ozone was monitored with a mass spectrometer. The proposed ozone standard will considerably improve the calibration of experiments for atmospheric research, the determination of absorption cross sections and other laboratory ozone studies.

  11. Point defects diagrams for pure and doped copper oxide Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O in the temperature range of 873-1473 K

    SciTech Connect

    Stoklosa, A.

    2012-10-15

    Point defects diagrams for the Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O, both pure and doped with M{sup 2+} metal ions with all the types of defects in the cation sublattice considered are presented in this work. The calculations of the diagrams were performed by a novel method. The calculations were based on the data from the results of the studies of the deviation from stoichiometry and the electrical conductivity in the temperature range of 873-1473 K. The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation of Frenkel-type defects, of copper vacancies, and of interstitial copper atoms were determined and their temperature dependence. It was shown that character of the dependence of the sum of concentrations of electronic defects ([h{sup Bullet }]+b[e Prime ]) on p{sub O{sub 2}} is fully consistent with its dependence of the electrical conductivity. Their mobility ({mu}{sub e}/{mu}{sub h}=b), vary from 1300 to 30. The dope M{sup 2+} increases the concentration of electrons and shifts the minimum of electrical conductivity toward higher oxygen pressures. - Graphical abstract: This work presents point defects diagrams for the Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O, with all the types of defects in the cation sublattice considered. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The point defects diagrams. Copper oxide Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O, for pure and M{sup 2+} doped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation of Frenkel-type defects were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation QUOTE QUOTE of singly-ionized copper vacancies were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation of electroneutral copper vacancies were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation and of interstitial copper atoms were determined.

  12. Potential profile near singularity point in kinetic Tonks-Langmuir discharges as a function of the ion sources temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jeli?, N.

    2011-05-01

    A plasma-sheath transition analysis requires a reliable mathematical expression for the plasma potential profile ?(x) near the sheath edge xs in the limit ? ??D/? =0 (where ?D is the Debye length and ? is a proper characteristic length of the discharge). Such expressions have been explicitly calculated for the fluid model and the singular (cold ion source) kinetic model, where exact analytic solutions for plasma equation (? =0) are known, but not for the regular (warm ion source) kinetic model, where no analytic solution of the plasma equation has ever been obtained. For the latter case, Riemann [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24, 493 (1991)] only predicted a general formula assuming relatively high ion-source temperatures, i.e., much higher than the plasma-sheath potential drop. Riemann's formula, however, according to him, never was confirmed in explicit solutions of particular models (e.g., that of Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)]) since "the accuracy of the classical solutions is not sufficient to analyze the sheath vicinity" [Riemann, in Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, APS Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 54 (APS, 2009)]. Therefore, for many years, there has been a need for explicit calculation that might confirm the Riemann's general formula regarding the potential profile at the sheath edge in the cases of regular very warm ion sources. Fortunately, now we are able to achieve a very high accuracy of results [see, e.g., Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)]. We perform this task by using both the analytic and the numerical method with explicit Maxwellian and "water-bag" ion source velocity distributions. We find the potential profile near the plasma-sheath edge in the whole range of ion source temperatures of general interest to plasma physics, from zero to "practical infinity." While within limits of "very low" and "relatively high" ion source temperatures, the potential is proportional to the space coordinate powered by rational numbers ? =1/2 and ? =2/3, with medium ion source temperatures. We found ? between these values being a non-rational number strongly dependent on the ion source temperature. The range of the non-rational power-law turns out to be a very narrow one, at the expense of the extension of ? =2/3 region towards unexpectedly low ion source temperatures.

  13. Hydrodynamics, heat transfer and flow boiling instabilities in microchannels 

    E-print Network

    Barber, Jacqueline Claire

    2010-01-01

    Boiling in microchannels is a very efficient mode of heat transfer with high heat and mass transfer coefficients achieved. Less pumping power is required for two-phase flows than for single-phase liquid flows to achieve ...

  14. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  15. Pool boiling studies on nanotextured surfaces under highly subcooled conditions 

    E-print Network

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2009-05-15

    Subcooled pool boiling on nanotextured surfaces is explored in this study. The experiments are performed in an enclosed viewing chamber. Two silicon wafers are coated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), 9 microns (Type-A) and 25 microns (Type...

  16. Determination of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux enhancement in nanofluids

    E-print Network

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2007-01-01

    Nanofluids are engineered colloids composed of nano-size particles dispersed in common fluids such as water or refrigerants. Using an electrically controlled wire heater, pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of Alumina ...

  17. BOILING HOUSE, SECOND FLOOR, FROM TOP OF GARVER CLARIFIER, MUD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, SECOND FLOOR, FROM TOP OF GARVER CLARIFIER, MUD FILTERS AND CAUSTIC SODA TANKS TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  18. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  19. BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, CLARIFIERS, SIEP TO THE LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, CLARIFIERS, SIEP TO THE LEFT, WITH CLARIFIER FLASH TANK ABOVE, SAMPLING STATION TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. Thermal boundary layer development in dispersed flow film boiling

    E-print Network

    Hull, Lawrence M.

    1982-01-01

    Dispersed flow film boiling consists of a dispersion of droplets which are carried over a very hot surface by their vapor. This process occurs in cryogenic equipment and wet steam turbines. It is also of interest in the ...

  1. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment - Duration: 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment is another investigation that examines the flow of a mixture of liquids and the vapors they produce when in contact with hot space system equipment. Coo...

  2. Why Is NASA Boiling Fluids in Space? - Duration: 59 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Convection and buoyancy work differently in space than on Earth. Learn how NASA uses this information and applies it to everyday life. Boiling fluids in space is easier than it is on Earth. Learn m...

  3. BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SYRUP TANKS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SYRUP TANKS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, HIGH GRADE VACUUM PANS BEYOND THE SYRUP TANKS. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  4. 20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Effects of surface parameters on boiling heat transfer phenomena

    E-print Network

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, engineered colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in fluid, have been shown to enhance pool and flow boiling CHF. The CHF enhancement was due to nanoparticle deposited on the heater surface, which was verified ...

  6. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-print Network

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  7. Model of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    E-print Network

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1968-01-01

    The physical phenomenon occurring before and at the critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling has been investigated. The first phase of this study established the basic nature of the flow structure at CHF. A ...

  8. Burnout in forced convection nucleate boiling of water

    E-print Network

    Reynolds John Mitchell

    1957-01-01

    Data are presented for burnout in forced coivection nucleate boiling of water at pressures above 500 psia. A dimensionless correlation is devised for. the M.I.T. data which is found to be valid for certain recent data ...

  9. Infrared thermometry study of nanofluid pool boiling phenomena

    E-print Network

    Gerardi, Craig

    Abstract Infrared thermometry was used to obtain first-of-a-kind, time- and space-resolved data for pool boiling phenomena in water-based nanofluids with diamond and silica nanoparticles at low concentration (<0.1 vol.%). ...

  10. BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, GARVER CLARIFIER IN FOREGROUND, TOPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, GARVER CLARIFIER IN FOREGROUND, TOPS OF LONG TUBE EVAPORATORS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly boiled sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Bhui, Kulpreet; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-10-27

    Repeated boiling of vegetable oils at high temperature in cooking and frying is a very common practice and leads to the formation of a class of toxic substances. Among them, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-documented for their mutagenic/carcinogenic potential. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly boiled sunflower oil, which is one of the commonly consumed vegetable oils in southeast Asian countries. The presence of PAHs was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods in fresh, single-boiled, and repeatedly-boiled sunflower oil (FSO, SBSO, and RBSO) samples. A higher amount of known carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in RBSO samples were shown, as compared to FSO and SBSO. Oral administration of RBSO in Wistar rats resulted in significant induction of aberrant cells (p < 0.05) and micronuclei (p < 0.05) incidence in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis also showed a significant decrease in levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in animals following RBSO consumption, as compared to FSO or SBSO (p < 0.05). Additionally, RBSO administration alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci, as noticed by the alteration in positive (?-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine-triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphatase) liver biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight in RBSO-supplemented rats was also noted (p < 0.05). PMID:20886885

  12. Wiedemann-Franz law and nonvanishing temperature scale across the field-tuned quantum critical point of YbRh2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy; Daou, R.; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C.; Taillefer, Louis

    2014-01-23

    The in-plane thermal conductivity kappa and electrical resistivity rho of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2 were measured down to 50 mK for magnetic fields H parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis, through the field-tuned quantum critical point H-c, at which antiferromagnetic order ends. The thermal and electrical resistivities, w L0T/kappa and rho, show a linear temperature dependence below 1 K, typical of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior found near antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, but this dependence does not persist down to T = 0. Below a characteristic temperature T-star similar or equal to 0.35 K, which depends weakly on H, w(T) and rho(T) both deviate downward and converge as T -> 0. We propose that T-star marks the onset of short-range magnetic correlations, persisting beyond H-c. By comparing samples of different purity, we conclude that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds in YbRh2Si2, even at H-c, implying that no fundamental breakdown of quasiparticle behavior occurs in this material. The overall phenomenology of heat and charge transport in YbRh2Si2 is similar to that observed in the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5, near its own field-tuned quantum critical point.

  13. 16. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Looking from west to east through boiling house. The sorghum pan is on the right. The beams; joists, and trusses are of northwest pine; side boards are of redwood. A foundation line of a loading dock and smokestack are in the foreground. Both end walls have deteriorated completely. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced gravity can be investigated.

  15. Critical heat flux in a boiling aqueous dispersion of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokin, B. S.; Belenkiy, M. Ya.; Almjashev, V. I.; Khabensky, V. B.; Almjasheva, O. V.; Gusarov, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of nanoparticles in an aqueous dispersion (nanofluid) on the critical heat flux (CHF) removed by boiling liquid from a heat-exchange surface has been studied. It is shown that a nanoparticles layer formed on the heated surface in the course of boiling possesses a hierarchical structure. Hydrophilic properties of this layer and its high permeability facilitating the supply of liquid to vapor bubbles lead to an increase in the CHF density.

  16. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  17. An experimental research on microbubble emission boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiguo; Zhu, Guangyu; Sun, Licheng; Cao, Xiaxin

    2013-07-01

    In the near future, heat transfer technology with higher performance surely has more application in the field of thermal engineering, such as electrical chip cooling, power regulating system, etc. Microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is getting more attentions by many researchers due to its extremely high heat dissipation capacity and potential application in the areas mentioned above. Despite that much work has been done to MEB, heat transfer characteristics and occurrence condition as well as formation mechanism involved MEB are not illustrated clearly by far. An experimental setup is built up to study MEB visually. The heating element is a cone copper block with its upper part of a 10mm diameter cylinder which is insulated from the water by a ceramic thimble. The different liquid subcooling is obtained by a water cooler combined with an electric heater. A high-speed video camera (Photron: Fastcam SA5) is employed for recording the scenario of MEB. Our experimental results are very similar to that from other researchers, and the maximum heat flux is about 9 MW/m2 at 60K subcooling. The presence of noncondensable gas in the vapor film and the liquid subcooling has obviously impact on MEB. Moreover, numerical simulation results show that marangoni convection is perhaps one of the reasons inducing the occurrence of MEB.

  18. Film boiling of R-11 on liquid metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An interesting problem is the effect of an immiscible liquid heating surface on the process of film boiling. Such surfaces raise questions concerning interface stability to disturbances, effects of gas bubbling, and vapor explosions in layered systems. The specific motivation for this study was to investigate film boiling from a liquid surface with application to cooling of molten reactor core debris by an overlying pool of reactor coolant. To investigate this phenomenon, and apparatus consisting of a nominal six-inch diameter steel vessel to hold the liquid metal and boiling fluid was constructed; coolant reservoirs, heaters, controllers, and allied instrumentation were attached. A transient energy balance was performed on the liquid metal pool by a submerged assembly of microthermocouples in the liquid metal and an array of thermocouples on the wall of the test vessel. The thermocouple data were used to determine the boiling heat flux as well as the boiling superheat. On an average basis, the deviation between the prediction of the Berenson model and the experimental data was less than one percent when Berenson was corrected for thermal radiation effects. Evidence from visualization tests of R-11 in film boiling over molten metal pools to superheats in excess of 600 K supports this conclusion. 13 refs.

  19. An experimental investigation of liquid methane convection and boiling in rocket engine cooling channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Abraham Gerardo

    In the past decades, interest in developing hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines for deep spaceflight missions has continued to grow. In particular, liquid methane (LCH4) has been of interest due to the weight efficiency, storage, and handling advantages it offers over several currently used propellants. Deep space exploration requires reusable, long life rocket engines. Due to the high temperatures reached during combustion, the life of an engine is significantly impacted by the cooling system's efficiency. Regenerative (regen) cooling is presented as a viable alternative to common cooling methods such as film and dump cooling since it provides improved engine efficiency. Due to limited availability of experimental sub-critical liquid methane cooling data for regen engine design, there has been an interest in studying the heat transfer characteristics of the propellant. For this reason, recent experimental studies at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) have focused on investigating the heat transfer characteristics of sub-critical CH4 flowing through sub-scale cooling channels. To conduct the experiments, the csETR developed a High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) where all the channels are heated using a conduction-based thermal concentrator. In this study, two smooth channels with cross sectional geometries of 1.8 mm x 4.1 mm and 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm were tested. In addition, three roughened channels all with a 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm square cross section were also tested. For the rectangular smooth channel, Reynolds numbers ranged between 68,000 and 131,000, while the Nusselt numbers were between 40 and 325. For the rough channels, Reynolds numbers ranged from 82,000 to 131,000, and Nusselt numbers were between 65 and 810. Sub-cooled film-boiling phenomena were confirmed for all the channels presented in this work. Film-boiling onset at Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was correlated to a Boiling Number (Bo) of approximately 0.1 for all channels. Convective Nusselt number follows predicted trends for Reynolds number with a wall temperature correction for both the boiling and non-boiling regimes.

  20. Investigating the Stability of eLiposomes at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Husseini, Ghaleb A; Pitt, William G; Javadi, Marjan

    2015-08-01

    eLiposomes encapsulate a perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion droplet inside a liposome. Ultrasound is then used as a trigger mechanism to vaporize the perfluorocarbon, break the liposome, and release the desired drug to the tumor tissue. The purpose of this research is to show that eLiposomes synthesized using perfluoropentane are stable above the normal boiling point of the perfluoropentane and at body temperature and thus has potential for use in vivo. Experiments involving the release of fluorescent calcein molecules were performed on eLiposomes to measure the release of calcein at various temperatures in the absence of ultrasound. Results showed that eLiposomes are stable at body temperatures and that as the temperature increases above 40°C, calcein release from these novel nanocarriers increases. PMID:25261070