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Sample records for boll weevil

  1. Do boll weevils really diapause?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diapause has been poorly understood since the term was first used 50 yrs ago to describe the pest’s winter dormancy in temperate regions. This literature-based study found that low temperature and changes in photoperiod are the boll weevil diapause-i...

  2. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  3. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  4. Pollen contamination of boll weevil traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the Twentieth Century, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, was the most devastating insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus, in the southern United States of America (U.S.A.). Although thought to feed only on cotton, the list of non-cotton alternative food sources incr...

  5. Analyses of boll weevils captured near hay bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevils re-infesting cotton fields in Louisiana were often correlated with the movement of large hay bales in the area. Boll weevils were collected in pheromone traps that were placed downwind from hay bales that were in varying stages of decay in numbers ranging from 10 to greater than 30. B...

  6. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-10-01

    There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary. PMID:15568350

  7. Cotton pollen retention in boll weevils, a laboratory experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is thought to exist in a boll weevil’s gut for at least 18 hours. In a controlled laboratory experiment examining non-cotton food sources, a cotton pollen grain was found in an individual boll weevil that had not fed on cotton for 120 hours. Because we believe that finding whole or ...

  8. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  9. The conundrum of chemical boll weevil control in subtropical regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a tropical Mesoamerican insect that invaded the United States in 1893, spreading across the Cotton Belt as the key pest of cotton and causing billions of dollars in yield losses and insecticide-based control efforts;...

  10. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  11. Reducing boll weevil populations by clipping terminal buds and removing abscised fruiting bodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) punctures cotton squares and young bolls during feeding and oviposition, causing abscission of flower buds (squares) in the instance of oviposition. Fallen squares are a source of next generation adult boll weevils that...

  12. Host-free Survival of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Two Regions of Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New information regarding boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) overwintering, and especially diapause, is important to efforts to improve the efficiency of eradication programs. Some published reports suggest the diapause response differs among geographically separated populations of the boll we...

  13. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the U.S., accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducin...

  14. Almond, pigweed, and melon pollen retention in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) remains a devastating insect pest on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus) particularly where it has not been eradicated. Identifying and understanding the survival of boll weevils during overwintering periods when cotton is not available is important ...

  15. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  16. DNA FINGERPRINTING BOLL WEEVIL POPULATIONS FROM NON-ERADICATED STATES AND NORTHEAST MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis, Boheman) dispersal behavior is essential to characterizing and responding to the threat of migration into eradicated zones. Variation in boll weevil mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sampled and analyzed to make inferences on the magnitude and geogra...

  17. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  18. Relationships of Abscised Cotton Fruit to Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Feeding, Oviposition, and Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily r...

  19. A Model Evaluation of Long-Distance Dispersal of Boll Weevils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil eradication programs have progressed toward eradication within each zone, but concerns remain about the possibility of weevil dispersal between eradication zones. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the ...

  20. Interference of boll weevil trapping by spiders (Araneida) and an evaluation of trap modification to reduce unwanted arthropods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our evaluation of a boll weevil trap modified to reduce the number of unwanted arthropods had little effect on reducing spiders, the arthropod species that made up > 95% of the individuals that entered boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) traps and interfere with weekly capture of boll w...

  1. Failure of pheromone traps in detecting incipient populations of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Investigation of two potential contributing factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress towards complete eradication of the boll weevil has been delayed in some areas of Texas due to the inconsistent performance of pheromone traps in detecting incipient weevil populations. In 2008 substantial infestations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were detected in several c...

  2. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  3. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage. PMID:26934148

  4. Boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) continue to release pheromone following host removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  5. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil. PMID:26719592

  6. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  7. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap orientation and distance from brush lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestat...

  8. Using an electronic nose to rapidly assess grandlure content in boll weevil pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of pheromone lures used in boll weevil eradication programs are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) to ensure lures are adequately dosed with grandlure, the synthetic aggregation pheromone produced by male weevils. Although this approach accurately quantifies the pheromone content...

  9. Seasonal patterns in host-free survival of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the subtropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overwintering ecology of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, in the subtropics is poorly understood. Knowledge of seasonal patterns of host-free survival may be important to eradication efforts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The host-free survival of weevil cohorts emerging ...

  10. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the ...

  11. Susceptibility of the boll weevil to Steinernema riobrave and other entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Enrique Cabanillas, H

    2003-03-01

    The susceptibility of the boll weevil (BW), Anthonomus grandis Boheman, to Steinernema riobrave and other nematode species in petri dishes, soil (Hidalgo sandy clay loam), and cotton bolls and squares was investigated. Third instar weevils were susceptible to entomopathogenic nematode (EN) species and strains in petri dish bioassays at 30 degrees C. Lower LC(50)'s occurred with S. riobrave TX- 355 (2 nematodes per weevil), S. glaseri NC (3), Heterorhabditis indicus HOM-1 (5), and H. bacteriophora HbL (7) than H. bacteriophora IN (13), S. riobrave TX (14), and H. bacteriophora HP88 (21). When infective juveniles (IJs) of S. riobrave were applied to weevils on filter paper at 25 degrees C, the LC(50) of S. riobrave TX for first, second, and third instars, pupae, and 1-day-old and 10-days-old adult weevils were 4, 5, 4, 12, 13, and 11IJs per weevil, respectively. The mean time to death, from lowest to highest concentration, for the first instar (2.07 and 1.27days) and second instar (2.55 and 1.39days) weevils were faster than older weevil stages. But, at concentrations of 50 and 100IJs/weevil, the mean time to death for the third instar, pupa and adult weevils were similar (1.84 and 2.67days). One hundred percent weevil mortality (all weevil stages) occurred 3days after exposure to 100IJs per weevil. Invasion efficiency rankings for nematode concentration were inconsistent and changed with weevil stage from 15 to 100% when weevils were exposed to 100 and 1IJs/weevil, respectively. However, there was a consistent relationship between male:female nematode sex ratio (1:1.6) and nematode concentration in all infected weevil stages. Nematode production per weevil cadaver increased with increased nematode concentrations. The overall mean yield of nematodes per weevil was 7680IJs. In potted soil experiments (30 degrees C), nematode concentration and soil moisture greatly influenced the nematode efficacy. At the most effective concentrations of 200,000 and 400,000IJs/m(2) in

  12. Impact of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas on predation of Lepidopteran eggs, 2005-2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predation on eggs of the lepidopteran pests (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in cotton was monitored before and during the first two seasons of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas (2005-2006). Mortality of eggs was reduced after malathion sprays for boll weevil...

  13. Mass propagation of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The USDA and the DOE production facility at Kansas City managed by AlliedSignal have partnered to redirect defense technologies to the development of specialized agricultural equipment. The initial use of the equipment will be for mass rearing of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis, however, by reprogramming and altering fixtures, the equipment can be used for other insect species. The process flow diagrams for the following systems have been developed: (1) Mechanized Host Larvae Washing/Drying, Capsule Forming, Larvae Placement, Sealing, and Labeling; (2) Mechanized in vivo Preoviposition, Oviposition, and Developing; (3) Mechanized Placement in Release Containers; (4) Automated Packaging and Storage/Retrieval; (5) Mechanized System for Field Release; (6) Mechanized System for Adult Colony Maintenance, Egg Laying, and Egg Retrieval; (7) Mechanized System for in vitro Diet Manufacturing; (8) Mechanized System for in vitro Mass Propagation with Diet Dispensing, Egg Placement, and Developing of Parasite Pupae. Conceptual designs using ProEngineer software have been developed for four of the eight systems. The initial hardware will include the elements of the systems considered to be the most technologically challenging and those necessary to establish the feasibility of commercial mass rearing. The most important of these are mechanized in vitro diet manufacturing, egg laying/retrieval, egg placement and diet dispensing.

  14. "The herald of prosperity": tracing the boll weevil myth in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Giesen, James C

    2011-01-01

    As scholars and singers have pointed out in monographs and folk songs, the cotton boll weevil was a devastating force on southern farming and rural life. No symbol is more indicative of this destruction than Enterprise, Alabama's boll weevil monument. This essay examines not how the cotton pest destroyed the region's staple crop, but how women and men across race and class lines understood the beetle's threat and used it to their advantage. The statue, like the countless blues and folk songs about the pest, was a cultural statement that shaped the understanding of the bug itself and its supposed transformation of southern agriculture. By examining the local conditions that gave rise to dramatic, albeit short-lived, crop diversification, and in turn the monument's erection, this essay uncovers the ways in which the boll weevil myth was as important a force on southern life as the long-snouted beetle itself. PMID:21313785

  15. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  16. COMMON SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL NONPOLLEN FOOD SOURCES OF THE BOLL WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA:CURCULIONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that substantial boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations can survive mild subtropical winters in some habitats, such as citrus orchards. Our study shows that endocarp of the fruit from prickly pear cactus, Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex. Engel.; orange, Citrus sin...

  17. DIEL PATTERNS OF PHEROMONE PRODUCTION IN THE BOLL WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed knowledge of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, chemical ecology on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is needed to improve pheromone trapping methods. Recent studies using headspace collections have indicated that most pheromone is not in the feces as previously assumed. We used headsp...

  18. Remote identification of potential boll weevil host plants: Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regrowth cotton plants can serve as potential hosts for boll weevils during and beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these host plants are critically needed to expedite eradication in south Texas. We acquired airborne multispectral images of experimental...

  19. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288

  20. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  1. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  2. Response of cotton squares to various boll weevil oviposition puncture types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier laboratory study, estimates for boll weevil oviposition in unsealed punctures, punctures sealed with frass (frass-sealed), punctures sealed with a wax film (wax-sealed), and punctures sealed with a wax film plus frass (wax-sealed plus frass) were determined. However, the traditional p...

  3. Quantification of dichlorvos released from kill strips used in boll weevil eradication programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of kill strips, Hercon Vaportape II and Plato Insecticide Strip, are used by boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), eradication programs in the U.S. Both types utilize dichlorvos as the killing agent and are marketed to last up to a month in traps. Consequently, programs typically re...

  4. Longevity of adult boll weevils fed selected non-pollen food sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that substantial boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations survive subtropical winters in some habitats, such as citrus orchards. Our study shows that endocarps of the fruit from prickly pear cactus, Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex. Engel.; and orange, Citrus sinensi...

  5. Effects of photoperiod on boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) development, survival, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S M; Sappington, T W; Adamczyk, J J; Liu, T-X; Setamou, M

    2008-12-01

    Effects of photoperiod on development, survival, feeding, and oviposition of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, were assessed under five different photophases (24, 14, 12, 10, and 0 h) at a constant 27 degrees C temperature and 65% RH in the laboratory. Analyses of our results detected positive relationships between photoperiod and puncturing (mean numbers of oviposition and feeding punctures per day), and oviposition (oviposition punctures/oviposition+feeding punctures) activities, and the proportion of squares attacked by boll weevil females. When boll weevil females developed in light:darkness cycles, they produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs developing to adulthood than those developed in 24-h light or dark conditions. In long photoperiod (24:0 and 14:10 h), the number of female progeny was significantly higher and their development time was significantly shorter than those developed in short photoperiod (0:24 and 10:14 h). Lifetime oviposition was significantly highest at 12- and 14-h photophase, lowest at 0- and 10-h photophase, and intermediate at 24 h of light. Life table calculations indicated that boll weevil populations developed in a photoperiod of 14:10 and 12:12 (L:D) h will increase an average of two-fold each generation (Ro) compared with boll weevils developed in 24:0- and 10:14-h photoperiods and 15-fold compared with those at 0:24 h. Knowledge of the photoperiod-dependent population growth potential is critical for understanding population dynamics to better develop sampling protocols and timing insecticide applications. PMID:19161681

  6. Ecology and phenology of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on an unusual wild host, Hibiscus pernambucensis, in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arzaluz, I O; Jones, R W

    2001-12-01

    The phenology and ecology of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and its interaction and importance in maintaining populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were studied over a period of 3 yr in the Soconusco Region of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. H. pernambucensis is a small tree of Neotropical distribution, restricted to lowland areas, and generally associated with halophytic vegetation. This species is found exclusively along the shores of brackish estuaries, in or near mangrove swamps in southeastern Mexico. In this region, H. pernambucensis has a highly seasonal flowering pattern in which the greatest bud production occurs shortly after the start of the rainy season in May and the highest fruit production occurs in July and August. Boll weevil larvae were found in buds of H. pernambucensis during all months but February and densities of buds and weevils were highest from May through September. The percentage of buds infested with boll weevil larvae rarely exceeded 30%. Because plant densities and reproductive output of H. pernambucensis is relatively low and, consequently, the number of oviposition and larval development sites for boll weevils is limited, the importance of this plant as a source of boll weevils with potential of attacking commercial cotton is minimal in comparison with the quantity produced in cultivated cotton. However, the plant could be important as a reservoir of boll weevils in areas of boll weevil quarantine and eradication programs. The factors and circumstances that may have led to this apparent recent host shift of the boll weevil in this region are discussed. PMID:11777042

  7. Temporal variability of spectral reflectance and estimated canopy cover of cotton plants supports early detection of potential boll weevil infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevils may infest cotton fields when plants begin to produce squares, but eradication program managers may not be notified of fields that have been planted with cotton until after plants are already blooming. Because pheromone traps become much less effective in detecting weevil populations w...

  8. SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF MALATHION ON BOLL WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) FECUNDITY WHEN MAINTAINED ON COTTON SQUARES AND ARTIFICIAL DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined a LD50 value for malathion applied topically to 3-d-old female boll weevils and used it to treat groups of mated females reared from field-infested cotton squares. Survivorship, oviposition, egg development, and body fat condition were compared to nontreated control weevils fed cotton...

  9. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  10. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  11. Feeding deterrent compounds to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman in Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus L.

    PubMed

    Bird, T G; Hedin, P A; Burks, M L

    1987-05-01

    The Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus (L.), can be a significant alternate host plant for the boll weevil,Anthonomus gradis (Boh.). Boll weevils are known to be deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the buds unless the calyx is removed. This investigation was initiated to identify calyx allelochemicals that deter feeding with the eventual strategy of breeding for cotton lines high in these allelochemicals in the appropriate tissues. The feeding deterrency of calyx tissue from the buds of Rose-of-Sharon for the boll weevil was confirmed. The most active deterrent fraction was found to contain mostly fatty acids and their methyl esters. Saturated fatty acids and their methyl esters were generally found to be stimulatory, while the unsaturated species were found to be deterrent. Higher quantities of the fatty acids, particularly the unsaturated species, were found in Rose-of-Sharon calyx tissue than in the buds without calyx. This supports the hypothesis developed through the isolational work and testing of standards that the unsaturated fatty acids are significant deterrents of boll weevil feeding. PMID:24302134

  12. Population structure and genetic diversity of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Gossypium in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been identified as one of the most devastating pests in U.S. history, its origin and activity in Mexico, both on wild and cultivated cotton hosts (genus Gossypium), is poorly understood. Three forms (geographical or host-associated races) of A. grandis ...

  13. Temporal changes in genetic variation of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations, and implications for population assignment in eradication zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic differentiation among 10 populations of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis, sampled in 2009, in Texas and Mexico, was determined using ten microsatellite loci. In addition, temporal changes in genetic composition were examined in the eight populations for which samples were available fr...

  14. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive potential on cotton squares of overwintered boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November, and January and after feeding them one, three, and five weeks on plant pollens was determined in the laboratory at 27ºC, 65% ...

  15. Molecular analysis of ribosomal RNA spacer regions in geographically separated populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Western Hemisphere. It is suggested that three forms of A. grandis exist based on geographical and behavioral characteristics. All three forms are morphologically similar making identification difficult. While most a...

  16. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Robério C. S.; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B.; Santos, Roberta L.; Bastos, Cristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  17. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Robério C S; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B; Santos, Roberta L; Bastos, Cristina S

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  18. Genetic profiling to determine potential origins of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) captured in a Texas eradication zone: endemicity, immigration, or sabotage?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W; Allen, Charles T

    2008-12-01

    Thirty-seven boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were captured in pheromone traps near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone during August-October 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earlier in the year, and only very low numbers had been captured in neighboring zones to the south and east. Therefore, the captures near Lubbock were unexpected. Five of the weevils captured the last week of August were preserved and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci for comparison with a database of genotypes for 22 boll weevil populations sampled from eight U.S. states and four locations in Mexico. The Lubbock population itself is an unlikely source, suggesting that the captured weevils probably did not originate from a low-level endemic population. Populations from eastern states, Mexico, and Big Spring, TX, can be confidently excluded as potential source regions. Although the Weslaco and Kingsville, TX, areas cannot be statistically excluded, they are unlikely sources. The most likely sources are nearby areas in New Mexico, TX, or southwest Oklahoma, or from areas of eastern Texas represented by Waxahachie and El Campo populations. Together, genetic and circumstantial evidence suggest either that the trapped boll weevils are the offspring of alone mated female that immigrated from eastern Texas earlier in the summer or that weevils originally captured near Waxahachie but now long-dead were planted in the traps by a disgruntled employee of the eradication program. PMID:19133449

  19. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:23949716

  20. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  2. Efficiency of Tank-Mixing Insecticide with Defoliant Against Adult Boll Weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Populations as Determined by Late-Season Field Disturbance Trapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large commercial field plots were used to assess the effect of tank-mixing cyfluthrin with a defoliant applied in preparation for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., harvest on adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations in south Texas during 2002 and 2003. The defoliant-insectici...

  3. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    PubMed

    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil. PMID:17927912

  4. Reproductive potential of overwintering, F1, and F2 female boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S M; Sappington, T W; Setamou, M; Armstrong, J S; Coleman, R J; Liu, T-X

    2007-04-01

    The feeding and oviposition activity of overwintering boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), and seasonal fluctuations in development, survival, and reproduction of progeny of overwintering and first- and second-generation boll weevil females were determined in the laboratory at 27 degrees C, 65% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. During the cotton-free period in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, female boll weevils without access to cotton resorb their unlaid eggs and enter reproductive diapause. However, when they were provided daily with greenhouse-grown cotton squares, commencement of oviposition began after 7, 15, or 20 d, depending on when they were captured. Females captured later in the winter fed longer before laying eggs than those captured in the early fall, suggesting that it may take females longer to terminate diapause the longer they have been dormant. The rate of feeding by females was significantly less during the winter months, and this may have affected the rate of diet-mediated termination of dormancy. Females of the first and second generations after the overwintering generation produced a significantly higher percentage of progeny surviving to adulthood and a higher proportion of these progeny were females. Offspring development time from overwintering female parents was significantly longer than that from first and second generations under the same laboratory conditions. The total number of lifetime eggs produced by females of the second generation during the cotton-growing season were approximately 9.9-fold higher than for overwintering females and 1.5-fold higher than for first-generation females. Life table calculations indicated that the population of second-generation boll weevils increased an average of 1.5-fold higher each generation than for females of the first generation and 22.6-fold higher than for overwintering females. Our data showed variation in boll weevil survival, development, and reproductive potential among

  5. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  6. Attraction of milkweed stem weevils, Rhyssomatus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculiondae), to grandlure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trapping study was initiated in the spring of 2010 to compare the attraction of boll weevils to standard grandlure (synthesized boll weevil pheromone) and a new experimental formulation of grandlure. Both formulations contained the same four pheromone components, but differed in the proportion of...

  7. [Effects of drought and waterlogging on carbohydrate contents of cotton boll and its relationship with boll biomass accumulation at the flowering and bolling stage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Qin; Liu, Jing-Ran; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Rui-Xian; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cultivar NuCOTN 33B was planted in isolated pools treated with drought or waterlogging for 7 or 14 d to explore their effects on cotton boll carbohydrate content and its relationship with the biomass accumulation. The results showed that the drought treatment reduced the carbohydrate content of cotton boll shell on middle fruit branches, but had a weak effect on cotton boll shells on lower fruit branches. Soluble sugar, starch and sucrose contents of cotton boll shell on upper fruit branches under the drought condition and on whole plant branches under waterlogging treatment changed similarly, namely, the soluble sugar and starch content increased, while the sucrose content went down firstly and then increased later, which indicated that the exportation of sucrose from boll shell was inhibited and became worse with the increase of waterlogging duration. Compared with the boll shell, the carbohydrate contents of cotton seed were less affected by the drought and waterlogging treatments at the flowering and bolling stage. Under the treatments of drought and 7 d-waterlogging, the biomass accumulation of cotton bolls on the middle fruit branches initiated earlier but lasted less days, and the maximum speed at lower and upper fruit branches reduced, while the treatment of waterlogging for 14 d caused the decline of maximum speed of biomass accumulation of bolls on whole branches. On the other side, the correlation analysis showed the significant positive relationships among the boll biomass, the maximum speed and the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose in the boll shell respectively. In conclusion, the treatment of drought and waterlogging at the flowering and bolling stage retarded the outward transportation of sucrose from cotton bolls, changed the boll biomass accumulation characteristics, and therefore were detected as the important cause of cotton boll total biomass reduction. PMID:25509075

  8. Detecting boll rot of cotton with an electronic nose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and rapid detection of diseased cotton bolls is often complicated by the absence of external symptoms on infected bolls. A preliminary study was initiated in 2009 to examine the potential of using an electronic nose (E-nose) to detect volatiles emitted from bolls infected with the opportunist...

  9. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  10. Alternating tandem array of histone and ribosomal RNA gene blocks in the boll weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histones are the major protein component of the ncleosome. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clust...

  11. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  12. The structure of rice weevil pectin methylesterase

    PubMed Central

    Teller, David C.; Behnke, Craig A.; Pappan, Kirk; Shen, Zicheng; Reese, John C.; Reeck, Gerald R.; Stenkamp, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) use a pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), along with other enzymes, to digest cell walls in cereal grains. The enzyme is a right-handed β-helix protein, but is circularly permuted relative to plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases, as shown by the crystal structure determination reported here. This is the first structure of an animal pectin methylesterase. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution some time ago for this crystal form, but structure solution required the use of molecular-replacement techniques that have been developed and similar structures that have been deposited in the last 15 years. Comparison of the structure of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with that from Dickeya dandantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) indicates that the reaction mechanisms are the same for the insect, plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases. The similarity of the structure of the rice weevil enzyme to the Escherichia coli lipoprotein YbhC suggests that the evolutionary origin of the rice weevil enzyme was a bacterial lipoprotein, the gene for which was transferred to a primitive ancestor of modern weevils and other Curculionidae. Structural comparison of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with plant and bacterial enzymes demonstrates that the rice weevil protein is circularly permuted relative to the plant and bacterial molecules. PMID:25372813

  13. Palm Weevil Pheromones - Discovery and Use.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, A C

    2016-07-01

    Male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily Rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. Although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. Addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. The weevils are large, have long life cycles, and are strong fliers. These characteristics make mass trapping a suitable tactic to add to existing management strategies. When coupled with good phytosanitary practices, mass trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum at 1 trap/5-ha significantly lowered the incidence of red ring nematode infection vectored by the weevil in commercial oil palm plantations in the Americas. Similarly, trap densities of 1-10 traps/ha have significantly lowered R. ferrugineus infestation of date palm throughout the Middle East. Although management of R. ferrugineus in urban areas is more problematic, trapping is an integral part of most programs aimed at protection of ornamental Canary palms in Europe. Overall, semiochemically-based management of these large weevils is now a mature and usually economically feasible control technology. PMID:27430563

  14. Fiber properties of first and second sympodial position cotton bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the nature of fiber properties variation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopies is critical for designing production systems that will provide more uniform fiber to textile mills. Our objective was to compare first branch node position bolls (FP1) and second branch node position bo...

  15. Bacteria on closed-boll and commercially harvested cotton.

    PubMed Central

    Millner, P D; Ericson, K E; Marsh, P B

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial content of specially treated cottons used by other investigators to test human pulmonary responses to cotton dust was examined. Cotton from Lubbock, Tex. and Stoneville, Miss. were either (i) harvested by machine and handled as commercial bale cotton, (ii) harvested as closed bolls with bracts intact and opened under special conditions, (iii) harvested as closed bolls, with bracts being removed and opened under special conditions, or (iv) harvested by (stoneville only). Bacillus spp. were isolated from all samples and predominated in cotton from Stoneville. Enterobacter agglomerans was isolated from all but one sample, the Stoneville closed-boll bract-removed cotton, and predominated in Lubbock samples. Aerogenic and anaerogenic biogroups of E. agglomerans were isolated; only aerogenic strain b of E. agglomerans was present in samples from both locations. Klebsiella ozaenae and K. pneumoniae were isolated only from Lubbock samples. Cotton from Lubbock yielded 100 to 1,000 times more bacteria, both total and gram negative, than did comparably treated cotton from Stoneville. Thus, differences in growing and processing conditions at the two locations were associated with large differences in the bacterial content of the cotton, but harvesting green bolls and removing bracts had little effect. The bacterial content of Stoneville washed cotton, and it paralleled the differences reported (Boehlecke et al., Am. Rev. Respir, Dis. 123:152, 1981) in pulmonary function responses when subjects were exposed to dust (0.6 mg/m3) from these two cottons. Levels of gram-negative and total bacteria on all samples were comparable to those previously reported for field-weathered cottons from various locations throughout the world. PMID:6751230

  16. Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated

  17. Histone and Ribosomal RNA Repetitive Gene Clusters of the Boll Weevil are Linked in a Tandem Array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  18. Pecan weevil movement within the orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an indigenous pest of pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang K (Koch) in North America. Movement by adults, emerging from the orchard floor, to the pecan tree and movement within and between trees is poorly understood. Additionally, n...

  19. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  20. Comparison of cotton square and boll damage and resulting lint and seed loss caused by verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of bolls and squares (referred to as fruit retention), boll damage, and resulting cotton lint and seed weight loss were assessed when two (2010) and three (2011) age classes of sympodial fruiting branches with different ages of squares and bolls where exposed to verde plant bug, Creontiade...

  1. GLYPHOSATE OVER-THE-TOP APPLICATION INFLUENCES BOLL DEVELOPMENT OF ROUNDUP READY COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton yield can be affected by several parameters including number of plants and bolls per unit area, seed per boll, and fibers per seed. Any factor that reduces these parameters could potentially reduce lint yield. To determine if glyphosate over-the-top applications affect fruiting on Roundup Rea...

  2. Southern green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as vectors of pathogens affecting cotton bolls - A brief review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) is a member of the stink bug complex that has reached elevated pest status in cotton production in recent years. A disease of cotton bolls, identified as South Carolina boll rot, appeared coincidental to the increasing populations of stink bugs. Th...

  3. Influence of ultranarrow row and conventional row cotton on the last effective boll population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last effective boll population is the basis for many cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management decisions such as defoliation timing. The objective of this research was to determine the last effective boll population for both ultra-narrow row cotton (UNRC), grown in rows spaced 25 cm or less, an...

  4. Actual and simulated injury of Creontiades signatus (Heteroptera: Miridae) feeding on cotton bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The actual feeding injury of Creontiades signatus (Distant) was compared to a simulated technique for study years 2005, 2006 and 2008 by injecting varying dilutions of pectinase into cotton bolls at different boll sizes (ages) in an effort to determine if such a technique could be used to reduce the...

  5. Internal Boll Rots Associated with Feeding by Hemipterous Insects: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When stink bugs, plant bugs and cotton fleahoppers feed on bolls and buds, the locks within the boll often become discolored or rotted. Such symptoms are usually caused by microbial pathogens introduced by insects. The roles of pathogens have been determined by antiseptically isolating microorgani...

  6. Biology and damage of an undescribed baridine weevil on amryllis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weevil subfamily Baridinae is comprised of several economically important species that cause damage to the roots and fruits of plants. In the early 1990's, a baradine weevil was observed feeding on and occasionally killing amaryllis (Hippeastrum Herb) plants in Florida. A survey was conducted to...

  7. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    PubMed

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. PMID:26411787

  8. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to kairomones.

    PubMed

    Van Tol, Robert W H M; Bruck, Denny J; Griepink, Frans C; De Kogel, Willem Jan

    2012-02-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures. Because of the night-activity of the adult weevils growers do not observe the emerging weevils in a timely manner and oviposition often starts before effective control measures are taken. Several vine weevil electroantennogram-active plant volatiles were identified from a preferred host plant, Euonymus fortunei. Main compounds evoking antennal responses on the weevils' antennae were (Z)-2-pentenol, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl benzoate, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl eugenol, and (E, E)-alpha-farnesene. Several of these compounds were tested alone and in mixtures on attractiveness for the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) in field-grown strawberry in Oregon. O. sulcatus were attracted to (Z)-2-pentenol (approximately 3 x more than control) and a 1:1 ratio mixture of (Z)-2-pentenol and methyl eugenol (4.5 x more than control). This is the first report of field-active attractants for O. sulcatus which holds promise for the development of new monitoring strategies for growers in the near future. PMID:22420269

  9. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    PubMed

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone. PMID:19791617

  10. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  11. [Effects of high temperature on Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology in boll wall of Bt cotton].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Abidallah, Eltayib H M A; Hua, Ming-ming; Heng, Li; Lyu, Chun-hua; Chen, De-hua

    2015-10-01

    Bt cotton cultivar Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar) and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar) from China, and 99B (a conventional cultivar) and Daiza 1 (a hybrid cultivar) from USA were selected as experimental materials, the ball wall Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology were investigated under different high temperature levels at peak boll stage. The results showed that the Bt protein content of boll wall decreased with the increasing temperature. Compared with the control (32 °C, the boll wall Bt protein content decreased significantly when the temperature was above 38 °C for the conventional cultivars and above 40 °C for the hybrid cultivars. The Bt protein contents of cultivar Sikang 1 and 99B decreased by 53.0% and 69.5% respectively with the temperature at 38 °C, and that of cultivar Sikang 3 and Daiza 1 decreased by 64.8% and 54.1% respectively with the temperature at 40 °C. Greater reductions in the boll wall soluble protein contents and GPT activities, larger increments for the boll wall free amino acid contents and proteinsase activities were also observed when the boll wall Bt protein content was significantly reduced. Therefore, high temperature resulted in the reduction of Bt protein synthesis and increase of the insecticidal protein degradation in the boll wall significantly, which caused the reductions in boll wall Bt protein content and insect resistance. PMID:26995932

  12. Transmission of the opportunistic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll pathogen Pantoea agglomerans by the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage to developing cotton bolls by piercing-sucking insects such as stink bugs has traditionally been attributed solely to pest feeding. Previously, we showed clear differences in severity of boll damage resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) fed sterile food compared to thos...

  13. Weevil x Insecticide: Does 'Personality' Matter?

    PubMed

    Morales, Juliana A; Cardoso, Danúbia G; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2013-01-01

    An insect's behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect 'personality' (i.e., an individual's integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal 'personality', the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil 'personality' among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and 'personality' studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual variation should be

  14. [Effects of soil progressive drought during the flowering and boll-forming stage on gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the subtending leaf to cotton boll].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-wei; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Rui; Kuai, Jie; Li, Lei; Wang, You-hua; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic changes and response mechanisms of gas exchange parameters and fluorescence indices of the subtending leaf to cotton boll under soil progressive drought stress, pot experiments of the hybrid cotton No. 3 were conducted with soil relative water content (SRWC) (75 +/- 5)% as control group, SRWC (60 +/- 5)% and SRWC (45 +/- 5)% as experimental groups dealt with progressive drought for 50 days. Results showed that, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased while Ls increased under SRWC (60 +/- 5)% for 0-21 days. Furthermore, there was no significant change in chlorophyll fluorescence indices. This indicated that stomatal limitation was the main reason for the reduction of photosynthesis of cotton. In addition, when drought for 21-49 days under SRWC (60 +/- 5)%, Pn kept decreasing, while Ci began to increase and Ls began to decrease. Potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of photo system II (phi(PSI)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)) reduced significantly, but non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) first rose then decreased. Thus, nonstomatal limitation was the main reason why the photosynthesis of cotton reduced. Photosynthetic organization and photosynthetic enzyme system were destroyed, boll setting intensity reduced and the number of boll and yield reduced significantly. Drought for 0-14 days under SRWC (45 +/- 5)% treatment led to sharp decrease in Pn, g(s) and Ci, whereas Ls obviously increased. There was no significant change in Fv/Fm, phi(PSII), q(P), indicating stomatal limitation was the main reason why the photosynthesis of cotton reduced. Pn decreased slowly, while Ci began to rise and Ls began to decline under SRWC (45 +/- 5)% treatment for 14-49 days. Fv/Fm, phi(PSII), q(P) decreased while NPQ rose first then declined, which indicated that nonstomatal limitation worked to reduce the cotton photosynthetic performance

  15. [Sexual dimorphism of guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Gilson; Bailez, Omar E; Viana-Bailez, Ana M

    2007-01-01

    We investigate structural and behavioral differences between male and female adults of guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii Marshall, 1922 to help in sex determination. Weevils collected from a commercial guava orchard were individually caged and maintained under laboratory conditions. Every day ten individuals were grouped and their behavior was observed. During mating the males and females were identified. Fifty weevils of each sex were killed and they were observed with stereoscopic microscope. The antenna insertion on the rostrum and hair on the thorax and abdomen surfaces were examined. Length and width of body, pronotum, last abdominal sternite and rostrum were also taken. Behaviorally, the male weevils produce audible sound by stridulation of abdomen while females do not. In the females, the body and pronotum width and body a rostrum length were higher than in the males, but the last abdominal sternite was smaller. Three other structural differences were visible with the naked eye: 1) the anterior region of pronotum have scarce hair or have not in the females and hair is dense in the males; 2) the last tergite of females is hidden by the penultimate tergite whereas in the males is visible; 3) the first abdominal sternite of females is more prominent, very convex and without or with little bristle. In the males it is slightly concave and with abundant hair. The male-female differences found in this work allow, without hurt or change insect behavior, an efficient sex determination of guava weevil. PMID:17934614

  16. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides. PMID:23297108

  17. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential virulence and entry routes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hazel nut weevil, Curculio nucum, is a major pest of hazel nuts, particularly in Europe; hazel nut weevil is also closely related to other nut-attacking weevils such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae). In this study, the basis for differential susceptibility of the hazelnut weevil (to entomopatho...

  18. Boll distribution and plant architecture of 14 commercial cultivars under five different irrigation regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on the boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture of commercial cultivars of cotton (Gossypium spp.). To identify the impact of different irrigation levels on the Texas High Plains 14 co...

  19. Potential for Nezara virdula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Transmit Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens into Cotton Bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we described the vectoring of an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain into green cotton bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) (SGSB) that resulted in disease. We hypothesized that our established experimental disease model could be used to determine whether SGSB s...

  20. Complete genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from Nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. We provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain K. pneumoniae 5-1. This data provides guidance to study the...

  1. Breeding implications of boll distribution responses to water stress deficits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify the impact of different water stress deficits on the boll distribution of elite Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars in the Texas High Plains, cultivars which represent the diverse gene-pools of the private sector were subjected to three different water deficit regimes. This s...

  2. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six sampling methods targeting square and boll-feeding plant bugs on cotton were compared during three cotton growth periods (early-season squaring, early bloom, and peak through late bloom) by samplers differing in experience (with prior years of sampling experience or no experience) along the coas...

  3. Effects of irrigation and plant density on cotton within-boll yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield is integrated through whole-plant and within-boll yield components. Crop management practices such as irrigation and plant density may impact yield. Thus, yield dynamics due to irrigation and plant density may result from changes in the most basic yield comp...

  4. The Phytotoxin Coronatine Induces Abscission-Related Gene Expression and Boll Ripening during Defoliation of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  5. The phytotoxin coronatine induces abscission-related gene expression and boll ripening during defoliation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingwei; Li, Yi; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  6. Farming of a defensive fungal mutualist by an attelabid weevil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Feng, Yu; Tian, Jianqing; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Ding, Jianqing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Stadler, Marc; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing animals and fungi is a classic example of a complex interspecies association. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions and protecting and harvesting the fungal crop. More examples, which could be called ‘proto-fungiculture', involve fewer adaptations, as exemplified by marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass. Recent work has indicated that the solitary leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinensis (family Attelabidae) has a protofarming symbiosis with the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei (family Trichocomaceae). In this study, we investigated how the weevils create cradles (leaf-rolls) for their offspring and protect the fungal garden. We describe new specialized structures and behaviors that E. chinensis females use for leaf-rolling and fungus inoculation. The fungus P. herquei produces the antibiotic (+)-scleroderolide in laboratory culture and in leaf-rolls, which can serve to inhibit microbial ‘weeds' and pests, thus protecting the fungal garden against potential infection. The fungiculture of E. chinensis differs from other advanced insect fungiculture systems because female weevils do not continuously tend the inoculated microbe and do not depend nutritionally on the fungus. The defensive role of the cultivated fungus makes the attelabid weevils exceptional in ‘proto-fungiculture' animals. PMID:25658054

  7. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  8. Integrating biological control into pecan weevil management: a sustainable approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. This article summarizes research and makes recommendations based on a project that was funded in part by the USDA-Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program and that was aimed at developing biological methods of C. caryae contr...

  9. Green light synergistically enhances male sweetpotato weevil sex pheromone response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is the 7th most important staple crop in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter...

  10. Arrestment behavior in the polyphagous tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A semiochemical-based attractant for the tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), has been sought since the introduction of this polyphagous pest to Florida in the 1960s. A 6-unit wind tunnel apparatus was constructed to allow multiple runs to be conducted simultaneously to test the respons...

  11. Farming of a defensive fungal mutualist by an attelabid weevil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Feng, Yu; Tian, Jianqing; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Ding, Jianqing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Stadler, Marc; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-08-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing animals and fungi is a classic example of a complex interspecies association. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions and protecting and harvesting the fungal crop. More examples, which could be called 'proto-fungiculture', involve fewer adaptations, as exemplified by marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass. Recent work has indicated that the solitary leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinensis (family Attelabidae) has a protofarming symbiosis with the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei (family Trichocomaceae). In this study, we investigated how the weevils create cradles (leaf-rolls) for their offspring and protect the fungal garden. We describe new specialized structures and behaviors that E. chinensis females use for leaf-rolling and fungus inoculation. The fungus P. herquei produces the antibiotic (+)-scleroderolide in laboratory culture and in leaf-rolls, which can serve to inhibit microbial 'weeds' and pests, thus protecting the fungal garden against potential infection. The fungiculture of E. chinensis differs from other advanced insect fungiculture systems because female weevils do not continuously tend the inoculated microbe and do not depend nutritionally on the fungus. The defensive role of the cultivated fungus makes the attelabid weevils exceptional in 'proto-fungiculture' animals. PMID:25658054

  12. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K. PMID:26874296

  13. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  14. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single domains are extremely directional (observed with a point source less than 5°), but the special arrangement of the scales in the concave pits significantly broadens the angular distribution of the reflections. The resulting virtually angle-independent green coloration of the weevil closely approximates the colour of a foliaceous background. While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage. PMID:22378806

  15. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  16. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  17. Life History and Damage of a new Baradinae Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Amaryllis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small Baradinae weevil that feeds on amaryllis plants has been known in Florida for over fifteen years. It is yet to be named taxonomically and its life history has not been studied previously. Observations on weevil damage were made on containerized amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybrids) plants naturall...

  18. A semiochemical-based push-pull management strategy for pepper weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pepper weevil Anthonomus eugeenii is a serious pest on peppers in southern United States. The weevils lay their eggs in flower buds and immature fruit where the larvae feed on the developing seed. Consequently, infestations are hard to control by pesticide applications. The aggregation pheromo...

  19. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey. PMID:16222791

  20. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  1. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  2. The impact of planting date on management of the rice water weevil in Louisiana rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Early planting of rice to avoid damaging infestations of the rice water weevil has long been suggested as a management tactic. A five-year study was conducted to characterize the influ...

  3. BIOLOGY AND DAMAGE OF AN UNDESCRIBED WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) ON AMARYLLIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weevil subfamily Baridinae is comprised of several economically important species that cause damage to the roots and fruits of plants. In the early 1990’s, a baridine weevil was observed feeding on and occasionally killing amaryllis (Hippeastrum Herb) plants in Florida. A survey was conducted ...

  4. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  5. Use of landscape fabric to manage Diaprepes root weevil in citrus groves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, is a major pest of citrus and other crops through the Caribbean and the southern parts of Florida, Texas and California. The larvae hatch from eggs laid by the female weevils on leaves. The newly hatched larvae fall to the ground where they burrow int...

  6. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    PubMed Central

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066

  7. [From Comte to Carnap. Marcel Boll and the introduction of the Vienna Circle in France].

    PubMed

    Schöttler, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the introduction of viennese "scientific philosophy" in France appears to be resolved. However, the rediscovery of the positivist physicist Marcel Boll (1886-1971), who was the first-well before Louis Rougier-to draw the French public's attention to the works of Schlick, Frank, and Carnap, obliges us to rethink the passage from traditional positivism to neo-positivism during the 1920s and 1930s. The French reception of the Vienna circle can be dated earlier than accepted and is more profound than usualy assumed. PMID:25914078

  8. Egyptian cotton ( Gossypium barbadense) flower and boll production as affected by climatic factors and soil moisture status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawan, Zakaria M.; Hanna, Louis I.; McCuistion, Willis L.; Foote, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The information on impact of climatic factors on cotton production is not generally available, or at least not available in the required form. Understanding this impact may help physiologists determine a possible control of the flowering mechanism in the cotton plant. Two field trials were conducted to investigate the relationships between climatic factors, soil moisture status, and flower and boll production of Gossypium barbadense. The climatic factors considered were daily maximum air temperature (°C), minimum air temperature (°C), maximum-minimum temperature (diurnal temperature range) (°C), sunshine duration (h day-1), maximum relative humidity (%), minimum relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m s-1). Minimum relative humidity and sunshine duration were the most significant climatic factors affecting flower and boll retention and production. Temperature appeared to be less important in the reproduction growth stage of cotton in Egypt than minimum relative humidity and sunshine duration. The soil moisture status showed low and insignificant correlation to flower and boll production. High minimum relative humidity, short period of sunshine duration, and low temperatures enhanced flower and boll formation.

  9. Introduction of an opportunistic bacterial cotton pathogen into bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, seed and boll rot associated with microorganism infections have had a significantly negative impact on cotton yield in southeastern Cotton Belt states. Based on Koch’s postulates, we previously established that an opportunistic strain of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans, originall...

  10. Transmission of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seed and boll rotting bacteria by southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the ability of the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) to transmit an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain into unopened, green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) bolls. Southern green stink bug (SGSB) colonies were reared on fresh green beans in the labo...

  11. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  12. Effects of within-row plant spacings on growth, boll retention, and yield of four cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant spacing in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., has gained importance due to the cost of seed with value added traits. The objectives of this study were to investigate growth, boll retention and yield of four cultivars when grown in four within row plant spacings and two row configurations. Cultiva...

  13. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  14. Insect diets as mixtures: optimization for a polyphagous weevil.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P

    2008-07-01

    Development or improvement of artificial insect diets can be tedious, convoluted and often under-appreciated. Using n-dimensional mixture designs, we identified a set of response-optimized meridic diets that contain fewer ingredients than the current commercial diet for Diaprepes abbreviatus, a polyphagous weevil pest of the Caribbean and southern U.S. A diet blend optimized to produce maximum adult weight was predicted to produce adult D. abbreviatus that weigh 28% more compared with adults reared on the standard commercial diet. Diet blends that produced greater individual adult weights resulted in lower survival compared with those blends that yielded adults of more modest proportions. In contrast, a simplified high cottonseed meal blend produced smaller adults more similar to field-collected individuals, and produced the greatest number of adults and the greatest biomass at relatively low cost compared with diets that yielded adult weevils of greater weight. We think that many insect-rearing programs would benefit from application of mixture design methods to situations where diet optimization is desired for researcher-selected criteria. This approach is broadly applicable to any problem that can be conceptualized as a mixture problem. PMID:18606169

  15. Effects of a novel microsporidium on the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered microsporidium infecting the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), provisionally placed in the genus Canningia, was studied to determine its impact on O. sulcatus. Otiorhyncus sulcatus populations from several locations were sampled and evaluat...

  16. Effects of a Novel Microsporidium on the Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered microsporidium infecting the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), provisionally placed in the genus Canningia, was studied to determine its impact on O. sulcatus. Otiorhyncus sulcatus populations from several locations were sampled and evaluat...

  17. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi) to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jeanne A.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck.) is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.). Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898) in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903). The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees. PMID:26467397

  18. Pleiotropic impact of endosymbiont load and co-occurrence in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gislaine A; Vieira, Juliana L; Haro, Marcelo M; Corrêa, Alberto S; Ribon, Andrea Oliveira B; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2014-01-01

    Individual traits vary among and within populations, and the co-occurrence of different endosymbiont species within a host may take place under varying endosymbiont loads in each individual host. This makes the recognition of the potential impact of such endosymbiont associations in insect species difficult, particularly in insect pest species. The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a key pest species of stored cereal grains, exhibits associations with two endosymbiotic bacteria: the obligatory endosymbiont SZPE ("Sitophilus zeamais Primary Endosymbiont") and the facultative endosymbiont Wolbachia. The impact of the lack of SZPE in maize weevil physiology is the impairment of nutrient acquisition and energy metabolism, while Wolbachia is an important factor in reproductive incompatibility. However, the role of endosymbiont load and co-occurrence in insect behavior, grain consumption, body mass and subsequent reproductive factors has not yet been explored. Here we report on the impacts of co-occurrence and varying endosymbiont loads achieved via thermal treatment and antibiotic provision via ingested water in the maize weevil. SZPE exhibited strong effects on respiration rate, grain consumption and weevil body mass, with observed effects on weevil behavior, particularly flight activity, and potential consequences for the management of this pest species. Wolbachia directly favored weevil fertility and exhibited only mild indirect effects, usually enhancing the SZPE effect. SZPE suppression delayed weevil emergence, which reduced the insect population growth rate, and the thermal inactivation of both symbionts prevented insect reproduction. Such findings are likely important for strain divergences reported in the maize weevil and their control, aspects still deserving future attention. PMID:25347417

  19. Chemodiversity and biodiversity of fungi associated with the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Terenius, Olle; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. Weevils lay eggs in the root bark or in the soil near roots of recently dead trees and cover the eggs with frass (feces combined with chewed bark), possibly to avoid conspecific egg predation. The aim of the present investigation focused on isolation, identification, and volatile production of fungi from pine-weevil feces and frass. Fungi were isolated from weevil frass and feces separately, followed by identification based on ITS sequencing. Fifty-nine isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Ophiostoma, Mucor, Leptographium, Eucasphaeria, Rhizosphaera, Debaryomyces, and Candida were identified. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the fungal community and fungal isolates cultured on weevil-frass broth were identified by SPME-GCMS. Major VOCs emitted from the fungal community and pure isolates were species- and strain specific and included isopentylalcohol, styrene, 3-octanone, 6-protoilludene, methyl salicylate, 3-methylanisole, 2-methoxyphenol, and phenol. Some of these are known to influence the orientation of pine weevils when tested among highly attractive newly planted conifer seedlings. PMID:26228562

  20. Tri-party underground symbiosis between a weevil, bacteria and a desert plant.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment. PMID:24244267

  1. Tri-Party Underground Symbiosis between a Weevil, Bacteria and a Desert Plant

    PubMed Central

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment. PMID:24244267

  2. Ecology and detection of the red palm weevil, Rrhynchophorus Fferrugineus (Ccoleoptera: curculionidae), and related weevils for the protection of palm tree species in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, native to Asia, the neotropical R. palmarum, and the subneotropical R. cruentatus are international threats to palm industries. We evaluated the status of these species on Aruba over concerns that the former two species may cause significant dama...

  3. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum. PMID:26837535

  4. Consequences of habitat fragmentation for the prairie-endemic weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Emily C; Berlocher, Stewart H; Tooker, John F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2011-12-01

    Widespread destruction of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States has fragmented plant communities with the result that populations of endemic animal species have become geographically isolated from one another. The goal of the research summarized here was to evaluate the potential for conserving endemic prairie species of herbivorous insects by managing their host plants. Our study species was the weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus (Boehman), adults of which feed on pollen of plants in the genus Silphium (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). The female weevils clip the peduncles of flower heads and oviposit into the heads, where the larvae feed on the ovules. The research was conducted in 12 prairie sites in eastern Illinois. An allozyme analysis revealed that most populations of H. aeneus at the various prairie sites were genetically differentiated from one another, but the degree of differentiation was not associated with geographic distance between sites. Adult H. aeneus fed and oviposited on the plant species Silphium laciniatum L., S. integrifolium Michx., and S. terebinthinaceum Jacq, which differ in bloom phenology. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation of weevil populations with respect to host plant species, and adult weevils strongly preferred S. terebinthinaceum. We conclude that the oligophagous nature of the weevil assures its survival in small prairie remnants even where some of the host plant species are absent. Although H. aeneus can have a significant impact on reproduction of host plants by clipping flower heads, the perennial nature of Silphium species prevents their local extinction. PMID:22217753

  5. Preferential edge habitat colonization by a specialist weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Hough-Goldstein, J A; Lake, E; D'Amico, V; Berg, S H

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, by releasing weevils at the forest edge and monitoring their colonization of potted host plants arrayed along the edge, out into the open field, and into the forest. Both distance from the release cage and habitat where plants were located affected colonization, with more than twice as many weevils found on plants at 2 m than at 6 or 14 m; at 14 m, 6-8 times as many weevils colonized plants along the forest edge compared with plants in the open field or within the forest. In a second experiment, weevils that were released in an open field 12 m from the forest edge initially flew in all directions, but again ultimately colonized more plants at the edge than out in the open field. This species may be adapted to seek host plants at the forest edge, because P. perfoliata generally is found in riparian corridors in its native range and along forest edges in North America. Results suggest that R. latipes will move successfully to new P. perfoliata patches along wooded edges, but may not readily locate isolated patches in the open or those embedded in forests. PMID:23321094

  6. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed. PMID:19253644

  7. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  8. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects. PMID:24813002

  9. α-Amylase Inhibitor, Not Phytohemagglutinin, Explains Resistance of Common Bean Seeds to Cowpea Weevil 1

    PubMed Central

    Huesing, Joseph E.; Shade, Richard E.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Murdock, Larry L.

    1991-01-01

    There are claims that phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the lectin of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is toxic when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, and that PHA serves as the chemical defense against this seed-feeding bruchid beetle (DH Janzen, HB Juster, IE Liener [1976] Science 192: 795-796; AMR Gatehouse, FM Dewey, J Dove, KA Fenton, A Pusztai [1984] J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). However, our studies indicate that neither PHA nor its isolectins have detrimental effects when fed to the cowpea weevil. To explain these contradictory results we characterized the commercial lectin source used by A. M. R. Gatehouse, F. M. Dewey, J. Dove, K. A. Fenton, A. Pusztai (1984, J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). We demonstrate here that the toxic effects of PHA to cowpea weevil are due to an α-amylase inhibitor contaminant in the commercial preparation. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668287

  10. Effect of irradiation on dispersal ability of male sweetpotato weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Norikuni; Kohama, Tsuguo; Ohno, Suguru

    2007-06-01

    We used the mark-and-recapture method in the field to test the effect of gamma radiation on the dispersal ability of the male sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), a serious sweetpotato pest in Japan. To evaluate the dispersal ability of male sweetpotato weevil, we released 27,218 males (13,302 males irradiated with a dose of 200 Gy and 13,916 nonirradiated males) in two replications (September and October 2005). Each replication lasted 5 d from the release of weevils to the removal of traps, and male weevils were released twice (1 and 3 d before trap setting). Forty pheromone traps were placed in lines corresponding to eight compass directions and five distance classes (20, 50,100, 200, and 500 m) in each replication. We captured 2,263 irradiated males (17.0%) and 2,007 nonirradiated males (14.4%) in the two replications. Six irradiated and eight nonirradiated males were captured in the traps 500 m far from the release point. All parameters to evaluate the dispersal ability of irradiated male sweetpotato weevil (recapture rate, dispersal distance, and dispersal direction) were similar to nonirradiated males in three of the four trials. However, parameters were different between irradiated males and nonirradiated males in one trial. Because the majority of parameters consistently show that the similarity of the dispersal ability, we considered that male sweetpotato weevil irradiated with a dose of 200 Gy possessed equal dispersal ability to that of nonirradiated males in the field. PMID:17598532

  11. How Far Can the Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Fly?

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D

    2016-04-01

    The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to Southeast Asia and was recovered from an infested Canary Islands date palm in Laguna Beach, California, USA, in 2010. The detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. A key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can R. vulneratus fly?” This question could not be answered and in response to this knowledge deficit, computerized flight mill studies were conducted with field-captured R. vulneratus in an outdoor screen house in Sumatra, Indonesia. Of the 63 weevils tethered to flight mills, ∼27% failed to fly >1 km in 24 h and were excluded from analyses. In total, 46 weevils (35 females and 11 males) flew >1 km on flight mills and of these adults, the average total distance flown in 24 h was significantly greater for females (∼32 km) when compared with males (∼15 km). A small proportion of females (∼16%) flew 50-80 km, and one female flew 100.1 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of ∼13–17% and non-flying control weevils (n=27) lost 10–13% body weight in 24 h. The distribution of flight distances for female and male weevils combined was leptokurtic, which suggests that faster than expected spread by R. vulneratus may be possible in invaded areas. PMID:26791820

  12. Additive photonic colors in the Brazilian diamond weevil: entimus imperialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, S.; Vigneron, J.-P.; Colomer, J.-F.; Vandenbem, C.; Deparis, O.

    2012-10-01

    Structurally colored nano-architectures found in living organisms are complex optical materials, giving rise to multiscale visual effects. In arthropods, these structures often consist of porous biopolymers and form natural photonic crystals. A signature of the structural origin of coloration in insects is iridescence, i.e., color changes with the viewing angle. In the scales located on the elytra of the Brazilian weevil Entimus imperialis (Curculionidae), three-dimensional photonic crystals are observed. On one hand, each of them interacts independently with light, producing a single color which is observed by optical microscopy and ranges from blue to orange. On the other hand, the color perceived by the naked eye is due to multi-length-scale light effects involving different orientations of a single photonic crystal. This disorder in crystal orientations alters the light propagation in such a way that the crystal iridescence is removed. Entimus imperialis is therefore a remarkable example of additive photonic colors produced by a complex multi-scale organic architecture. In order to study this specific natural photonic structure, electron microscopy is used. The structure turns out to be formed of a single type of photonic crystal with different orientations within each scale on the elytra. Our modeling approach takes into account the disorder in the photonic crystals and explains why the structure displays bright colors at the level of individual scales and a non-iridescent green color in the far-field.

  13. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott; Villanueva, Raul T

    2012-06-01

    Sampling methods for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., were compared with the intent to assess if one approach was viable for two species occurring from early-season squaring to late bloom in 25 fields located along the coastal cotton growing region of south Texas. Cotton fleaphopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), damages squares early-season and dominated collections using five sampling methods (approximately 99% of insects collected). A major species composition shift occurred beginning at peak bloom in coastal fields, when verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, represented 55-65% of collections. Significantly more cotton fleahoppers were captured by experienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than with the other methods (30-100% more). There were more than twice as many verde plant bugs captured by experienced and inexperienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than captured with the KISS and visual methods. Using a beat bucket or sweep net reduced sampling time compared with the visual method for the experienced samplers. For both species, comparing regressions of beat bucket-based counts to counts from the traditional visual method across nine cultivar and water regime combinations resulted in only one combination differing from the rest, suggesting broad applicability and ability to translate established visual-based economic thresholds to beat bucket-based thresholds. In a first look at sample size considerations, 40 plants (four 10-plant samples) per field site was no more variable than variation associated with larger sample sizes. Overall, the beat bucket is much more effective in sampling for cotton fleahopper and verde plant bug than the traditional visual method, it is more suited to cotton fleahopper sampling early-season when plants are small, it transitions well to sample for verde plant bug during bloom, and it performs well under a variety of soil

  14. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications, primarily carbaryl and pyrethroids (e.g., cypermethrin). Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic...

  15. Green light synergistally enhances male sweetpotato weevil response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  16. Movement of adult pecan weevils, Curculio carya within the pecan orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an indigenous pest of pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang K. (Koch) in North America. Movement by adults, emerging from the orchard floor, to the pecan tree and movement within and between trees is poorly understood. Additionally, ...

  17. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  18. SYSTEMIC ACTIVITY OF NEONICOTINOIDS INFLUENCES FEEDING BY ADULT BLACK VINE WEEVILS ON VARIOUS SPECIES OF ORNAMENTALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (BVW) is a serious pest of ornamental nursery crops. The larval stage feeds on the roots of ornamental plants and small fruits often stunting or killing the plants. The adults feed on the foliage of ornamental plants. A standard management technique is to apply foliar treatm...

  19. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic (insect-killing) nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae and the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, occur naturally i...

  20. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...

  1. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops within its presumed native range in the Caribbean, and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in Florida since its arrival on the mainland United States in the 1960s. Recent work has identified host plant...

  2. A comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil using beneficial fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is pathogenic to C. caryae. Our objective was to compare different application methods for suppression of C. caryae adults. Treatments included direct application of B. bassiana (GHA...

  3. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in suppressing pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in commercial pecan orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Here we report the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied to trees in grower orchards at three locations. In Fort Valley, Georgia, treatments included B. bassiana applied to the tru...

  4. Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

  5. DEFOLIATING BROAD NOSED WEEVIL, Plectrophoroides lutra; NOT SUITABLE FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BRAZILIAN PEPPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adults of the weevil Plectrophoroides lutra were evaluated for potential as an agent for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius. Our Brazilian field observations indicated that the adults were only collected from S. terebinthifolius, however when tested on North American and other valued...

  6. How the rice weevil breaks down the pectin network: Enzymatic synergism and sub-functionalization.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Roy; Heckel, David G; Pauchet, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Pectin is the most complex polysaccharide in nature and highly abundant in plant cell walls and middle lamellae, where it functions in plant growth and development. Phytopathogens utilize plant pectin as an energy source through enzyme-mediated degradation. These pectolytic enzymes include polygalacturonases (PGs) of the GH28 family and pectin methylesterases (PMEs) of the CE8 family. Recently, PGs were also identified in herbivorous insects of the distantly related plant bug, stick insect and Phytophaga beetle lineages. Unlike all other insects, weevils possess PMEs in addition to PGs. To investigate pectin digestion in insects and the role of PMEs in weevils, all PME and PG family members of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae were heterologously expressed and functionally characterized. Enzymatically active and inactive PG and PME family members were identified. The loss of activity can be explained by a lack of substrate binding correlating with substitutions of functionally important amino acid residues. We found subfunctionalization in both enzyme families, supported by expression pattern and substrate specificities as well as evidence for synergistic pectin breakdown. Our data suggest that the rice weevil might be able to use pectin as an energy source, and illustrates the potential of both PG and PME enzyme families to functionally diversify after horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26899322

  7. Update on an undescribed Baradinae weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that feeds on Amaryllidaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1990’s, a weevil was observed feeding on and occasionally killing amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) plants in Florida, and it was determined to be an unknown genus and species in the subfamily Baridinae. Information on damage by and basic biology of this insect will be presented....

  8. Rootstock weevils: out of sight, out of mind or emerging pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Louisiana, rootstock weevils form a pest complex comprised of three species of curculionid beetles: Apinocis subnudus (Buchanan), A. deplanatus (Casey), and A. blanditus (Casey). This complex was first reported as a single species, Anacentrinus subnudus, known to be associated with sugarcane in L...

  9. Using molecular genetics to identify immature specimens of the weevil Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera, Apionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate host plant specificity of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne. Larvae infesting plants were preserved in 99% ethanol. Adult specimens of C. basicorne and four closely related species were identified using conventional morphologic...

  10. Black Vine Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Performance in Container- and Field-Grown Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) feeds on a wide variety of plant species and is a serious pest of ornamental nursery crops. The larval stage has a more restricted diet than the adults, but are more damaging because they feed on roots and often stunt or kill their hosts. Performanc...

  11. Black Vine Weevil Oviposition Behavior in Container-Grown Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (BVW, Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is a serious pest of container- and field-grown nursery crops. The larvae are the most damaging stage because they feed on the roots of a large variety of plants often killing their hosts. One area where information is lacking is host preference f...

  12. Relationship of black vine weevil egg density and damage to two cranberry cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory trials compared Metarhizium anisopliae and Steinernema kraussei to imidacloprid for black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus, larval control in cranberry. Two field sites were treated in fall of 2009 and soil samples collected during 2009 and 2010 to assess treatment effic...

  13. Mycangial fungus benefits the development of a leaf-rolling weevil, Euops chinesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Wenfeng; Ding, Jianqing

    2012-06-01

    While a wide array of insects form symbiotic relationships with microbes, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are various and complex. In this study, we investigated the role that the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei plays in the development of the leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinesis, which feeds on the knotweed Fallopia japonica. The weevil inoculates the fungus during oviposition into a leaf-roll that it creates for its larvae. We found that removal of P. herquei inocula from leaf-rolls significantly decreased the weevil's survival rate especially in the larval stage. Although inoculation with P. herquei had no effect on the plant's lignin content, it significantly decreased the cellulose content of the knotweed leaves. P. herquei also showed antibiotic properties against two fungi (Rhizopus sp.) that attack the weevil's leaf-rolls. Our results suggest that the mycangial fungus may help alter leaf chemical components and protect against pathogens thus improve leaf-rolls for the development of E. chinesis. PMID:22465740

  14. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Smicronyx Sodidus, the Gray Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray sunflower seed weevil (GSSW) Smicronyx sordidus, native to North America, is one of the major seed pests of cultivated sunflowers in the Central and Northern Great Plains. The larvae of GSSW feed on the kernels of the sunflower seeds, and may cause severe damage to this economically importa...

  15. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  16. Risk assessment of Ceratapion basicorne, a rosette weevil of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk assessment of prospective weed biological control agents for TAG petitions focuses primarily on direct impacts to nontarget plants. This is based on data from field surveys and choice, no-choice and field experiments to measure host plant specificity. Ceratapion basicorne is a weevil from Tur...

  17. Patterns and consequences of mating behavior of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, is a major pest of citrus, sugar cane, and ornamental plants. It was accidentally introduced from the Caribbean into Florida in the 1960’s and its range within the United States has now expanded to include Texas and California. No safe and effective control me...

  18. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to pecan weevil larvae, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, D I

    2001-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans in the Southeast. Entomopathogenic nematodes have been shown to be pathogenic toward the larval stage of this pest. Before this research, only three species of nematodes had been tested against pecan weevil larvae. In this study, the virulence of the following nine species and 15 strains of nematodes toward fourth-instar pecan weevil was tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Baine, HP88, Oswego, NJ1, and Tf strains), H. indica Poinar, Karunakar & David (original and Homl strains), H. marelatus Liu & Berry (IN and Point Reyes strains), H. megidis Poinar, Jackson & Klein (UK211 strain), H. zealandica Poinar (NZH3 strain), Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (SN strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NJ43 strain). No significant difference in virulence was detected among nematode species or strains. Nematode-induced mortality was not significantly greater than control mortality (in any of the experiments conducted) for the following nematodes: H. bacteriophora (Baine), H. zealandica (NZH3), S. carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (NJ43), and S. riobrave (355). All other nematodes caused greater mortality than the control in at least one experiment. Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) but not H. indica (original) displayed a positive linear relationship between nematode concentration and larval mortality. Results suggested that, as pecan weevil larvae age, they may have become more resistant to infection with entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:11233136

  19. Green Light Synergistally Enhances Male Sweetpotato Weevil Response to Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  20. Organic methods for control of pecan weevil: Results of the first year's field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated organic tactics for control of pecan weevil were investigated in large field plot tests. The experiment was conducted at two locations: USDA-ARS Research Lab in Byron, GA and Cleveland farms in Fort Valley, GA. Results from the first year field trials indicated that organic tactics for ...

  1. Progress towards identifying semiochemicals for the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A semiochemical-based attractant for the Diaprepes root weevil has been sought since introduction of this polyphagous pest to Florida in the 1960s. Recent progress includes the identification of a set of putative kairomones consisting of common plant volatiles, a hypothetical aggregation pheromone t...

  2. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration. PMID:21404833

  3. Preferential Edge Habitat Colonization by a Specialist Weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological...

  4. Phylogeography of specialist weevil Trichobaris soror: a seed predator of Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    De-la-Mora, Marisol; Piñero, Daniel; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Can the genetic structure of a specialist weevil be explained by the geological history of their distribution zone? We analyze the genetic variation of the weevil Trichobaris soror, a specialist seed predator of Datura stramonium, in order to address this question. For the phylogeographic analysis we used the COI gene, and assessed species identity in weevil populations through geometric morphometric approach. In total, we found 53 haplotypes in 413 samples, whose genetic variation supports the formation of three groups: (1) the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TVB group), (2) the Sierra Madre Sur (SMS group) and (3) the Balsas Basin (BB group). The morphometric analysis suggests that BB group is probably not T. soror. Our results have two implications: first, the phylogeographic pattern of T. soror is explained by both the formation of the geological provinces where it is currently distributed and the coevolution with its host plant, because the TVB and SMS groups could be separated due to the discontinuity of altitude between the geological provinces, but the recent population expansion of TVB group and the high frequency of only one haplotype can be due to specialization to the host plant. Second, we report a new record of a different species of weevil in BB group parasitizing D. stramonium fruits. PMID:26498017

  5. Discovery and characterization of chemical signals for citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (L. 1758) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a polyphagous insect from the Caribbean Islands and an invasive insect in the southern part of United States where it is pest of citrus crops and ornamental trees. Adults feed upon foliage where aggregation, mat...

  6. Identification of volatile compounds emitted by Artemisia ordosica (Artemisia, Asteraceae) and changes due to mechanical damage and weevil infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Dayong; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy, mechanically damaged, and weevil-infested Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) were obtained through a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds in all were identified, and the qualitative as well as quantitative differences were compared. The green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were present in all of the damaged plants, but in relatively lower portions when plants were infested by the weevil Adosopius sp., while the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and the ester methyl salicylate were only present in weevil-damaged plants. The volatiles from healthy and weevil-infested leaves were dominated by D-limonene, whereas mechanically damaged leaves emitted beta-pinene as the dominant compound. PMID:24066517

  7. A synopsis of the orchid weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan (Curculionidae, Baridinae), with taxonomic rectifications and description of one new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six species of the weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan are recognized: O. epidendri (Murray) comb. n. (=Acythopeus genuinus Pascoe syn. n., =Baris orchivora Blackburn syn. n., =Apotomorhinus orchidearum Kolbe syn. n.), O. aterrimus (Waterhouse), O. eburifer (Pascoe) comb. n. (=Acythopeus gilvonotatu...

  8. Comparing in-season external and internal signs of feeding caused by sucking bugs to damage at harvest, with emphasis on creontiades signatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucking bug management in cotton has increased in importance, now with less pressure from boll weevil and boll-feeding worms. Cotton along the Texas Coastal Bend experienced loss to boll-feeding sucking bugs during 2010, especially in fields near the coast. This loss was magnified due to boll rot. C...

  9. Temporal analysis of cotton boll symptoms resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) feeding and transmission of a bacterial pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug (SGSB)(Nezara viridula L.) is a significant pest of cotton and is becoming an increasing challenge due to the decrease in use of broad spectrum insecticides on the crop. The SGSB can vector an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain (designated Sc 1-R) into cotton bolls...

  10. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to dessication and adult mortality. Quarterly report, February 15-May 14, 1986. [Sitophilus granarius

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The weevils (Sitophilus granarius) were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 15, 30 and 80 krad in /sup 131/Cs irradiator at Tuskegee University. Survival studies showed that the weevils could live up to three weeks after irradiation. The higher dose level did not show any detrimental effect on the survival. The present studies were conducted with weevils of mixed age groups. This may be one factor in reduced mortality.

  11. Field Abundance Patterns and Odor-Mediated Host Choice by Clover Seed Weevils, Apion fulvipes and Apion trifolii (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    PubMed

    Nyabuga, Franklin N; Carrasco, David; Ranåker, Lynn; Andersson, Martin N; Birgersson, Göran; Larsson, Mattias C; Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Svensson, Glenn P; Anderbrant, Olle; Lankinen, Åsa

    2015-04-01

    The clover seed weevils Apion fulvipes Geoffroy, 1785 and Apion trifolii L., 1768 (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause major losses to seed production of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), respectively. Clover is important as animal forage and an alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Because clover is mainly pollinated by bees, the use of insecticides in management of these weevils is discouraged. To gain basic knowledge for development of alternative management strategies, we investigated weevil field abundance over two growing seasons, as well as feeding and olfactory host preferences by A. fulvipes and A. trifolii. Field trap catches in southern Sweden revealed that white clover was dominated by A. fulvipes and red clover by A. trifolii. For both weevil species, female catches were positively correlated to the number of clover buds and flowers in the field. In feeding and olfactory bioassays, females of A. fulvipes and A. trifolii showed a preference for T. repens and T. pratense, respectively. However, the feeding preference was lost when the antennae were removed, indicating a significant role of olfaction in host choice. Male weevils of both species did not show clear olfactory or feeding preferences for host plant species. The field study and laboratory bioassays demonstrate that, at least for female weevils, olfaction is important for selection of host plants. We discuss these novel results in the context of managing these important pests of clover by exploiting olfaction and behavioral attraction to host plant volatiles. PMID:26470160

  12. Apparent Acquired Resistance by a Weevil to Its Parasitoid Is Influenced by Host Plant.

    PubMed

    Goldson, Stephen L; Tomasetto, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne ×L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990's. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect on

  13. Apparent Acquired Resistance by a Weevil to Its Parasitoid Is Influenced by Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Goldson, Stephen L.; Tomasetto, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne ×L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990’s. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect

  14. The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Yu, Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We report the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The 16,919 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a partial control region. A phylogenetic tree has been built using the 13 protein-coding genes of 11 related species from Coleoptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Coleoptera. PMID:26094987

  15. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80 mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2 mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55 mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24 h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine. PMID:26470387

  16. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    PubMed

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Lapointe, Stephen L; Dickens, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects. PMID:23341926

  17. Olfactory Cues Are Subordinate to Visual Stimuli in a Neotropical Generalist Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects. PMID:23341926

  18. Greenhouse studies of thiamethoxam effects on pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2(nd)-5(th) nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15-30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2(nd) node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops. PMID:23461362

  19. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition. PMID:25635833

  20. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition. PMID:25635833

  1. Greenhouse Studies of Thiamethoxam Effects on Pea Leaf Weevil, Sitona lineatus

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2nd–5th nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15–30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2nd node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops. PMID:23461362

  2. The effect of spatial scale on interactions between two weevils and their food plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Mohd Norowi; Perry, Joe N.; Powell, Wilf; Rennolls, Keith

    1999-09-01

    The effect of spatial scale on the interactions between the weevils Gymnetron pascuorum Gyll. and Mecinus pyraster Herbst and their host plant, ribwort plantain Plantago lanceolata L., was studied. Both weevils developed in plantain seedheads but occupied different niches within the seedhead. Seedheads were sampled annually from 162 plants at each of two experimental sites consisting of a series of habitat patches of two distinct sizes. Data were analysed from three site-years. Our results suggest that the density of available seedheads varied among years and this had a direct effect on abundance. M. pyraster, which develops in the stem within the seedhead, was more sensitive to changes in seedhead density than was G. pascuorum, which develops within the seeds themselves. The presence of a hedgerow along one side of the experimental site affected the pattern of colonisation of newly-created habitat patches by G. pascuorum but not by M. pyraster. Changes in spatial scale did not affect the variability of seedhead and insect densities. G. pascuorum had an aggregated distribution at all the spatial scales considered, but the distribution of M. pyraster was very scale dependent. The distributions of the two weevil species were positively associated amongst infested plants but not amongst infested seedheads. Behavioural and ecological factors that could explain the results of the data analyses are discussed.

  3. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  4. Integrating flood depth and plant resistance with chlorantraniliprole seed treatments for management of rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lanka, Srinivas K; Blouin, David C; Stout, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole seed treatments in rice provide effective suppression of rice water weevil populations in the United States; however, heavy reliance on prophylactic insecticide treatments as a sole strategy could destabilize management programs for this insect. The present research evaluated the compatibility of seed treatments with two other potential management tactics-plant resistance and shallow flooding-by conducting two split-plot experiments in 2009 and 2011. In both experiments, no substantial antagonism was found among the 3 different tactics. Statistical interactions in these experiments arose from the strong and persistent effects of chlorantraniliprole on larval densities rather than incompatibility of tactics. In 2009, weevil densities differed among varieties and were significantly lower on the cultivar "Jefferson." In 2011, weevil densities were reduced significantly in shallow-flooded plots compared to deep-flooded plots. Significant reductions in weevil numbers by chlorantraniliprole seed treatments, even at application rates 5 fold lower than commercially recommended rates, demonstrated the potential to reduce application rates of this highly potent larvicide. These latter results suggest that future studies on the relationship between chlorantraniliprole seed treatment rate and weevil fitness are warranted. PMID:25176158

  5. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.

    PubMed

    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

  6. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jason; Lanka, Srinivas; Stout, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates. PMID:26462952

  7. Photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf of cotton boll at different fruiting branch nodes and their relationships with lint yield and fiber quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingran; Meng, Yali; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf at the 2–3rd and 10–11th fruiting branch (FBN, FB2–3, and FB10–11), and their relationship with cotton yield and quality, field experiments were conducted using two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15. The results showed that with FBN increasing, chlorophyll (Chl) components, Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the subtending leaf significantly declined, while soluble sugar, amino acid and their ratio (CSS/CAA) as well as Fv/Fm increased. These results indicated that (1) non-radiative dissipation of excess light energy at FB2–3 was reduced to improve solar energy utilization efficiency to compensate for lower Pn, (2) higher NPQ at FB10−11 played a role in leaf photo-damage avoidance, (3) boll weight was related to the CSS/CAA ratio rather than carbohydrates content alone, (4) with FBN increasing, lint biomass and lint/seed ratio increased significantly, but lint yield decreased due to lower relative amount of bolls, and (5) the decreases in Pn, sucrose content and CSS/CAA in the subtending leaf at FB2–3 resulted in lower boll weight and fiber strength. PMID:26442060

  8. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils. PMID:27417987

  9. Radiation-induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to desiccation and adult mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S. . Div. of Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1989-07-01

    Radiation from the nuclear waste products, such as Cesium-137, offers a scope and could be used for large scale disinfestation of grain. It is known that 0.15 to 0.20 kGy dose of gamma radiation is sufficient to kill insects in grain and grain products. However, the mode of action (in terms of lethal effects) is not understood. The purpose of this project, therefore, is to study the ways in which gamma radiation causes death in the granary weevil. Sitophilus granarius (L.) is a major and cosmopolitan pest of stored grain all over the world. Radiation damage, in particular the specific effects on the physiology of the insects exposed to radiation has been elucidated. In stored grain insects, conservation of water is a critical factor for their survival. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in water proofing. The laboratory rearing of the granary weevil was standardized so that large numbers of weevils of known ages could be produced for experimentation. Stock cultures were maintained at 27 {plus minus} 2{degree}C and 65 {plus minus} 5% R.H. Tests with various age groups (adults) and different doses of gamma radiation indicate that lethal effects are both age and dose related. Younger weevils, in general, survive for a longer period after irradiation compared to older weevils. Complete mortality results within about two weeks after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 0.15 kGy or above. Data on wet and dry weights of the weevils kept at different (low, medium and higher) levels of humidity after irradiation indicate that gamma radiation induces greater water loss leading to desiccation and early death. Low humidity environment (17% R.H.) greatly accelerates lethal effects.

  10. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Barbara I. P.; Barton, Diane M.; Philip, Bruce A.; Ferguson, Colin M.; Goldson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants. PMID:27507979

  11. A degree-day model of sheep grazing influence on alfalfa weevil and crop characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, Hayes B

    2012-02-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis spp.) grazing is emerging as an integrated pest management tactic for alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), management and a degree-day model is needed as a decision and support tool. In response to this need, grazing exclosures with unique degree-days and stocking rates were established at weekly intervals in a central Montana alfalfa field during 2008 and 2009. Analyses indicate that increased stocking rates and grazing degree-days were associated with decreased crop levels of weevil larvae. Larval data collected from grazing treatments were regressed against on-site and near-site temperatures that produced the same accuracy. The near-site model was chosen to encourage producer acceptance. The regression slope differed from zero, had an r2 of 0.83, and a root mean square error of 0.2. Crop data were collected to achieve optimal weevil management with forage quality and yield. Differences were recorded in crude protein, acid and neutral detergent fibers, total digestible nutrients, and mean stage by weight. Stem heights differed with higher stocking rates and degree-days recording the shortest alfalfa canopy height at harvest. The degree-day model was validated at four sites during 2010 with a mean square prediction error of 0.74. The recommendation from this research is to stock alfalfa fields in the spring before 63 DD with rates between 251 and 583 sheep days per hectare (d/ha). Sheep should be allowed to graze to a minimum of 106 and maximum of 150 DD before removal. This model gives field entomologists a new method for implementing grazing in an integrated pest management program. PMID:22420261

  12. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. PMID:20035549

  13. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  14. Identification of sex pheromone produced by female sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers).

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H

    1986-06-01

    A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product. PMID:24307127

  15. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Quarterly report, February 15, 1988-May 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The overall goals and objectives as envisaged for the year (1988) have been pursued. The report of the work may broadly be outlined into three components: post irradiation mortality studies at different combinations of temperature and humidity (studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation with mortality): preliminary studies on the spiracles of the treated and untreated granary weevils; and extraction of epicuticular hydrocarbons Sitophilus granarius (L) for both irradiated and control (elucidate the after effects of irradiation and determination of radiation induced changes if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation). 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is pathogenic to C. caryae. Our objective was to compare different application methods for suppression of C. caryae adults. Treatments included direct application of B. bassiana (GHA...

  17. Laboratory and field-based temperature-dependent development of a monophagous weevil: implications for integrated weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem-boring weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was imported from Asia to North America and approved for release as a classical biological control agent for the invasive annual vine Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae) in 2004. Its impact on the weed...

  18. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  19. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  20. Biology and host range of Omolabus piceus, a weevil rejected for biological control for Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for biological control agents of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) discovered two Omolabus weevils (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) feeding on the plant in its native range. Molecular and morphological analysis indicated that one of these species consistently fed on the tar...

  1. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  2. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: Is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the US Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower stem weevils (Cylindrocopturus adspersus) and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states in 2003 and 2005. Native H. annuus constituted the major...

  3. Systemic Insecticides for Control of Black Vine Weevil, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Container- and Field-Grown Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black vine weevils (BVW) are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. The number of effective control materials is limited and development of additional control opt...

  4. The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, a new pest threat in the Caribbean: Biology and options for management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a serious pest of palms. RPW is native to Asia, but over the last few decades it has spread to the Middle East, Africa and Europe where it has caused major economic damage. This pest was accidentally introduced to the Caribbean (Curacao and Aru...

  5. Non-linear degree day models for post-diapause development of the sunflower stem weevil (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coloptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree day models, are an integral tool for development...

  6. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae as a Curative Application for Black Vine Weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) Infesting Container-Grown Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.), is a serious pest of nursery crops. The fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (F52), is registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency for BVW control. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a curative drench application...

  7. Host density drives spatial variation in parasitism of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, across dryland and irrigated alfalfa cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control against the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), a destructive pest of alfalfa, has resulted in the establishment of nine hymenpoteran parasitoid species in the USA. Despite widespread redistribution of a number of these species, there remains little post-release data on th...

  8. Bean [alpha]-Amylase Inhibitor Confers Resistance to the Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. E.; Gollasch, S.; Moore, A.; Tabe, L. M.; Craig, S.; Hardie, D. C.; Chrispeels, M. J.; Spencer, D.; Higgins, TJV.

    1995-01-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses of grain legume crops through-out the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the azuki bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Others, such as the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), attack the crop growing in the field. We transferred the cDNA encoding the [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]-AI) found in the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) into pea (Pisum sativum) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression was driven by the promoter of phytohemagglutinin, another bean seed protein. The [alpha]-amylase inhibitor gene was stably expressed in the transgenic pea seeds at least to the T5 seed generation, and [alpha]-AI accumulated in the seeds up to 3% of soluble protein. This level is somewhat higher than that normally found in beans, which contain 1 to 2% [alpha]-AI. In the T5 seed generation the development of pea weevil larvae was blocked at an early stage. Seed damage was minimal and seed yield was not significantly reduced in the transgenic plants. These results confirm the feasibility of protecting other grain legumes such as lentils, mungbean, groundnuts, and chickpeas against a variety of bruchids using the same approach. Although [alpha]-AI also inhibits human [alpha]-amylase, cooked peas should not have a negative impact on human energy metabolism. PMID:12228429

  9. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus. PMID:8787024

  10. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  11. ARS, university and regulatory partnerships needed to address the challenge and complete eradication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although most of the U.S. Cotton Belt has achieved functional eradication of the boll weevil, certain areas of Texas as well as Northern Mexico still experience economic loss to this pest. Currently under active eradication, most of these areas are considered subtropical, where boll weevils can per...

  12. HOST PLANTS OF THE TARNISHED PLANT BUG (HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE) IN CENTRAL TEXAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt following successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil. Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and ...

  13. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    PubMed

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process. PMID:27069621

  14. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  15. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

  16. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  17. The gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Axelsson, Karolin; Nordlander, Göran; Schmidt, Axel; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Terenius, Olle; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on nonconifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or through the supplementation of essential nutrients. PMID:27199034

  18. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  19. (Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to desiccation and adult mortality): Quarterly report, April 1 to June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Post-irradiation mortality studies were conducted with different combinations of temperature and humidity on Sitophilus granarius (L.). The epicuticular hydrocarbon composition of granary weevils exposed to gamma radiation was examined.

  20. (Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to dessication and adult mortality). Half-yearly report, February 15-August 14, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius) were irradiated with cesium-137 derived gamma radiation at various age groups. Hydrocarbon analysis of epicuticles were studied chromatographically and by mass spectroscopy. 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  1. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  2. Broad-nosed weevils feeding on Centaurea solstitialis L. in Turkey, with a description of the new species Araxia cristofario sp. n. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exploration for new biological control agents of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae) in eastern Turkey, we observed four species of broad-nosed weevils (Curculionidae) that are newly associated with this plant. They are Epiphanops persicus, Eusomomorphus oligops, Altonomus...

  3. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Rutheopsis herbanica (Bolle) Hans. & Kunk., gathered in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Velasco-Negueruela, A; Pérez-Alonso, M J; Pérez de Paz, P L; Palá-Paúl, J; Sanz, J

    2003-01-10

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Rutheopsis herbanica (Bolle) Hans. & Kunk., growing in Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, Spain, was studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 42 constituents were identified. The major components were found to be alpha-pinene (29.4%), dillapiole (21.3%), limonene (14.1%), beta-pinene (13.2%) and myristicin (10.0%). As far as we know, this is the first report on the essential oil composition of this species. PMID:12564686

  4. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Maria E.; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R.; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735 000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. PMID:25185581

  5. Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali

    PubMed Central

    Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Suhardjono, Yayuk R.; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan–Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity. PMID:24648218

  6. Seasonally variable intestinal metagenomes of the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Guangyu; Yin, An; Zhang, Sun; Li, Fusen; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Duojun; Yun, Quanzheng; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Sun, Gaoyuan; Baabdullah, Mohammed; Yu, Xiaoguang; Hu, Songnian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbes residing in the red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larva consume tender interior fibrous tissues of date palm trunks. The understanding of such microbiota at molecular level provides vital clues for the biological control of this devastating pest. Using pyrosequencing and shotgun strategy, we first study taxonomic profiles of the microbiota sampled at different months (March, July and November), and then confirm the impact of high-temperature stress on the microbial populations based on data from 16S rRNA amplicons using both field and laboratory samples. We further identify Klebsiella pneumoniae in November and Lactococcus lactis in July as the dominant species of the microbiota. We find that the RPW gut microbiota degrades polysaccharides and sucrose with hydrolases and that different active bacterial species in November and July are responsible for the symbiotic relationship between the microbiota and the host. Our results provide vital information for pest control and cellulolytic bacterial species characterization. PMID:24102776

  7. Exaggerated trait allometry, compensation and trade-offs in the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis).

    PubMed

    Painting, Christina J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  8. Trichobaris weevils distinguish amongst toxic host plants by sensing volatiles that do not affect larval performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gisuk; Joo, Youngsung; Diezel, Celia; Lee, Eun Ju; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Herbivorous insects use plant metabolites to inform their host plant selection for oviposition. These host-selection behaviours are often consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis; females oviposit on hosts that maximize the performance of their offspring. However, the metabolites used for these oviposition choices and those responsible for differences in offspring performance remain unknown for ecologically relevant interactions. Here, we examined the host-selection behaviours of two sympatric weevils, the Datura (Trichobaris compacta) and tobacco (T. mucorea) weevils in field and glasshouse experiments with transgenic host plants specifically altered in different components of their secondary metabolism. Adult females of both species strongly preferred to feed on D. wrightii rather than on N. attenuata leaves, but T. mucorea preferred to oviposit on N. attenuata, while T. compacta oviposited only on D. wrightii. These oviposition behaviours increased offspring performance: T. compacta larvae only survived in D. wrightii stems and T. mucorea larvae survived better in N. attenuata than in D. wrightii stems. Choice assays with nicotine-free, JA-impaired, and sesquiterpene-over-produced isogenic N. attenuata plants revealed that although half of the T. compacta larvae survived in nicotine-free N. attenuata lines, nicotine did not influence the oviposition behaviours of both the nicotine-adapted and nicotine-sensitive species. JA-induced sesquiterpene volatiles are key compounds influencing T. mucorea females' oviposition choices, but these sesquiterpenes had no effect on larval performance. We conclude that adult females are able to choose the best host plant for their offspring and use chemicals different from those that influence larval performance to inform their oviposition decisions. PMID:27146082

  9. The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Hiroko; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-08-01

    The acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, is a widespread predator of acorns in eastern North America that overwinters in the soil as a larva. It is possible that low temperatures limit its northern geographic range, so we determined the cold tolerance strategy, seasonal variation in cold tolerance, and explored the physiological plasticity of overwintering larvae. Weevil larvae were collected from acorns of red and bur oak from Pelee Island, southwestern Ontario in fall 2010 and 2011. C. glandium larvae are freeze avoidant and larvae collected from bur oak acorns had lower supercooling points (SCPs: -7.6±0.36°C, LT50: -7.2°C) than those collected from red oak acorns (SCPs: -6.1±0.40°C, LT50: -6.1°C). In the winter of 2010-2011, SCPs and water content decreased, however these changes did not occur in 2011-2012, when winter soil temperatures fluctuated greatly in the absence of the buffering effect of snow. To examine whether larvae utilize cryoprotective dehydration, larvae from red oak acorns were exposed to -5°C in the presence of ice for seven days. These conditions decreased the SCP without affecting water content, suggesting that SCP and water content are not directly coupled. Finally, long-term acclimation at 0°C for six weeks slightly increased cold tolerance but also did not affect water content. Thus, although larval diet affects cold tolerance, there is limited plasticity after other treatments. The soil temperatures we observed were not close to lethal limits, although we speculate that soil temperatures in northerly habitats, or in years of reduced snow cover, has the potential to cause mortality in the field. PMID:25086980

  10. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Constitutive Resistance to the White Pine Weevil in Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Verne, Sébastien; Jaquish, Barry; White, Rick; Ritland, Kermit

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive defense mechanisms are critical to the understanding of defense mechanisms in conifers because they constitute the first barrier to attacks by insect pests. In interior spruce, trees that are putatively resistant and susceptible to attacks by white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi) typically exhibit constitutive differences in traits such as resin duct size and number, bark thickness, and terpene content. To improve our knowledge of their genetic basis, we compared globally the constitutive expression levels of 17,825 genes between 20 putatively resistant and 20 putatively susceptible interior spruce trees from the British Columbia tree improvement program. We identified 54 upregulated and 137 downregulated genes in resistant phenotypes, relative to susceptible phenotypes, with a maximum fold change of 2.24 and 3.91, respectively. We found a puzzling increase of resistance by downregulated genes, as one would think that “procuring armaments” is the best defense. Also, although terpenes and phenolic compounds play an important role in conifer defense, we found few of these genes to be differentially expressed. We found 15 putative small heat-shock proteins (sHSP) and several other stress-related proteins to be downregulated in resistant trees. Downregulated putative sHSP belong to several sHSP classes and represented 58% of all tested putative sHSP. These proteins are well known to be involved in plant response to various kinds of abiotic stress; however, their role in constitutive resistance is not yet understood. The lack of correspondence between transcriptome profile clusters and phenotype classifications suggests that weevil resistance in spruce is a complex trait. PMID:21852250

  11. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  12. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and effects on water hyacinth weevils, Neochetina eichhorniae, feeding on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, S.H.; Haller, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    Both aquatic and terrestrial habitats frequently are subject to contamination by toxic heavy metals, yet very little is known about the influence of heavy metals absorbed by plant tissues upon the phytophagous insect fauna feeding upon these plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of plant-absorbed metals upon the feeding, mortality, and body burdens of lead, cadmium, and copper in the water hyacinth weevil, Neochetina eichhorniae, imported for the biological control of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes).

  13. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943

    PubMed Central

    Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensu Caldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensu Prena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy). PMID:25101231

  14. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Bruno Augusto Souza; Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensuCaldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensuPrena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy). PMID:25101231

  15. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  16. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  17. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Half yearly report, February 16 to August 15, 1987. [Sitophilus granarius

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation loss of water with mortality. Further changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation were determined. 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Investigating preference-performance relationships in aboveground-belowground life cycles: a laboratory and field study with the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus).

    PubMed

    Clark, K E; Hartley, S E; Brennan, R M; MacKenzie, K; Johnson, S N

    2012-02-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis has principally considered insect herbivores with aboveground lifecycles, although the hypothesis could be equally relevant to insects with life stages occurring both aboveground and belowground. Moreover, most studies have focussed on either laboratory or field experiments, with little attempt to relate the two. In this study, the preference-performance hypothesis was examined in an aboveground-belowground context in the laboratory using the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.)) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and two cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), Glen Rosa and Glen Ample. A two-year field study (2008-2009) was also undertaken to characterise the population dynamics of adult weevils on the two raspberry cultivars. Larval performance (abundance and mass) differed significantly between Glen Rosa and Glen Ample, with Glen Rosa resulting in 26% larger but 56% fewer larvae compared to Glen Ample. Larval abundances were significantly and positively correlated with root nitrogen and magnesium concentrations, but negatively correlated with root iron. However, concentrations of these minerals were not significantly different in the two cultivars. Adult weevils did not preferentially select either of the two cultivars for egg laying (laying 3.08 and 2.80 eggs per day on Glen Ample and Glen Rosa, respectively), suggesting that there was no strong preference-performance relationship between adult vine weevils and their belowground offspring. Field populations of adult vine weevils were significantly higher on Glen Ample than Glen Rosa, which may reflect the higher larval survival on Glen Ample observed in laboratory experiments. PMID:21867576

  19. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  20. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  1. Genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm-infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-06-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome-wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Comparative analyses have revealed that 39% of the transcriptome and 35% of the proteome were differentially regulated during bollworm infestation. Around 36% of significantly regulated transcripts and 45% of differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in signalling followed by redox regulation. Further analysis showed that defence-related stress hormones and their lipid precursors, transcription factors, signalling molecules, etc. were stimulated, whereas the growth-related counterparts were suppressed during bollworm infestation. Around 26% of the significantly up-regulated proteins were defence molecules, while >50% of the significantly down-regulated were related to photosynthesis and growth. Interestingly, the biosynthesis genes for synergistically regulated jasmonate, ethylene and suppressors of the antagonistic factor salicylate were found to be up-regulated, suggesting a choice among stress-responsive phytohormone regulation. Manual curation of the enzymes and TFs highlighted the components of retrograde signalling pathways. Our data suggest that a selective regulatory mechanism directs the reallocation of metabolic resources favouring defence over growth under bollworm infestation and these insights could be exploited to develop bollworm-resistant cotton varieties. PMID:26799171

  2. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H; Paterson, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach's speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010-2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  3. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  4. Weapon allometry varies with latitude in the New Zealand giraffe weevil.

    PubMed

    Painting, C J; Buckley, T R; Holwell, G I

    2014-12-01

    Animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: Bergmann's rule. Although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. We present data showing latitudinal variation in body size and weapon allometry for the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). Males display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during fights for access to females. Consistent with Bergmann's rule, mean body size increased with latitude. More interestingly, weapon allometry also varied with latitude, such that lower latitude populations exhibited steeper allometric slopes between weapon and body size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a latitudinal cline in weapon allometry and is therefore a novel contribution to the collective work on Bergmann's rule and secondary sexual trait variation. PMID:25303121

  5. [Applicability of multivariate statistics for nutritional studies: bioassay rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L)].

    PubMed

    Lugo Gonázlez, Dennis Alexander; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Casotto, Meris; Laurentin, Alexander; Gómez, Ana

    2013-09-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA), non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) are multivariate statistical techniques that graphically represent numerical measures of several factors and display multiple relationships that may exist between them. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of these techniques to analyze the nutritional quality of diet, using as model, the bioassay rice weevil. The diets tested were: corn starch, potato starch, 5% glucose, peas, starved and starved with water supply. The variables studied were: survival, weight change and body composition. The PCA and MDS showed positive relationships of survival and weight change with body fat and carbohydrate parameters. Fat and carbohydrates were greater in starches diets, similar to the positive control. The PCA showed differences between populations fed with different diets, whereas the MDS showed similarity between diets. Both studies defined a gradient of the nutritive value of diets in the x-axis. The ANOSIM indicate significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. This test is necessary to support the results obtained in the PCA and MDS. The application of these statistical tools is promising to analyze complex processes such as interaction of differents variables to measure the nutritional quality of diets. PMID:25362823

  6. Transcriptome analysis and systemic RNAi response in the African sweetpotato weevil (Cylas puncticollis, Coleoptera, Brentidae).

    PubMed

    Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Christiaens, Olivier; Bauters, Lander; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Ghislain, Marc; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis Boheman is one of the most important constraints of sweetpotato production in Sub-Saharan Africa and yet is largely an uncharacterized insect pest. Here, we report on the transcriptome analysis of SPW generated using an Illumina platform. More than 213 million sequencing reads were obtained and assembled into 89,599 contigs. This assembly was followed by a gene ontology annotation. Subsequently, a transcriptome search showed that the necessary RNAi components relevant to the three major RNAi pathways, were found to be expressed in SPW. To address the functionality of the RNAi mechanism in this species, dsRNA was injected into second instar larvae targeting laccase2, a gene which encodes an enzyme involved in the sclerotization of insect exoskeleton. The body of treated insects showed inhibition of sclerotization, leading eventually to death. Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) confirmed this phenotype to be the result of gene silencing. Together, our results provide valuable sequence data on this important insect pest and demonstrate that a functional RNAi pathway with a strong and systemic effect is present in SPW and can further be explored as a new strategy for controlling this important pest. PMID:25590333

  7. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  8. Inducible factors with antimicrobial activity after immune challenge in the haemolymph of Red Palm Weevil (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mastore, Maristella; Binda Rossetti, Simona; Giovannardi, Stefano; Scarì, Giorgio; Brivio, Maurizio F

    2015-05-01

    Insects are capable of innate immune responses elicited after microbial infection. In this process, the receptor-mediated recognition of foreign bodies and the subsequent activation of immunocompetent cells lead to the synthesis ex novo of a peptide pool with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the inducible immune response of a coleopteran, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, challenged with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. After immunization, we evaluated the presence of antimicrobial peptides using either biochemical analyses or microbiological techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the newly synthesized protein pool, detectable in haemolymph fractions of low molecular mass, showed strong antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. OX1, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus). In addition to the preliminary study of the mechanism of action of the pool of antimicrobial peptides, we also investigated its effects on bacterial cell walls by means of fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data suggest that the main effects seem to be directed at destabilizing and damaging the bacterial wall. This study provides data that help us to understand some aspects of the inducible innate immunity in a system model that lacks anticipatory responses. However, the weevil has finely tuned its defensive strategies to counteract effectively microbial infection. PMID:25114180

  9. Genetic status and timing of a weevil introduction to Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Stepien, Courtney C; Kaczmarek, Maryska; Albelo, Lázaro Roque; Sequeira, Andrea S

    2014-01-01

    Successful invasive species can overcome or circumvent the potential genetic loss caused by an introduction bottleneck through a rapid population expansion and admixture from multiple introductions. We explore the genetic makeup and the timing of a species introduction to Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos archipelago. We investigate the presence of processes that can maintain genetic diversity in populations of the broad-nosed weevil Galapaganus howdenae howdenae. Analyses of combined genotypes for 8 microsatellite loci showed evidence of past population size reductions through moment and likelihood-based estimators. No evidence of admixture through multiple introductions was found, but substantial current population sizes (N0 298, 95% credible limits 50-2300), genetic diversity comparable with long-established endemics (Mean number of alleles = 3.875), and lack of genetic structure across the introduced range (F ST = 0.01359) could suggest that foundations are in place for populations to rapidly recover any loss of genetic variability. The time estimates for the introduction into Santa Cruz support an accidental transfer during the colonization period (1832-1959) predating the spurt in human population growth. Our evaluation of the genetic status of G. h. howdenae suggests potential for population growth in addition to our field observations of a concurrent expansion in range and feeding preferences towards protected areas and endemic host plants. PMID:24399746

  10. Rhynchophorus palmarum in Disguise: Undescribed Polymorphism in the “Black” Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Löhr, Bernhard; Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto

    2015-01-01

    During studies to adapt pheromone trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum to the special coconut growing conditions at the Colombian Pacific coast, 152 atypically-colored specimens were captured in a total collection of 53,802 of the normally completely black weevil. Five specimens had the typical coloration of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an invasive species recently introduced to Aruba and Curação. A regional expansion of this invasion to the South American continent was feared and all atypical specimens were submitted to taxonomic analysis. Both conventional and molecular methods were employed. Conventional taxonomics confirmed the samples as belonging to R. palmarum but registered undescribed and species-atypical morphological variability in the subgular suture (wide vs. narrow), the ratio between intraocular distance and width of antennal scrobes (>0.35 vs. < 0.29) and the indentation of the mandibles (up to three mandibular teeth vs. bilobed). Molecular analysis placed all samples inspected, black and reddish alike, firmly within the R. palmarum group and the hypothesis of having inter-specific hybrids was rejected using co-dominant single sequence repeat markers with allelic specificity for both species. PMID:26683205

  11. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  12. Transcriptome Analysis and Systemic RNAi Response in the African Sweetpotato Weevil (Cylas puncticollis, Coleoptera, Brentidae)

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Christiaens, Olivier; Bauters, Lander; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Ghislain, Marc; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis Boheman is one of the most important constraints of sweetpotato production in Sub-Saharan Africa and yet is largely an uncharacterized insect pest. Here, we report on the transcriptome analysis of SPW generated using an Illumina platform. More than 213 million sequencing reads were obtained and assembled into 89,599 contigs. This assembly was followed by a gene ontology annotation. Subsequently, a transcriptome search showed that the necessary RNAi components relevant to the three major RNAi pathways, were found to be expressed in SPW. To address the functionality of the RNAi mechanism in this species, dsRNA was injected into second instar larvae targeting laccase2, a gene which encodes an enzyme involved in the sclerotization of insect exoskeleton. The body of treated insects showed inhibition of sclerotization, leading eventually to death. Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) confirmed this phenotype to be the result of gene silencing. Together, our results provide valuable sequence data on this important insect pest and demonstrate that a functional RNAi pathway with a strong and systemic effect is present in SPW and can further be explored as a new strategy for controlling this important pest. PMID:25590333

  13. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. PMID:25185581

  14. Effect of depth of flooding on the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and yield of rice.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Kelly V; Bernhardt, John L; Stout, Michael J; Beighley, Donn H

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0-20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus. PMID:23906324

  15. Rhynchophorus palmarum in Disguise: Undescribed Polymorphism in the "Black" Palm Weevil.

    PubMed

    Löhr, Bernhard; Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto

    2015-01-01

    During studies to adapt pheromone trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum to the special coconut growing conditions at the Colombian Pacific coast, 152 atypically-colored specimens were captured in a total collection of 53,802 of the normally completely black weevil. Five specimens had the typical coloration of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an invasive species recently introduced to Aruba and Curação. A regional expansion of this invasion to the South American continent was feared and all atypical specimens were submitted to taxonomic analysis. Both conventional and molecular methods were employed. Conventional taxonomics confirmed the samples as belonging to R. palmarum but registered undescribed and species-atypical morphological variability in the subgular suture (wide vs. narrow), the ratio between intraocular distance and width of antennal scrobes (>0.35 vs. < 0.29) and the indentation of the mandibles (up to three mandibular teeth vs. bilobed). Molecular analysis placed all samples inspected, black and reddish alike, firmly within the R. palmarum group and the hypothesis of having inter-specific hybrids was rejected using co-dominant single sequence repeat markers with allelic specificity for both species. PMID:26683205

  16. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the weevil subfamily Platypodinae reveals evolutionarily conserved range patterns.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H

    2015-11-01

    Platypodinae is a peculiar weevil subfamily of species that cultivate fungi in tunnels excavated in dead wood. Their geographical distribution is generally restricted, with genera confined to a single continent or large island, which provides a useful system for biogeographical research. This study establishes the first detailed molecular phylogeny of the group, with the aim of testing hypotheses on classification, diversification, and biogeography. A phylogeny was reconstructed based on 3648 nucleotides from COI, EF-1α, CAD, ArgK, and 28S. Tree topology was well resolved and indicated a strong correlation with geography, more so than predicted by previous morphology-based classifications. Tesserocerini was paraphyletic, with Notoplatypus as the sister group to a clade consisting of three main lineages of Tesserocerini and the recently evolved Platypodini. Austroplatypus formed the sister group to all remaining Platypodini and hence confirmed its separate status from Platypus. The Indo-Australian genera of Platypodini were strikingly paraphyletic, suggesting that the taxonomy of this tribe needs careful revision. Ancestral-area reconstructions in Lagrange and S-DIVA were ambiguous for nodes roughly older than 80 Ma. More recent events were firmly assessed and involved post-Gondwanan long-distance dispersal. The Neotropics was colonized three times, all from the Afrotropical region, with the latest event less than 25 Ma that included the ancestor of all Neotropical Platypodini. PMID:26190520

  17. Genetic Status and Timing of a Weevil Introduction to Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful invasive species can overcome or circumvent the potential genetic loss caused by an introduction bottleneck through a rapid population expansion and admixture from multiple introductions. We explore the genetic makeup and the timing of a species introduction to Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos archipelago. We investigate the presence of processes that can maintain genetic diversity in populations of the broad-nosed weevil Galapaganus howdenae howdenae. Analyses of combined genotypes for 8 microsatellite loci showed evidence of past population size reductions through moment and likelihood-based estimators. No evidence of admixture through multiple introductions was found, but substantial current population sizes (N0 298, 95% credible limits 50–2300), genetic diversity comparable with long-established endemics (Mean number of alleles = 3.875), and lack of genetic structure across the introduced range (F ST = 0.01359) could suggest that foundations are in place for populations to rapidly recover any loss of genetic variability. The time estimates for the introduction into Santa Cruz support an accidental transfer during the colonization period (1832–1959) predating the spurt in human population growth. Our evaluation of the genetic status of G. h. howdenae suggests potential for population growth in addition to our field observations of a concurrent expansion in range and feeding preferences towards protected areas and endemic host plants. PMID:24399746

  18. Soyacystatin N inhibits proteolysis of wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and potentiates toxicity against cowpea weevil.

    PubMed

    Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    Genetic engineering may be used to introduce multiple insect resistance genes with different modes of action into crop plants. We explored the possible interactions of two differing gene products fed in the diet of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculates (F.), a stored grain pest. The soybean cysteine protease inhibitor soyacystatin N (scN) and alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) from wheat have defensive function against this coleopteran. When artificial seeds containing both scN and alpha(AI) were infested with eggs of C. maculatus, the delays in larval development were longer than was predicted by summing the developmental delays seen when larvae were fed a diet containing the individual proteins, indicating that the effects of scN and alpha(AI) are synergistic. Alpha(AI) was readily hydrolyzed when incubated with insect gut extract. This proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN, but not by Kunitz inhibitor (a serine protease inhibitor). Thus, degradation of alpha(AI) was due to proteolysis by insect digestive cysteine proteases. These data suggest that C. maculatus uses digestive enzymes not only to function in food protein digestion but also to defend the insects themselves by helping reduce the concentration of a toxic dietary protein. PMID:15666770

  19. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots.

    PubMed

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants" (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes. PMID:27222854

  20. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual report, February 16, 1987-November 20, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goals and objectives as envisaged for the year (1987) have been pursued. The report of the work may broadly be outlined into two components: post irradiation mortality studies at different combinations of temperature and humidity (studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation with mortality); and extraction of epicuticular hydrocarbons Sitophilus granarius (L) for both irradiated and control (elucidate the after effects of irradiation and determination of radiation induced changes if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation). 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. (Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to dessication and adult mortality): Quarterly report, August 15 to November 14, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These studies elucidate the effective dose range for survival/life span of the weevil to select the age group and dose level required for studies on epicuticular hydrocarbon profiles. The analysis of ''hydrocarbons'' revealed the presence of seven fatty acids. The fatty acids ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. It was seen that when weevils were irradiated with doses 0.15 to 0.5 kgy, these were differences in quantity of the fatty acids, particularly the fatty acids C16:0, C18:2, C18:1 and C20:0. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    PubMed Central

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes. PMID:27222854

  3. Efficacy of Rice Insecticide Seed Treatments at Selected Nitrogen Rates for Control of the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Everett, Mallory; Lorenz, Gus; Slaton, Nathan; Hardke, Jarrod

    2015-08-01

    Seed-applied insecticides are the standard control method used in the United States to minimize rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) injury to rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, and often results in greater yields than rice that receives no seed-applied insecticide. Yield increases from seed-applied insecticides often occur even when insect pressure is low and should not cause yield loss. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of urea-nitrogen rate and seed-applied insecticide on number of rice water weevil larvae, nitrogen uptake, and rice grain yield. Six trials were conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and the Rice Research Extension Center (RREC) to examine the response of rice plants receiving different insecticide-seed treatments and urea-nitrogen rate combinations. Insecticide-seed treatments included label rates of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and a no-insecticide (fungicide only) control, in combination with season-total nitrogen rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg urea-nitrogen/ha. Rice seed that was treated with clothianidin or thiamethoxam generally had equal numbers of rice water weevil larvae, which were significantly fewer compared with rice that received no insecticide with an equivalent urea-nitrogen rate. Nitrogen uptake at panicle differentiation was not affected by insecticide-seed treatments at four of six sites and usually increased positively and linearly as urea-nitrogen rate increased. As urea-nitrogen rate increased, grain yield increased either linearly or nonlinearly. Averaged across urea-nitrogen rates, both insecticide seed treatments had similar yields that were 4 to 7% greater than the grain yields of rice that received no insecticide at four of the five harvested sites. PMID:26470317

  4. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  5. Comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2008-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin is pathogenic to C. caryae. One approach to managing C. caryae may be application of B. bassiana directed toward adult weevils as they emerge from the soil to attack nuts in the tree canopy. Our objective was to compare different application methods for suppression of C. caryae adults. Treatments included direct application of B. bassiana (GHA strain) to soil under the tree canopy, soil application followed by cultivation, soil application in conjunction with a cover crop (Sudan grass), direct application to the tree trunk, and application to the trunk with an UV radiation-protecting adjuvant. The study was conducted in a pecan orchard in Byron, GA, in 2005 and 2006. Naturally emerging C. caryae adults, caught after crawling to the trunk, were transported to the laboratory to determine percentage mortality and signs of mycosis. When averaged over the 15-d sampling period, weevil mortality and signs of mycosis were greater in all treatments than in the nontreated control in 2005 and 2006; >75% average mortality was observed with the trunk application both years and in the trunk application with UV protection in 2005. Results indicated trunk applications can produce superior efficacy relative to ground application, particularly if the ground application is followed by cultivation. Efficacy in the cover crop treatment, however, did not differ from other application approaches. Future research should focus on elucidating the causes for treatment differences we observed and the extent to which B. bassiana-induced C. caryae mortality reduces crop damage. PMID:18348807

  6. Colonization history, ecological shifts and diversification in the evolution of endemic Galápagos weevils.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, A S; Lanteri, A A; Albelo, L Roque; Bhattacharya, S; Sijapati, M

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data were obtained for eight species of flightless Galapaganus endemic weevils and one winged close relative in order to study their colonization history and modes of diversification in the Galápagos Archipelago. Contrary to most other insular radiations, the phylogeny estimates we recovered for Galapaganus do not follow the progression rule of island biogeography. The penalized likelihood age estimates of colonization of the archipelago exceed the age of the emerged islands and underscore the potential role of now sunken seamounts for the early evolution of Galapaganus. The phylogeny proposes one intra-island origin for Galapaganus endemics, but monophyly tests suggest a larger contribution of in-situ speciation on older islands. Generalist habitat preferences were reconstructed as ancestral while shifts to highland habitats were reconstructed as having evolved independently on different islands. Magnitudes and patterns of diversification rate were found to differ between older and younger islands. Our analyses reveal that the colonization sequence of islands and timing of colonization of Galapaganus could be linked with the geological and volcanic history of the islands in a rather complex scenario. Even though most islands appear to have been colonized soon after their emergence, there are notable deviations from the pattern of sequential colonization expected under the progression rule when considering only the extant emerged islands. Patterns of diversification rate variation on older and younger islands correspond to the volcanic activity or remnants of such activity, while the pattern of independent evolution of restricted habitat preferences in different islands suggests that habitat shifts could also have contributed to species diversity in Galapaganus. PMID:18261050

  7. Genetic Conservation of Phosphine Resistance in the Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam T; Collins, Patrick J; Duong, Tu M; Schlipalius, David I; Ebert, Paul R

    2016-05-01

    High levels of resistance to phosphine in the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae have been detected in Asian countries including China and Vietnam, however there is limited knowledge of the genetic mechanism of resistance in these strains. We find that the genetic basis of strong phosphine resistance is conserved between strains of S. oryzae from China, Vietnam, and Australia. Each of 4 strongly resistant strains has an identical amino acid variant in the encoded dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) enzyme that was previously identified as a resistance factor in Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The unique amino acid substitution, Asparagine > Threonine (N505T) of all strongly resistant S. oryzae corresponds to the position of an Asparagine > Histidine variant (N506H) that was previously reported in strongly resistant R. dominica. Progeny (F16 and F18) from 2 independent crosses showed absolute linkage of N505T to the strong resistance phenotype, indicating that if N505T was not itself the resistance variant that it resided within 1 or 2 genes of the resistance factor. Non-complementation between the strains confirmed the shared genetic basis of strong resistance, which was supported by the very similar level of resistance between the strains, with LC50 values ranging from 0.20 to 0.36 mg L(-1) for a 48-h exposure at 25 °C. Thus, the mechanism of high-level resistance to phosphine is strongly conserved between R. dominica, T. castaneum and S. oryzae. A fitness cost associated with strongly resistant allele was observed in segregating populations in the absence of selection. PMID:26774057

  8. Host-plant dependent population genetics of the invading weevil Hypera postica.

    PubMed

    Iwase, S-I; Nakahira, K; Tuda, M; Kagoshima, K; Takagi, M

    2015-02-01

    Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus. PMID:25336385

  9. Host PGRP gene expression and bacterial release in endosymbiosis of the weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Caroline; Vallier, Agnès; Balmand, Séverine; Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Heddi, Abdelaziz

    2006-10-01

    Intracellular symbiosis (endosymbiosis) with gram-negative bacteria is common in insects, yet little is known about how the host immune system perceives the endosymbionts and controls their growth and invasion without complete bacterial clearance. In this study, we have explored the expression of a peptidoglycan recognition protein gene of the weevil Sitophilus zeamais (wPGRP); an ortholog in Drosophila (i.e., PGRP-LB) was recently shown to downregulate the Imd pathway (A. Zaidman-Remy, M. Herve, M. Poidevin, S. Pili-Floury, M. S. Kim, D. Blanot, B. H. Oh, R. Ueda, D. Mengin-Lecreulx, and B. Lemaitre, Immunity 24:463-473, 2006). Insect challenges with bacteria have demonstrated that wPGRP is induced by gram-negative bacteria and that the level of induction depends on bacterial growth. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification of the wPGRP gene transcript performed at different points in insect development has shown a high steady-state level in the bacteria-bearing organ (the bacteriome) of larvae and a high level of wPGRP up-regulation in the symbiotic nymphal phase. Concomitantly, during this stage fluorescence in situ hybridization has revealed an endosymbiont release from the host bacteriocytes. Together with the previously described high induction level of endosymbiont virulence genes at the nymphal phase (C. Dale, G. R. Plague, B. Wang, H. Ochman, and N. A. Moran, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:12397-12402, 2002), these findings indicate that insect mutualistic relationships evolve through an interplay between bacterial virulence and host immune defense and that the host immunity engages the PGRP gene family in that interplay. PMID:17021229

  10. Comparative Genetic Structure and Demographic History in Endemic Galápagos Weevils

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Courtney C.; Sijapati, Manisha; Roque Albelo, Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (FST = 0.094–0.541; π: 0.014–0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026; and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026 and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics. PMID:22174444

  11. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P) and host plant odors (kairomone: K) in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1) Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2) Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3) Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4) P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects. PMID:21463509

  12. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  13. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  14. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  15. An experimental study of the interaction between the dwarf palm ( Chamaerops humilis) and its floral visitor Derelomus chamaeropsis throughout the life cycle of the weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anstett, Marie Charlotte

    1999-09-01

    Palm pollination can be quite diverse but has been poorly studied. This paper describes the life cycle of Derelomus chamaeropsis, a Coleoptera that inhabits the inflorescences of the Mediterranean dwarf palm Chamaerops humilis. D. chamaeropsis is specific to Chamaerops inflorescences, where it eats pollen and the rachis of inflorescences on pistillate plants. They usually lay eggs only on staminate inflorescences where larvae develop and bore into the inflorescence rachis. Larvae do not develop on pistillate inflorescences, except for cases with almost no fruit development. Pistillate plants can thus protect themselves from weevil predation. When visiting pistillate inflorescences, weevils can feed on rachis but usually do not find the brood place reward. Pollination is thus by deceit and weevils should be selected to avoid pistillate inflorescences. D. chamaeropsis pupate within the rachis of staminate inflorescences, but disperse before collecting pollen, thus staminate plants do not have an individual advantage in breeding weevils. However, because larvae develop on dead tissues, the costs of larval development are likely to be low for the plant. This study provides a new example of pollination symbiosis where the pollinator develops on the plant it pollinates, and illustrates how the evolutionary functioning of such relationships can be diverse.

  16. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  17. From Augmentation to Conservation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Trophic Cascades, Habitat Manipulation and Enhanced Biological Control of Diaprepes abbreviatus Root Weevils in Florida Citrus Groves

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, R. J.; El-Borai, F. E.; Duncan, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) for management of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, in Florida citrus groves is considered a biological control success story and typically involves augmentation in which EPN are applied inundatively as biopesticides to quickly kill the pest. However, recent evidence indicates that efficacy of EPN applications in Florida citrus depends on soil type. They are very effective in the well drained coarse sands of the Central Ridge but often less so in poorly drained fine-textured soils of the Flatwoods. Moreover, groves on the Central Ridge can harbor rich communities of endemic EPN that might often suppress weevil populations below economic thresholds, whereas Flatwoods groves tend to have few endemic EPN and frequent weevil problems. Current research is examining the ecological dynamics of EPN in Florida citrus groves, the potential impact of EPN augmentation on soil food webs, especially endemic EPN, and whether habitat manipulation and inoculation strategies might be effective for conserving and enhancing EPN communities to achieve long-term control in problem areas. Conservation biological control could extend the usefulness of EPN in Florida citrus and be especially appropriate for groves with persistent weevil problems. PMID:19259523

  18. COWPEA WEEVIL (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS) FLIGHTS TO A POINT SOURCE OF FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE: ANALYSES OF FLIGHT TRACKS AT THREE WIND SPEEDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, were released individually and flew upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plumes made contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks i...

  19. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  20. Persistence of Metarhizium Anisopliae Incorporated into Soilless Potting Media for Control of the Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus Sulcatus in Container-Grown Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) is a serious pest of nursery crops, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. The fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (F52), has recently been registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency for BVW control. The objective of this study was to de...

  1. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  2. Potential of topic applications, leaf residues and soil drenches of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for management of the Diaprepes root weevil: laboratory and greenhouse investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaprepes root weevil, (DRW) Diaprepes abbreviatus is a key pest of citrus and ornamental plants in Florida and Texas. DRW larvae burrow through the soil feeding on roots which when girdled causes secondary infection of the structural roots or root crown by Phytopthora spp. wherein mature citrus tre...

  3. Adults of the Waterfern Weevil, Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on a Non-Host Plant Salvinia minima Baker, in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waterfern weevil, Stenopelmus refinasus Gyllenhal, has previously been reported as host-specific, only feeding on plants in the genus Azolla. We report the first observations of S. rufinasus feeding on a non-host plant, Salvinia minima Baker, within the United States....

  4. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  5. IMPACT OF A NEW SPECIES OF MICROSPORIDIA ON TWO WEEVILS, NEOCHETINA EICHHORNIAE AND N. BRUCHI, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS OF WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an exotic aquatic weed that clogs natural waterways, displaces native vegetation and degrades wildlife habitat. Two closely related South American weevils, Neochetina eichhorniae Warner and N. bruchi Hustache were first introduced into Florida in 1972 and 197...

  6. The weevil genus Achia champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): new species associate with urvillea (Sapindaceae) and New Serjania Host Plant records for A. ancile Burke and A. affinis Hustache

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of the weevil genus Achia Champion are described: A. urvilleae Clark and Burke from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil and Misiones Province, Argentina; A. uniformis Clark and Burke from Bolivia; and A. boliviana Clark and Burke from Bolivia and Salta and Santiago del Estero prov...

  7. Loss of phytotelmata due to an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil and its potential effects on faunal diversity and biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Teresa M.; Frank, J. Howard; Cave, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytic tank bromeliads are important ecosystem engineers because they form phytotelmata that create habitat, increase species richness and abundance, create water sources and nutrient reservoirs in the canopy, and collect and redirect nutrients in forest ecosystems. Native bromeliad populations have been devastated in Florida (USA) because an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil (Metamasius callizona) has been destroying the plants. Tillandsia utriculata is a tank bromeliad that was once widespread from central to south Florida. Its populations have been hit hard by the weevil and are declining rapidly. This study quantifies the mortality rate caused by the weevil in a population of T. utriculata at the Enchanted Forest Sanctuary in central Florida and estimates the associated loss of phytotelmata. Estimations of phytotelmata were calculated for the T. utriculata baseline population, the population at 6 months into the study when 87% of the population was destroyed, and at the end of the study when less than 3% of the bromeliad population remained (99% of all deaths were caused by the weevil). The baseline population contained 16,758 L of water. At six months, there were 3180 L, and at the end of the study, there were 408 L. The loss of phytotelmata results in the loss of habitat, a decrease in biological diversity, and altered water and nutrient cycles and availability.

  8. Larval competition in weevils Revena rubiginosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) preying on seeds of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Costa, Cecília P.; Knogge, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Inter- and intraspecific local resource competition may lead to the selection of specific adaptive individual characteristics to overcome interference competition. A highly selective scenario is predictable for interference competition among seed preying weevil larvae that live in and feed upon a single host seed. This scenario is found in Syagrus romanzoffiana palm seeds which are predated by Revena rubiginosa (Curculionidae) larvae. Although multiple infestation of one seed by weevil larvae can occur, invariably only one individual survives and develops in each host seed. A strong competition between the first instar larvae in a restricted window of host fruit development stages leads to physical interactions of conspecifics by ovicide or direct fighting using falcate mandibles. The occurrence of this type of mandible is synchronized with fruit development and restricted to instars with probable competition, as infestation occurs only while the endocarp is soft. Only after lignification of the endocarp the larva changes into the next instar. Mandibles of subsequent instars differ markedly from those of the first instar. The new mandibles can scrape the solid endosperm but are unable to perforate and kill conspecifics. These findings give strong evidence for the selective pressure of intraspecific competition, where special behaviour, mandible morphology and synchronization of its changes with the seed development contribute to individual benefit that involves the killing of conspecifics, since one host seed can only maintain a single larva throughout its complete development.

  9. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  10. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    PubMed

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible. PMID:27193283

  11. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  12. Filiferol, a chalconoid analogue from Washingtonia filifera possibly involved in the defence against the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Benedetta; Clematis, Francesca; Monroy, Fernando; Roversi, Pio Federico; Troiano, Raffaele; Curir, Paolo; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-07-01

    A chalconoid analogue, 1,3,5-benzentriol 2-[(2S,3R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxylphenyl)-2,3-dihydroxylpropyl], named filiferol (1), has been isolated and purified for the first time from the leaf basal tissues of the palm species Washingtonia filifera. The chemical structure of the isolated compound has been elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Filiferol has been based on a flavonol structure with the reduction of the common flavonoid keto group to give an unprecedented methylene carbon on the three carbon chain. An analogous compound with S stereochemistry at C3 has been obtained as synthetic intermediate for developing an enantioselective synthesis of (2R,3S)-(+)-catechin. Even though 1 proved to be deprived of antifungal properties, it displays a very effective larvicidal activity against Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important pest affecting cultivated and ornamental palms. 1 has been isolated from leaf tissues of W. filifera, a species resistant to this pest, but this molecule seems instead undetectable in tissues of other palm species susceptible to the parasite. The presence of 1 could therefore account for W. filifera natural resistance to the attacks of the Red Palm Weevil (R. ferrugineus). PMID:25725962

  13. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  14. 7 CFR 771.4 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... funds as determined by APHIS, (FSA will accept the determination by APHIS as to an organization's... State organization specifically organized to operate the boll weevil eradication program in any...

  15. 7 CFR 771.4 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... funds as determined by APHIS, (FSA will accept the determination by APHIS as to an organization's... State organization specifically organized to operate the boll weevil eradication program in any...

  16. 7 CFR 771.4 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... funds as determined by APHIS, (FSA will accept the determination by APHIS as to an organization's... State organization specifically organized to operate the boll weevil eradication program in any...

  17. Orange reflection from a three-dimensional photonic crystal in the scales of the weevil Pachyrrhynchus congestus pavonius (Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria; Lousse, Virginie; Deparis, Olivier; Parker, Andrew; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2007-04-01

    The three-dimensional structure that causes the coloration of the tropical weevil Pachyrrhynchus congestus pavonius was studied, using a combination of electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and numerical modeling. The orange scales that cover the colored rings on the animal’s body were opened, to display the structure responsible for the coloration. This structure is a three-dimensional photonic polycrystal, each grain of which showing a face-centered cubic symmetry. The measured lattice parameter and the observed filling fraction of this structure explain the dominant reflected wavelength in the reddish orange. The long-range disorder introduced by the grain boundaries explains the paradoxical observation that the reflectance, although generated by a photonic crystal, is insensitive to changes in the viewing angle.

  18. Bioaccumulation of mercury and its effect on protein metabolism of the water hyacinth weevil Neochetina eichhornae (Warner)

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Md.S.; Jamil, K. )

    1990-08-01

    Water hyacinth growth is kept under control by the week eating weevils, Neochetina eichhornae (Warner) and N. bruchi (Hustache). Water hyacinth is generally considered an aquatic weed because it clogs waterways, although it has recently been evaluated as a potential biological filter for sewage effluents. Water hyacinth plants are continuously subjected to contamination by mercury and other heavy metals from industrial effluents and fertilizer impurities. Little is known about the interaction of heavy metals/plants/insects. Aminotransferases are generally considered as indices for metabolic disturbances during Hg exposure. These enzymes are key enzymes for transamination, i.e., transfer of amino group from amino acid to keto acids which are ubiquitous in insects. The objective of the present study was to examine the bioaccumulation of mercury through the food chain in Neochetina eichhornae and its impact on protein metabolism.

  19. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  20. Effect of Selected Volatiles on Two Stored Pests: The Fungus Fusarium verticillioides and the Maize Weevil Sithophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Zunino, María P; Herrera, Jimena M; Pizzolitto, Romina P; Rubinstein, Héctor R; Zygadlo, Julio A; Dambolena, José S

    2015-09-01

    New agronomic practices and technology enabled Argentina a larger production of cereal grains, reaching a harvest yield of 26.5 million metric tons of maize, of which, about 40% was exported. However, much of the maize production is lost annually by the attack of fungi and insects (2.6 million tons). In this study, the antifungal effect of selected volatiles on Fusarium verticillioides, its mycotoxin production, and the repellent and insecticidal activities against the weevill Sithophilus zeamais, an insect vector of F. verticillioides, were evaluated. The compounds tested were (2E)-2-hexenal, (2E)-2-nonenal, (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, pentanal, 2-decanone, and 3-decanone, which occur in the blend of volatile compounds emitted by various cereal grains. The most active antifungals were the aldehydes (2E)-2-nonenal, (2E)-2-hexenal, and (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal (minimum inhibitory concentration values of <0.03, 0.06, and 0.06 mM, respectively). The occurrence of fumonisin B1 also was prevented because these compounds completely inhibited fungal growth. The best insecticidal fumigant activities against the maize weevil were shown by 2-decanone and 3-decanone (lethal concentration ≤ 54.6 μL/L (<0.28 mM)). Although, all tested compounds showed repellent activity against S. zeamais at a concentration of 4 μL/L, (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal was the most active repellent compound. These results demonstrate the potential of (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal to be used as a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides on F. verticillioides and S. zeamais. PMID:26257042

  1. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited. PMID:23575015

  2. Bacterial Endosymbiont of the Slender Pigeon Louse, Columbicola columbae, Allied to Endosymbionts of Grain Weevils and Tsetse Flies▿

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Takema; Koga, Ryuichi; Smith, Wendy A.; Tanaka, Kohjiiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Dale, Colin; Clayton, Dale H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study focuses on a symbiotic bacterium found in the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the symbiont belongs to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and is allied to Sodalis glossinidius, the secondary symbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) and also to the primary symbiont of grain weevils (Sitophilus spp.). Relative-rate tests revealed that the symbiont of C. columbae exhibits accelerated molecular evolution in comparison with the tsetse fly symbiont and the weevil symbiont. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to localize the symbiont and determine infection dynamics during host development. In first- and second-instar nymphs, the symbionts were localized in the cytoplasm of oval bacteriocytes that formed small aggregates on both sides of the body cavity. In third-instar nymphs, the bacteriocytes migrated to the central body and were finally located in the anterior region of the lateral oviducts, forming conspicuous tissue formations called ovarial ampullae. In adult females, the symbionts were transmitted from the ovarial ampullae to developing oocytes in the ovarioles. In adult males, the bacteriocytes often disappeared without migration. A diagnostic PCR survey of insects collected from Japan, the United States, Australia, and Argentina detected 96.5% (109/113) infection, with a few uninfected male insects. This study provides the first microbial characterization of a bacteriocyte-associated symbiont from a chewing louse. Possible biological roles of the symbiont are discussed in relation to the host nutritional physiology associated with the feather-feeding lifestyle. PMID:17766458

  3. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  4. The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S. molestain the southern United States and the related distribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacono, Colette C.; Davern, Tracy R.; Center, Ted D.

    2001-01-01

    The recent introduction of Salvinia molesta constitutes a serious threat to aquatic systems in the warm temperate regions of the United States. Salvinia minima, the only other member of Salviniaceae present in North America, is considered native by current floras. Evidence is presented which suggests that Salvinia minima was also introduced to North America, probably during the late 1920s and early 1930s. Likely sites of introduction and subsequent range expansions are identified. The accidentally introduced salvinia weevil, putatively Cyrtobagous salviniae, was found to occur widely on S. minima in Florida but is not established in other states. The disparate distribution of this Salvinia herbivore may account for the reduced aggressiveness of S. minima in Florida as compared to its troublesome growth in Texas and LOUisiana, where the weevil is not yet known.

  5. Wound-induced terpene synthase gene expression in Sitka spruce that exhibit resistance or susceptibility to attack by the white pine weevil.

    PubMed

    Byun-McKay, Ashley; Godard, Kimberley-Ann; Toudefallah, Morteza; Martin, Diane M; Alfaro, Rene; King, John; Bohlmann, Joerg; Plant, Aine L

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed the expression pattern of various terpene synthase (TPS) genes in response to a wounding injury applied to the apical leader of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) genotypes known to be resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) attack. The purpose was to test if differences in constitutive or wound-induced TPS expression can be associated with established weevil resistance. All wounding treatments were conducted on 9-year-old R and S trees growing under natural field conditions within the range of variation for weevil R and S genotypes. Representative cDNAs of the monoterpene synthase (mono-TPS), sesquiterpene synthase (sesqui-TPS), and diterpene synthase (di-TPS) classes were isolated from Sitka spruce to assess TPS transcript levels. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, the cDNAs resemble Norway spruce (Picea abies) (-)-linalool synthase (mono-TPS; PsTPS-Linl) and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (di-TPS; PsTPS-LASl), and grand fir (Abies grandis) delta-selinene synthase (sesqui-TPS; PsTPS-Sell). One other mono-TPS was functionally identified as (-)-limonene synthase (PsTPS-Lim). No significant difference in constitutive expression levels for these TPSs was detected between R and S trees. However, over a postwounding period of 16 d, only R trees exhibited significant transcript accumulation for the mono- and sesqui-TPS tested. Both R and S trees exhibited a significant accumulation of PsTPS-LASl transcripts. An assessment of traumatic resin duct formation in wounded leaders showed that both R and S trees responded by forming traumatic resin ducts; however, the magnitude of this response was significantly greater in R trees. Collectively, our data imply that the induced resinosis response is an important aspect of defense in weevil R Sitka spruce trees growing under natural conditions. PMID:16415217

  6. A New Light on the Evolution and Propagation of Prehistoric Grain Pests: The World's Oldest Maize Weevils Found in Jomon Potteries, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the “impression replica” method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details. PMID:21479261

  7. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    PubMed

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details. PMID:21479261

  8. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  9. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1988-03-14

    Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. The Complexity of Posttranscriptional Small RNA Regulatory Networks Revealed by In Silico Analysis of Gossypium arboreum L. Leaf, Flower and Boll Small Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongtao; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Singh, Narendra K.; Weaver, David B.; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Singh, Shree R.; Locy, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3’-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a

  11. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  12. Morphology of the egg shell and the developing embryo of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dosary, Mona M.; Al-Bekairi, Abdullah M.; Moursy, Eman B.

    2010-01-01

    The harvested eggs of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus are ovo-cylindrical shaped, averaged 1.09 mm in length and 0.43 mm in width, with ratio of L\\W 4.42. The chorionic layer of electron dense material is seen covering the exochorion structure of the eggs. The egg main body chorion exhibits a polygonal pattern and architecture surface of the egg is supported by a system of irregular interconnecting grooves. The micropylar apparatus of the eggs of the Red Palm Weevil, R. ferrugineus is described in the present study for the first time. Two micropylar openings are found closed to the center of the posterior wide pole of the egg. Each micropylar opening presents a single small orifice and its surrounding chorion is porous and densely set with tiny projections allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg. Respiratory aeropyles are distributed on the borders of reticulations in the area chorionic surface of egg capsule. The hatching region is detected on the anterior part at the opposite side of the egg. Changes in the appearance and shape of R. ferrugineus eggs as well as the incidence of embryonic development are observed. PMID:23961075

  13. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  14. Screening of tropical isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae for virulence to the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Yan, Wei; Qin, Weiquan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Guangchang; Li, Fuheng

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of the palm tree in tropical regions of the world. One strain of Metarhizium sp. ZJ-1, isolated from Chinese soils, was evaluated for growth characteristics, and screened for its virulence to R. ferrugineus larvae in laboratory conditions. An approximately 685-bp fragment was amplified by ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) PCR from strain ZJ-1, further phylogenetic analysis revealed that 93 % similarity to Metarhizium anisopliae. Inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL caused 100 % mortality of R. ferrugineus, LT50 levels of ZJ-1 were 1.66 days (1 × 10(8) conidia/mL), indicating that the conidia of strain ZJ-1 were highly virulent. These results suggest that M. anisopliae ZJ-1 has potential as an effective and persistent biological control agent for R. ferrugineus. PMID:27468401

  15. Impact of Water Management on Efficacy of Insecticide Seed Treatments Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mississippi Rice.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Gore, J; Musser, F; Cook, D; Catchot, A; Walker, T; Awuni, G A

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, during 2011 and 2012 to determine the impact of water management practices on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. Larval densities and yield were compared for plots treated with labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin and an untreated control. In the first experiment, plots were subjected to flood initiated at 6 and 8 wk after planting. Seed treatments significantly reduced larval densities with the 8-wk flood timing, but not the 6-wk flood timing. Overall, the treated plots yielded higher than the control plots. In the second experiment, the impact of multiple flushes on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments was evaluated. Plots were subjected to zero, one, or two flushes with water. All seed treatments reduced larval densities compared with the untreated control. Significantly fewer larvae were observed in plots that received one or two flushes compared with plots that did not receive a flush. All seed treatments resulted in higher yields compared to the untreated control in the zero and one flush treatments. When two flushes were applied, yield from the thiamethoxam and clothianidin treated plots was not significantly different from those of the control plots, while the chlorantraniliprole treated plots yielded significantly higher than the control. These data suggest that time from planting to flood did not impact the efficacy of seed treatments, but multiple flushes reduced the efficacy of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. PMID:26470232

  16. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest. PMID:26949943

  17. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively. PMID:26999084

  18. Impact of Water Management on Efficacy of Insecticide Seed Treatments Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mississippi Rice

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Awuni, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, during 2011 and 2012 to determine the impact of water management practices on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. Larval densities and yield were compared for plots treated with labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin and an untreated control. In the first experiment, plots were subjected to flood initiated at 6 and 8 wk after planting. Seed treatments significantly reduced larval densities with the 8-wk flood timing, but not the 6-wk flood timing. Overall, the treated plots yielded higher than the control plots. In the second experiment, the impact of multiple flushes on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments was evaluated. Plots were subjected to zero, one, or two flushes with water. All seed treatments reduced larval densities compared with the untreated control. Significantly fewer larvae were observed in plots that received one or two flushes compared with plots that did not receive a flush. All seed treatments resulted in higher yields compared to the untreated control in the zero and one flush treatments. When two flushes were applied, yield from the thiamethoxam and clothianidin treated plots was not significantly different from those of the control plots, while the chlorantraniliprole treated plots yielded significantly higher than the control. These data suggest that time from planting to flood did not impact the efficacy of seed treatments, but multiple flushes reduced the efficacy of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. PMID:26470232

  19. Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Chi, Hisn

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba, and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We also demonstrated the growth potential of C. formicarius on these two host plants by using population projection. These data will be useful to the growers to the selection or eradication of host plants in an integrated control strategy for C. formicarius for the entire area of the targeted areas. We found that C. formicarius developed faster on I. batatas than on I. triloba. The developmental times of the larval and pupal stages on I. batatas than on I. triloba were 37.01 and 8.3 days. The adult females emerged before and began to produce eggs at 42 days earlier when reared on I. batatas. The fecundity of females was 90.0 eggs on I. batatas significantly higher than the mean fecundity of 68.5 eggs on I. triloba. Although this insect has a higher intrinsic rate of increase on I. batatas, the study indicated that C. formicarius can successfully survive and reproduce on both host plants. PMID:26156566

  20. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W.; Eyun, Seong-il; Noriega, Daniel D.; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest. PMID:26949943

  1. Description of immatures and natural history of the weevil Loncophorus pustulatus (Champion, 1903) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) associated with flowers of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Bombacoidea: Malvaceae) in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela de Cassia; Albertoni, Fabiano Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Larva and pupa of Loncophorus pustulatus (Champion, 1903) (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini) are described, illustrated and compared with descriptions of immatures of two other species of Loncophorus. Weevil larvae were found inside aborted flowers on the ground under Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae), in the city of Sgo Paulo, State of S5o Paulo, and reared to adults in laboratory. Data obtained in the field and under laboratory conditions are presented. Parasitoidism of weevil larvae by wasps of the genus Catolaccus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is reported. PMID:26042304

  2. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. PMID:26314028

  3. Bean α-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Roger L.; Schroeder, Hart E.; Bateman, Kaye S.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Eric; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two α-amylase inhibitors, called αAI-1 and αAI-2, that share 78% amino acid sequence identity and have a differential specificity toward mammalian and insect α-amylases are present in different accessions of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using greenhouse-grown transgenic peas (Pisum sativum), we have shown previously that expression of αAI-1 in pea seeds can provide complete protection against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). Here, we report that αAI-1 also protects peas from the weevil under field conditions. The high degree of protection is explained by our finding that αAI-1 inhibits pea bruchid α-amylase by 80% over a broad pH range (pH 4.5–6.5). αAI-2, on the other hand, is a much less effective inhibitor of pea bruchid α-amylase, inhibiting the enzyme by only 40%, and only in the pH 4.0–4.5 range. Nevertheless, this inhibitor was still partially effective in protecting field-grown transgenic peas against pea weevils. The primary effect of αAI-2 appeared to be a delay in the maturation of the larvae. This contrasts with the effect of αAI-1, which results in larval mortality at the first or second instar. These results are discussed in relationship to the use of amylase inhibitors with different specificities to bring about protection of crops from their insect pests or to decrease insect pest populations below the economic injury level. PMID:10759552

  4. MOSCAB (Materia OSCura A Bolle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullia, Antonino

    2016-05-01

    This kind of detector (Geyser) has never been realized for the Elementary Particle Physics (it was constructed once in BERN A in 1964 by Hahn and Reist to detect transuranic nuclei. The Geyser is substantially a Vessel consisting of a “FLASK” containing a superheated liquid (f.i. some kind of freon) and a “NECK” (containing partially a separation liquid and partially the freon vapor). The Geyser was realized in Milano by setting the two different parts of the detector (flask and neck, filled in our case by freon C3 F8 , at different temperatures. The part of the overheated liquid was kept at higher temperature (f.i. 25 degree) and the gaseous part was kept at lower temperature (f.i. 18 degrees).

  5. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a Valid Species Distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and Reveal the Global Extent of Both

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Hoddle, Christina D.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a major pest of palms. It is native to southeast Asia and Melanesia, but in recent decades has vastly expanded its range as the result of multiple accidental anthropogenic introductions into the Middle East, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean, and U.S.A. Currently regarded as a single species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), RPW displays remarkable color variation across its range, and consequently has a taxonomic history littered with new species descriptions and synonymization. We compared DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from RPW populations throughout the native and invaded ranges, to investigate the specific status and invasion history of this serious economic pest, and to identify possible common routes of entry. Analyses of COI haplotype data provide conclusive support, corroborated by sequences of additional nuclear gene regions, for the existence of at least two predominantly allopatric species. The true R. ferrugineus is native only to the northern and western parts of continental southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, and is responsible for almost all invasive populations worldwide. In contrast, the second species, which is currently synonymized under R. ferrugineus and should be resurrected under the name R. vulneratus (Panzer), has a more southern distribution across Indonesia, and is responsible for only one invasive population; that in California, U.S.A. The distribution of COI haplotypes is used to discuss the possible existence of further cryptic species, sources and routes of entry of different invasive populations, and the implications of our findings for current control methods. PMID:24143263

  6. Laboratory and field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi for the management of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Zhao, Zihua; Humber, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U.S.-controlled Mariana Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic nature of the larvae and nocturnal activity of the adults, and the cancellation of long-residual pesticides, this pest has become increasingly difficult to control. Therefore, the present study sought to explore and to compare the effectiveness of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (90ml a.i./ha), Beauveria bassiana GHA (40ml a.i./ha), spinosad (90g a.i./ha), azadirachtin (1484ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+M. brunneum (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+azadirachtin (20ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+spinosad (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), M. brunneum+azadirachtin (45ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha) and M. brunneum+spinosad (45ml a.i./ha+45 grams a.i./ha) in controlling this pest in both the laboratory and the field. The treatment with B. bassiana+M. brunneum was the most effective in reducing tuber damage by C. formicarius, producing the highest yields. The most adult cadavers were found in plots treated with the combination of two fungi. This combined fungal formulation appears to be appropriate for the practical control of C. formicarius on sweet potatoes. PMID:25111763

  7. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. PMID:26615148

  8. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  9. Effect of Soil Moisture and a Surfactant on Entomopathogenic Nematode Suppression of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Brown, Ian; Gardner, Wayne A; Hubbard, Robert K; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-12-01

    Our overall goal was to investigate several aspects of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) determine optimum moisture levels for larval suppression, 2) determine suppression of adult C. caryae under field conditions, and 3) measure the effects of a surfactant on nematode efficacy. In the laboratory, virulence of Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Steinernema carpocapsae (All) were tested in a loamy sand at gravimetric water contents of negative 0.01, 0.06, 0.3, 1.0, and 15 bars. Curculio caryae larval survival decreased as moisture levels increased. The nematode effect was most pronounced at -0.06 bars. At -0.01 bars, larval survival was

  10. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1986 to February 14, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of gamma-ray irradiation on granary weevil Sitophilus granarius was studied. Cesium-137 was investigated with regard to its effectiveness in insect disinfestation of grains. The cuticular hydrocarbons of treated and control weevils were analyzed by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry (Gc/Ms). The effects of different dose rates and Relative Humidity (RH) conditions on desiccation were studied by determining body weight and moisture loss. Observations on germination of irradiated wheat seeds were made as complementary to the above studies. The weevils of older age group were more sensitive to gamma radiation. With dose-rate exceeding .15 kGy the mortality is higher during 11 to 15 days after irradiation. While at lower dose-rates 0.01 kGy and 0.05 kGy lower age group insect tend to prolong and survive longer. Analysis of epicuticular hydrocarbons of adult Sitophilus granarius showed that hydrocarbons C/sub 25/ to C/sub 33/ were present in significant amount. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of irradiated and control weevils suggests that there was little qualitative but considerable quantitative differences between the hydrocarbon fraction (C/sub 25/ to C/sub 33/) in these two groups. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Re-description and first host and biology records of Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a pest of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gumovsky, Alex; De Little, Dave; Rothmann, Sergio; Jaques, Lorena; Mayorga, Sandra Elizabeth Ide

    2015-01-01

    Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania. PMID:26249097

  12. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species. PMID:26873673

  13. Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus. PMID:18038102

  14. Is elytral color polymorphism in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae) a visible marker for sterile insect technique? Comparison of male mating behavior.

    PubMed

    Shiromoto, Keiko; Kumano, Norikuni; Kuriwada, Takashi; Haraguchi, Dai

    2011-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. In the eradication programs using the SIT, a large number of sterile insects are marked and released in the field. In Japan, Cylas fonnrmicarius (F.) group (Coleoptera: Brentidae) weevils are marked with a fluorescent powder dye to monitor the progress of such programs. However, this monitoring technique is not fully effective because of the disappearance or contamination of the dye. Therefore, an alternative marking method is required. Currently, a rare color morph such as piceous elytra (PE) is used for visible marking of C. formicarius group weevils. A PE-monomorphic strain has previously been established by artificial selection from a small locally distributed population; this can lead to reduced survival and genetic changes in behavioral traits due to inbreeding depression. In this study, we evaluated the survival rate and mating behavior of PE males of C. formicarius group. The characteristics of the PE males were similar to those of the wild strain (WS) males. Thus, we considered that PE males were suitable for visible marking in the eradication programs using the SIT. PMID:21510188

  15. Efficacy of pheromone trapping of the sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae): based on dose, septum age, attractive radius, and mass trapping.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Wu, Shaohui; Mendi, Robert C; Miller, Ross H

    2014-06-01

    Pheromone dose, effective trapping distance, and longevity of the rubber septa loaded with sex pheromone of Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) were evaluated for their impact on the efficacy of mass trapping of the insect in sweet potato fields in Guam in 2012-2013. The number of adults caught at different distances (10-100 m) was significantly different. Catches declined with increasing release distance from the trap in both downwind and upwind directions. While the maximum radius of attraction of pheromone-baited trap for C. formicarius in the field was 80 m, the effective distance for recapturing marked adults in the pheromone-baited Unitraps was 60 m. Pheromone lures were able to capture adults of C. formicarius after being stored in the laboratory for up to 98 d. The number of catches per trap per week was highest when lures were 0-14- and 15-28-d-old, and longer storage of septa led to a progressive reduction of catches. Pheromone traps baited with 100-μg lures captured significantly more adults compared with those loaded with 10-μg lures. In addition, effectiveness of pheromone trapping on damage to sweet potato was tested at two locations. Number of trapped adults, damage level at different times after trap installation, and yield production were evaluated. The number of C. formicarius adults collected in traps at both locations fluctuated dramatically among sampling dates and peaked on 13 September 2013, after which time the number of captures noticeably declined. This decrease was correlated to the increasing age and depletion of the pheromone lures. Pheromone traps significantly reduced feeding damage caused by weevils (<1 feeding hole per root in treatment; up to 38 feeding holes per root in the control) at both locations. Being consistent with damage levels, sweet potato yields in fields with traps were higher than those in untreated controls. We conclude that pheromone-baited traps are effective in reducing damage due to C. formicarius

  16. Persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae incorporated into soilless potting media for control of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus in container-grown ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Denny J; Donahue, Kelly M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae (F52), measured as infectivity against black vine weevil larvae, in a soilless potting medium at six wholesale nursery locations across the Willamette Valley, Oregon. A granule formulation (0.30 and 0.60 kg/m(3)) was incorporated into media at planting and fungal persistence determined over two growing seasons. The fungus persisted in the potting media over the duration of the experiment with 50-60% of the larvae exposed to treated media becoming infected at the end of the experiment. The percentage of infected larvae gradually declined from > or = 90% on week 3 to 40-60% by week 19. Larval infection rebounded over the fall and winter months of 2004 to 75-80% followed again by a slow decline over the course of the second growing season. PMID:17349655

  17. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  18. Effects of an entomopathogen nematode on the immune response of the insect pest red palm weevil: Focus on the host antimicrobial response.

    PubMed

    Binda-Rossetti, Simona; Mastore, Maristella; Protasoni, Marina; Brivio, Maurizio F

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between parasites and hosts can be drastic, depending on the balance between parasite strategies and the efficiency of the host immune response. In the case of entomopathogenic nematodes and their insect hosts, we must also consider the role of bacterial symbionts, as the interaction among them is tripartite and each component plays a critical role in death or survival. We analyzed the effects induced by the nematode-bacteria complex Steinernema carpocapsae, against red palm weevil (RPW) larvae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. We examined the antimicrobial response of the insect when in the presence of nematocomplexes or of its symbionts, Xenorhabdus nematophila. In detail, we investigated the potential interference of live and dead S. carpocapsae, their isolated cuticles, live or dead bacterial symbionts and their lipopolysaccharides, on the synthesis and activity of host antimicrobial peptides. Our data indicate that both live nematodes and live bacterial symbionts are able to depress the host antimicrobial response. When nematodes or symbionts were killed, they lacked inhibitory properties, as detected by the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the host hemolymph and by assays of antimicrobial activity. Moreover, we isolated S. carpocapsae cuticles; when cuticles were injected into hosts they revealed evasive properties because they were not immunogenic and were not recognized by the host immune system. We observed that weevil AMPs did not damage X. nematophila, and the lipopolysaccharides purified from symbionts seemed to be non-immunogenic. We believe that our data provide more information on the biology of entomopathogenic nematodes, in particular concerning their role and the activity mediated by symbionts in the relationship with insect hosts. PMID:26549224

  19. Plasticity and Evolution of (+)-3-Carene Synthase and (−)-Sabinene Synthase Functions of a Sitka Spruce Monoterpene Synthase Gene Family Associated with Weevil Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Christopher R.; Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The monoterpene (+)-3-carene is associated with resistance of Sitka spruce against white pine weevil, a major North American forest insect pest of pine and spruce. High and low levels of (+)-3-carene in, respectively, resistant and susceptible Sitka spruce genotypes are due to variation of (+)-3-carene synthase gene copy number, transcript and protein expression levels, enzyme product profiles, and enzyme catalytic efficiency. A family of multiproduct (+)-3-carene synthase-like genes of Sitka spruce include the three (+)-3-carene synthases, PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, PsTPS-3car3, and the (−)-sabinene synthase PsTPS-sab. Of these, PsTPS-3car2 is responsible for the relatively higher levels of (+)-3-carene in weevil-resistant trees. Here, we identified features of the PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, PsTPS-3car3, and PsTPS-sab proteins that determine different product profiles. A series of domain swap and site-directed mutations, supported by structural comparisons, identified the amino acid in position 596 as critical for product profiles dominated by (+)-3-carene in PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, and PsTPS-3car3, or (−)-sabinene in PsTPS-sab. A leucine in this position promotes formation of (+)-3-carene, whereas phenylalanine promotes (−)-sabinene. Homology modeling predicts that position 596 directs product profiles through differential stabilization of the reaction intermediate. Kinetic analysis revealed position 596 also plays a role in catalytic efficiency. Mutations of position 596 with different side chain properties resulted in a series of enzymes with different product profiles, further highlighting the inherent plasticity and potential for evolution of alternative product profiles of these monoterpene synthases of conifer defense against insects. PMID:25016016

  20. QUES, a new Phaseolus vulgaris genotype resistant to common bean weevils, contains the Arcelin-8 allele coding for new lectin-related variants.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Isabelle; Magni, Chiara; Panzeri, Dario; Daminati, Maria Gloria; Bollini, Roberto; Benrey, Betty; Bacher, Sven; Sparvoli, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most abundant seed proteins are the storage protein phaseolin and the family of closely related APA proteins (arcelin, phytohemagglutinin and α-amylase inhibitor). High variation in APA protein composition has been described and the presence of arcelin (Arc) has been associated with bean resistance against two bruchid beetles, the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemian). So far, seven Arc variants have been identified, all in wild accessions, however, only those containing Arc-4 were reported to be resistant to both species. Although many efforts have been made, a successful breeding of this genetic trait into cultivated genotypes has not yet been achieved. Here, we describe a newly collected wild accession (named QUES) and demonstrate its resistance to both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus. Immunological and proteomic analyses of QUES seed protein composition indicated the presence of new Arc and arcelin-like (ARL) polypeptides of about 30 and 27 kDa, respectively. Sequencing of cDNAs coding for QUES APA proteins confirmed that this accession contains new APA variants, here referred to as Arc-8 and ARL-8. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis showed the two proteins are closely related to APA components present in the G12949 wild bean accession, which contains the Arc-4 variant. The presence of these new APA components, combined with the observations that they are poorly digested and remain very abundant in A. obtectus feces, so-called frass, suggest that the QUES APA locus is involved in the bruchid resistance. Moreover, molecular analysis indicated a lower complexity of the locus compared to that of G12949, suggesting that QUES should be considered a valuable source of resistance for further breeding purposes. PMID:23117719

  1. Molecular characterization of a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor that inhibits the alpha-amylase of the mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus.

    PubMed

    Grossi de Sa, M F; Mirkov, T E; Ishimoto, M; Colucci, G; Bateman, K S; Chrispeels, M J

    1997-01-01

    Cultivated varieties of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) contain an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI-1) that inhibits porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA; EC 3.2.1.1) and the amylases of certain seed weevils, but not that of the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. A variant of alpha AI-1, called alpha AI-2, is found in certain arcelin-containing wild accessions of the common bean. The variant alpha AI-2 inhibits Z. subfasciatus alpha-amylase (ZSA), but not PPA. We purified alpha AI-2 and studied its interaction with ZSA. The formation of the alpha AI-2-ZSA complex is time-dependent and occurs maximally at pH 5.0 or below. When a previously isolated cDNA assumed to encode alpha AI-2 was expressed in transgenic tobacco seeds, the seeds contained inhibitory activity toward ZSA but not toward PPA, confirming that the cDNA encodes alpha AI-2. The inhibitors alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-2 share 78% sequence identity at the amino acid level and they differ in an important region that is part of the site where the enzyme binds the inhibitor. The swap of a tripeptide in this region was not sufficient to change the specificity of the two inhibitors towards their respective enzymes. The three-dimensional structure of the alpha AI-1/PPA complex has just been solved and we recently obtained the derived amino acid sequence of ZSA. This additional information allows us to discuss the results described here in the framework of the amino acid residues of both proteins involved in the formation of the enzyme-inhibitor complex and to pinpoint the amino acids responsible for the specificity of the interaction. PMID:9431678

  2. Out of the forest: past and present range expansion of a parthenogenetic weevil pest, or how to colonize the world successfully.

    PubMed

    Rodriguero, Marcela S; Lanteri, Analía A; Guzmán, Noelia V; Carús Guedes, Jerson V; Confalonieri, Viviana A

    2016-08-01

    Previous research revealed complex diversification patterns in the parthenogenetic weevil Naupactus cervinus. To understand the origin of clonal diversity and successful spreading of this weevil, we investigated its geographic origin and possible dispersal routes and whether parthenogens can persist in habitats under unsuitable environmental conditions. This study is based on samples taken throughout a broad area of the species' range. We used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers and applied phylogenetic and network analyses to infer possible relationships between haplotypes. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses and ecological niche modeling were used to investigate the processes that shaped genetic diversity and enabled the colonization of new geographic areas. Southeastern Brazil emerges as the original distribution area of N. cervinus. We detected two range expansions, one along natural corridors during the Pleistocene and the other in countries outside South America during recent times. Isolation due to climate shifts during the early Pleistocene led to diversification in two divergent clades, which probably survived in different refugia of the Paranaense Forest and the Paraná River delta. The origin of the clonal diversity was probably a complex process including mutational diversification, hybridization, and secondary colonization. The establishment of N. cervinus in areas outside its native range may indicate adaptation to drier and cooler conditions. Parthenogenesis would be advantageous for the colonization of new environments by preventing the breakup of successful gene combinations. As in other insect pests, the present distribution of N. cervinus results from both its evolutionary history and its recent history related to human activities. PMID:27551394

  3. Mito-nuclear genetic comparison in a Wolbachia infected weevil: insights on reproductive mode, infection age and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Maternally inherited endosymbionts like Wolbachia pipientis are in linkage disequilibrium with the mtDNA of their hosts. Therefore, they can induce selective sweeps, decreasing genetic diversity over many generations. This sex ratio distorter, that is involved in the origin of parthenogenesis and other reproductive alterations, infects the parthenogenetic weevil Naupactus cervinus, a serious pest of ornamental and fruit plants. Results Molecular evolution analyses of mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS1) sequences from 309 individuals of Naupactus cervinus sampled over a broad range of its geographical distribution were carried out. Our results demonstrate lack of recombination in the nuclear fragment, non-random association between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and the consequent coevolution of both genomes, being an indirect evidence of apomixis. This weevil is infected by a single Wolbachia strain, which could have caused a moderate bottleneck in the invaded population which survived the initial infection. Conclusions Clonal reproduction and Wolbachia infection induce the coevolution of bacterial, mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The time elapsed since the Wolbachia invasion would have erased the traces of the demographic crash in the mtDNA, being the nuclear genome the only one that retained the signal of the bottleneck. The amount of genetic change accumulated in the mtDNA and the high prevalence of Wolbachia in all populations of N. cervinus agree with the hypothesis of an ancient infection. Wolbachia probably had great influence in shaping the genetic diversity of N. cervinus. However, it would have not caused the extinction of males, since sexual and asexual infected lineages coexisted until recent times. PMID:21050430

  4. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  5. Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kyoko; Kato, Makoto; Murakami, Noriaki

    2011-01-01

    The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms. PMID:26467618

  6. Age- and time interval-specific gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in adult maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, assessed using comet assays.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro

    2012-01-24

    The gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in adult maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was assessed using single-cell electrophoresis (comet assay). Analysis of DNA damage following 0.5 and 1.0 kGy of gamma radiation was performed using cells from 1- and 15-day-old adults. Gamma-irradiated adults from both age groups showed typical DNA fragmentation, whereas cells from non-irradiated adults showed more intact DNA than young S. zeamais. Investigations using the comet assay showed that tail length, % tail DNA and % DNA damage all increased in adults of both age groups when compared to the control insects. A maximum comet length of 227.33 μm was recorded for 15-day-old adults at 24h after irradiation with 1.0 kGy and a minimum of 50.12 μm for 1-day-old adults at 0 h after irradiation with 0.5 kGy. The percentage of DNA damage increased up to 57.31% and 68.15% for 1- and 15-day-old adults, respectively, at 24h after irradiation with 1.0 kGy, whereas only 8.58% and 12.22% DNA damage were observed in the control batches. The results also showed that percentage of DNA damage increased at 24h after irradiation compared to that at 0 h. However, further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22142832

  7. Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 staining of four populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alexandra A.; Braga, Lucas S.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Tavares, Mara G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic data avalaible for the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most destructive pests of stored cereal grains, are controversial. Earlier studies focused on single populations and emphasized chromosome number and sex determination system. In this paper, the karyotypes of four populations of Sitophilus zeamais were characterized by conventional staining, C-banding and sequential staining with the fluorochromes chromomycin-A3/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CMA3/DAPI). The analyses of metaphases obtained from the cerebral ganglia of last instar larvae and the testes of adults showed that the species had 2n = 22 chromosomes, with 10 autosomal pairs and a sex chromosome pair (XX in females and Xyp in males). Chromosome number, however, ranged from 2n = 22 to 26 due to the presence of 0–4 supernumerary chromosomes in individuals from the populations of Viçosa, Unai and Porto Alegre. With the exception of the Y chromosome, which was dot-like, all other chromosomes of this species were metacentric, including the supernumeraries. The heterochromatin was present in the centromeric regions of all autosomes and in the centromere of the X chromosome. The B chromosomes were partially or totally heterochromatic, and the Y chromosome was euchromatic. The heterochromatic regions were labeled with C-banding and DAPI, which showed that they were rich in AT base pairs. PMID:25893077

  8. Multidisciplinary fingerprints: forensic reconstruction of an insect reinvasion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Jones, Gretchen D.; Westbrook, John K.; Sappington, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    An unexpected outbreak of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, an insect pest of cotton, across the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of west-central Texas, USA, was detected soon after passage of Tropical Storm Erin through the Winter Garden district to the south on 16 August 2007. The synchrony and broad geographic distribution of the captured weevils suggest that long-distance dispersal was responsible for the reinvasion. We integrated three types of assessment to reconstruct the geographic origin of the immigrants: (i) DNA fingerprinting; (ii) pollen fingerprinting; and (iii) atmospheric trajectory analysis. We hypothesized the boll weevils originated in the Southern Blacklands zone near Cameron, or in the Winter Garden district near Uvalde, the nearest regions with substantial populations. Genetic tests broadly agree that the immigrants originated southeast of the SRP zone, probably in regions represented by Uvalde or Weslaco. The SRP pollen profile from weevils matched that of Uvalde better than that of Cameron. Wind trajectories supported daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Uvalde region to the SRP from 17 to 24 August, but failed to support migration from the Cameron region. Taken together the forensic evidence strongly implicates the Winter Garden district near Uvalde as the source of reinvading boll weevils. PMID:19828497

  9. Pithy Protection: Nicotiana attenuata’s Jasmonic Acid-Mediated Defenses Are Required to Resist Stem-Boring Weevil Larvae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Diezel, Celia; Kessler, Danny; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    Folivory is the best studied plant-herbivore interaction, but it is unclear whether the signaling and resistance traits important for the defense of leaves are also important for other plant parts. Larvae of the tobacco stem weevil, Trichobaris mucorea, burrow into stems of Nicotiana attenuata and feed on the pith. Transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in signaling and foliar defense traits were evaluated in a 2-year field study for resistance against attack by naturally occurring T. mucorea larva. Plants silenced in early jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis (antisense [as]-lipoxygenase3 [lox3]; inverted repeat [ir]-allene oxide cyclase), JA perception (as-coronatine insensitive1), proteinase inhibitors (ir-pi), and nicotine (ir-putrescine methyl-transferase) direct defenses and lignin (ir-cad) biosynthesis were infested more frequently than wild-type plants. Plants unable to emit C6 aldehydes (as-hpl) had lower infestation rates, while plants silenced in late steps in JA biosynthesis (ir-acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, ir-opr) and silenced in diterpene glycoside production (ir-geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase) did not differ from wild type. Pith choice assays revealed that ir-putrescine methyl-transferase, ir-coronatine insensitive1, and ir-lox3 pith, which all had diminished nicotine levels, were preferred by larvae compared to wild-type pith. The lack of preference for ir-lox2 and ir-cad piths, suggest that oviposition attraction and vascular defense, rather than pith palatability accounts for the higher attack rates observed for these plants. We conclude that traits that influence a plant’s apparency, stem hardness, and pith direct defenses all contribute to resistance against this herbivore whose attack can be devastating to N. attenuata’s fitness. PMID:21300916

  10. Response of digestive cysteine proteinases from the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and the black vine weevil (Otiorynchus sulcatus) to a recombinant form of human stefin A.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Nguyen-Quoc, B; Vrain, T C; Fong, D; Yelle, S

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the cystatins, human stefin A (HSA) and oryzacystatin I (OCI) on digestive cysteine proteinases of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorynchus sulcatus, were assessed using complementary inhibition assays, cystatin-affinity chromatography, and recombinant forms of the two inhibitors. For both insects, either HSA and OCI used in excess (10 or 20 microM) caused partial and stable inhibition of total proteolytic (azocaseinase) activity, but unlike for OCI the HSA-mediated inhibitions were significantly increased when the inhibitor was used in large excess (100 microM). As demonstrated by complementary inhibition assays, this two-step inhibition of the insect proteases by HSA was due to the differential inactivation of two distinct cysteine proteinase populations in either insect extracts, the rapidly (strongly) inhibited population corresponding to the OCI-sensitive fraction. After removing the cystatin-sensitive proteinases from CPB and BVW midgut extracts using OCI- (or HSA-) affinity chromatography, the effects of the insect "non-target" proteases on the structural integrity of the two cystatins were assessed. While OCI remained essentially stable, HSA was subjected to hydrolysis without the accumulation of detectable stable intermediates, suggesting the presence of multiple exposed cleavage sites sensitive to the action of the insect proteases on this cystatin. This apparent susceptibility of HSA to proteolytic cleavage may partially explain its low efficiency to inactivate the insect OCI-insensitive cysteine proteinases when not used in large excess. It could also have major implications when planning the use of cystatin-expressing transgenic plants for the control of coleopteran pests. PMID:8920105

  11. Effect of low temperatures on mortality and oviposition in conjunction with climate mapping to predict spread of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus and introduced natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Borchert, Daniel M; Hall, David G

    2007-02-01

    The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), has been a pest of citrus and ornamental plants since its introduction into Lake County, FL, in 1964. Since then, it has colonized the Florida peninsula to the south of its point of introduction but has not expanded its range to the north. A lower threshold for oviposition by D. abbreviatus was estimated as 14.9 degrees C. Eggs were highly susceptible to cold, with 95% mortality (LTime95) occurring in 4.2 d at 12 degrees C. Relative susceptibility of life stages to cold was eggs > pupae > larvae > adults. Archived weather data from Florida were examined to guide a mapping exercise using the lower developmental threshold for larvae (12 degrees C) and the lower threshold for oviposition (15 degrees C) as critical temperatures for mapping the distribution of D. abbreviatus and the potential for establishment of egg parasitoids. Probability maps using the last 10 yr of weather data examined the frequency of at least 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 d per winter when soil temperature was

  12. Catolaccus grandis (Burks)(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catolaccus grandis is an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil classified initially within the genus Heterolaccus (Burks 1954). It was first introduced to the U.S. during the early 1970’s and released in experimental fields in Mississippi State, MS (Johnson et al. 1973). Researchers observed encouraging...

  13. 7 CFR 771.6 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 771.6 Section 771.6... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.6 Environmental requirements. No loan will be made until all Federal and state statutory and regulatory environmental requirements have...

  14. 7 CFR 771.6 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 771.6 Section 771.6... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.6 Environmental requirements. No loan will be made until all Federal and state statutory and regulatory environmental requirements have...

  15. Spectral properties of crops at different growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely detection and remediation of volunteer cotton plants in both cultivated and non-cultivated habitats is critical for completing boll weevil eradication in Central and South Texas. However, timely detection of cotton plants over large areas and habitats is a challenging process. The spectral ...

  16. Stages of gonadal development of the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): Improved visualization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and other related species have become pests in cotton following successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil. In Central Texas, little is known regarding the ecology of N. viridula. The reproductive status of N. viridula adults can be used ...

  17. A visual guide to identification of Euschistus spp. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in central Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stink bugs have become pests in cotton following successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil. Species of the genus Euschistus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are common in cotton and other commodities, and species within the genus are commonly grouped as the brown stink bug complex. This generic ...

  18. Oviposition and Development of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: miridae) on Field Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced insecticide use in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., as a consequence of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program and the broad adoption of Bt cotton, have helped make the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), a consistent pest of cotton each year in the mid-South. Maize, Zea...

  19. Differentiation of cotton from other crops at different growth stages using spectral properties and discriminant analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely detection and remediation of volunteer cotton plants in both cultivated and non-cultivated habitats is critical for completing boll weevil eradication in Central and South Texas. However, timely detection of cotton plants over large areas and habitats is a challenging process. The spectral ...

  20. 7 CFR 771.14 - Loan monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan monitoring. 771.14 Section 771.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.14 Loan monitoring. (a) Annual and periodic reviews. At least annually, the borrower...

  1. 7 CFR 771.12 - Funding applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding applications. 771.12 Section 771.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.12 Funding applications. Loan...

  2. 7 CFR 771.12 - Funding applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding applications. 771.12 Section 771.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.12 Funding applications. Loan...

  3. 7 CFR 771.12 - Funding applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding applications. 771.12 Section 771.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.12 Funding applications. Loan...

  4. 7 CFR 771.12 - Funding applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding applications. 771.12 Section 771.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.12 Funding applications. Loan...

  5. 7 CFR 771.12 - Funding applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding applications. 771.12 Section 771.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.12 Funding applications. Loan...

  6. Effects of image spatial and radiometric resolutions on the detection of cotton plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and timely detection of volunteer and regrowth cotton plants is important for the eradication of boll weevils in south Texas. Airborne remote sensing imagery has the potential to identify volunteer and regrowth cotton plants over large geographic regions. The objective of this study was to ...

  7. Fall Armyworm susceptibility to Bollgard I, Bollgard II, and Widestrike cotton as determined by a leaf-dish assay.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), has received little attention as boll weevil eradication progresses into the second full season in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. Cotton varieties containing the endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ac = Bollgard®, Cry1Ac + Cry1Ab ...

  8. 7 CFR 771.6 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 771.6 Section 771.6... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.6 Environmental requirements. No loan will be made until all Federal and state statutory and regulatory environmental requirements have...

  9. 7 CFR 771.6 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 771.6 Section 771.6... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.6 Environmental requirements. No loan will be made until all Federal and state statutory and regulatory environmental requirements have...

  10. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant... prior to closing. (b) Loan instruments and legal documents. The borrower, through its...

  11. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant... prior to closing. (b) Loan instruments and legal documents. The borrower, through its...

  12. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant... prior to closing. (b) Loan instruments and legal documents. The borrower, through its...

  13. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant... prior to closing. (b) Loan instruments and legal documents. The borrower, through its...

  14. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant... prior to closing. (b) Loan instruments and legal documents. The borrower, through its...

  15. 7 CFR 771.7 - Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, gender, or other prohibited... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements... opportunity and non-discrimination requirements. No recipient of a boll weevil eradication loan shall...

  16. A rapid decision sampling plan for implementing area-wide management of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in coconut plantations of India.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, J R; Ashok Kumar, J

    2008-01-01

    The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae/Rhynchophoridae/Dryophthoridae) is a lethal pest of young coconut palms, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), with a highly aggregated population distribution pattern. R. ferrugineus is managed in several coconut growing countries using area-wide pheromone based programmes that need a substantial commitment of funds over a period of time. Often, decisions to implement area-wide management of R. ferrugineus are based on pheromone trap captures in surveillance traps and or infestation reports. Implementing area-wide management of this pest on the basis of such data can be inaccurate, as it may either under or over estimate the pest intensity in the field. This study presents sampling plans for rapid and accurate classification of R. ferrugineus infestation in coconut plantations of India by inspecting palms to detect infestation in a sequence until a decision to either implement or not to initiate area-wide management of R. ferrugineus can be made. The sampling plans are based on a common aggregation index of 3.45, assumed action threshold values of either 1.0 (plan A) or 0.5 (plan B) per cent infested palms and a risk factor of making the wrong decision set at 0.05. Using plans A and B, if the cumulative number of infested palms in a young 1 hectare coconut plantation is zero out of 150 palms for both plans, then area-wide management is not required, while on the other hand, if the cumulative number of infested palms for the same area is 6 (plan A), or 5 (plan B), then area-wide management of R. ferrugineus is essential. The proposed sampling plans are efficient tools in decision making, particularly at very low and high levels of infestation and can also be used to assess the performance of R. ferrugineus IPM programmes that are in progress. These plans not only save time and money as only a small area needs to be sampled to arrive at a correct decision, but are also efficient in rating the

  17. A Rapid Decision Sampling Plan for Implementing Area—Wide Management of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in Coconut Plantations of India

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, J. R.; Ashok Kumar, J.

    2008-01-01

    The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae/Rhynchophoridae/Dryophthoridae) is a lethal pest of young coconut palms, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), with a highly aggregated population distribution pattern. R. ferrugineus is managed in several coconut growing countries using area-wide pheromone based programmes that need a substantial commitment of funds over a period of time. Often, decisions to implement area-wide management of R. ferrugineus are based on pheromone trap captures in surveillance traps and or infestation reports. Implementing area-wide management of this pest on the basis of such data can be inaccurate, as it may either under or over estimate the pest intensity in the field. This study presents sampling plans for rapid and accurate classification of R. ferrugineus infestation in coconut plantations of India by inspecting palms to detect infestation in a sequence until a decision to either implement or not to initiate area-wide management of R. ferrugineus can be made. The sampling plans are based on a common aggregation index of 3.45, assumed action threshold values of either 1.0 (plan A) or 0.5 (plan B) per cent infested palms and a risk factor of making the wrong decision set at 0.05. Using plans A and B, if the cummulative number of infested palms in a young 1 hectare coconut plantation is zero out of 150 palms for both plans, then area-wide management is not required, while on the other hand, if the cummulative number of infested palms for the same area is 6 (plan A), or 5 (plan B), then area-wide management of R. ferrugineus is essential. The proposed sampling plans are efficient tools in decision making, particularly at very low and high levels of infestation and can also be used to assess the performance of R. ferrugineus IPM programmes that are in progress. These plans not only save time and money as only a small area needs to be sampled to arrive at a correct decision, but are also efficient in rating the

  18. Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

    2004-01-01

    Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the

  19. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistence and efficacy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Wood, Bruce W

    2012-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized that a clover cover crop enhances B. bassiana efficacy and persistence (e.g., by protecting the fungus against abiotic environmental stresses). The hypothesis was tested by conducting field trials in a pecan orchard in Byron, GA, in 2009 and 2010. The study included four treatments arranged in a factorial with two levels of fungus (endemic fungus only, and application of a commercial B. bassiana product), and two levels of clover (white clover, Trifolium repens L., and no clover). Fungal persistence was measured by determining the number of CFUs per gram of soil over time (during 42 d postapplication of B. bassiana in 2009 and 29 d in 2010). Efficacy was measured by capturing naturally emerging C. caryae and subsequently determining mortality and mycosis (over 24 d in 2009 and 17 d in 2010). In 2009, greater prevalence of B. bassiana conidia was detected in plots receiving fungal applications compared with no fungus applications, and no clear effect of clover was observed in plots receiving B. bassiana applications in either year. In 2010, B. bassiana prevalence in the endemic fungus plus clover treatment was higher than fungus without clover, and was similar to plots receiving additional B. bassiana applications. Given that we observed enhanced persistence of endemic B. bassiana in 2010 but not 2009, the impact of clover appears to be a cumulative effect. Mortality of C. caryae (averaged over the sampling periods) ranged between 68-74% in plots receiving B. bassiana applications and 51-56% in plots with endemic fungus only. C. caryae mortality and mycosis data also provided evidence that endemic B. bassiana efficacy was enhanced by clover

  20. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  1. Black Vine and Other Weevils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Otiorhynchus sulcatus and other members of the genus are severe pests of field and container-grown rhododendron and azalea. In order to manage these pests effectively, growers must have a firm understanding of their life cycle and behavior. Proper identification of the pest complex present at the n...

  2. Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism. PMID:11457962

  3. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  4. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  5. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  6. Survival and behavioural responses of the predatory ladybird beetle, Eriopis connexa populations susceptible and resistant to a pyrethroid insecticide.

    PubMed

    Spíndola, A F; Silva-Torres, C S A; Rodrigues, A R S; Torres, J B

    2013-08-01

    The ladybird beetle, Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the commonest predators of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the cotton agroecosystem and in many other row and fruit crops in Brazil, and has been introduced into other countries such as the USA for purposes of aphid control. In addition, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most serious cotton pest where it occurs, including Brazil. Controlling boll weevils and other pests such as cotton defoliators still tends to involve the intense application of insecticides to secure cotton production. The pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is commonly used, but this compound is not effective against aphids; hence, a desirable strategy would be to maintain E. connexa populations in cotton fields where LCT is applied. Using populations of E. connexa resistant (Res) and susceptible (Sus) to LCT, we compared behavioural responses on treated cotton plants and under confinement on partially and fully treated surfaces, and assessed the insects' survival on treated plants compared with that of the boll weevil. The E. connexa resistant population caged on treated plants with 15 and 75 g a.i. ha-1 exhibited ≫82% survival for both insecticide concentrations compared with ≪3% and ≪17% survival for susceptible E. connexa populations and boll weevils, respectively. The response of E. connexa Res and Sus populations when released, either on the soil or on the plant canopy, indicated avoidance towards treated plants, as measured by elapsed time to assess the plant. When compared with susceptible individuals, resistant ones took longer time to suffer insecticide knockdown, had a higher recovery rate after suffering knockdown, and spent more time in the plant canopy. Based on behavioural parameters evaluated in treated arenas, no ladybird beetles exhibited repellency. However, irritability was evident, with the susceptible population exhibiting

  7. Insect diets as mixtures: Optimization for a polyphagous weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development or improvement of artificial insect diets can be tedious, convoluted and under-appreciated. Modern hardware and software can be applied to efficiently sample multidimensional designs to analyze diets as n-dimensional mixtures. We identified a set of response-optimized meridic diets that ...

  8. Transient simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bolling-Allerod warming.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Otto-Bliesner, B L; He, F; Brady, E C; Tomas, R; Clark, P U; Carlson, A E; Lynch-Stieglitz, J; Curry, W; Brook, E; Erickson, D; Jacob, R; Kutzbach, J; Cheng, J

    2009-07-17

    We conducted the first synchronously coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming. Our model reproduces several major features of the deglacial climate evolution, suggesting a good agreement in climate sensitivity between the model and observations. In particular, our model simulates the abrupt BA warming as a transient response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to a sudden termination of freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic before the BA. In contrast to previous mechanisms that invoke AMOC multiple equilibrium and Southern Hemisphere climate forcing, we propose that the BA transition is caused by the superposition of climatic responses to the transient CO(2) forcing, the AMOC recovery from Heinrich Event 1, and an AMOC overshoot. PMID:19608916

  9. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation. Bolling Air Force Base. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy-efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide.

  10. Stability of spatial distributions of stink bugs, boll injury, and NDVI in cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of thrips, stink bugs, and aphids in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), a multispectral vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]), ...

  11. DOE/USDA joint project to design and manufacture prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Design, assembly, prove-in, and performance testing of prototype equipment for the United States Department of Agriculture`s Subtropical Agriculture Research Laboratory (SARL) were completed by the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The plant is operated by AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The prototype equipment was developed as part of the USDA`s efforts to mass produce parasitic wasps for organic control of boll weevils in cotton crops. This development was part of the Production Capability Assurance Program and also part of the Work For Others program. Design and assembly of this prototype equipment led to some new FM&T processes and technologies and exercised many others as described in the text and, at the same time, met the needs of the USDA.

  12. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas. PMID:17716463

  13. Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Wearing, C H; Byers, J A

    2006-10-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests: mass trapping, "lure and kill," and mating disruption. In this article, we review the potential of mass trapping in long-term pest management as well as in the eradication of invasive species. We discuss similarities and differences between mass trapping and other two main approaches of semiochemical-based pest management programs. We highlight several study cases where mass trapping has been used either in long-term pest management [e.g., codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders); bark beetles, palm weevils, corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.); and fruit flies] or in eradication of invasive species [e.g., gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.); and boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We list the critical issues that affect the efficacy of mass trapping and compare these with previously published models developed to investigate mass trapping efficacy in pest control. We conclude that mass trapping has good potential to suppress or eradicate low-density, isolated pest populations; however, its full potential in pest management has not been adequately realized and therefore encourages further research and development of this technology. PMID:17066782

  14. THE EFFECTS ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND MORTALITY, PUPATION AND TOLERANCE TO TOXIC PROTEIN IN COTTON BOLLS, POLLEN, AND ARTIFICIAL DIET BIOASSAYS OF PINK BOLLWORM (PBW) FEEDING ON NUCOTN 33B COTTON BOLLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottons that have a gene or genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (Berliner) that produce insect toxins have been grown in Arizona since 1996. The threat of pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) resistance development to the toxin has been of continuing concern. The increasin...

  15. The Bug Problem in Cotton-Can We Manage Bugs and Boll-Rotting Pathogens Without a Crystal Ball?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As cotton varieties with single-protein (i.e. Bollgard®) protection from caterpillar pests, provided by genetic insertions from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) var. kurstaki, are phased out after 2010 and dual-protein (i.e. Bollgard II®, WideStrike®, etc.) transgenic Bt varieties become the only options...

  16. Resistance of Sunflower Germplasm to the Sunflower Stem Weevil and Red Sunflower Seed Weevil and Evaluation of Commercial Hybrids for Resistance to the Sunflower Midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the central and northern Plains, cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is attacked by a number of insect pests resulting in yield losses for sunflower producers. Host-plant resistance can provide a long-term solution to managing these insects with reduced input costs and with potentially lo...

  17. Optimal diet for production of normative adults of the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect diets are complex mixtures of vitamins, salts, preservatives, and nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). To determine the effect of varying the doses of multiple components, the traditional approach requires large factorial experiments resulting in very large numbers of treatment com...

  18. Competition Between Entomopathogenic and Free-Living Bactivorous Nematodes in Larvae of the Weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, L. W.; Dunn, D. C.; Bague, G.; Nguyen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the degree to which free-living, bactivorous nematodes (FLBN) are able to competitively displace entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) from insect cadavers. Two hundred larvae of the insect Diaprepes abbreviatus were buried at regular intervals during 2 years in experimental plots that were untreated or treated twice annually with Steinernema riobrave. Larvae were recovered after 7 days, and nematodes emerging from cadavers during the next 30 days were identified. The monthly prevalence of FLBN was directly related to that of S. riobrave (r = 0.38; P = 0.001) but was not related to the prevalence of the endemic EPN, S. diaprepesi, Heterorhabditis zealandica, H. indica, or H. bacteriophora (r = 0.02; P = 0.80). In a second experiment, treatment of small field plots with S. riobrave increased the prevalence of insect cadavers in which only FLBN were detected compared to untreated controls (30% vs. 14%; P = 0.052), and increased numbers of FLBN per buried insect by more than 10-fold. In the laboratory, sand microcosms containing one D. abbreviatus larva were treated with (i) the FLBN, Pellioditis sp.; (ii) S. riobrave; (iii) S. riobrave + Pellioditis; or (iv) neither nematode. Insect mortality was higher in the presence of both nematodes (57%) than when S. riobrave was alone (42%) (P = 0.01). An average of 59.2 Pellioditis sp. g-1 insect body weight emerged in the presence of S. riobrave, whereas 6.2 nematodes g-1 insect were recovered in the absence of the EPN (P = 0.01). Pellioditis sp. reduced the number of S. riobrave per cadaver by 84%; (P = 0.03), and per available insect by 82% (P = 0.001), compared to S. riobrave alone. Population size of S. diaprepesi was not affected by Pellioditis sp. in experiments of the same design. Faster development (P = 0.05) and nutrient appropriation within the insect cadaver by S. diaprepesi compared to S. riobrave may increase the fitness of the former species to compete with Pellioditis sp. The results of these studies demonstrate the potential of FLBN to regulate population densities of EPN and to dampen estimates of EPN-induced mortality of insect pests in the field. PMID:19265993

  19. Transcriptomic identification of chemoreceptor genes in the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Liu, L; Qin, W Q; Li, C X; Peng, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial for insects' survival because it enables them to recognize various environmental information. It is primarily mediated by a large family of chemoreceptors, including olfactory receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs). Here, we assembled the transcriptome of the economically important pest of palms, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, to reveal its chemoreceptor gene repertoire. About 8.08 Gbp data were generated using a HiSeq platform and their assembly led to a total of 24,439 unigenes. Among the transcripts, 12,523 (51.24%) showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Nr database. From these sequences, 18 candidate genes of ORs were identified. Nine putative transcripts were homologous to GR genes, while 9 were similar to IR genes. The expression profiles of all identified chemoreceptor genes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, and legs of both sexes. Most chemoreceptor genes were antenna-enriched. This study demonstrated a successful application of a transcriptome for discovering a large number of divergent chemoreceptor genes of a non-model organism. The findings provide a valuable sequence resource and gene tissue distribution information for systematic functional analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying chemoreception in this pest. PMID:26214426

  20. Revision of the Australian species of the weevil genus Trigonopterus Fauvel

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Tänzler, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Australian species of the genus Trigonopterus Fauvel are revised. Eight previously recognized species are redescribed and 24 additional new species are described: Trigonopterus allaetus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus athertonensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus australinasutus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus australis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus bisignatus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus bisinuatus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus boolbunensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus cooktownensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus daintreensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus deplanatus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus finniganensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus fraterculus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus garradungensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus hasenpuschi Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus hartleyensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus kurandensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus lewisensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus montanus Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus monteithi Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus mossmanensis Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus oberprieleri Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus robertsi Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus terraereginae Riedel, sp. n., Trigonopterus yorkensis Riedel, sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. Lectotypes are designated for the following names: Idotasia aequalis Pascoe, Idotasia albidosparsa Lea, Idotasia evanida Pascoe, Idotasia laeta Lea, Idotasia rostralis Lea, Idotasia sculptirostris Lea, Idotasia squamosa Lea. A new combination of the name Idotasia striatipennis Lea is proposed: Trigonopterus striatipennis (Lea), comb. n.. A key to the species is provided. Australian Trigonopterus occur in coastal Queensland, narrowly crossing into New South Wales. The southern parts of the range are inhabited by species found on foliage. A rich fauna of 19 edaphic species inhabiting the leaf litter of tropical forests is reported for the first time from the Australian Wet Tropics. PMID:26877696

  1. Identification and synthesis of a male-produced pheromone for the neotropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Alessandro, Rocco T; Robbins, Paul S; Khrimian, Ashot; Svatos, Ales; Dickens, Joseph C; Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Kaplan, Fatma; Alborn, Hans T; Teal, Peter E

    2012-04-01

    An unsaturated hydroxy-ester pheromone was isolated from the headspace and feces of male Diaprepes abbreviatus, identified, and synthesized. The pheromone, methyl (E)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate, was discovered by gas chromatography-coupled electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD), and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The synthesis yielded an 86:14 mixture of methyl (E)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate (active) and methyl (Z)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate (inactive), along with a lactone breakdown product. The activity of the synthetic E-isomer was confirmed by GC-EAD, GC-MS, NMR, and bioassays. No antennal response was observed to the Z-isomer or the lactone. In a two-choice olfactometer bioassay, female D. abbreviatus moved upwind towards the synthetic pheromone or natural pheromone more often compared with clean air. Males showed no clear preference for the synthetic pheromone. This pheromone, alone or in combination with plant volatiles, may play a role in the location of males by female D. abbreviatus. PMID:22434385

  2. Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on a native plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer communities are being re-arranged through unprecedented rates of human-mediated invasions and extinctions. Such changes in consumer composition and diversity potentially alter pressure and impact on resource populations. Although insect herbivore invasions are common, and exotic herbivores...

  3. Eavesdropping on coconut rhinoceros beetles, red palm weevils, Asian longhorned beetles, and other invasive travelers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As global trade increases, invasive insects inflict increasing economic damage to agriculture and urban landscapes in the United States yearly, despite a sophisticated array of interception methods and quarantine programs designed to exclude their entry. Insects that are hidden inside soil, wood, or...

  4. Identification and synthesis of a male-produced pheromone for the neotropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unsaturated hydroxy ester pheromone collected from the headspace and feces of male Diaprepes abbreviatus was isolated, identified and synthesized. The pheromone, methyl (E)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate, was discovered by gas chromatography-coupled electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD...

  5. A leaf-rolling weevil benefits from general saprophytic fungi in polysaccharide degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects form symbiosis with fungi widely, especially those feeding on leaf litter. As dead plant tissues provide poor quality diets which contain relatively high levels of indigestible lignin and cellulose, saprophytic fungi may increase nutrient availability by polysaccharide degradation. Although ...

  6. Ninety-eight new species of Trigonopterus weevils from Sundaland and the Lesser Sunda Islands.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Alexander; Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Suhardjono, Yayuk R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 is highly diverse in Melanesia. Only one species, Trigonopterusamphoralis Marshall, 1925 was so far recorded West of Wallace's Line (Eastern Sumatra). Based on focused field-work the fauna from Sundaland (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Palawan) and the Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores) is here revised. We redescribe Trigonopterusamphoralis Marshall and describe an additional 98 new species: Trigonopterusacuminatus sp. n., Trigonopterusaeneomicans sp. n., Trigonopterusalaspurwensis sp. n., Trigonopterusallopatricus sp. n., Trigonopterusallotopus sp. n., Trigonopterusangulicollis sp. n., Trigonopterusargopurensis sp. n., Trigonopterusarjunensis sp. n., Trigonopterusasper sp. n., Trigonopterusattenboroughi sp. n., Trigonopterusbaliensis sp. n., Trigonopterusbatukarensis sp. n., Trigonopterusbawangensis sp. n., Trigonopterusbinodulus sp. n., Trigonopterusbornensis sp. n., Trigonopteruscahyoi sp. n., Trigonopteruscostipennis sp. n., Trigonopteruscuprescens sp. n., Trigonopteruscupreus sp. n., Trigonopterusdacrycarpi sp. n., Trigonopterusdelapan sp. n., Trigonopterusdentipes sp. n., Trigonopterusdiengensis sp. n., Trigonopterusdimorphus sp. n., Trigonopterusdisruptus sp. n., Trigonopterusdua sp. n., Trigonopterusduabelas sp. n., Trigonopterusechinatus sp. n., Trigonopterusempat sp. n., Trigonopterusenam sp. n., Trigonopterusfissitarsis sp. n., Trigonopterusflorensis sp. n., Trigonopterusfoveatus sp. n., Trigonopterusfulgidus sp. n., Trigonopterusgedensis sp. n., Trigonopterushalimunensis sp. n., Trigonopterushonjensis sp. n., Trigonopterusijensis sp. n., Trigonopterusjavensis sp. n., Trigonopteruskalimantanensis sp. n., Trigonopteruskintamanensis sp. n., Trigonopterusklatakanensis sp. n., Trigonopteruslampungensis sp. n., Trigonopteruslatipes sp. n., Trigonopteruslima sp. n., Trigonopteruslombokensis sp. n., Trigonopterusmerubetirensis sp. n., Trigonopterusmesehensis sp. n., Trigonopterusmicans sp. n., Trigonopterusmisellus sp. n., Trigonopteruspalawanensis sp. n., Trigonopteruspangandaranensis sp. n., Trigonopterusparaflorensis sp. n., Trigonopteruspararugosus sp. n., Trigonopterusparasumbawensis sp. n., Trigonopteruspauxillus sp. n., Trigonopteruspayungensis sp. n., Trigonopterusporcatus sp. n., Trigonopteruspseudoflorensis sp. n., Trigonopteruspseudosumbawensis sp. n., Trigonopteruspunctatoseriatus sp. n., Trigonopterusranakensis sp. n., Trigonopterusrelictus sp. n., Trigonopterusrinjaniensis sp. n., Trigonopterusroensis sp. n., Trigonopterusrugosostriatus sp. n., Trigonopterusrugosus sp. n., Trigonopterusrutengensis sp. n., Trigonopterussaltator sp. n., Trigonopterussantubongensis sp. n., Trigonopterussasak sp. n., Trigonopterussatu sp. n., Trigonopterusschulzi sp. n., Trigonopterussebelas sp. n., Trigonopterussembilan sp. n., Trigonopterussepuluh sp. n., Trigonopterusseriatus sp. n., Trigonopterusserratifemur sp. n., Trigonopterussetifer sp. n., Trigonopterussilvestris sp. n., Trigonopterussingkawangensis sp. n., Trigonopterussingularis sp. n., Trigonopterussinuatus sp. n., Trigonopterussqualidus sp. n., Trigonopterussumatrensis sp. n., Trigonopterussumbawensis sp. n., Trigonopterussundaicus sp. n., Trigonopterussuturalis sp. n., Trigonopterussyarbis sp. n., Trigonopterustelagensis sp. n., Trigonopterustepalensis sp. n., Trigonopterustiga sp. n., Trigonopterustrigonopterus sp. n., Trigonopterustujuh sp. n., Trigonopterusujungkulonensis sp. n., Trigonopterusvariolosus sp. n., Trigonopterusvulcanicus sp. n., Trigonopteruswallacei sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. Most species belong to the litter fauna of primary wet evergreen forests. This habitat has become highly fragmented in the study area and many of its remnants harbor endemic species. Conservation measures should be intensified, especially in smaller and less famous sites to minimize the number of species threatened by extinction. PMID:25610340

  7. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler; Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832

  8. Ninety-eight new species of Trigonopterus weevils from Sundaland and the Lesser Sunda Islands

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Suhardjono, Yayuk R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 is highly diverse in Melanesia. Only one species, Trigonopterus amphoralis Marshall, 1925 was so far recorded West of Wallace’s Line (Eastern Sumatra). Based on focused field-work the fauna from Sundaland (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Palawan) and the Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores) is here revised. We redescribe Trigonopterus amphoralis Marshall and describe an additional 98 new species: Trigonopterus acuminatus sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneomicans sp. n., Trigonopterus alaspurwensis sp. n., Trigonopterus allopatricus sp. n., Trigonopterus allotopus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus argopurensis sp. n., Trigonopterus arjunensis sp. n., Trigonopterus asper sp. n., Trigonopterus attenboroughi sp. n., Trigonopterus baliensis sp. n., Trigonopterus batukarensis sp. n., Trigonopterus bawangensis sp. n., Trigonopterus binodulus sp. n., Trigonopterus bornensis sp. n., Trigonopterus cahyoi sp. n., Trigonopterus costipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuprescens sp. n., Trigonopterus cupreus sp. n., Trigonopterus dacrycarpi sp. n., Trigonopterus delapan sp. n., Trigonopterus dentipes sp. n., Trigonopterus diengensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dimorphus sp. n., Trigonopterus disruptus sp. n., Trigonopterus dua sp. n., Trigonopterus duabelas sp. n., Trigonopterus echinatus sp. n., Trigonopterus empat sp. n., Trigonopterus enam sp. n., Trigonopterus fissitarsis sp. n., Trigonopterus florensis sp. n., Trigonopterus foveatus sp. n., Trigonopterus fulgidus sp. n., Trigonopterus gedensis sp. n., Trigonopterus halimunensis sp. n., Trigonopterus honjensis sp. n., Trigonopterus ijensis sp. n., Trigonopterus javensis sp. n., Trigonopterus kalimantanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus kintamanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus klatakanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus lampungensis sp. n., Trigonopterus latipes sp. n., Trigonopterus lima sp. n., Trigonopterus lombokensis sp. n., Trigonopterus merubetirensis sp. n., Trigonopterus mesehensis sp. n., Trigonopterus micans sp. n., Trigonopterus misellus sp. n., Trigonopterus palawanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus pangandaranensis sp. n., Trigonopterus paraflorensis sp. n., Trigonopterus pararugosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parasumbawensis sp. n., Trigonopterus pauxillus sp. n., Trigonopterus payungensis sp. n., Trigonopterus porcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudoflorensis sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudosumbawensis sp. n., Trigonopterus punctatoseriatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ranakensis sp. n., Trigonopterus relictus sp. n., Trigonopterus rinjaniensis sp. n., Trigonopterus roensis sp. n., Trigonopterus rugosostriatus sp. n., Trigonopterus rugosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rutengensis sp. n., Trigonopterus saltator sp. n., Trigonopterus santubongensis sp. n., Trigonopterus sasak sp. n., Trigonopterus satu sp. n., Trigonopterus schulzi sp. n., Trigonopterus sebelas sp. n., Trigonopterus sembilan sp. n., Trigonopterus sepuluh sp. n., Trigonopterus seriatus sp. n., Trigonopterus serratifemur sp. n., Trigonopterus setifer sp. n., Trigonopterus silvestris sp. n., Trigonopterus singkawangensis sp. n., Trigonopterus singularis sp. n., Trigonopterus sinuatus sp. n., Trigonopterus squalidus sp. n., Trigonopterus sumatrensis sp. n., Trigonopterus sumbawensis sp. n., Trigonopterus sundaicus sp. n., Trigonopterus suturalis sp. n., Trigonopterus syarbis sp. n., Trigonopterus telagensis sp. n., Trigonopterus tepalensis sp. n., Trigonopterus tiga sp. n., Trigonopterus trigonopterus sp. n., Trigonopterus tujuh sp. n., Trigonopterus ujungkulonensis sp. n., Trigonopterus variolosus sp. n., Trigonopterus vulcanicus sp. n., Trigonopterus wallacei sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. Most species belong to the litter fauna of primary wet evergreen forests. This habitat has become highly fragmented in the study area and many of its remnants harbor endemic species. Conservation measures should be intensified, especially in smaller and less famous sites to minimize the number of species threatened by extinction. PMID:25610340

  9. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler;  Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832

  10. ALLELOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TROPICAL LEGUME TEPHROSIA SPP. AGAINST THE DIAPREPES ROOT WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Leguminosae produce allelochemicals with behavioral and toxic effects. Species of Tephrosia produce a range of flavonoids including isoflavonoid rotenoids with insecticidal activity. We characterized antifeedant and toxic properties of 2 Tephrosia species. T. candida detered adult feeding, re...

  11. Contest-Behavior of Maize Weevil Larvae when Competing within Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food limitation induces severe competition for obligate seed-feeding insect larvae that are unable to leave the seed selected by their mother. The number of eggs laid per seed and the number of larvae hatched from the eggs determine whether larval behavior within the seed will be of the scramble or ...

  12. Evaluation of the rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne, a new biological control agent of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle is an invasive alien weed from the Mediterranean region that infests about 20 million acres in the western U.S. This noxious weed displaces native plants, elevates the risk of wildfire, and diminishes the value of rangeland for grazing and recreational use. A classical biological ...

  13. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Freire, Ingrid; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Barbosa, Lilian Carla Pereira; Martins, Erica Soares; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2014-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of Cry-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have long been used as spore-crystals in commercial spray formulations for insect control. Recently, some Bt-endotoxin genes have been cloned in many different plants. Toxicological evaluations of three spore-crystal endotoxins, BtCry1Ia, BtCry10Aa and BtCry1Ba6 from B. thuringiensis, were carried out on mice to understand their adverse effects on hematological systems and on genetic material. These three spore-crystals have shown toxic activity to the boll weevil, which is one of the most aggressive pests of the cotton crop. Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 did not increase the micronucleus frequency in the peripheral erythrocytes of mice and did not cause changes in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes. However, some hematologic disburbances were observed, specifically related to Cry1Ia and Cry1Ba6, respectively, for the erythroid and lymphoid lineage. Thus, although the profile of such adverse side effects can be related to their high level of exposure, which is not commonly found in the environment, results showed that these Bt spore-crystals were not harmless to mice, indicating that each spore-crystal endotoxin presents a characteristic profile of toxicity and might be investigated individually. PMID:25268978

  14. Role of phermones and kairmones for insect suppression systems and their possible health and environmental impacts.

    PubMed Central

    Knipling, E F

    1976-01-01

    Insects produce pheromones as a chemical communication system to facilitate reproduction. These highly active chemical attractants have been synthesized for some of the most important insect pests, including the boll weevil, gypsy moth, codling moth, tobacco budworm, European corn borer, and several bark beetles. While none of the synthetic sex attractants have yet been developed for use in insect control, they offer opportunities for the future both as control agents and to greatly improved insect detection. Investigations are underway on insect trapping systems employing the phermones and on air permeation techniques to disrupt insect reproduction. The pheromones are generally highly species-specific and are not likely to pose hazards to nontarget organisms in the environment. Toxicological studies indicate that they are low in toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish, but adequate toxicological data are necessary before they can be registered for use in insect control. Another new class of compounds called kaironomes has been discovered. These chemicals are involved in the detection of hosts or prey by insect parasites and predators. Kairomones may prove useful in manipulating natural or released biological agents for more effective biological control of insect pests. No information is yet available on the toxicology of these chemicals. PMID:789061

  15. Role of phermones and kairmones for insect suppression systems and their possible health and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Knipling, E F

    1976-04-01

    Insects produce pheromones as a chemical communication system to facilitate reproduction. These highly active chemical attractants have been synthesized for some of the most important insect pests, including the boll weevil, gypsy moth, codling moth, tobacco budworm, European corn borer, and several bark beetles. While none of the synthetic sex attractants have yet been developed for use in insect control, they offer opportunities for the future both as control agents and to greatly improved insect detection. Investigations are underway on insect trapping systems employing the phermones and on air permeation techniques to disrupt insect reproduction. The pheromones are generally highly species-specific and are not likely to pose hazards to nontarget organisms in the environment. Toxicological studies indicate that they are low in toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish, but adequate toxicological data are necessary before they can be registered for use in insect control. Another new class of compounds called kaironomes has been discovered. These chemicals are involved in the detection of hosts or prey by insect parasites and predators. Kairomones may prove useful in manipulating natural or released biological agents for more effective biological control of insect pests. No information is yet available on the toxicology of these chemicals. PMID:789061

  16. Carbon allocation, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant capacity and growth in cotton under long-term soil drought during flowering and boll-forming period.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Gao, Min; Ji, Shu; Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    Responses of plant to drought largely depend on the intensity, duration and developmental stage at which water stress occurs. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamic of cotton physiology response to different levels sustained soil water deficit during reproductive growth stage at leaf basis. Three levels of steady-state water regimes [soil relative water content (SRWC) maintained at (75 ± 5)%, (60 ± 5)% and (45 ± 5)%] were imposed when the white flowers had opened on the first fruiting position of the 6-7th fruiting branches (FB6-7), which was the first day post anthesis (i.e. 1 DPA) and lasted to 50 DPA. Results showed decreasing SRWC slowed cotton growth on the base of biomass and leaf area. However, carbon metabolites levels were globally increased under drought despite of notably inhibited photosynthesis throughout the treatment period. Clear diurnal pattern of sucrose and starch concentrations was obtained and sucrose levels were evaluated while starch concentration was reduced with decreasing soil water content during a 24-h cycle. Osmotic adjustment (OA) was observed at most of the sampling dates throughout the drought period. K(+) was the main contributor to osmotic adjustment (OA) at 10 and 24 DPA then turned out to be amino acid at 38 and 50 DPA. The stressed cotton gradually failed to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) with increasing days post anthesis, primarily due to the permanent decrease in SOD activity. Elevated carbohydrates levels suggest cotton growth was more inhibited by other factors than carbon assimilation. OA and antioxidant could be important protective mechanisms against soil water deficit in this species, and transition of these mechanisms was observed with drought intensity and duration increased. PMID:27288990

  17. FT-mid-IR spectroscopic investigation of fiber maturity and crystallinity at single boll level and a comparison with XRD approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous study, we have reported the development of simple algorithms for determining fiber maturity and crystallinity from Fourier transform (FT) -mid-infrared (IR) measurement. Due to its micro-sampling feature, we were able to assess the fiber maturity and crystallinity at different portions o...

  18. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  19. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption. PMID:27078512

  20. Genetic and behavioral differences among purported species of the weevil Trichosirocalus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for biological control of thistles (Asteraceae, Cardueae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract and Interpretive Summary: Provide electronically in Word. Trichosirocalus horridus was introduced to North America, New Zealand and Australia for biological control of Carduus nutans. Since then two more species of Trichosirocalus have been described (Alonso-Zarazaga and Sánchez-...

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). Progress report, June 1984-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The following tests are reported: with eggs, with larvae in sweet potato roots, with larvae in sweet potato slices, with pupae in sweet potato roots, with adults, and sterility studies. Data are presented. (MHR)

  2. Comparative thorax morphology of death-feigning flightless cryptorhynchine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on 3D reconstructions.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Thomas; Cecilia, Angelica; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The thorax morphology, especially the muscles and the tracheal system of three flightless species of Cryptorhynchinae is examined by digital 3D reconstructions based on synchrotron X-ray microtomography and compared to other Curculionidae. Wings, metanepisternites, and muscles functional in flight are fully reduced in the species examined: Kyklioacalles roboris (Curtis), Trigonopterus scharfi Riedel and Trigonopterus vandekampi Riedel. All three share the same set of thoracic muscles, but differences exist in the shape and size of muscles. Both Trigonopterus species examined have a conspicuous fan-shaped branch of Musculus mesosterni primus contracting pro- and mesothorax, interpreted as an adaption to their thanatosis defense strategy. Trigonopterus vandekampi furthermore shows a marked increase in the size of two metacoxal muscles, which may be functional in this species' thanatosis blocking mechanisms. The metathoracic spiracle of all Trigonopterus species is located at the side of the metaventrite externally and not in the subelytral space as in other beetles. It is hypothesized that this translocation was triggered by the need to improve oxygen supply during thanatosis, when both the mesothoracic spiracle and the subelytral cavity are tightly sealed from the outside. PMID:26259678

  3. Persistance of the insecticidal activity of five essential oils on the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ngamo Tinkeu, L S; Goudoum, A; Ngassoum, M B; Mapongmetsem, P M; Kouninki, H; Hance, T

    2004-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants are popularise as protectant with low persistance. The evaluation of this duration of activity was carried out for five aromatic plants: Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae), Eucalyptus citriodora et Ecalyptus saligna (Myrtaceae), Lippia rugosa (Verbenaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). They have significant insecticidal activity on S. Zeamais, on the first day of application, this activity decreases after 2 or 4 days. After 8 more than 50% of the efficacy is lossed for all the plants excepted A. senegalensis. PMID:15759405

  4. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute w...

  5. Weathering rate of male rubber septa impregnator sex pheromone of Sweetpotato Weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), in East Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, production in Hawaii has been increasing, reaching 190 harvested ha, with a total production of 3.78 million kg in 2009. Sweet potato production in Hawaii is hindered by three major quarantine pests, for which only one, the sweetpotato we...

  6. Electrophysiological and behavioral activity of (E)-2-hexenal in the granary weevil and its application in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Germinara, G S; Conte, A; De Cristofaro, A; Lecce, L; Di Palma, A; Rotundo, G; Del Nobile, M A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a biodegradable carrier material to control insect pests in cereal products. To this aim, (E)-2-hexenal was used, being a natural compound with antimicrobial activity that is also commonly adopted as a flavoring agent. Three coating layers of polycaprolactone (PCL) were spread onto the internal side of a paperboard carton, the first being the active coating containing (E)-2-hexenal. The antennal sensitivity of Sitophilus granarius to a broad range of doses of (E)-2-hexenal was first demonstrated. Next, the ability of different concentrations of this compound to disrupt the orientation of adult S. granarius beetles to odors of intact wheat kernels was established in a two-choice pitfall bioassay. In addition, invasion tests were carried out over an 8-week period to highlight the effects of the biobased repellent packaging and their potential persistence. The results demonstrated that during the entire monitoring period, the percentage of S. granarius adults found in cartons coated with (E)-2-hexenal-loaded multilayer PCL was about 10 % of the total number of insects used in the bioassay, very low compared with the respective control samples, thus assessing both the effectiveness and persistence of the repellent system developed. Although the infestation level of treated packages was reduced relative to the infestation levels in the controls, any infestation of food packages is unacceptable to consumers, so further tests are required to determine whether infestation can be completely prevented using (E)-2-hexenal. PMID:22289599

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Star Anise Illicium verum Extracts Against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Linlin; Hua, Rimao; Li, Maoye; Huang, Yanzhang; Li, Shiguang; He, Yujie; Shen, Zonghai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides. Dried fruits of star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f. (Austrobaileyales: Schisandraceae)) were extracted with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) at 25°C. The constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the repellency and contact toxicity of the extracts against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults were tested. Fortyfour compounds, whose concentrations were more than 0.2%, were separated and identified from the MA, EA, and PE extracts. The extraction yields of trans-anethole, the most abundant biologically active compound in I. verum, were 9.7%, 7.5%, and 10.1% in the MA, EA, and PE extracts, respectively. Repellency increased with increasing extract dose. The average repellency rate of the extracts against S. zeamais adults peaked at 125.79 μg/cm2 72 hr after treatment. The percentage repellency of the EA extract reached 76.9%, making it a class IV repellent. Contact toxicity assays showed average mortalities of 85.4% (MA), 94.5% (EA), and 91.1% (PE). The EA extract had the lowest median lethal dose, at 21.2 μg/cm2 72 hr after treatment. The results suggest that I. verum fruit extracts and trans-anethole can potentially be developed as a grain protectant to control stored-product insect pests. Other active constituents in the EA extract merit further research. PMID:25368036

  8. Steinernema diaprepesi n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a Parasite of the Citrus Root Weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (L) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khuong B.; Duncan, Larry W.

    2002-01-01

    A nematode collected from Diaprepes abbreviatus is identified and described as a new species, Steinernema diaprepesi n. sp. The new species is closely related to S. feltiae, S. glaseri, and S. oregonense and can be distinguished from these species by the following characteristics: Males: Spicule averaging 79 (71-90) µm and spicule shape; D% (distance from anterior end to excretory pore/ esophagus length × 100) about 80; the ratio SW (spicule length/anal body width) about 1.8. Females: Vulva with short, double- flapped epiptygma; tail terminus usually with 5 papillae-like structures. Infective juveniles: Body averaging 1,002 (880-1,133) µm, EP (distance from anterior end to excretory pore) = 74 (66-83) µm; tail length = 83 (65-91) µm, and E% (EP/tail length × 100) = 89.6 (78-114). Lateral field pattern variable, the formula for the arrangement of ridges from head to tail is: 2, 6, 7, 8, 4, 2. The portion with eight ridges is the longest. This new species can be differentiated further from three closest species (S. feltiae, S. glaseri, and S. oregonense) by characteristic sequences of their ITS regions, including sequence lengths, ratios of similarity, composition, and differences in base characters in sequence alignment. PMID:19265926

  9. Red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), an invasive pest recently found in the Caribbean that threatens the region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important palm pest, was accidentally introduced into the Caribbean. A monitoring program was established to determine the population and distribution of infestations on Aruba and Curacao through the use of commercially available pheromone traps. Due to the small size ...

  10. Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may benefit some invasive plants, increasing the need for effective invasive plant management. Biological control can be an effective means of managing invasive plants, but the varied responses of plant-insect interactions to climate change make...

  11. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  12. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae and Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Tatyana; Mandelshtam, Mikhail; Petrov, Alexander; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Yunakov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of Ukrainian bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) is summarized as a baseline for future studies of the fauna, with a checklist including information on distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. One hundred twenty-two species are recorded from Ukraine, of which seven are recorded for the first time. One species is recorded for the first time from Europe. Previous records of 24 species are considered dubious and requiring confirmation. In contrast to the Palaearctic Catalogue (Knížek 2011b), we consider Anisandrus maiche to be first described by Kurentsov (1941) rather than by Eggers (1942); A. maiche (Eggers, 1942) is a junior synonym of A. maiche (Kurentsov, 1941).  PMID:25661778

  13. Chemical composition and biological activity of star anise Illicium verum extracts against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Linlin; Hua, Rimao; Li, Maoye; Huang, Yanzhang; Li, Shiguang; He, Yujie; Shen, Zonghai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides. Dried fruits of star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f. (Austrobaileyales: Schisandraceae)) were extracted with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) at 25°C. The constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the repellency and contact toxicity of the extracts against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults were tested. Forty-four compounds, whose concentrations were more than 0.2%, were separated and identified from the MA, EA, and PE extracts. The extraction yields of trans-anethole, the most abundant biologically active compound in I. verum, were 9.7%, 7.5%, and 10.1% in the MA, EA, and PE extracts, respectively. Repellency increased with increasing extract dose. The average repellency rate of the extracts against S. zeamais adults peaked at 125.79 µg/cm(2) 72 hr after treatment. The percentage repellency of the EA extract reached 76.9%, making it a class IV repellent. Contact toxicity assays showed average mortalities of 85.4% (MA), 94.5% (EA), and 91.1% (PE). The EA extract had the lowest median lethal dose, at 21.2 µg/cm(2) 72 hr after treatment. The results suggest that I. verum fruit extracts and trans-anethole can potentially be developed as a grain protectant to control stored-product insect pests. Other active constituents in the EA extract merit further research. PMID:25368036

  14. Susceptibility of the Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) And Filbert Weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is an important nut crop produced around the world including the United States. Oregon’s Willamette Valley accounts for about 99% of hazelnuts grown in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the two primary direct insect...

  15. Optimal Cotton Insecticide Application Termination Timing: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, T W; Zapata, S D

    2016-08-01

    The concept of insecticide termination timing is generally accepted among cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) researchers; however, exact timings are often disputed. Specifically, there is uncertainty regarding the last economic insecticide application to control fruit-feeding pests including tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus). A systematic review of prior studies was conducted within a meta-analytic framework. Nine publicly available articles were amalgamated to develop an optimal timing principle. These prior studies reported 53 independent multiple means comparison field experiments for a total of 247 trial observations. Stochastic plateau theory integrated with econometric meta-analysis methodology was applied to the meta-database to determine the shape of the functional form of both the agronomic optimal insecticide termination timing and corresponding yield potential. Results indicated that current university insecticide termination timing recommendations are later than overall estimated timing suggested. The estimated 159 heat units (HU) after the fifth position above white flower (NAWF5) was found to be statistically different than the 194 HU termination used as the status quo recommended termination timing. Insecticides applied after 159 HU may have been applied in excess, resulting in unnecessary economic and environmental costs. Empirical results also suggested that extending the insecticide termination time by one unit resulted in a cotton lint yield increase of 0.27 kilograms per hectare up to the timing where the plateau began. Based on economic analyses, profit-maximizing producers may cease application as soon as 124 HU after NAWF5. These results provided insights useful to improve production systems by applying inputs only when benefits were expected to be in excess of the

  16. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  17. Non-constant thermal regimes enhance overwintering success and accelerate diapause development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....

  18. Team Participation in Environmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes experiments on the nutrition of weevils suitable for student teams, each team replicating the same experiment or experiments. Gives step by step experimental procedures and useful background information on weevils. Designed to introduce students to teamwork in science. (EB)

  19. Final Report of the Director on the Combined Second and Third Level National Defense Language Institute for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers of German Conducted by Stanford University at Bad Boll, Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strothmann, F. W.; Lohnes, Walter F. W.

    This is the final report on the National Defense Language Institute conducted in Germany during the summer of 1963 for elementary and secondary school teachers of German. It is recommended that the program be repeated, with certain adjustments. The Institute held second- and third-level programs. It was concluded that the participants' teaching…

  20. Absence of the quarantine pest Elytroteinus subtruncatus in east Hawaii sweet potato fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hawaii was unable to export its unique varieties of sweet potatoes without quarantine treatment against four high-risk internal pests: West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus, sweetpotato vine borer, Omphisa anastomosalis, and ginger weevil (or Fijian ginger weevil), Elytroteinus subt...

  1. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistance and efficancy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized tha...

  2. New genus and species of broad-nosed weevils from Baltic amber and notes on fossils of the subfamily Entiminae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yunakov, Nikolai N.; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Arostropsis groehni gen. et sp. n. is described from Baltic amber and temporarily placed in the tribe Naupactini. It differs from all recent Naupactini genera with open corbels by very short and flattened scape, distinct lateral carina of the pronotum and elytra, and the rostrum distinctly narrower than the head capsule. The shape of head in the extinct genus is somewhat similar to that of the extant Naupactini genera with enclosed corbels (Platyomus Sahlberg, 1823 and Aptolemus Schoenherr, 1842), but differs in the slender body, open corbels, very short antennal scape and epifrons without a median sulcus (only a longitudinal depression is slightly visible). It is also similar to the Tanymecine genus Pandeleteius Schoenherr, 1834 in general appearance, but distinct by the straight anterior edge of the pronotum, lack of postocular spurs, lobes, and vibrissae, a slightly sloping elytral declivity, lateral ridges on the pronotum, subflattened antennal scape, elongate rostrum, and sparsely setose epistome. A new synonymy of the generic names Protonaupactus Zherikhin, 1971 and Sucinophyllobius Wanat & Borowiec, 1986, syn. n., is established. The Madagascan genus Corecaulus Fairmaire, 1903 is transferred from the tribe Naupactini to the Brachyderini because of its connate claws and the similarity in chaetotaxy of the epistomal area with African and Madagascar Brachyderini genera. A key to the identification of known Baltic amber genera of Entiminae is proposed. A checklist of the prepleistocene fossil Entiminae, based on V.V. Zherikhin’s data, with remarks and corrections, is presented. PMID:22303121

  3. Assessing climate change impacts on the rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., based on bias- and non-bias-corrected regional climate change projections.

    PubMed

    Junk, J; Ulber, B; Vidal, S; Eickermann, M

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is directly affected by projected increases in air temperature and changes in precipitation. A multi-model ensemble of regional climate change projections indicated shifts towards higher air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns during the summer and winter seasons up to the year 2100 for the region of Goettingen (Lower Saxony, Germany). A second major controlling factor of the agricultural production is the infestation level by pests. Based on long-term field surveys and meteorological observations, a calibration of an existing model describing the migration of the pest insect Ceutorhynchus napi was possible. To assess the impacts of climate on pests under projected changing environmental conditions, we combined the results of regional climate models with the phenological model to describe the crop invasion of this species. In order to reduce systematic differences between the output of the regional climate models and observational data sets, two different bias correction methods were applied: a linear correction for air temperature and a quantile mapping approach for precipitation. Only the results derived from the bias-corrected output of the regional climate models showed satisfying results. An earlier onset, as well as a prolongation of the possible time window for the immigration of Ceutorhynchus napi, was projected by the majority of the ensemble members. PMID:25680630

  4. A PCR-Based Diagnostic System for Differentiating Two Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) of Economic Importance to the Chilean Citrus Industry.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, C; Olivares, N; Luppichini, P; Hinrichsen, P

    2015-02-01

    A PCR-based method was developed to identify Naupactus cervinus (Boheman) and Naupactus xanthographus (Germar), two curculionids affecting the citrus industry in Chile. The quarantine status of these two species depends on the country to which fruits are exported. This identification method was developed because it is not possible to discriminate between these two species at the egg stage. The method is based on the species-specific amplification of sequences of internal transcribed spacers, for which we cloned and sequenced these genome fragments from each species. We designed an identification system based on two duplex-PCR reactions. Each one contains the species-specific primer set and a second generic primer set that amplify a short 18S region common to coleopterans, to avoid false negatives. The marker system is able to differentiate each Naupactus species at any life stage, and with a diagnostic sensitivity to 0.045 ng of genomic DNA. This PCR kit was validated by samples collected from different citrus production areas throughout Chile and showed 100% accuracy in differentiating the two Naupactus species. PMID:26470110

  5. Temperature- and body mass-related variation in cyclic gas exchange characteristics and metabolic rate of seven weevil species: Broader implications.

    PubMed

    Klok, C J; Chown, S L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of temperature on metabolic rate and characteristics of the gas exchange patterns of flightless, sub-Antarctic Ectemnorhinus-group species from Heard and Marion islands was investigated. All of the species showed cyclic gas exchange with no Flutter period, indicating that these species are not characterized by discontinuous gas exchange cycles. Metabolic rate estimates were substantially lower in this study than in a previous one of a subset of the species, demonstrating that open-system respirometry methods provide more representative estimates of standard metabolic rate than do many closed-system methods. We recommend that the latter, and especially constant-pressure methods, either be abandoned for estimates of standard metabolic rate in insects, or have their outputs subject to careful scrutiny, given the wide availability of the former. V(.)CO(2) increase with an increase in temperature (range: 0-15 degrees C) was modulated by an increase in cycle frequency, but typically not by an increase in burst volume. Previous investigations of temperature-related changes in cyclic gas exchange (both cyclic and discontinuous) in several other insect species were therefore substantiated. Interspecific mass-scaling of metabolic rate (ca. 0.466-0.573, excluding and including phylogenetic non-independence, respectively) produced an exponent lower than 0.75 (but not distinguishable from it or from 0.67). The increase of metabolic rate with mass was modulated by an increase in burst volume and not by a change in cycle frequency, in keeping with investigations of species showing discontinuous gas exchange. These findings are discussed in the context of the emerging macrophysiological metabolic theory of ecology. PMID:15907926

  6. Defensive secretion of first-instar larvae of rootstalk borer weevil,Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to the fire-antSolenopsis geminata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavis, C; Malusse, C; Ducrot, P H; Howse, F; Jaffe, K; Descoins, C

    1992-11-01

    Since several species of predatory ants show some kind of repulsion towards the first-instar larvae (FIL) ofDiaprepes abbreviatus L., the predatory behavior ofSolenopsis geminata (F.), a common ant in the citrus groves in Guadeloupe, was studied. Different extracts of larvae were disposed on egg masses ofD. abbreviatus and presented as prey to the ants, both in the field and in the laboratory. The ants are repelled by the FIL extracts. The allelochemicals involved are produced in large amounts, from 5 to 20 ng per larva. Physiochemical analyses have led to the identification of two sesquiterpenes of molecular weight 218 and 234, secreted in the respective proportions of 65 and 35%. PMID:24254783

  7. Identification and electrophysiological studies of (4 S,5 S)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone and 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione in male lucerne weevils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unelius, C. R.; Park, K.-C.; McNeill, M.; Wee, S. L.; Bohman, B.; Suckling, D. M.

    2013-02-01

    An investigation to identify a sex or aggregation pheromone of Sitona discoideus Gyllenhål (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is presented. Antenna flicking and attraction behaviors evoked by conspecifics of both sexes were recorded in arena bioassays, where attraction of females to males was observed. Air entrainment of both males and females was conducted in separate chambers. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles revealed that two male-specific compounds, 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione (major) and (4 S,5 S)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone (minor), were emitted during the autumnal post-aestivatory flight period. The stereoisomers of the minor component were separated by enantioselective gas chromatography and their absolute configurations assigned by NMR (diastereomers) and the known preference of enantioselective transesterification reactions catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B. Electroantennogram and single sensillum recording studies indicate that 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione as well as all individual stereoisomers of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone are detected by the antennae of male and female S. discoideus. Further, single sensillum recordings suggest that both sexes of S. discoideus have specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for detecting 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione and different populations of stereoselective ORNs for detecting the stereoisomers of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone. Some of these stereoselective ORNs appear to be sex-specific in S. discoideus.

  8. Identification and electrophysiological studies of (4S,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone and 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione in male lucerne weevils.

    PubMed

    Unelius, C R; Park, K-C; McNeill, M; Wee, S L; Bohman, B; Suckling, D M

    2013-02-01

    An investigation to identify a sex or aggregation pheromone of Sitona discoideus Gyllenhål (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is presented. Antenna flicking and attraction behaviors evoked by conspecifics of both sexes were recorded in arena bioassays, where attraction of females to males was observed. Air entrainment of both males and females was conducted in separate chambers. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles revealed that two male-specific compounds, 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione (major) and (4S,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone (minor), were emitted during the autumnal post-aestivatory flight period. The stereoisomers of the minor component were separated by enantioselective gas chromatography and their absolute configurations assigned by NMR (diastereomers) and the known preference of enantioselective transesterification reactions catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B. Electroantennogram and single sensillum recording studies indicate that 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione as well as all individual stereoisomers of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone are detected by the antennae of male and female S. discoideus. Further, single sensillum recordings suggest that both sexes of S. discoideus have specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for detecting 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione and different populations of stereoselective ORNs for detecting the stereoisomers of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone. Some of these stereoselective ORNs appear to be sex-specific in S. discoideus. PMID:23238636

  9. The description of a new calyptrate fly mimicking species of the fungus weevil genus Gymnognathus Schönherr 1826 from the southern Bolivian Andes (Coleoptera: Anthribidae: Anthribinae).

    PubMed

    Perger, Robert; Guerra, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A new calyptrate fly mimicking species of Gymnognathus Schönherr 1826 from the humid Tucuman-Bolivian forest in the southern Bolivian Andes is described. Gymnognathus barclayi sp. nov. is distinguished from the closest related species G. bohlsi Jordan, 1895, by the color and/or distribution of the scales on the pronotum, fourth ventrite and pygidium, the wider pronotum and the development of the spines on the pygidium. The arrangement of the longitudinal stripes on the pronotum suggests that G. barclayi sp. nov. is a mimic of tachinid or muscid flies. The almost exclusive occurrence of Gymnognathus species in tropical moist forests indicates that the presence of G. barclayi sp. nov. in the subtropical realm is fostered by increased humidity at orographic rain barriers. G. barclayi sp. nov. is possibly endemic to the Tucuman-Bolivian forest. Along with the presence of other endemic species, the discovery of G. barclayi sp. nov. highlights the importance of the Tucuman-Bolivian forest as an endemism hotspot for insects and calls for a re-assessment of the conservation status of this spatially restricted and threatened ecoregion. PMID:27394264

  10. Taxonomic redescription and biological notes on Diaugia angusta (Diptera, Tachinidae): parasitoid of the palm boring weevils Metamasius ensirostris and M. hemipterus (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Pavarini, Ronaldo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Diaugia angusta Perty, 1833 is a Neotropical species of Tachinidae (Diptera) reported here as a parasitoid of Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) and Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) in Brazil. Several species of Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae cause damage to bromeliad and palm species, and most are regarded as pests. In the present study, the male and female of Diaugia angusta are morphologically characterized and illustrated to provide a means for the identification of this parasitoid. Data obtained from preliminary field research show that natural parasitism of Metamasius pupae by Diaugia angusta varies by year but can reach nearly 30%. A network of parasitoid-host interactions among tachinid parasitoids and coleopteran hosts reported as bromeliad and palm pests (Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae) in the Americas indicates that the species of the tribe Dexiini sensu lato (including Diaugia angusta) might be promising as biological control agents of these pests. PMID:21594164

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the pectin methylesterase from the sugar cane weevil Sphenophorus levis

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Danilo Elton; Schutzer de Godoy, Andre; Fonseca Pereira de Paula, Fernando; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase removes the methyl groups from the main chain of pectin, the major component of the middle lamella of the plant cell wall. The enzyme is involved in plant cell-wall development, is part of the enzymatic arsenal used by microorganisms to attack plants and also has a wide range of applications in the industrial sector. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in studies of the structure and function of this enzyme. In this work, the pectin methylesterase from Sphenophorus levis was produced in Pichia pastoris and purified. Crystals belonging to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.181, b = 82.213, c = 41.176 Å, β = 97.48°, were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and an X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Structure refinement and model building are in progress. PMID:24598920

  12. Challenges to obtaining APHIS approval to release classical biological control agents of weeds: the case of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil (Ceratapion basicorne)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety and effectiveness of classical biological control of weeds depends on the discovery and evaluation of species of arthropods that are highly host specific. Host specificity is typically evaluated using a combination of no-choice, choice and field experiments. The Technical Advisory Group...

  13. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelins in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil.

    PubMed

    Zambre, M; Goossens, A; Cardona, C; Van Montagu, M; Terryn, N; Angenon, G

    2005-03-01

    A reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation method that delivers fertile and morphologically normal transgenic plants was developed for cultivated tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius L. Gray). Factors contributing to higher transformation efficiencies include (1) a low initial concentration of bacteria coupled with a longer cocultivation period with callus, (2) an initial selection of callus on a medium containing low levels of the selectable agent, (3) omission of the selectable agent from the medium during callus differentiation to shoots and (4) the efficient conversion of transgenic shoots into fertile plants. All plants regenerated with this procedure (T0) were stably transformed, and the introduced foreign genes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion in most of the 33 independent transformants. Integration, stable transmission and high expression levels of the transgenes were observed in the T1 and/or T3 progenies of the transgenic lines. The binary transformation vectors contained the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene, the neomycin phosphotransferase II selectable marker gene and either an arcelin 1 or an arcelin 5 gene. Arcelins are seed proteins that are very abundant in some wild P. vulgaris L. genotypes showing resistance to the storage insect Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Transgenic beans from two different cultivated P. acutifolius genotypes with high arcelin levels were infested with Z. subfasciatus, but they were only marginally less susceptible to infestation than the non-transgenic P. acutifolius. Hence, the arcelin genes tested here are not major determinants of resistance against Z. subfasciatus. PMID:15702345

  14. Bottom-up effects on top-down regulation of a floating aquatic plant by two weevil species: the context-specific nature of biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Plant nutrition (bottom-up effects) impacts a plant’s ability to sustain herbivory (top-down effects) and affects phytophagous insect fecundity. These factors potentially confound efficacy predictions for biological control projects. We investigated the relative importance of these two forces wi...

  15. Assessing climate change impacts on the rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., based on bias- and non-bias-corrected regional climate change projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, J.; Ulber, B.; Vidal, S.; Eickermann, M.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is directly affected by projected increases in air temperature and changes in precipitation. A multi-model ensemble of regional climate change projections indicated shifts towards higher air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns during the summer and winter seasons up to the year 2100 for the region of Goettingen (Lower Saxony, Germany). A second major controlling factor of the agricultural production is the infestation level by pests. Based on long-term field surveys and meteorological observations, a calibration of an existing model describing the migration of the pest insect Ceutorhynchus napi was possible. To assess the impacts of climate on pests under projected changing environmental conditions, we combined the results of regional climate models with the phenological model to describe the crop invasion of this species. In order to reduce systematic differences between the output of the regional climate models and observational data sets, two different bias correction methods were applied: a linear correction for air temperature and a quantile mapping approach for precipitation. Only the results derived from the bias-corrected output of the regional climate models showed satisfying results. An earlier onset, as well as a prolongation of the possible time window for the immigration of Ceutorhynchus napi, was projected by the majority of the ensemble members.

  16. Potential of "lure and kill" in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Byers, J A; Jang, E B; Wearing, C H

    2009-06-01

    "Lure and kill" technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In lure and kill, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not "entrapped" at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a killing agent, which eliminates affected individuals from the population after a short period. In past decades, a growing scientific literature has been published on this concept. This article provides the first review on the potential of lure and kill in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. We present a summary of lure and kill, either when used as a stand-alone control method or in combination with other methods. We discuss its efficacy in comparison with other control methods. Several case studies in which lure and kill has been used with the aims of long-term pest management (e.g., pink bollworm, Egyptian cotton leafworm, codling moth, apple maggot, biting flies, and bark beetles) or the eradication of invasive species (e.g., tephritid fruit flies and boll weevils) are provided. Subsequently, we identify essential knowledge required for successful lure and kill programs that include lure competitiveness with natural odor source; lure density; lure formulation and release rate; pest population density and risk of immigration; and biology and ecology of the target species. The risks associated with lure and kill, especially when used in the eradication programs, are highlighted. We comment on the cost-effectiveness of this technology and its strengths and weaknesses, and list key reasons for success and failure. We conclude that lure and kill can be highly effective in controlling small, low-density, isolated populations, and thus it has the potential to add value to long-term pest management. In the eradication of invasive species, lure and kill offers a major advantage in effectiveness by its being inverse density dependent and it provides

  17. Response of different populations of seven lady beetle species to lambda-cyhalothrin with record of resistance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Agna R S; Spindola, Aline F; Torres, Jorge B; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Colares, Felipe

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous use of biological and chemical controls is a valued and historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved. One explanation for this failure may be the inadequate documentation of field populations of natural enemies for insecticide tolerance or resistance because natural enemies surviving insecticide application do not create problems like resistant pest species. Therefore, this study investigated 31 populations of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) regarding their susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in cotton and other crops to control lepidopteran and coleopteran pests that are not targeted as prey by lady beetles. The study focused on seven coccinellid species common in cotton fields Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa Germar, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant), and Brumoides foudrasi (Mulsant) and one lady beetle species [Curinus coeruleus Mulsant] from a non-cotton ecosystem for comparisons. Dose-mortality curves were estimated after topical treatment of adult lady beetles with lambda-cyhalothrin. Statistically significant variations in lady beetle susceptibility were observed between species and between populations of a given species. Seven and eighteen populations of lady beetles exhibited greater values of LD50 and LD90, respectively, than the highest recommended field rate of lambda-cyhalothrin (20g a.i./hectare≈0.2g a.i./L) for cotton fields in Brazil. Furthermore, based on LD50 values, 29 out of 30 tested populations of lady beetles exhibited ratios of relative tolerance varying from 2- to 215-fold compared to the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Four populations of E. connexa were 10.5-37.7 times more tolerant than the most susceptible population and thus were considered to be resistant to lambda

  18. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: Effect of bloom period of infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  19. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  20. Oviposition Patterns of Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Okra-Leaf and Normal-Leaf Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the boll injury and oviposition site preference of Creontiades signatus (Distant), a relatively new plant bug pest of cotton in the United States. We compared a technique of injecting bolls with pectinase to enclosing a 5th instar, C. signatus nymph, to investigate the techniques potential...

  1. COTTON QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY CHANGES IN THE SPINDLE PICKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 - ...

  2. Cotton quality as affected by changes in spindle speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  3. Genetic associations of cotton yield with its component traits in derived primitive accessions crossed by elite Upland cultivars using the conditional ADAA genetic model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll number, lint percentage, and boll weight are three component traits for lint yield of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Selecting high yielding lines or hybrids depends on the ability to dissect the genetic relationship of lint yield with these component traits. In this study, 14 day-neutral...

  4. Transmission and Importance of Pantoea ananatis During Feeding on Cotton Buds (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by Cotton Fleahoppers (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus Reuter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fleahoppers collected from various hosts in the field or raised on green beans in the laboratory were frequently infested with Pantoea spp. These isolates caused a severe internal boll rot in cotton when introduced into young bolls via a small puncture wound caused by a 28-gauge needle. Bud...

  5. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. PMID:26470293

  6. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

  7. Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Sibinia (Coleoptera,
    Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with suggestions on their potential value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus.

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Gosik, Rafał; Caldara, Roberto; Košťál, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The larvae and pupae of six species of the Palaearctic genus Sibinia Germar, 1817 are described in detail for the first time. Five of them develop in seeds of Caryophyllaceae and belong to Sibinia (s. str.): S. attalica Gyllenhal, 1835; S. femoralis Germar, 1824; S. tibialis Gyllenhal, 1835; and S. viscariae (Linnaeus, 1760), which are included in the S. femoralis group, and S. sicana Ragusa, 1908, which is included in the S. unicolor Fåhraeus, 1843 group. The sixth species is S. sodalis Germar, 1824, which develops in seeds of Plumbaginaceae and belongs to the subgenus Dichotychius Bedel, 1885. The larvae and pupae of these species are compared with those previously described for some species of the third subgenus, Microtychius Casey, 1910 from the Americas. Some larval characters, but no pupal ones, are useful to support the three subgenera and the two previously mentioned groups of Sibinia s. str., which were previously postulated based on a few adult morphological characters. The immatures of Sibinia are also compared with those of the closely related genus Tychius Germar, 1817, providing some distinctive characters between both genera. New bionomic data on larval and pupal development and adult emergence are reported for all the described species. These data suggest that species in this genus are highly homogeneous in life history traits. PMID:25947846

  8. Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

  9. Evaluation of sunflower for resistance to stem and seed pests in the northern and central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pests attacking cultivated sunflower include the sunflower stem weevil, the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. Strategies to reduce crop losses for these pests have focused on insecticidal control, but host-plant resist...

  10. Larval dispersal of the weed biological control agent Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian weevil Oxyops vitiosa is a biological control agent of the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida, USA. Evidence suggests that the last instar drops from the canopy to the forest floor to pupate in the soil or leaf litter. This dispersal method preempts weevil population persi...

  11. Update on Diaprepes research at USHRL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-tunnel wind tunnel was constructed to study behavior of adult Diaprepes abbreviatus. Weevils were introduced downwind and allowed to move upwind in response to odor sources (targets). Weevils did not respond in empty tunnels (no odor). Some movement upwind but no arrestment (cessation of moveme...

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of rice polishing process on Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, E; Riudavets, J

    2000-12-01

    The mechanical impact of rice polishingon the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and the subsequent postpolishing effects associated with rice quality were studied. "Brown" rice (not polished), "White (infest then polish)" rice, and "White (polish then infest)" rice were used with different polishing process intensities and different initial weevil densities. Weevil progeny were more numerous in Brown than in White (infest then polish) or White (polish then infest) rice. Polishing corresponding to a weight loss of 11% in rice generated an immediate mortality of approximately 40%; the subsequent mortality caused by rice quality was also 40% (total >80%). A polishing process corresponding to 14 and 16% of rice weight loss generated a drastic mortality in the weevil population (>95%). The progeny per adult weevil was similar with high and low initial weevil densities. The development of weevil progeny was also delayed by about 1 wk in White (infest then polish) rice compared with Brown rice. Furthermore, weevil adults of the progeny were significantly heavier in Brown than in White (infest then polish) or White (polish then infest) rice. PMID:11142320

  13. 7 CFR 810.107 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) Infested wheat, rye, and triticale. Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested wheat...) contains two or more live weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more live insects injurious to stored grain. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary)....

  14. 7 CFR 810.107 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Infested wheat, rye, and triticale. Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested wheat...) contains two or more live weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more live insects injurious to stored grain. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary)....

  15. 7 CFR 868.212 - Special grades and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Tolerances for live insects for infested rough rice are defined according to sampling designations as follows... weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored rice or five or more other live insects injurious to stored rice. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary). The lot as a whole...

  16. 7 CFR 810.107 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) Infested wheat, rye, and triticale. Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested wheat...) contains two or more live weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more live insects injurious to stored grain. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary)....

  17. 7 CFR 868.212 - Special grades and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Tolerances for live insects for infested rough rice are defined according to sampling designations as follows... weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored rice or five or more other live insects injurious to stored rice. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary). The lot as a whole...

  18. 7 CFR 868.212 - Special grades and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Tolerances for live insects for infested rough rice are defined according to sampling designations as follows... weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored rice or five or more other live insects injurious to stored rice. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary). The lot as a whole...

  19. 7 CFR 810.107 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) Infested wheat, rye, and triticale. Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested wheat...) contains two or more live weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more live insects injurious to stored grain. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary)....

  20. 7 CFR 810.107 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) Infested wheat, rye, and triticale. Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested wheat...) contains two or more live weevils, or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more live insects injurious to stored grain. (2) Lot as a whole (stationary)....