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Sample records for bologna complete sample

  1. Humboldt Meets Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsena, Svein

    2010-01-01

    The compatibility between the Humboldtian principles and the Bologna reform programme is essentially contested. The article traces debates on the Humboldtian university and the Bologna process and explores theoretical, methodological and normative aspects of these debates and the relations between the Bologna process and the Humboldtian ideals.…

  2. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  3. A bunch of Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, Rachel

    2009-08-01

    As your news story "Europe's education experiment" (June pp12-13) reported, the UK government may well view the country as now being compliant with the Bologna process, which aims to create a common European higher-education system. This is because the government persuaded the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) to agree that Bologna recognition should be based on learning outcomes, and then it established the (UK) Framework for Higher Education Qualifications, which purports to demonstrate this compliance. The argument is fundamentally that students in England can accomplish in four (short) years what in other systems requires five (long) ones.

  4. A Complete Sample of Supernova Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, supernova surveys have drawn their samples by monitoring pre-selected lists of host galaxies. More recently, some surveys have made efforts to ignore host properties when selecting candidates, but because of limited resources they must usually add additional selection criteria, such as the color or light curve shape of the transient, in order to select the best targets for a specific study. Since 2004, we have conducted a search for supernovae that is designed to select targets irrespective of their host environment, and we have spectroscopic classifications for all of the new transients detected. Here we report on the host galaxies of first 72 supernovae detected by ROTSE-IIIb as part of the Texas Supernova Search and the ROTSE Supernova Verification Project. The supernova sample includes everything from perfectly normal Type Ia and Type II, to spectroscopically peculiar events, to several of the most luminous supernovae ever found. We compare multi-band photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxy sample to the larger galaxy population. We cannot securely identify host galaxies brighter than -10 mag absolute for four of our discoveries, which suggests that these may be hostless, "tramp supernovae."

  5. Physical Science in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Giorgio; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2013-03-01

    We provide a guide to Bologna, Italy, focusing particularly on sites of interest to physicists. Our first tour is in the city center; it begins in the Piazza Maggiore at the Palazzo d'Accursio, the Basilica di San Petronio, and the Archiginnasio (Old University) and then proceeds to the Two Towers and the Palazzo Poggi, which houses the Astronomical Observatory Museum and other important instrument and art collections; it concludes at the Physics Museum, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Our second tour again begins in the Piazza Maggiore but goes to sites beyond the city center where famous Bolognese physicists and other scientists were born, lived, and are buried. Finally, we point out important museums and other institutions on the outskirts of Bologna.

  6. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  7. Bologna with Student Eyes, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; MacSithigh, Daithi, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustaffson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Bologna with Student Eyes" is a survey published by the National Unions of Students in Europe, based on questionnaires sent to national unions across the continent. The survey gives a broad overview of student union perspectives as to national implementations of Bologna Process Action Lines in the period 2005-2007. It addresses the topics of:…

  8. A complete sample of long bright Swift gamma ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Salvaterra, Ruben; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fugazza, Dino; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Melandri, Andrea; Nava, Lara; Sbarufatti, Boris; Vergani, Susanna

    2013-06-13

    Complete samples are the basis of any population study. To this end, we selected a complete subsample of Swift long bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The sample, made up of 58 bursts, was selected by considering bursts with favourable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up observations and with the 15-150 keV 1 s peak flux above a flux threshold of 2.6 photons cm(-2) s(-1). This sample has a redshift completeness level higher than 90 per cent. Using this complete sample, we investigate the properties of long GRBs and their evolution with cosmic time, focusing in particular on the GRB luminosity function, the prompt emission spectral-energy correlations and the nature of dark bursts. PMID:23630371

  9. Bologna with Student Eyes 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pall, Allan; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Bartolo, Daniela; Palomares, Fernando Miguel Galan; Kaiser, Florian; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Ufert, Karina; Malnes, Magnus; Simola, Mari; Jasurek, Miroslav; Maljukov, Monika; Vuksanovic, Nevena; Cincyte, Rasa; Santa, Robert; Primozic, Rok; Moisander, Taina

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the largest endeavours ever undertaken aimed at reforming higher education continent-wide. It has created a framework of measures and policies aiming to foster greater compatibility and comparability of the national systems of higher education across Europe. Despite the impact reforms and change in higher education…

  10. The Baldwin effect in complete optically selected samples of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorani, G.; Marano, B.; Mignoli, M.; Zitelli, V.; Boyle, B. J.

    1992-05-01

    The Baldwin relation is examined on the basis of the largest available data set of unbiased complete samples of optically selected quasars. Relations yielded by the least-squares fit of the equivalent width vs absolute magnitude are given. For both lines the slope of the correlation between the equivalent widths and the luminosities is very shallow. In particular, the slope for the C IV line is significantly different from the 'canonical' value for the slope of the Baldwin effect in quasars: EWC IV varies as L1550 exp -(0.3-0.4). The present slope for the C IV line is in agreement with that obtained by Kinney et al. (1990) in their study of the Baldwin effect which was chiefly based on IUE data. The present normalization is about a factor of 2 smaller than theirs. Possible selection effects which may have biased the normalization of the Kinney et al. result are suggested.

  11. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J. J.; Ledden, J. E.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is found by a low-frequency variability survey, involving two- and three-epoch, 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz, that steep-spectrum sources do not seem to vary while all flat-spectrum sources exhibit low-frequency variability greater than 8% over about 5 yr. It is also found that the flat-spectrum sources with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations, and that there is a correlation between the incidence of low-frequency variability and the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models which invoke radio and optical emission relativistic beaming.

  12. Determination of gamma glutamyltransferase in completely haemolysed blood samples.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, H; Mørland, J

    1985-11-01

    A simple method for the determination of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in completely haemolysed blood samples is described. Haemolysed blood was incubated in the presence of gamma glutamyl-p-nitroanilide and glycylglycine at 37 degrees C for 15 min, and the enzyme reaction was terminated by adding trichloroacetic acid. The pH in the supernatant was adjusted to 7.5 by using a buffer, and the amount of p-nitroaniline formed was measured spectrophotometrically. The correlation between this method and the GGT activity in serum as determined by the standard kinetic method was good, r = 0.982. The blood GGT activity (y) was related to the serum activity (x) as follows: y = 0.415x + 3.8. The effect of storage of blood at room temperature on the GGT activity was studied. The enzyme activity did not change during the first 12 days of storage. PMID:2866579

  13. Radio Galaxies in Cooling Cores: Insights from a Complete Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilek, J. A.; Owen, F. N.

    We have observed a new, complete, cooling-core sample with the VLA, in order to understand how the massive black hole in the central galaxy interacts with the local cluster plasma. We find that every cooling core is currently being energized by an active radio jet, which has probably been destabilized by its interaction with the cooling core. We argue that current models of cooling-core radio galaxies need to be improved before they can be used to determine the rate at which the jet is heating the cooling core. We also argue that the extended radio haloes we see in many cooling-core clusters need extended, in situ re-energization, which cannot be supplied solely by the central galaxy.

  14. Higher Education and the Bologna Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senashenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bologna transformations. The Bologna transformations represent a phenomenon that is strictly European, and they are supposed to result in solutions to a number of chiefly economic problems that confront the leading countries of Central Europe. The author discusses the positive and negative consequences of Russia's…

  15. Bologna with Student Eyes. 2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; Sithigh, Daithi Mac, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustafsson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    For the third time, ESIB has carried out a survey on the implementation of the Bologna Process. The first survey was in 2003 and the second was in 2005. Between the first two surveys the methodology developed substantially and this survey builds on the principles of the 2005 "Bologna With Student Eyes" report. This new report portrays the…

  16. The Actual (Un)usefulness of the Bologna System in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    exam (3,06 vs 3,36) and theoretical methods of taking exam (3,01 vs 3,14). Average grades where no average grade, on any issue, does not reach grade 4 of Likert Scale, talks about real problems of education in medical field. Conclusion: In a relatively large sample (four generations of students) true benefit and progress of the Bologna system has not been proven, in comparison to the old system. Bologna system has eased the students in the administrative sense by introduction of computerization of faculties, but the old problems and old questions about the organization’s process and delivery have not been eliminated. PMID:27147795

  17. ATLASGAL - towards a complete sample of massive star forming clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, J. S.; Moore, T. J. T.; Csengeri, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Schuller, F.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Thompson, M. A.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Bronfman, L.; Pfalzner, S.; König, C.; Wienen, M.

    2014-09-01

    By matching infrared-selected, massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact H II regions in the Red MSX Source survey to massive clumps found in the submillimetre ATLASGAL (APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy) survey, we have identified ˜1000 embedded young massive stars between 280° < ℓ < 350° and 10° < ℓ < 60° with | b | < 1.5°. Combined with an existing sample of radio-selected methanol masers and compact H II regions, the result is a catalogue of ˜1700 massive stars embedded within ˜1300 clumps located across the inner Galaxy, containing three observationally distinct subsamples, methanol-maser, MYSO and H II-region associations, covering the most important tracers of massive star formation, thought to represent key stages of evolution. We find that massive star formation is strongly correlated with the regions of highest column density in spherical, centrally condensed clumps. We find no significant differences between the three samples in clump structure or the relative location of the embedded stars, which suggests that the structure of a clump is set before the onset of star formation, and changes little as the embedded object evolves towards the main sequence. There is a strong linear correlation between clump mass and bolometric luminosity, with the most massive stars forming in the most massive clumps. We find that the MYSO and H II-region subsamples are likely to cover a similar range of evolutionary stages and that the majority are near the end of their main accretion phase. We find few infrared-bright MYSOs associated with the most massive clumps, probably due to very short pre-main-sequence lifetimes in the most luminous sources.

  18. A Characterization of Deterministic Sampling Patterns for Low-Rank Matrix Completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel-Alarcon, Daniel L.; Boston, Nigel; Nowak, Robert D.

    2016-06-01

    Low-rank matrix completion (LRMC) problems arise in a wide variety of applications. Previous theory mainly provides conditions for completion under missing-at-random samplings. An incomplete $d \\times N$ matrix is $\\textit{finitely completable}$ if there are at most finitely many rank-$r$ matrices that agree with all its observed entries. Finite completability is the tipping point in LRMC, as a few additional samples of a finitely completable matrix guarantee its $\\textit{unique}$ completability. The main contribution of this paper is a full characterization of finitely completable observation sets. We use this characterization to derive sufficient deterministic sampling conditions for unique completability. We also show that under uniform random sampling schemes, these conditions are satisfied with high probability if at least $\\mathscr{O}(\\max\\{r,\\log d \\})$ entries per column are observed.

  19. To What Extent Does Transnational Communication Drive Cross-National Policy Convergence? The Impact of the Bologna-Process on Domestic Higher Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegtle, Eva M.; Knill, Christoph; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates if transnational communication in the context of the Bologna Process (BP) has led to the convergence of higher education (HE) policies. The country sample includes both Bologna participants and non-participants, for which systematic knowledge about the implications of the BP is absent so far. We investigate study structures…

  20. The Bologna Process and the New Reforms of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, Iu. S.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the different opinions of specialists on The Bologna Process. The Bologna Process was brought into being by society's transition to a new stage of development, in which education and knowledge are becoming the decisive engines of progress. With the aim of creating a unified educational space, the Bologna Process was begun in…

  1. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 10 - Sample Notice of Inventory Completion

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample Notice of Inventory Completion B Appendix B to Part 10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Pt. 10, App. B Appendix B to Part 10—Sample Notice of Inventory Completion The following is an...

  2. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 10 - Sample Notice of Inventory Completion

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Sample Notice of Inventory Completion B Appendix B to Part 10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Pt. 10, App. B Appendix B to Part 10—Sample Notice of Inventory Completion The following is an example...

  3. Bologna, the Netherlands and Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Mackenzie Owen, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of the department of Information Studies at the Universiteit van Amsterdam over the years and especially the impact of the Bologna Agreement on the content and educational form of the curriculum. It includes both outlines of the programmes as well as reflection on the educational methods. The accreditation…

  4. The Bologna Process: Transforming European Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floud, Roderick

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the Bologna Process, an agreement among the education ministries and the universities and colleges of 45 European countries to create the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010. At the core of the agreement is the decision that all higher education institutions in Europe will adopt the three-tiered…

  5. Understanding the Bologna Process for Admissions Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxton, Mary; Johnson, Johnny Kent; Nathanson, Gloria; Paver, William; Watkins, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In Spring 2008, senior members of the international admission and credential evaluation community met to deliberate over the admission and placement of Bologna Compliant degree holders into U.S. graduate programs. This group comprised several individuals holding top leadership positions in NAFSA, AACRAO, and closely allied groups involved in…

  6. International Student Mobility and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is the newest of a chain of activities stimulated by supra-national actors since the 1950s to challenge national borders in higher education in Europe. Now, the ministers in charge of higher education of the individual European countries have agreed to promote a similar cycle-structure of study programmes and programmes based…

  7. The Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2006-01-01

    This study identifies the responsibilities of the bodies and institutions involved in the implementation of the Bologna Process. They include the levels of Europe, nations, higher education institutions, departments, degree programmes, teachers and students. The future planning is analysed using the Balanced Scorecard approach designed for the…

  8. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Salvaterra, R.; Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Nava, L.; Flores, H.; Piranomonte, S.

    2012-04-10

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity ({delta}{sub l} = 2.3 {+-} 0.6) or in density ({delta}{sub d} = 1.7 {+-} 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Psychrobacter alimentarius PAMC 27889, a Psychrophile Isolated from an Antarctic Rock Sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Kwon, Miye; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Psychrobacter alimentarius PAMC 27889, a Gram-negative, psychrophilic bacterium, was isolated from an Antarctic rock sample. Here, we report the complete genome of P. alimentarius PAMC 27889, which has the nonmevalonate methylerythritol phosphate pathway of terpenoid biosynthesis and a complete gene cluster for benzoate degradation. PMID:27445386

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Psychrobacter alimentarius PAMC 27889, a Psychrophile Isolated from an Antarctic Rock Sample

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaejin; Kwon, Miye; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Psychrobacter alimentarius PAMC 27889, a Gram-negative, psychrophilic bacterium, was isolated from an Antarctic rock sample. Here, we report the complete genome of P. alimentarius PAMC 27889, which has the nonmevalonate methylerythritol phosphate pathway of terpenoid biosynthesis and a complete gene cluster for benzoate degradation. PMID:27445386

  11. Approaches of using the beard testing method to obtain complete length distributions of the original samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fiber testing instruments such as HVI can rapidly measure fiber length by testing a tapered fiber beard of the sample. But these instruments that use the beard testing method only report a limited number of fiber length parameters instead of the complete length distribution that is important fo...

  12. Predictors of treatment completion in a sample of youth who have experienced physical or sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert A; Sink, Holli E; Ake, George S; Carmody, Karen Appleyard; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa M; Briggs, Ernestine C

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant advances in knowledge and availability of evidence-based models for child traumatic stress, many children simply do not complete treatment. There remain notable gaps in the services research literature about treatment completion among youth, particularly those who have experienced trauma and related sequelae. This study investigated the linkages among child physical and sexual trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, and treatment completion utilizing a clinical sample drawn from a large database from community treatment centers across the United States specializing in childhood trauma. Results from regression analyses indicated that neither the experience of sexual nor physical trauma directly predicted successful treatment completion. The links between sexual trauma and treatment completion, however, were mediated by PTSD avoidance symptoms. Children and youth experiencing sexual trauma reported higher levels of avoidance symptoms that were, in turn, significantly associated with a lower likelihood of completing trauma-focused mental health treatment. Practice implications are discussed and include strategies for clinicians to intervene during pivotal points of treatment to improve rates of service utilization and treatment completion. PMID:24084895

  13. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna sausages by an antimicrobial film containing mustard extract or sinigrin.

    PubMed

    Lara-Lledó, Marta; Olaimat, Amin; Holley, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10 d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21 d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21 d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52 d storage and remained undetectable at 70 d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached >7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17 d storage. At 35 d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (>7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained <7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70 d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. PMID

  14. The Bologna Accord: A Model of Cooperation and Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ross H.; Dunn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of transformation of higher education in Europe in response to the 1999 Bologna Accord. The "action lines" of the Bologna Process are described with particular attention to their influence on higher education in other countries, including the United States. The changes in Europe and the "external dimension"…

  15. Teacher Perceptions of Bologna Reforms in Armenian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; Van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of the implementation of the Bologna reforms in Armenian higher education were examined in a questionnaire study with 279 university teachers, revealing how eight leading higher education institutions have adapted to the political directive to create alignment with the Bologna principles. The literature on educational change is…

  16. The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

  17. Aspired Convergence, Cherished Diversity: Dealing with the Contradictions of Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the inherent tension in the Bologna process between the aim of convergence and the will to maintain the diversity of national higher education (HE) systems, as well as the decentralised and autonomous nature of national policy formulation on Bologna reforms. Starting from an analytical discussion of the concepts of…

  18. The Bologna Process: Inception, "Take Up" and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Veiga, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the value of the Bologna Process in placing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) on a solid institutional footing. How far has Bologna contributed to firming up the views academia, management and students have of the EHEA? The article is based on a survey administered across four systems of higher education in 2008. It…

  19. Social Issues in the Bologna Process: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyborg, Per

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses social issues in the Bologna process and who benefits from these social issues. The Bologna Declaration did not come out of the blue. It was preceded by the 1998 Sorbonne Declaration, which in turn built on the 1997 Lisbon Recognition Convention. Rather than discussing recognition of exams and degrees, the author takes the…

  20. The Bologna Process between Structural Convergence and Institutional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    The merging of the Bologna and the Copenhagen processes into a single European education area appears appropriate, especially as general, vocational, adult and academic education are to be integrated in a future European Qualification Framework (EQF). This is the backdrop to the following description of the Bologna process, which was originally…

  1. Re-Contextualization of the Bologna Process in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Zelvys, Rimantas; Zenkiene, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the implementation of selected Bologna action lines in Lithuanian higher education institutions (HEIs). The study is carried out from an organizational perspective on national re-contextualization, drawing upon sociological institutionalism. The Bologna process is likely to be normatively accepted by institutions in the context…

  2. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  3. The Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Pilot Scheme Adapted to the Bologna Goals at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Purificacion

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration attempts to reform the structure of the higher education system in forty-six European countries in a convergent way. By 2010, the European space for higher education should be completed. In the 2005-2006 academic year, the University of Murcia, Spain, started promoting initiatives to adapt individual modules and entire…

  4. Clustering on very small scales from a large, complete sample of confirmed quasar pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Graham, Matthew J.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-06-01

    We present by far the largest sample of spectroscopically confirmed binaryquasars with proper transverse separations of 17.0 ≤ Rprop ≤ 36.6 h-1 kpc. Our sample, whichis an order-of-magnitude larger than previous samples, is selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging over an area corresponding to the SDSS 6th data release (DR6). Our quasars are targeted using a Kernel Density Estimation technique (KDE), and confirmed using long-slit spectroscopy on a range of facilities.Our most complete sub-sample of 44 binary quasars with g<20.85, extends across angular scales of 2.9" < Δθ < 6.3", and is targeted from a parent sample that would be equivalent to a full spectroscopic survey of nearly 300,000 quasars.We determine the projected correlation function of quasars (\\bar Wp) over proper transverse scales of 17.0 ≤ Rprop ≤ 36.6 h-1 kpc, and also in 4 bins of scale within this complete range.To investigate the redshift evolution of quasar clustering on small scales, we make the first self-consistent measurement of the projected quasar correlation function in 4 bins of redshift over 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.3.

  5. DEMINERALIZER BUILDING, TRA608. INSTALLATION OF SAMPLING AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS COMPLETES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEMINERALIZER BUILDING, TRA-608. INSTALLATION OF SAMPLING AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS COMPLETES DEMINERALIZER UNITS ALONG NORTH WALL. CAMERA FACES EAST. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3996A. Unknown Photographer, 12/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Redshift and Optical Properties for S Statistically Complete Sample of Poor Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledlow, Michael J.; Loken, Chris; Burns, Jack O.; Hill, John M.; White, Richard A.

    1996-08-01

    From the poor cluster catalog of White et al. (1996), we define a sample of 71 optically-selected poor galaxy clusters. The surface-density enhancement we require for our clusters falls between that of the loose associations of Turner & Gott [AJ, 91,204(1976)] and the Hickson compact groups [Hickson, ApJ, 255, 382(1982)]. We review the selection biases and determine the statistical completeness of the sample. For this sample, we report new velocity measurements made with the ARC 3.5-m Dual-Imaging spectrograph and the 2.3-m Steward Observatory MX fiber spectrograph. Combining our own measurements with those from the literature, we examine the velocity distributions, velocity dispersions, and ID velocity substructure for our poor cluster sample, and compare our results to other poor cluster samples. We find that approximately half of the sample may have significant ID velocity substructure. The optical morphology, large-scale environment, and velocity field of many of these clusters are indicative of young, dynamically evolving systems. In future papers, we will use this sample to derive the poor cluster x-ray luminosity function and gas mass function, and will examine the optical/x-ray properties of the clusters in more detail.

  7. Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

    2015-03-01

    Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (∼16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

  8. Estimating Vertex Measures in Social Networks by Sampling Completions of RDS Trees

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk; Curtis, Ric; Wendel, Travis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for obtaining network properties from incomplete data sets. Problems associated with missing data represent well-known stumbling blocks in Social Network Analysis. The method of “estimating connectivity from spanning tree completions” (ECSTC) is specifically designed to address situations where only spanning tree(s) of a network are known, such as those obtained through respondent driven sampling (RDS). Using repeated random completions derived from degree information, this method forgoes the usual step of trying to obtain final edge or vertex rosters, and instead aims to estimate network-centric properties of vertices probabilistically from the spanning trees themselves. In this paper, we discuss the problem of missing data and describe the protocols of our completion method, and finally the results of an experiment where ECSTC was used to estimate graph dependent vertex properties from spanning trees sampled from a graph whose characteristics were known ahead of time. The results show that ECSTC methods hold more promise for obtaining network-centric properties of individuals from a limited set of data than researchers may have previously assumed. Such an approach represents a break with past strategies of working with missing data which have mainly sought means to complete the graph, rather than ECSTC's approach, which is to estimate network properties themselves without deciding on the final edge set. PMID:25838988

  9. Complete identification of the Parkes half-Jansky sample of GHz peaked spectrum radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, N.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Lehnert, M. D.; Bremer, M. N.

    2007-03-01

    Context: Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies are generally thought to be the young counterparts of classical extended radio sources. Statistically complete samples of GPS sources are vital for studying the early evolution of radio-loud AGN and the trigger of their nuclear activity. The "Parkes half-Jansky" sample of GPS radio galaxies is such a sample, representing the southern counterpart of the 1998 Stanghellini sample of bright GPS sources. Aims: As a first step of the investigation of the sample, the host galaxies need to be identified and their redshifts determined. Methods: Deep R-band VLT-FORS1 and ESO 3.6 m EFOSC II images and long slit spectra have been taken for the unidentified sources in the sample. Results: We have identified all twelve previously unknown host galaxies of the radio sources in the sample. Eleven have host galaxies in the range 21.0 < RC < 23.0, while one object, PKS J0210+0419, is identified in the near infrared with a galaxy with Ks = 18.3. The redshifts of 21 host galaxies have been determined in the range 0.474 < z < 1.539, bringing the total number of redshifts to 39 (80%). Analysis of the absolute magnitudes of the GPS host galaxies show that at z>1 they are on average a magnitude fainter than classical 3C radio galaxies, as found in earlier studies. However their restframe UV luminosities indicate that there is an extra light contribution from the AGN, or from a population of young stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile (ESO prog. ID No. 073.B-0289(B)) and the European Southern Observatory 3.6 m Telescope, La Silla, Chile (prog. ID No. 073.B-0289(A)). Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Impact of different visible light spectra on oxygen absorption and surface discoloration of bologna sausage.

    PubMed

    Böhner, Nadine; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several visible light spectra in various intensities on the oxygen absorption and surface color of sliced bologna. Sausage samples were stored in a gastight model packaging system and illuminated at 5°C with six single-colored LEDs covering the main part of the visible light spectrum. The initial oxygen level was set at 0.5% in order to simulate common residual oxygen amounts in conventional packaging. The oxygen absorption and the discoloration measured as changes in CIE a*-value were dependent from the applied light intensity. The color stability of bologna was differently affected by light of various wavelengths. The results show that the use of suitable LEDs with specific spectra for display illumination can help to reduce the light induced deterioration of cured sausages in retail markets. PMID:27343458

  11. VLA observations of a complete sample of extragalactic X-ray sources. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Zamorani, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Maccacaro, T.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of 35 X-ray selected sources found with the Einstein Observatory has been observed with the Very Large Array at 6 cm to investigate the relationship between radio and X-ray emission in extragalactic objects. Detections include three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), two clusters or groups of galaxies, two individual galaxies, and two BL Lac objects. The frequency of radio emission in X-ray selected AGNs is compared with that of optically selected quasars using the integral radio-optical luminosity function. The result suggests that the probability for X-ray selected quasars to be radio sources is higher than for those optically selected. No obvious correlation is found in the sample between the richness of X-ray luminosity of the cluster and the presence of a galaxy with radio luminosity at 5 GHz larger than 10 to the 30th ergs/s/Hz.

  12. Cosmology from the KISO Ultraviolet Excess Survey: a Complete Sample of White Dwarfs and Quasars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Gerald William

    1994-01-01

    Spectral types for 356 of the 1,186 objects comprising the Kiso Ultraviolet Excess (KUV) Survey are reported. Observations of 277 KUV objects were made at the Michigan-Dartmouth -MIT Observatory on Kitt Peak, using both the 2.4 meter Hiltner and 1.3 meter McGraw-Hill telescopes. Interesting objects reported include: 70 subdwarfs, 33 DA, 6 DQ and 3 DB white dwarfs, and 95 QSO and emission line objects. A search through the literature has revealed the spectral identification of an additional 79 KUV objects. This brings the total identified to 1,115 (94%), including samples of 234 white dwarfs and 170 quasars. The V/Vmax technique (Schmidt 1968) was applied to the complete samples of white dwarfs and quasars to estimate the limiting magnitude of the KUV Survey and construct luminosity functions of these populations. The limiting magnitude was estimated to be 17.35 from the KUV white dwarfs and 17.81 from the KUV quasars. Theoretical white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLF) are used with the observational WDLF determined in this work to estimate the age of the Galactic disc at our galactocentric radius to be between 8.0 Gyr and 110 Gyr, with 9.0 Gyr being the best estimate. If 1.0 Gyr is chosen as the interval between the creation event and star formation in the Galactic disc (Winget et al. 1987), the age of the universe is then estimated to be 10.0 Gyr. The deeper KUV Survey has be used to analyze the completeness of the Palomar-Green (PG) Survey. If completeness is defined by the number of KUV objects located in the overlapping area of the surveys, and brighter than their PG field's limiting magnitude, compared to the number of these KUV objects actually detected by the PG, then an estimate of completeness based on spectral type for the PG is: 57% for quasars, 58% for white dwarfs and 53% for all objects. Limits on the selection function of the PG are calculated, and the PG is determined to be approximately 75% complete out to between 15.15 and 16.15 magnitude where

  13. Assessing effective care in normal labor: the Bologna score.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, B; Porter, R

    2001-06-01

    The intention of the "Bologna score" is to quantify, both in an individual labor and in a wider population, the extent to which labors have been managed as if they are normal as opposed to complicated. In this way it may be possible to assess both attitudes and practices within a maternity service toward the effective care of normal labor. A scoring system for normal labor was proposed at the World Health Organization (Regional Office for Europe) Task Force Meeting on Monitoring and Evaluation of Perinatal Care, held in Bologna in January 2000. This paper describes conceptual development of the scale. Recommendations for future evaluation of the Bologna score's validity and potential include field testing globally, comparison with the Apgar score, and evaluation of the relative weight contributed by each of the five measures comprising the Bologna score. PMID:11380378

  14. CosmoBolognaLib: C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Veropalumbo, A.; Moresco, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of Open Source C++ numerical libraries for cosmological calculations. CosmoBolognaLib is a living project aimed at defining a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. In particular, one of the primary focuses of this software is to help in handling astronomical catalogues, both real and simulated, measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space, and performing cosmological analyses. In this paper, we discuss the main features of this software, providing an overview of all the available C++ classes implemented up to now. Both the CosmoBolognaLib and their associated doxygen documentation can be freely downloaded at https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib. We provide also some examples to explain how these libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  15. Hard-X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei in the INTEGRAL complete sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present the hard-X-ray spectral analysis of a complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by INTEGRAL/IBIS. In conjunction with IBIS spectra, we make use of Swift/BAT data, with the aim of cross-calibrating the two instruments, studying source variability and constraining some important spectral parameters. We find that flux variability is present in at least 14 per cent of the sample, while spectral variability is found only in one object. There is general good agreement between BAT and IBIS spectra, despite a systematic mismatch of about 22 per cent in normalization. When fitted with a simple power-law model, type 1 and type 2 sources appear to have very similar average photon indices, suggesting that they are powered by the same mechanism. As expected, we also find that a simple power law does not always describe the data sufficiently well, thus indicating a certain degree of spectral complexity, which can be ascribed to features like a high energy cut-off and/or a reflection component. Fixing the reflection to be 0, 1 or 2, we find that our sample covers quite a large range in photon indices as well as cut-off energies; however, the spread is due only to a small number of objects, while the majority of the AGNs lie within well-defined boundaries of photon index (1 ≤ Γ ≤ 2) and cut-off energy (30 ≤ Ecut ≤ 300 keV).

  16. The X-ray luminosity temperature relation of a complete sample of low mass galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Maughan, B. J.; Giles, P. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Burenin, R.; Hornstrup, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present Chandra observations of 23 galaxy groups and low-mass galaxy clusters at 0.03 < z < 0.15 with a median temperature of ˜2 KeV. The sample is a statistically complete flux-limited subset of the 400 deg2 survey. We investigated the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L) and temperature (T), taking selection biases fully into account. The logarithmic slope of the bolometric L - T relation was found to be 3.29 ± 0.33, consistent with values typically found for samples of more massive clusters. In combination with other recent studies of the L - T relation we show that there is no evidence for the slope, normalisation, or scatter of the L - T relation of galaxy groups being different than that of massive clusters. The exception to this is that in the special case of the most relaxed systems, the slope of the core-excised L - T relation appears to steepen from the self-similar value found for massive clusters to a steeper slope for the lower mass sample studied here. Thanks to our rigorous treatment of selection biases, these measurements provide a robust reference against which to compare predictions of models of the impact of feedback on the X-ray properties of galaxy groups.

  17. A complete sample of massive MaxBCG clusters for scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming

    2013-10-01

    Great progress on galaxy clusters has been made in the last several years with SZ and optical surveys. Some new puzzles also emerged and one of them is the mismatch between the stacked Planck SZ fluxes and the model expectations for the MaxBCG clusters. While previous studies regarding this puzzle require the calibration of the true mass and the standard pressure template, we bypass the intermediate steps to directly compare the pressure content derived from the X-ray data with the SZ flux, for massive MaxBCG clusters. This proposal requests XMM data for 9 clusters to complete a sample of 38 most massive MaxBCG clusters observed with either XMM or Chandra. The results will shed light on the mismatch puzzle and constrain the important scaling relations like Y_X - N_200 and Y_X - Y_SZ.

  18. Emission-line properties of optically and radio-selected complete quasar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, J. A.; Wampler, E. Joseph; Gaskell, C. Martin

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of two complete samples of quasars, one obtained from the flat radio spectra of the objects and the other from their optical colors, is presented. It is confirmed that the equivalent widths of the major UV emission lines decrease with increasing continuum luminosity (the Baldwin effect) and that the (Ly-alpha + N V)/C IV and 1909 A/C IV intensity ratios are also luminosity-dependent by virtue of the C IV luminosity dependence. It is shown that the Mg II/C IV intensity ratio and possibly the strengths of the blue Fe II emission features and the FWHM of the 1909 A blend are luminosity-dependent. These results generally support the Mushotzky and Ferland (1984) interpretation of the Baldwin effect in terms of a weak inverse correlation between the continuum luminosity and ionization parameter.

  19. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthey, Guy; Faber, S. M.; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Burstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previously defined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. Following Gorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that give index strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and (Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predicting index strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations of different ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable for stellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appear to be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. A complete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available in computer-readable form.

  20. LoCuSS: completing a volume limited sample of massive clusters with XMM-Subaru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2009-10-01

    An XMM/Subaru study of 12 clusters shows that Mgas is an excellent mass proxy, with its scatter less than 3+/-6%. However the X-ray to weak lensing mass ratio is morphology dependent, and sensitive to inclusion/exclusion of individual clusters. A complete volume limited sample of 54 clusters with high quality X-ray and weak-lensing data will deliver the definitive constraints on mass bias with respect to morphology that are essential for proper control of systematics in forthcoming X-ray cluster cosmology programs aiming to measure the dark energy equation of state parameter w, and for any program wishing to add a sharp, multi-wavelength focus to investigations of cluster physics. Archival XMM and/or Chandra data exist for 50/54 clusters; we therefore request totaling 110 net ks for 4 clusters.

  1. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks. PMID:27515518

  2. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Soria, Roberto; Tennant, Allyn F.; Yukita, Mihoko

    2011-11-01

    One hundred seven ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with 0.3-10.0 keV luminosities in excess of 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} are identified in a complete sample of 127 nearby galaxies. The sample includes all galaxies within 14.5 Mpc above the completeness limits of both the Uppsala Galaxy Catalogue and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite survey. The galaxy sample spans all Hubble types, a four-decade range in mass, 7.5 < log (M/M{sub sun}) < 11.4, and in star formation rate, 0.0002 < SFR(M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) {<=} 3.6. ULXs are detected in this sample at rates of one per 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, one per {approx}0.5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} star formation rate, and one per 57 Mpc{sup 3} corresponding to a luminosity density of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3}. At these rates we estimate as many as 19 additional ULXs remain undetected in fainter dwarf galaxies within the survey volume. An estimated 14 objects, or 13%, of the 107 ULX candidates are expected to be background sources. The differential ULX luminosity function shows a power-law slope {alpha} {approx} -0.8 to -2.0 with an exponential cutoff at {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} with precise values depending on the model and on whether the ULX luminosities are estimated from their observed numbers of counts or, for a subset of candidates, from their spectral shapes. Extrapolating the observed luminosity function predicts at most one very luminous ULX, L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, within a distance as small as 100 Mpc. The luminosity distribution of ULXs within the local universe cannot account for the recent claims of luminosities in excess of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, requiring a new population class to explain these extreme objects.

  3. Quantifying Next Generation Sequencing Sample Pre-Processing Bias in HIV-1 Complete Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Bram; Trovão, Nídia Sequeira; Baele, Guy; van Wijngaerden, Eric; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; van Laethem, Kristel; Lemey, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses play a central role in infectious disease research. Massively parallelized "mechanical cloning" and sequencing technologies were quickly adopted by HIV researchers in order to broaden the understanding of the clinical importance of minor drug-resistant variants. These efforts have, however, remained largely limited to small genomic regions. The growing need to monitor multiple genome regions for drug resistance testing, as well as the obvious benefit for studying evolutionary and epidemic processes makes complete genome sequencing an important goal in viral research. In addition, a major drawback for NGS applications to RNA viruses is the need for large quantities of input DNA. Here, we use a generic overlapping amplicon-based near full-genome amplification protocol to compare low-input enzymatic fragmentation (Nextera™) with conventional mechanical shearing for Roche 454 sequencing. We find that the fragmentation method has only a modest impact on the characterization of the population composition and that for reliable results, the variation introduced at all steps of the procedure--from nucleic acid extraction to sequencing--should be taken into account, a finding that is also relevant for NGS technologies that are now more commonly used. Furthermore, by applying our protocol to deep sequence a number of pre-therapy plasma and PBMC samples, we illustrate the potential benefits of a near complete genome sequencing approach in routine genotyping. PMID:26751471

  4. Quantifying Next Generation Sequencing Sample Pre-Processing Bias in HIV-1 Complete Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vrancken, Bram; Trovão, Nídia Sequeira; Baele, Guy; van Wijngaerden, Eric; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; van Laethem, Kristel; Lemey, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses play a central role in infectious disease research. Massively parallelized “mechanical cloning” and sequencing technologies were quickly adopted by HIV researchers in order to broaden the understanding of the clinical importance of minor drug-resistant variants. These efforts have, however, remained largely limited to small genomic regions. The growing need to monitor multiple genome regions for drug resistance testing, as well as the obvious benefit for studying evolutionary and epidemic processes makes complete genome sequencing an important goal in viral research. In addition, a major drawback for NGS applications to RNA viruses is the need for large quantities of input DNA. Here, we use a generic overlapping amplicon-based near full-genome amplification protocol to compare low-input enzymatic fragmentation (Nextera™) with conventional mechanical shearing for Roche 454 sequencing. We find that the fragmentation method has only a modest impact on the characterization of the population composition and that for reliable results, the variation introduced at all steps of the procedure—from nucleic acid extraction to sequencing—should be taken into account, a finding that is also relevant for NGS technologies that are now more commonly used. Furthermore, by applying our protocol to deep sequence a number of pre-therapy plasma and PBMC samples, we illustrate the potential benefits of a near complete genome sequencing approach in routine genotyping. PMID:26751471

  5. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Corinne; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Lesi, Grazia; Bensoussan, Alan; Cardini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna) to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296) and Bologna (n=1,106) to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women's choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24459531

  6. The optical-infrared colour distribution of a statistically complete sample of faint field spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menanteau, F.; Ellis, R. S.; Abraham, R. G.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    1999-10-01

    In hierarchical models, where spheroidal galaxies are primarily produced via a continuous merging of disc galaxies, the number of intrinsically red systems at faint limits will be substantially lower than in `traditional' models where the bulk of star formation was completed at high redshifts. In this paper we analyse the optical-near-infrared colour distribution of a large flux-limited sample of field spheroidal galaxies identified morphologically from archival Hubble Space Telescope data. The I_814-HK' colour distribution for a sample jointly limited at I_814<23mag and HK'<19.5mag is used to constrain their star formation history. We compare visual and automated methods for selecting spheroidals from our deep HST images and, in both cases, detect a significant deficit of intrinsically red spheroidals relative to the predictions of high-redshift monolithic-collapse models. However, the overall space density of spheroidals (irrespective of colour) is not substantially different from that seen locally. Spectral synthesis modelling of our results suggests that high-redshift spheroidals are dominated by evolved stellar populations polluted by some amount of subsidiary star formation. Despite its effect on the optical-infrared colour, this star formation probably makes only a modest contribution to the overall stellar mass. We briefly discuss the implications of our results in the context of earlier predictions based on models where spheroidals assemble hierarchically.

  7. Completion of a worldwide reference panel of samples for an ancestry informative Indel assay.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla; Phillips, Christopher; Oldoni, Fabio; Amigo, Jorge; Fondevila, Manuel; Pereira, Rui; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, Maria Victoria

    2015-07-01

    The use of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in forensic analysis is of considerable utility since ancestry inference can progress an investigation when no identification has been made of DNA from the crime-scene. Short-amplicon markers, including insertion deletion polymorphisms, are particularly useful in forensic analysis due to their mutational stability, capacity to amplify degraded samples and straightforward amplification technique. In this study we report the completion of H952 HGDP-CEPH panel genotyping with a set of 46 AIM-Indels. The study adds Central South Asian and Middle Eastern population data, allowing a comparison of patterns of variation in Eurasia for these markers, in order to enhance their use in forensic analyses, particularly when combined with sets of ancestry informative SNPs. Ancestry analysis using principal component analysis and Bayesian methods indicates that a proportion of classification error occurs with European-Middle East population comparisons, but the 46 AIM-Indels have the capability to differentiate six major population groups when European-Central South Asian comparisons are made. These findings have relevance for forensic ancestry analyses in countries where South Asians form much of the demographic profile, including the UK, USA and South Africa. A novel third allele detected in MID-548 was characterized - despite a low frequency in the HGDP-CEPH panel samples, it appears confined to Central South Asian populations, increasing the ability to differentiate this population group. The H952 data set was implemented in a new open access SPSmart frequency browser - forInDel: Forensic Indel browser. PMID:25840342

  8. MID- AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuta, Keiko

    2012-07-20

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT nine-month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 {mu}m band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over three orders of magnitude (42 < log {lambda}L{sub {lambda}}(9, 18 {mu}m) < 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 {mu}m. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 {mu}m in the averaged infrared spectral energy distribution from heavy obscured 'new type' AGNs with small scattering fractions in the X-ray spectra. This could be attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission feature, suggesting that their host galaxies have strong starburst activities.

  9. X-ray spectra of a complete sample of extragalactic core-dominated radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Lamer, G.; Worrall, D. M.; Staubert, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present ROSAT soft X-ray spectra for the members of a complete sample of 13 core-dominated, flat radio spectrum sources. The sample comprises all radio sources from a flux-limited radio catalog (S(sub 5GHz) greater than 1 Jy; Kuehr et al. 1981) which are north of delta = 70 deg, at galactic latitudes b greater than 10 deg, and have a flat radio spectrum between 1.4 and 5 GHz (alpha(sub r) less than 0.5; f approximately nu(sup -alpha)). The sources have already undergone much study at radio and optical wavelengths and are classified in broad terms as quasars (8 sources) and BL Lac objects (5 sources). We find mean X-ray power-law energy indices of alpha(sub x) = 0.59 +/- 0.19 for the quasars and 1.36 +/- 0.27 for the BL Lac objects (68% confidence range for two parameters of interest as determined by a maximum likelihood method), supporting earlier Einstein Observatory results for heterogeneous samples of sources (Worrall & Wilkes 1990). A non-zero dispersion on alpha(sub x) is found for both the quasars and the BL Lac objects. When we incorporate published radio, mm, and optical measurements and compare the X-ray and broad-band spectral indices alpha(sub x), alpha(sub rx), alpha(sub mm,x), and alpha(sub ox), the most obvious difference between the quasar and BL Lac subsamples lies within the X-ray band. We have fitted the multi-wavelength data to inhomogeneous synchotron-self-Compton models and find that, for the BL Lac objects with steep X-ray spectra, synchotron emission can account for the radio to soft X-ray measurements, whereas the BL Lac objects with hard X-ray spectra and the quasars require significant Compton emission to model the spectral flattening indicated by alpha(sub x) less than alpha(sub ox).

  10. The Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Project - II. Stellar mass completeness of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin; Saito, Shun; Tinker, Jeremy; Maraston, Claudia; Tojeiro, Rita; Huang, Song; Brownstein, Joel R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) has collected spectra for over one million galaxies at 0.15 < z < 0.7 over a volume of 15.3 Gpc3 (9376 deg2) - providing us an opportunity to study the most massive galaxy populations with vanishing sample variance. However, BOSS samples are selected via complex colour cuts that are optimized for cosmology studies, not galaxy science. In this paper, we supplement BOSS samples with photometric redshifts from the Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Catalog and measure the total galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) at z ˜ 0.3 and z ˜ 0.55. With the total SMF in hand, we characterize the stellar mass completeness of BOSS samples. The high-redshift CMASS (constant mass) sample is significantly impacted by mass incompleteness and is 80 per cent complete at log 10(M*/M⊙) > 11.6 only in the narrow redshift range z = [0.51, 0.61]. The low-redshift LOWZ sample is 80 per cent complete at log 10(M*/M⊙) > 11.6 for z = [0.15, 0.43]. To construct mass complete samples at lower masses, spectroscopic samples need to be significantly supplemented by photometric redshifts. This work will enable future studies to better utilize the BOSS samples for galaxy-formation science.

  11. THE ELM SURVEY. I. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF EXTREMELY LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: callende@iac.e

    2010-11-10

    We analyze radial velocity observations of the 12 extremely low-mass (ELM), with {<=}0.25 M{sub sun}, white dwarfs (WDs) in the MMT Hypervelocity Star Survey. Eleven of the twelve WDs are binaries with orbital periods shorter than 14 hr; the one non-variable WD is possibly a pole-on system among our non-kinematically selected targets. Our sample is unique: it is complete in a well-defined range of apparent magnitude and color. The orbital mass functions imply that the unseen companions are most likely other WDs, although neutron star companions cannot be excluded. Six of the eleven systems with orbital solutions will merge within a Hubble time due to the loss of angular momentum through gravitational wave radiation. The quickest merger is J0923+3028, a g = 15.7 ELM WD binary with a 1.08 hr orbital period and a {<=}130 Myr merger time. The chance of a supernova Ia event among our ELM WDs is only 1%-7%, however. Three binary systems (J0755+4906, J1233+1602, and J2119-0018) have extreme mass ratios and will most likely form stable mass-transfer AM CVn systems. Two of these objects, SDSS J1233+1602 and J2119-0018, are the lowest surface gravity WDs ever found; both show Ca II absorption likely from accretion of circumbinary material. We predict that at least one of our WDs is an eclipsing detached double WD system, important for constraining helium core WD models.

  12. Framing the Salmonidae Family Phylogenetic Portrait: A More Complete Picture from Increased Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Crête-Lafrenière, Alexis; Weir, Laura K.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research efforts have focused on elucidating the systematic relationships among salmonid fishes; an understanding of these patterns of relatedness will inform conservation- and fisheries-related issues, as well as provide a framework for investigating evolutionary mechanisms in the group. However, uncertainties persist in current Salmonidae phylogenies due to biological and methodological factors, and a comprehensive phylogeny including most representatives of the family could provide insight into the causes of these difficulties. Here we increase taxon sampling by including nearly all described salmonid species (n = 63) to present a time-calibrated and more complete portrait of Salmonidae using a combination of molecular markers and analytical techniques. This strategy improved resolution by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and helped discriminate methodological and systematic errors from sources of difficulty associated with biological processes. Our results highlight novel aspects of salmonid evolution. First, we call into question the widely-accepted evolutionary relationships among sub-families and suggest that Thymallinae, rather than Coregoninae, is the sister group to the remainder of Salmonidae. Second, we find that some groups in Salmonidae are older than previously thought and that the mitochondrial rate of molecular divergence varies markedly among genes and clades. We estimate the age of the family to be 59.1 MY (CI: 63.2-58.1 MY) old, which likely corresponds to the timing of whole genome duplication in salmonids. The average, albeit highly variable, mitochondrial rate of molecular divergence was estimated as ∼0.31%/MY (CI: 0.27–0.36%/MY). Finally, we suggest that some species require taxonomic revision, including two monotypic genera, Stenodus and Salvethymus. In addition, we resolve some relationships that have been notoriously difficult to discern and present a clearer picture of the evolution of the group. Our findings

  13. A Complete Sample of Hot Post-AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W.; Moehler, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Sweigart, A.; Catelan, M.; Stecher, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet images of globular clusters are often dominated by one or two "UV-bright" stars. The most luminous of these are believed to be post-AGB stars, which go through a luminous UV-bright phase as they leave the AGB and move rapidly across the HR diagram toward their final white dwarf state. During the two flights of the ASTRO observatory in 1990 and 1995, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT, Stecher 1997, PASP, 109, 584) was used to obtained ultraviolet (1600 A) images of 14 globular clusters. These images provide a complete census of hot (> 8000 K) post-AGB stars in the observed globular clusters, because the 40' field of view of UIT is large enough to image the entire population of most Galactic globulars, and because the dominant cool star population is suppressed in ultraviolet images, allowing UV-bright stars to be detected into the cluster core. We have begun a program of optical and STIS ultraviolet spectroscopy to determine the fundamental stellar parameters (\\log L, T_eff, \\log g) of all the hot post-AGB candidates discovered on the UIT images. Among the goals of our program are to test theoretical post-AGB lifetimes across the HR diagram, and to estimate the mass of the currently forming white dwarfs in globular clusters. Two trends are already apparent in our survey. First, the UV-selected sample has removed a bias against the detection of the hottest post-AGB stars, and resulted in the discovery of five cluster post-AGB stars with Teff > 50,000 K. Second, most of the new discoveries have been lower luminosity (2.5 $<$\\log L $<$ 3.0) than expected for stars which leave the AGB during the thermally pulsating phase.

  14. The Academy of Science of Bologna and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bonomini, V; Campieri, C; Zuccoli, M

    1999-01-01

    The Academy of Science of Bologna, founded in 1711, played an important role in the development of medicine. Receiving the heritage of Malpighi's and Morgagni's researches, the academy encouraged nephrological studies, which produced articles published in its journal, the Commentarii. Since the Commentarii were widely distributed all over Europe, the nephrological research practiced in Bologna reached all the main academies of science, in a fruitful circulation of knowledge. The paper presents the nephrological contributions to the Commentarii in the 18th century, thus introducing physicians, like Domenico Galeazzi and Luigi Galvani, who were both professors at the University of Bologna and at the Academy of Science. In their work three main topics can be identified: uroscopy, anatomy of the kidney and renal pathologies. PMID:10213815

  15. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  16. Normative Influence of the Bologna Process on French-Speaking African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah; Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process experienced a rapidly growing and an unexpected level of support. The authors revisit the key moments of the strategic promotion of the Bologna model and address the issue of the advantages other countries from other continents might gain from lining up with versions of the Bologna model. During the first years, the Process…

  17. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on University-Level Chemical Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Bologna Process, an effort by a consortium of nearly 50 European countries trying to standardize the higher education system in Europe. Starting from a nonbinding agreement (the 1999 Bologna Declaration), the Bologna Process involves a voluntary joint venture for the construction of a European higher education area…

  18. Bologna Process between Prague and Berlin. Report to the Ministers of Education of the Signatory Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel

    In Bologna, Italy, in 1999 a declaration was signed that spelled out the beginnings of a common European Higher Education Area. At a summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in 2001, the idea initiated in Bologna was clearly endorsed. In the successive period from 2001 to 2003, awareness of the importance of the Bologna process and the real need for the…

  19. Impact of the Bologna Process on Turkish Higher Education: The Case of Izmir University of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Oguz; Gürleyen, Isik; Binatli, Ayla Ogus

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Turkey's experience of the Bologna Process. Its main objective is to contribute to the literature on the impact of Bologna Process on national higher education systems regarding the issue of curricula development. It argues that the Bologna Process has fostered development of transparent and systematic curricula, which…

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  2. Survey on the Implementation of the Bologna Process in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For several years Portuguese higher education institutions have been waiting for the legislation framework necessary for the implementation of the Bologna process. Such legislation was passed quite recently (2006) and has resulted in an unexpected flood of proposals presented at very short notice by higher education institutions to the Ministry.…

  3. The Bologna Process, Globalisation and Engineering Education Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the Bologna Process in the light of globalisation and examine how it affects curriculum and engineering education developments. Design/methodology/approach: The growing need for creative competitiveness and the striving for specific profiles of engineering qualifications that are of high quality…

  4. Problems of Russia's Entry into the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobren'kova, Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2008-01-01

    Accomplishing the tasks spelled out in the 1999 Bologna Declaration requires reforming the structures of higher education in the countries of Europe to bring them into closer harmony, while preserving fundamental values and traditions in education that have been formed in each country. The author discusses fundamental differences between the…

  5. Student Assessment in Portugal: Academic Practice and Bologna Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Manatos, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional policies and academic practices of student assessment in four Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs) in the wake of European policy developments driven by the Bologna Process. Specifically, it examines the correspondence between European policy recommendations related to student assessment (promotion…

  6. Developing the European Researcher: "Extended" Professionality within the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, doctoral education has become a key feature within the remit of the Bologna Process. Perceived as a crucial link between the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area, it is perceived as the cornerstone upon which will be built Europe's future world-class research excellence. Yet consideration of how European…

  7. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

  8. The Bologna Process and the European Gain: Africa's Development Demise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawa, Lester Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a fundamental restructuring of higher education in Europe, of which the introduction of three cycles: bachelor's, master's and doctorate, in lieu of the traditional long program is the single most important feature. Its objectives are to increase the employability of European citizens and the competitiveness and…

  9. The Bologna Process and the Czech System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The Czech system of education has been through several years of relatively intensive transformation efforts reflecting the international processes of transformation of higher education the Czech Republic joined. The most important external stimulus directing the transformation process is the so-called Bologna process. These complex and…

  10. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  11. E-Assessment within the Bologna Paradigm: Evidence from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrao, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration brought reforms into higher education that imply changes in teaching methods, didactic materials and textbooks, infrastructures and laboratories, etc. Statistics and mathematics are disciplines that traditionally have the worst success rates, particularly in non-mathematics core curricula courses. This research project,…

  12. Bologna--Realising Old or New Ideals of Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano-Velarde, Kathia; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the meanings of quality in the Humboldtian university ideal and in the Bologna process, especially related to issues of institutional autonomy, academic freedom and the integration of teaching and research. The article gives an overview of current practices associated with quality and quality assurance in Germany and Norway.…

  13. Bologna Network: A New Sociopolitical Area in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The project of the Bologna process to create a "European Higher Education Area" (EHEA) has established the necessary conditions for the emergence of a new sociopolitical space of higher education in Europe. This space has become a cooperation/competition area that changes the European and national balance of power: the relations the countries…

  14. Marcello Malpighi and his academic opponents in Bologna.

    PubMed

    Campieri, Claudio; Persici, Elisa; Stefoni, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Marcello Malpighi was born in Crevalcore on March 10, 1628 and died in Rome on July 25, 1694. In Bologna he had among his opponents Giovanni Gerolamo Sbaraglia and Paoli Mini who prevented him being appointed to the chair of anatomy. This paper describes the reasons for this long term debate. PMID:15372430

  15. The links between medical school of Bologna and Ionian Academy.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1989-01-01

    The Ionian Academy, on the British dominion island of Corfu (Kerkyra), was founded in 1824 and his Medical School functioned during two separate periods (1824-1828, 1844-1865). It was the first Greek University. Among the 15 professors of the Academy's Medical School, 12 studied at various Italian universities. In particular, three of them, G. Therianos, Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Experimental Physics, G. Grassetti, Professor of Physiology and S. Arvanitakis, Professor of Pathology and Hygiene, either studied or graduated at the Medical school of Bologna University. Another Bologna graduate, Rokkos Pylarios, was appointed to the chair of Professor in Surgery and Gynecology - though it is not known if he actually took up the position. It is concluded that the Medical School of Bologna, as a centre of original medical study, contributed significantly to the foundation and development of the Ionian Academy. Moreover, the Greek physicians who had studied either at the University of Bologna or at the Ionian Academy, contributed to the renaissance of neohellenic medicine during the 19th century. PMID:11640087

  16. Blueprint for Bologna: University of Prishtina and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Countries hoping to demonstrate an adequate educational infrastructure need a national framework that meets Bologna requirements, a national accreditation agency which sets out the approved framework, and national accreditation processes by which individual institutions can be measured against the standards set by the national accreditation…

  17. Bologna Process Principles Integrated into Education System of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan. The author gives short review of higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan with necessary data. And the weaknesses of the system of higher education are identified. Moreover, implementing…

  18. Region and edge-adaptive sampling and boundary completion for segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, Scott E; Prasad, Lakshman; Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    Edge detection produces a set of points that are likely to lie on discontinuities between objects within an image. We consider faces of the Gabriel graph of these points, a sub-graph of the Delaunay triangulation. Features are extracted by merging these faces using size, shape and color cues. We measure regional properties of faces using a novel shape-dependant sampling method that overcomes undesirable sampling bias of the Delaunay triangles. Instead, sampling is biased so as to smooth regional statistics within the detected object boundaries, and this smoothing adapts to local geometric features of the shape such as curvature, thickness and straightness.

  19. Ukraine and the Bologna Process: A Case Study of the Impact of the Bologna Process on Ukrainian State Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovtun, Olena; Stick, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a case study exploring perceptions of selected administrators and instructors at a Ukrainian state institution regarding the effectiveness of the Bologna Process at their institution. Data were collected from focus group interviews with five volunteer instructors involved in the implementation process. The…

  20. Bologna Trends 2010: The Implementation of the Bologna Process and a Move towards a "New Global Regionalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European University Association, whose members include European higher educations institutions across 46 countries, just published Trends 2010, the sixth in the Trends series, its flagship pan-European report. The principal aim of the 2010 report is to situate and analyse the implementation of the Bologna Process, an initiative to create a…

  1. Sampling Participants’ Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary Challenges for More Complete Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Alan; McGann, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Speelman and McGann’s (2013) examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average’s reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person’s experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behavior of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioral data, but the relationship between experience and behavior remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. “Wide” approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behavior settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioral measurement. “Narrow” approaches maintain controlled measurement of behavior, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt’s descriptive experience sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This controlled descriptive experience sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another. PMID:27242588

  2. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  3. Minimally destructive sampling of type specimens of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) recovers complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rohmer, Laurence; Tortolani, Jacquie; Silva, Mayra; Miller, Kathy Ann; Young, Joel D; Martell, Craig; Ruediger, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Plant species, including algae and fungi, are based on type specimens to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached. Applying a scientific name to any specimen therefore requires demonstrating correspondence between the type and that specimen. Traditionally, identifications are based on morpho-anatomical characters, but recently systematists are using DNA sequence data. These studies are flawed if the DNA is isolated from misidentified modern specimens. We propose a genome-based solution. Using 4 × 4 mm(2) of material from type specimens, we assembled 14 plastid and 15 mitochondrial genomes attributed to the red algae Pyropia perforata, Py. fucicola, and Py. kanakaensis. The chloroplast genomes were fairly conserved, but the mitochondrial genomes differed significantly among populations in content and length. Complete genomes are attainable from 19(th) and early 20(th) century type specimens; this validates the effort and cost of their curation as well as supports the practice of the type method. PMID:24894641

  4. Hard X-Rays from a Complete Sample of the Brightest Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2003-01-01

    We were awarded 70kS of XMM-Newton spacecraft time using the Epic pn camera to observe three ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) in order to measure the spectral shape of their hard X-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN), and to separate out the contributions from a putative starburst. By observing three objects we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the X-ray background. XMM-Newton was deemed to be better suited to our proposed measurements of ULIGs than the Chandra X-ray observatory due to its larger aperture and better sensitivity to hard (2-10 keV) X-rays.

  5. The Quasar Fraction in Low-Frequency Selected Complete Samples and Implications for Unified Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lacy, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Low-frequency radio surveys are ideal for selecting orientation-independent samples of extragalactic sources because the sample members are selected by virtue of their isotropic steep-spectrum extended emission. We use the new 7C Redshift Survey along with the brighter 3CRR and 6C samples to investigate the fraction of objects with observed broad emission lines - the 'quasar fraction' - as a function of redshift and of radio and narrow emission line luminosity. We find that the quasar fraction is more strongly dependent upon luminosity (both narrow line and radio) than it is on redshift. Above a narrow [OII] emission line luminosity of log(base 10) (L(sub [OII])/W) approximately > 35 [or radio luminosity log(base 10) (L(sub 151)/ W/Hz.sr) approximately > 26.5], the quasar fraction is virtually independent of redshift and luminosity; this is consistent with a simple unified scheme with an obscuring torus with a half-opening angle theta(sub trans) approximately equal 53 deg. For objects with less luminous narrow lines, the quasar fraction is lower. We show that this is not due to the difficulty of detecting lower-luminosity broad emission lines in a less luminous, but otherwise similar, quasar population. We discuss evidence which supports at least two probable physical causes for the drop in quasar fraction at low luminosity: (i) a gradual decrease in theta(sub trans) and/or a gradual increase in the fraction of lightly-reddened (0 approximately < A(sub V) approximately < 5) lines-of-sight with decreasing quasar luminosity; and (ii) the emergence of a distinct second population of low luminosity radio sources which, like M8T, lack a well-fed quasar nucleus and may well lack a thick obscuring torus.

  6. Complete Analytical Data for Samples of Jurassic Igneous Rocks in the Bald Mountain Mining District, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents all petrographic, major oxide, and trace element data for a set of 109 samples collected during an investigation of Jurassic igneous rocks in the Bald Mountain mining district, Nevada. Igneous rocks in the district include the Bald Mountain stock, quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes, basaltic andesite dikes, aplite sills, and rare lamprophyre dikes. These rocks, although variably altered near intrusion-related mineral deposits, are fresh in many parts of the district. Igneous rocks in the district are hosted by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  7. Linkage analysis of a completely ascertained sample of familial schizophrenics and bipolars from Palau, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Klei, Lambertus; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Myles-Worsley, Marina; Galke, Brandi; Xie, Weiting; Tiobech, Josepha; Otto, Caleb; Roeder, Kathyrn; Devlin, Bernie; Byerley, William

    2005-08-01

    We report on linkage analysis of a completely ascertained population of familial psychosis derived from the oceanic nation of Palau. Palau, an archipelago of islands in the Southern Pacific, currently has a population of approximately 23,000 individuals. The peoples of Palau populated these islands recently in human history, approximately 2,000 years ago. As both historical and genetic evidence suggest, the population is far more homogeneous than most other populations undergoing genetic studies, and should therefore prove quite useful for mapping genetic variants having a meaningful impact on susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Moreover, for our study, essentially all on-island schizophrenics (150) and individuals with other psychotic disorders (25) participated. By analysis of narrow (only schizophrenia) and broad (all psychosis) diagnostic schemes, two-point linkage analyses suggest that two regions of the genome harbor genetic variants affecting liability in most families, 3q28 (LOD = 3.03) and 17q32.2 (LOD = 2.80). Results from individual pedigrees also support 2q37.2, 2p14, and 17p13 as potentially harboring important genetic variants. Most of these regions have been implicated in other genetic studies of psychosis in populations physically quite distant from this Oceanic population, although some (e.g., 3q28) appear to be novel results for schizophrenia linkage analyses. PMID:15915326

  8. H I detection survey of a complete magnitude-limited sample of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, G. Lyle; Glosson, John; Helou, George; Salpeter, E. E.; Sandage, A.

    1987-01-01

    New single-beam Arecibo H I observations of 298 late-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster drawn mostly from the new catalog of Binggeli, Sandage, and Tammann (1985) are presented. Two hundred seventeen of these constitute a magnitude-limited 'complete sample' of such galaxies, types Sdm through Im and BCD. Sixty-one percent of this 'complete sample' was detected, greatly enhancing the store of redshifts and H I masses for such galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. For detected galaxies, heliocentric velocities, 50 percent profile widths, and single-beam fluxes are presented. For those that escaped detection, upper limits are computed to the flux appropriate to the redshift range (-600 to +3000 km/s).

  9. Effect of lauric acid and nisin-impregnated soy-based films on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on turkey bologna.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P L; Carl, G D; Acton, J C; Han, I Y

    2002-05-01

    Research in development of antimicrobial packaging applications for further processed meats has become more common with recent outbreaks of contamination of these products. In this present study, lauric acid (8%, wt/wt) and 2.5% pure nisin (4%, wt/wt) were incorporated singly and together into thermally compacted soy films. Biocide-impregnated films were compared to control films containing no biocide for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in liquid medium and on turkey bologna surface. L. monocytogenes suspended in 1% peptone medium exposed to control films increased from 106 to 10(9) after 48 h exposure at 22 C. Films with nisin alone suppressed cell numbers 1 log cfu/mL after 2 h but cell numbers increased to 10(8) after 24 and 48 h at 22 C. Films containing lauric acid and nisin completely eliminated detectable cells from a 10(6) culture after 8 h of exposure to the liquid medium (22 C). Refrigerated bologna exposed to control films increased by 0.5 log from 10(6) after 21 d at 4 C. Nisin films reduced cell numbers on turkey bologna from 10(6) to 10(5) after 21 d, as did films containing nisin and lauric acid. Films with lauric acid alone reduced L. monocytogenes culture from 10(6) to < 102 after 48 h and by 1 log on turkey bologna after 21 d. PMID:12033424

  10. The augmented lagrange multipliers method for matrix completion from corrupted samplings with application to mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Chenghu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the restoration of images corrupted by mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. In recent years, low-rank matrix reconstruction has become a research hotspot in many scientific and engineering domains such as machine learning, image processing, computer vision and bioinformatics, which mainly involves the problem of matrix completion and robust principal component analysis, namely recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete but accurate sampling subset of its entries and from an observed data matrix with an unknown fraction of its entries being arbitrarily corrupted, respectively. Inspired by these ideas, we consider the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete sampling subset of its entries with an unknown fraction of the samplings contaminated by arbitrary errors, which is defined as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings and modeled as a convex optimization problem that minimizes a combination of the nuclear norm and the l(1)-norm in this paper. Meanwhile, we put forward a novel and effective algorithm called augmented Lagrange multipliers to exactly solve the problem. For mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal, we regard it as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings, and restore the noisy image following an impulse-detecting procedure. Compared with some existing methods for mixed noise removal, the recovery quality performance of our method is dominant if images possess low-rank features such as geometrically regular textures and similar structured contents; especially when the density of impulse noise is relatively high and the variance of Gaussian noise is small, our method can outperform the traditional methods significantly not only in the simultaneous removal of Gaussian noise and impulse noise, and the restoration ability for a low-rank image matrix, but also in the preservation of textures and details in the image. PMID:25248103

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WISE data for radio-loud AGN complete samples (Gurkan+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkan, G.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    The 3CRR, 2Jy, 6CE and 7CE samples were chosen for our analysis. We used the revised subsample of the 3CR catalogue of radio sources (Bennett, 1962MNRAS.125...75B), which have flux densities greater than 10.9Jy at 178MHz (Laing, Riley & Longair, 1983MNRAS.204..151L, Cat. J/MNRAS.204.151). There are 172 sources with 0.0029complete radio sample chosen for our analysis is a subsample of the 2Jy objects, which has homogeneous spectroscopic observations (Wall & Peacock, 1985MNRAS.216..173W, Cat. J/MNRAS/216/173; Tadhunter et al. 1993MNRAS.263..999T). The complete sample was generated selecting radio objects with flux densities above 2Jy at 2.7GHz. Our subsample consists of 48 steep-spectrum sources (objects dominated by emission from the beamed relativistic jet and core components are excluded so that we minimize the contamination from non-thermal emission) with 0.05complete Chandra/XMM X-ray imaging. This sample has 10 LERGs, 20 NLRGs, 13 BLRGs and 5 quasars. The 6CE subsample is drawn from the 6C survey (Baldwin et al., 1985MNRAS.217..717B, Cat. VIII/18) and was designed to select objects fainter than 3C objects, in order to investigate the cosmic evolution of radio galaxies (Eales 1985MNRAS.217..149E; Eales et al. 1997MNRAS.291..593E). The flux density limit for the sample is 2<=S_151+<=3.93Jy. It has virtually complete spectroscopic redshift measurements as well as IR imaging . The 6CE sample has 58 sources including 19 LERGs, 28 HERGs and 9 quasars, whose redshift ranges between 0.105 and 3.395. The 7CE sample, drawn from the 7C survey (Visser et al., 1995A&AS..110..419V, Cat. J/A+AS/110/419), is a complete sample having flux densities greater than 0.5Jy at 151MHz (Willott et al., 1998MNRAS.300..625W, 2002MNRAS.335

  12. Soft X-Ray Observations of a Complete Sample of X-Ray--selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Morris, Simon L.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT PSPC observations of the X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XBLs) in the complete Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EM MS) sample. None of the objects is resolved in their respective PSPC images, but all are easily detected. All BL Lac objects in this sample are well-fitted by single power laws. Their X-ray spectra exhibit a variety of spectral slopes, with best-fit energy power-law spectral indices between α = 0.5-2.3. The PSPC spectra of this sample are slightly steeper than those typical of flat ratio-spectrum quasars. Because almost all of the individual PSPC spectral indices are equal to or slightly steeper than the overall optical to X-ray spectral indices for these same objects, we infer that BL Lac soft X-ray continua are dominated by steep-spectrum synchrotron radiation from a broad X-ray jet, rather than flat-spectrum inverse Compton radiation linked to the narrower radio/millimeter jet. The softness of the X-ray spectra of these XBLs revives the possibility proposed by Guilbert, Fabian, & McCray (1983) that BL Lac objects are lineless because the circumnuclear gas cannot be heated sufficiently to permit two stable gas phases, the cooler of which would comprise the broad emission-line clouds. Because unified schemes predict that hard self-Compton radiation is beamed only into a small solid angle in BL Lac objects, the steep-spectrum synchrotron tail controls the temperature of the circumnuclear gas at r ≤ 1018 cm and prevents broad-line cloud formation. We use these new ROSAT data to recalculate the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of the complete EMSS sample by determining accurate K-corrections for the sample and estimating the effects of variability and the possibility of incompleteness in the sample. Our analysis confirms that XBLs are evolving "negatively," opposite in sense to quasars, with Ve/Va = 0.331±0.060. The statistically significant difference between the values for

  13. Microbiological quality of fresh pasta dumplings sold in Bologna and the surrounding district.

    PubMed

    Trovatelli, L D; Schiesser, A; Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G

    1988-08-01

    The microbiological quality of fresh pasta dumplings sold in Bologna and the surrounding district was evaluated. A total of 60 lots (300 subsamples) of fresh pasta dumplings, both 'home-made' and manufactured, were analysed for aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms (total and fecal), Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. Thirty one of the 39 lots of 'home-made' pasta were found to exceed APC standards and six lots exceeded S. aureus standards. Five (24%) and six (29%) lots of the manufactured pasta were found to be unsatisfactory as regards APC standards and S. aureus standards respectively. The results obtained indicated that a high percentage of samples had a contamination of fecal origin. No Cl. perfringens or Salmonella spp. were found. PMID:2908612

  14. Mouse skin tumor initiation-promotion and complete carcinogenesis bioassays: mechanisms and biological activities of emission samples.

    PubMed Central

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1983-01-01

    Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil shale soot, and gasoline vehicle exhaust materials have been examined by this method. The studies reported here have been constructed to compare the carcinogenic and tumorigenic potency of extracts from various particulate emissions: coke ovens, diesel and gasoline vehicles and a roofing tar pot. Automobile emission samples were obtained by collecting the diluted and cooled exhaust on Teflon-coated glass fiber filters. Coke oven and roofing tar samples were particulate emission samples collected by impaction and filtration. The organic components associated with each of the particles were extracted with dichloromethane and dermally applied to SENCAR mice. All agents were applied as tumor initiators by using a five-dose protocol. Selected extracts were also applied as complete carcinogens and as tumor promotors. Statistical analyses of the resulting tumor data were performed by using nonlinear Poisson and probit models. The results from these experiments provide a suitable data base for comparative potency estimation of complex mixtures. PMID:6825618

  15. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  16. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Europe: Bologna and Its Implications for Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastl-Walter, Doris; Wintzer, Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    In the following article, we would first like to present the Bologna Process to create a European Higher Education Area and to show its importance as a framework for higher education in Europe and beyond. Second, we would like to raise questions about the consequences of the Bologna Process for postgraduate education especially for the…

  17. Mission Accomplished? Which Mission? The "Bologna Process"--A View from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    This article does not follow the widespread assumption or even conviction that the Bologna process is the most important reform of higher education in Europe in modern times. Instead it analyses the Bologna process in the context of previous and ongoing programmes, measures and activities by European bodies and national governments aiming at…

  18. The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

  19. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  20. Setting Policy Agenda for the Social Dimension of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, the Bologna Process has been suggesting a series of reforms relating to structural and normative aspects of higher education, one of which is the social dimension. The social dimension entered into the Bologna Process as an ambiguous action area in 2001 and has remained so in terms of its policy measures. Despite this ambiguity and…

  1. The Impact of the Bologna Reform on the Productivity of Swiss Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bolli, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna reform aims to enhance several dimensions of the universities' activities, by favouring mobility and mutual recognition of higher education degrees across Europe, with the objective to create a European Higher Education Area. The radical changes induced by the Bologna Process affect universities' productivity both directly…

  2. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Higher Education in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Bela

    2008-01-01

    "The Bologna process is named after the Bologna Declaration. The primary goal of the accord is the coordination and harmonization of the various European higher education systems without losing their colorful diversity and individual features, thereby making European higher education even more attractive for students and scholars all over the…

  3. Towards 2010 (and Then Beyond)--The Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim

    2009-01-01

    While 2010 was originally stated as being the end point for the creation of the European Higher Education Area through the Bologna Process, it is in fact a point along the way. The journey from Sorbonne (1998) to Bologna (1999) towards 2010 has seen an expansion of the number of signatory states (from 4 to 29 to 46) and a broadening of the…

  4. The Bologna Process Policy Implementation in Russia and Ukraine: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchinskaya, Daria; Ovchynnikova, Olena

    2011-01-01

    The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This…

  5. Bologna at the Finish Line: An Account of Ten Years of European Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Daniela; Bjerke, Christian Hemmestad; Blattler, Andrea; Deca, Ligia; Gielis, Inge; Karlsson, Solvi; Nielsen, Kristine Bak; Pall, Allan; Rytkonen, Petri; Santa, Robert; Szabo, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    The European Students' Union (ESU) has been writing about the student perspective on the Bologna Process since it get formally involved in it. Four editions of the students' independent stocktaking report "Bologna With Student Eyes" between 2003 and 2009 shed light on the perception of those stakeholders, which are probably mostly targeted on the…

  6. A Different View of the Bologna Process: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, integration with the Western world has been a determining driver of higher education policies, as well as many other policy areas in Turkey. Becoming a signatory country of the Bologna Process in 2001 brought a new impulse to the higher education policies in this direction. The Bologna Process reforms…

  7. The Emergent European Educational Policies under Scrutiny: The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European…

  8. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  9. Access and Completion of a Web-Based Treatment in a Population-Based Sample of Tornado-Affected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071

  10. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071

  11. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2009-01-01

    The title of this document is a deliberate play on the title of the biennial reports on the progress of Bologna produced by the European Students' Union, "Bologna With Student Eyes." It is a way of paying tribute to student involvement in the Bologna reforms, and marking a parallel student working participation in the state system "Tuning" study…

  12. A search at the millijansky level for milli-arcsecond cores in a complete sample of radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrle, A. E.; Preston, R. A.; Meier, D. L.; Gorenstein, M. V.; Shapiro, I. I.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Rius, A.

    1984-01-01

    A complete sample of 26 extended radio galaxies was observed at 2.29 GHz with the Mark III VLBI system. The fringe spacing was about 3 milli-arcsec, and the detection limit was about 2 millijanskys. Half of the galaxies were found to possess milli-arcsec radio cores. In all but three sources, the nuclear flux density was less than 0.04 of the total flux density. Galaxies with high optical luminosity (less than -21.2) were more likely than less luminous galaxies to contain a detectable milliparcsec radio core (69 percent vs. 20 percent). For objects with arcsec cores, 80 percent were found to have a milli-arcsec core, even though the milli-arcsec object did not always contribute the greater part of the arcsec flux density.

  13. The Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey - Optical identifications for a complete sample of X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Danziger, I. J.; Kunth, D.; Lub, J.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that virtually all the X-ray sources in the Einstein Observatory's Medium Sensitivity Survey flux range can be identified with objects visible on the POSS, on the basis of the complete identification of all sources north of -25 deg declination. There is no evidence for a significant population of 'blank field' X-ray sources at this flux level, and therefore no evidence for any new X-ray source class with very high L(x)/L(v). Most of the quasars detected in the present survey are spectroscopically similar to optical or radio-selected quasars. About 25 percent of the quasar sample, however, had reddish colors, and permitted lines dominated by a narrow-line component. These objects form a second sequence of active galactic nuclei, distinct in their optical properties from the broad line objects.

  14. Effect of jabuticaba peel extract on lipid oxidation, microbial stability and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Patrícia Leal; de Lima, Silvério Nepomuceno; Costa, Luciene Lacerda; de Oliveira, Cintia Cristina; Damasceno, Karina Aparecida; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the lipid oxidation and the microbiological and sensory quality of Bologna-type sausages produced with the addition of jabuticaba peel extract (JPE). Instrumental parameters of color (L*, a* and b*), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, microbiological profile, and sensory properties were determined during 35 days of storage. The addition of JPE had an effect on pH and protected the samples from color changes during storage. However, JPE had no positive effect on microbial stability during storage. Samples produced with 0.5, 0.75, and 1% JPE had significantly lower TBARS values (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The addition of up to 0.5% JPE did not affect sensory quality, but prevented the decrease of sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, due to its antioxidant effect JPE can be used in Bologna-type sausages in order to improve the oxidative stability during the shelf life. PMID:26156583

  15. A Complete X-ray Selected Sample of Galaxy Clusters from the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullis, C. R.; Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.

    1997-12-01

    We are using the ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations around the North Ecliptic Pole to construct a complete and unbiased sample of galaxy clusters in order to understand the nature of cluster evolution and determine implications for large scale structure models. Our database is unique in that it is both deep and contiguous. Here we give an update on the survey's progress and discuss a few particularly exciting results. Via optical follow-up, we have secured identifications for nearly 80% of the 465 X-ray sources in the survey area. The cluster sample now consists of 50 objects with redshifts approaching unity. Evidence for large scale structure exists at both low and high redshifts in the NEP survey. A low-z spike in the redshift distribution for NEP clusters is consistent with a previously known supercluster at 0.088. At the other extreme, we recently discovered a very distant cluster at z=0.813 which resembles a filament of galaxies. Such a massive, un-virialized cluster at high-z may be the vision quest of cosmic-web proponents. For this potential protocluster, we present a velocity dispersion analysis of its member galaxies from Keck II observations and a temperature measurement from ASCA data. We construct the cluster X-ray luminosity function at high redshifts, incorporating a rigorous treatment of our survey selection function, and compare it to previous work.

  16. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation. PMID:26761284

  17. Near-infrared photometry and stellar populations of first-ranked galaxies in a complete sample of nearby Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, Trinx X.; Puschell, Jeffery J.

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-four brightest cluster members (BCMs) in the complete sample of high Galactic latitude nearby Abell clusters of Hoessel, Gunn, and Thuan (HGT) are investigated. The stellar populations in BCMs using near-infrared and optical-near-infrared colors are studied. Brighter BCMs have redder (J-K) and (V-K) colors, suggesting a metallicity increase in brighter galaxies. The larger dispersion of their colors implies that BCMs possess more heterogeneous stellar populations than their lower luminosity counterparts, the normal elliptical galaxies. Special attention is paid to BCMs associated with cooling flows. BCMs with larger accretion rates have bluer (V-K) colors due to ultraviolet excesses and are brighter in the visual wavelength region, but not in the infrared. It is suggested that part of the X-ray emitting cooling gas is converted into high- and intermediate-mass stars emitting in the blue and visible, but not in the infrared. The properties of BCMs as standard candles in the near-infrared are examined and compared with those in the optical.

  18. Coeval observations of a complete sample of flat-spectrum blazars with Effelsberg, IRAM 30m, and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachen, Jörg Paul; Fuhrmann, Lars

    2015-08-01

    We present time-resolved broad-band spectra of a complete sample of blazars, selected by showing flat radio spectra up to 143 GHz, taken from observations with Planck, the Effelsberg 100m telescope, and the IRAM 30m telescope. Dedicated Effelsberg observations have been focused on times within two months around Planck single survey scans of each source, with a cadence of 2-4 weeks during the 4th and 5th Planck survey. The data are complemented with flux measurements from the F-GAMMA program (Fuhrmann et. al, 2007, AIPC 921, 249; Fuhrmann et al., 2014, MNRAS 441, 1899), and from other Effelsberg and IRAM monitoring programs, as far as available. Planck data are extracted employing methods used in the blind search for variable sky signals, which allow to estimate snap-shot source fluxes down to pointing period (i.e. hour scale) time resolution (Rachen et al., this conference). The program thus covers 15 frequencies between 2.4 to 857 GHz and is sensitive to variability time scales from hours over weeks up to one year, which is unprecedented in the history of blazar monitoring.

  19. X-ray spectral survey with XMM-Newton of a complete sample of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, M.; Panessa, F.; Bassani, L.; Dadina, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Comastri, A.; della Ceca, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Gianotti, F.; Ho, L. C.; Malaguti, G.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Piconcelli, E.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Stephen, J.; Trifoglio, M.; Weaver, K. A.

    2006-02-01

    Results obtained from an X-ray spectral survey of nearby Seyfert galaxies using XMM-Newton are reported. The sample was optically selected, well defined, complete in B magnitude, and distance limited: it consists of the nearest (D ⪉22 Mpc) 27 Seyfert galaxies (9 of type 1, 18 of type 2) taken from the Ho et al. (1997a, ApJS, 112, 315) sample. This is one of the largest atlases of hard X-ray spectra of low-luminosity active galaxies ever assembled. All nuclear sources except two Seyfert 2s are detected between 2 and 10 keV, half for the first time ever, and average spectra are obtained for all of them. Nuclear luminosities reach values down to 1038 erg s-1. The shape of the distribution of X-ray parameters is affected by the presence of Compton-thick objects (⪆30% among type 2s). The latter have been identified either directly from their intense FeK line and flat X-ray spectra, or indirectly with flux diagnostic diagrams which use isotropic indicators. After taking into account these highly absorbed sources, we find that (i) the intrinsic X-ray spectral properties (i.e., spectral shapes and luminosities above 2 keV) are consistent between type 1 and type 2 Seyferts, as expected from "unified models"; (ii) Seyfert galaxies as a whole are distributed fairly continuously over the entire range of N_H, between 1020 and 1025 cm-2; and (iii) while Seyfert 1s tend to have lower NH and Seyfert 2s tend to have the highest, we find 30% and 10% exceptions, respectively. Overall the sample is of sufficient quality to well represent the average intrinsic X-ray spectral properties of nearby active galactic nuclei, including a proper estimate of the distribution of their absorbing columns. Finally, we conclude that, with the exception of a few cases, the present study agrees with predictions of unified models of Seyfert galaxies, and extends their validity down to very low luminosities.

  20. Deep WFPC2 and Ground-Based Imaging of a Complete Sample of 3C Quasars and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, Susan E.; Stockton, Alan

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of an HST and ground-based imaging study of a complete 3C sample of zeta approx. equal to 1 sources, comprising 5 quasars and 5 radio galaxies. We have observed all of the sample in essentially line-free bands at rest-frame 0.33 micrometers with WFPC2 and in rest-frame 1 micrometer images from the ground; we have also observed most of the sample in narrow-band filters centered on [O II]. We resolve continuum structure around all of our quasars in the high-resolution WFPC2 images, and in four of the five ground-based K' images. All of the quasars have some optical continuum structure that is aligned with the radio axis. In at least 3 of these cases, some of this optical structure is directly coincident with a portion of the radio structure, including optical counterparts to radio jets in 3C212 and 3C245 and an optical counterpart to a radio lobe in 3C2. These are most likely due to optical synchrotron radiation, and the radio and optical spectral indices in the northern lobe of 3C2 are consistent with this interpretation. The fact that we see a beamed optical synchotron component in the quasars but not in the radio galaxies complicates both the magnitude and the alignment comparisons. Nonetheless, the total optical and K' flux densities of the quasar hosts are consistent with those of the radio galaxies within the observed dispersion in our sample. The distributions of K' flux densities of both radio galaxies and quasar hosts exhibit similar mean and dispersion to that found for other radio galaxies at this redshift, and the average host galaxy luminosity is equivalent to, or a little fainter than, L*. The formal determination of the alignment in the optical and infrared in the two subsamples yields no significant difference between the radio galaxy and quasar subsamples, and the quasars 3C 196 and 3C 336 have aligned continuum and emission-line structure that is probably not due to beamed optical synchrotron emission. Very blue and/or edge

  1. The soft x-ray properties of a complete sample of optically selected quasars. 1: First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laor, Ari; Fiore, Fabrizio; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations of 10 quasars. These objects are part of our ROSAT program to observe a complete sample of optically selected quasars. This sample includes all 23 quasars from the bright quasar survey with a redshift z less than or = 0.400 and a Galactic H I column density N(sup Gal sub H I) less than 1.9 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. These selection criteria, combined with the high sensitivity and improved energy resolution of the PSPC, allow us to determine the soft (approximately 0.2-2 keV) X-ray spectra of quasars with about an order of magnitude higher precision compared with earlier soft X-ray observations. The following main results are obtained: Strong correlations are suggested between the soft X-ray spectral slope alpha(sub x) and the following emission line parameters: H beta Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), L(sub O III), and the Fe II/H beta flux ratio. These correlations imply the following: (1) The quasar's environment is likely to be optically thin down to approximately 0.2 keV. (2) In most objects alpha(sub x) varies by less than approximately 10% on timescales shorter than a few years. (3) alpha(sub x) might be a useful absolute luminosity indicator in quasars. (4) The Galactic He I and H I column densities are well correlated. Most spectra are well characterized by a simple power law, with no evidence for either significant absorption excess or emission excess at low energies, to within approximately 30%. We find mean value of alpha(sub x) = -1.50 +/- 0.40, which is consistent with other ROSAT observations of quasars. However, this average is significantly steeper than suggested by earlier soft X-ray observations of the Einstein IPC. The 0.3 keV flux in our sample can be predicted to better than a factor of 2 once the 1.69 micrometer(s) flux is given. This implies that the X-ray variability power spectra of quasars flattens out between f approximately 10(exp -5) and f

  2. On the simultaneous analysis of several complete samples - The V/Vmax and Ve/Va variables, with applications to quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, Y.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Methods are derived for applying the V/Vmax variable when several complete samples are analyzed simultaneously. A new, related, variable, V(e)/V(a), which is superior to V/Vmax when sufficient observational data are available, is introduced. It is shown how statistically independent complete samples can be generated from partially overlapping samples such that each observed object appears only once in the analysis. These methods make it possible to combine the information from different complete samples, and to make an efficient use of all available data. Illustrative examples for quasars are given. It is shown how the generalized V/Vmax and V(e)/V(a) can be used to find the amount of cosmological evolution of quasars and its associated range of uncertainty.

  3. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms. PMID:26684423

  4. Small Sample Statistics for Incomplete Nonnormal Data: Extensions of Complete Data Formulae and a Monte Carlo Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete nonnormal data are common occurrences in applied research. Although these 2 problems are often dealt with separately by methodologists, they often cooccur. Very little has been written about statistics appropriate for evaluating models with such data. This article extends several existing statistics for complete nonnormal data to…

  5. Skeletal evidence of tuberculosis in a modern identified human skeletal collection (Certosa cemetery, Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Zuppello, Micol; Pedrosi, Maria Elena; Bettuzzi, Matteo; Brancaccio, Rosa; Peccenini, Eva; Morigi, Maria Pia; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in osteoarcheological series relies on the identification of osseous lesions caused by the disease. The study of identified skeletal collections provides the opportunity to investigate the distribution of skeletal lesions in relation to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the skeletal evidence for TB in late adolescent and adult individuals from the identified human collection of the Certosa cemetery of Bologna (Italy, 19th-20th c.). The sample group consists of 244 individuals (138 males, 106 females) ranging from 17 to 88 years of age. The sample was divided into three groups on the basis of the recorded cause of death: TB (N = 64), pulmonary non-TB (N = 29), and other diseases (N = 151). Skeletal lesions reported to be related to TB were analyzed. The vertebral lesions were classified into three types: enlarged foramina (EnF, vascular foramina with diameter of 3-5 mm), erosions (ER), and other foramina (OtF, cavities of various shapes > 3 mm). A CT scan analysis was also performed on vertebral bodies. Some lesions were seldom present in our sample (e.g., tuberculous arthritis). OtF (23.7%) and subperiosteal new bone formation on ribs (54.2%) are significantly more frequent in the TB group with respect to the other groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the vertebrae of individuals who have died of TB may have internal cavities in the absence of external lesions. These traits represent useful elements in the paleopathological diagnosis of TB. PMID:25727573

  6. Compilation of a complete sample of giant radio sources from a survey at 102.5 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenko, A. V.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    A search for giant radio sources has been carried out using the PC102 catalog, which was compiled from a survey of the northern sky at 102.5 MHz. 117 extended sources were detected in an area with right ascensions 0h-4h and declinations from -17° to +82°. Half of these sources have linear sizes in the plane of the sky of more than 500 kpc. A catalog of giant radio sources that is complete for radio sources with redshifts less than 0.2 has been compiled.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  8. MOUSE SKIN TUMOR INITIATION-PROMOTION AND COMPLETE CARCINOGENESIS BIOASSAYS: MECHANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF EMISSION SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil sha...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  10. Sodium lactate, sodium diacetate and pediocin: effects and interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3C-60C), sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SD; 0-0.25%) and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on bologna were studied and a predictive inactivation model was developed. Bologna was manufactured with different SL ...

  11. The Doctorate of the Bologna Process Third Cycle: Mapping the Dimensions and Impact of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan; Fazey, John; Gonzalez Geraldo, Jose Luis; Trevitt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Bologna Process is a significant agent for internationalization of education. Acknowledging fiscal and political drivers, this article shows that Bologna inclusion of the doctoral degree offers potential for enhanced doctoral experience. Interest in transferability of doctoral education across national borders, standardization…

  12. With Bologna in Mind and the Sword in the Hand: The German Bachelor/Master Reform Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mause, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, many European countries have adapted their traditional one-cycle curriculum structure in higher education to the two-cycle structure employed in the Anglo-American world. In the large social science literature dealing with this reform phenomenon, the Bologna Process -- starting with the 1999 Declaration of Bologna -- is…

  13. European Education Reform and Its Impact on Curriculum and Admissions: Implications of the Bologna Process on United States Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the European-wide educational reform known as the Bologna Process in order to provide an understanding of the methodology that will be used by European countries to assess course credit hours as well as degree programs. The Bologna Process is culmination of years of educational reform within the European Union (EU) and more…

  14. The Bologna Club: What U.S. Higher Education Can Learn from a Decade of European Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the efforts of 46 European nations to harmonize (not "standardize") their higher education systems and indicates that the United States higher education system needs to adopt some of the features of the Bologna Process. Based on what can be learned from the Bologna Process, this report makes concrete suggestions for change…

  15. ISETTA: Service Orientation in the "Bologna Process" of a Large University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossen, Gottfried; Thies, Gunnar

    With the signing of the "Bologna Declaration" in June 1999 by 29 representatives of the European education ministries, a decision was made to introduce comparable educational structures among European universities based on a. Bachelor-Master system until the year 2010. The process itself, collectively known as the "Bologna process,"1 is now well-underway and has created both administrative as well as technical challenges. The ISETTA project at the University of Muenster in Germany aims at the development of an Integrated Student, Exam, Test, and Teaching Application that properly reflects the changes of the university's internal activities caused by the Bologna process. In this paper, we report on the specific requirements of the project, the approach that has been taken and the current status of ISETTA.

  16. {gamma}-RAY AND PARSEC-SCALE JET PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BLAZARS FROM THE MOJAVE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, M. L.; Hovatta, T.; Aller, M.; Aller, H.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D. E-mail: moritz.boeck@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de

    2011-11-20

    We investigate the Fermi Large Area Telescope {gamma}-ray and 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array radio properties of a joint {gamma}-ray and radio-selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 August 4-2009 July 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination -30 Degree-Sign during this period, and thus probes the full range of {gamma}-ray loudness ({gamma}-ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least 4 orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing {gamma}-ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the {gamma}-ray emission in these BL Lac objects over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED-peak-{gamma}-ray-loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lac objects have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lac objects or FSRQs in our sample.

  17. Gamma-Ray and Parsec-Scale Jet Properties of a Complete Sample of Blazars from the MOJAVE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lister, M.L.; Aller, M.; Aller, H.; Hovatta, T.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Meyer, E. T.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Ackermann, M.; McEnery, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Fermi LAT gamma-ray and 15 GHz VLBA radio properties of a joint gamma-ray- and radio-selected sample of AGNs obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 Aug 4 - 2009 Jul 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination -300 during this period, and thus probes the full range of gamma-ray loudness (gamma-ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least four orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing gamma-ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the gamma-ray emission in these BL Lacs over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED peak - gamma-ray loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lacs have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lacs or FSRQs in our sample.

  18. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  19. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  20. MATLAS, a complete optical sample to probe the stellar populations on the outskirts of galaxies: overview and instrumental challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ferrarese, Laura; Karabal, Emin; Regnault, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The MATLAS project (Mass Assembly of early-Type GaLAxies with their fine Structures) has now turned into an extensive collection of early-type and late-type galaxies. It is made of more than 250 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey and 150 spirals, many of which from the NGVS. Unique by its size, the MATLAS volume limited sample is effective to characterize the external parts of massive nearby galaxies and constraints models used in numerical simulations of mergers, the mass assembly of galaxies leaving various imprints in their surroundings, such as shells, streams, tails, tidal dwarf galaxies. Detecting those extremely faint features is instrumental in understanding further the mechanisms driving the mass assembly. The MATLAS sample is made exclusively of ultra deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the CFHT, leading to colour profiles at large galactic radii, 5 - 10 effective radii. Following a general presentation of MATLAS and its main results, I will report on advances in deep low surface brightness photometry using the wide-field instrument MegaCam. Focusing on deep imaging of galaxies, addressing challenges, and discussing the optimization of an observing strategy coupled to a dedicated data reduction pipeline. With new territories in signal level being explored (~28.5 mag/arcsec2 in direct detection and 32 mag/arcsec2 on integrated profiles) I will then address a number of limiting issues such as optical reflection halos, stray light, airglow, and the ubiquitous cirrus emission.

  1. Spatial Analyses of a Complete Sample of Rich Abell/ACO Clusters to z=0.14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.

    1999-12-01

    Galaxy clusters act as excellent mass tracers in our local Universe. They are bright, contain hundreds of galaxies, and are easy to observe. The most recognized galaxy cluster catalogs are those of Abell (1958) and Abell, Corwin and Olowin (1989-ACO). I will present the results of a new survey of Abell/ACO cluster redshifts that extends our knowledge of the large-scale mass distribution to a redshift of z = 0.14. The volume of the Universe traced by this survey is four times larger than any of its predecessors. The large number of clusters within the survey boundaries ( 560) as well as the large volume traced, allow for statistical analyses on scales never before probed. I will present the cluster power spectrum to scales approaching 1000h-1Mpc. I will also demonstrate the high-level of completeness for this survey, which allows one to study the effects of large-scale structure on internal cluster properties. I will then summarize some recent collaborative efforts which show that (1) Wide-Angle Tail radio jets are ``blown'' in the direction of the local large-scale axis; (2) High dM/dt cooling flow clusters reside in crowded environments; (3) Clusters with close near-neighbors are also close to the fundamental plane created from Lo, Lx and Ro. CM was funded in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Maine Science and Technology Foundation.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Citrobacter freundii Strain P10159, Isolated from Urine Samples from a Patient with Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodong; Huang, Yong; Xu, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yachao; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xianglilan; Wu, Yi; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Dongsheng; An, Xiaoping; Pei, Guangqian; Wang, Yunfei; Mi, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause diarrhea, septicemia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. We report here the complete genome sequence of C. freundii strain P10159, isolated from urine samples from a patient in China with esophageal carcinoma. The genome has 5,080,321 bp and 4,768 coding sequences, with a G+C content of 51.7%. PMID:26893430

  3. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yong; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ogle, P. M.; Balog, Z.

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  4. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on Higher Education at Russia's Margins: The Case of Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzle, Stefan; Meister, Stefan; King, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Embracing the Russian Federation since 2003, the Bologna process is no longer exclusively confined to western European countries. As early as 1999, Vladimir Putin declared the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, wedged between Lithuania and Poland, as a potential pilot region for intensified cooperation between Russia and the EU on a number of policy…

  5. The Bologna Process in Higher Education: An Exploratory Case Study in a Russian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esyutina, Maria; Fearon, Colm; Leatherbarrow, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current article is to discuss the role of the Bologna process in enabling quality of educational change, internationalisation and greater mobility using an example case study of a Russian university. Some discussion is provided to offer insights and inform future research and practice. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  6. The Regional University: Paths of Integration in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, G.; Martynenko, O.

    2006-01-01

    The development of international systems of education is opening the way to accomplish tasks in the sphere of higher education that are common to the world community. The Bologna Process, in the framework of which the educational systems of Europe are becoming integrated, makes it possible for Russia to make a choice of the forms of its…

  7. The Governance of Higher Education Regionalisation: Comparative Analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Hermo, Javier Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR-Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of their uneven evolution and implementation. We…

  8. "Bildung", the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard's Concept of Subjective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindal, Solveig M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Framework for higher education has agreed on three "cycle descriptors"--knowledge, skill and general competence--which are to constitute the learning outcomes and credit ranges for the three cycles of higher education: The Bachelor, the Master and the PhD. In connection with the implementations of the national qualification…

  9. Aligning Seminars with Bologna Requirements: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring, the Solo Taxonomy and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer…

  10. Music in Higher Education after the Bologna Treaty: Or, in Search of a New Educational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Graca

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce a critical reflection on the field of music education in higher education, using the Bologna Declaration and the European context as a backdrop. However, the author would like to clarify that she does not intend to develop a thorough comparative analysis of music education in European countries. In fact, this is being…

  11. Bologna and Quality Assurance: Progress Made or Pulling the Wrong Cart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution looks critically at the achievements regarding the Bologna action line "European cooperation in quality assurance". Much has been realised but most of the visible achievements are at the supranational level: the development of the European Standards and Guidelines, the launch of the European Network of Quality Assurance Agencies,…

  12. Chapter 1: Redefining Short-Cycle Higher Education across Europe--The Challenges of Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the impact of the Bologna Process on the development of short-cycle higher education in Europe, noting that the integration of short-cycle qualifications within the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area, combined with the critical place allotted to those programs in national lifelong learning…

  13. The Boundaries of Competency within Lisbon and Bologna: The Short-Cycle/Foundation Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    The concept of competency is considered both in relation to the educational competency of the short-cycle student described in the "Dublin Descriptors" of the Bologna Process and in the European Commission's European Qualifications Framework, and in relation to the legal competency that the European Commission has within the field of education and…

  14. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

  15. Focus on Higher Education in Europe 2010: The Impact of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Dalferth, Simon; Parveva, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of the "Focus" report has been prepared for the European Ministerial Conference in Budapest/Vienna, 11-12 March 2010, that officially launches the European Higher Education Area. The report has been developed as a fully collaborative exercise between the Eurydice Network and the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG), with the aim of…

  16. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  17. The European Higher Education Area in 2012: Bologna Process Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Parveva, Teodora; Dalferth, Simon; Orr, Dominic; Mejer, Lene; Reis, Fernando; Rauhvargers, Andrejs

    2012-01-01

    The report, which reflects the framework of the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communique, is the result of a joint effort by Eurostat, Eurydice as well as by Eurostudent and has been overseen by the Bologna Follow-up Group and more specifically by a working group established by the latter. In line with the specific mission and methodology of the…

  18. The Devil in the Detail: Contradictory National Requirements and Bologna Master Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the…

  19. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  20. Bologna through Ontario Eyes: The Case of the Advanced Diploma in Architectural Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Amy D.; Feltham, Mark; Trotter, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Ontario's burgeoning interest in postsecondary student mobility, this article examines how elements of Europe's Bologna Process can help bridge the college--university divide of Ontario's postsecondary system. Via discourse analysis of relevant qualification frameworks and program standards, it argues that the current system…

  1. The Bologna Process and Its Achievements in Europe 1999-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinalda, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Bologna Process (BP), which since its creation in 1999 has deeply influenced European higher education: What is it? How did it come into being? How far has it come? The BP is both a political phenomenon and a reform taking place in European higher education. As a political phenomenon it consists of a series of…

  2. Higher Romanian Education Post-Bologna: Required Changes, Instruments and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisor, Alexandru-Ionut

    2011-01-01

    In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements.…

  3. The Bologna Process as a New Public Management Tool in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štech, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This essentially polemical article questions whether the Bologna Process (BP) is necessary (and desirable) in the adaptation of universities to the new social conditions or whether it is a Trojan horse sent out to introduce neo-liberal changes in the field of higher education. First, it addresses the circumstances surrounding the origins of the…

  4. Future Challenges in Higher Education--Bologna Experts' Community Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results from systematic analysis of the challenges for the future of higher education in European and neighboring countries as it was extracted from the Bologna experts and Higher Education Reform experts' opinions. Opinions of more than 100 experts from 35 countries were documented and analyzed. Significant differences in the…

  5. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Academic Staff in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2012-01-01

    Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic…

  6. The Bologna Process and Higher Education in Mercosur: Regionalization or Europeanization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Azevedo, Mário Luiz Neves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades regional agreements have become more significant in educational and training. This paper situates and analyses the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy and explores their influence on the integration of higher education systems in Mercosur (the Southern Common Market of…

  7. Looking for Synergies: Education for Sustainable Development and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeeva, Zinaida; Galkute, Laima

    2012-01-01

    In defining quality of higher education, competences achieved by graduates are interpreted as essential criteria. There are two political processes in education dealing, among other issues, with competence development: the Bologna Process in European Higher Education Area and a global process--the United Nations (UN) Decade (2005-2014) of…

  8. "Rationalized Myths" in European Higher Education: The Construction and Diffusion of the Bologna Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the so-called Bologna process and the historically unprecedented diffusion of an abstract model for the restructuring and harmonization of higher education studies and degrees across Europe it has fuelled. This process is interpreted here as a particular example of much larger processes of world-level interconnection and…

  9. The Impact of the Bologna Process in Ibero-America: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the major developments to have taken place in higher education in recent centuries. It has had an impact beyond European borders and repercussions in other parts of the world. Ibero-America has also sat up and taken note, even though scholars agree that there would be difficulties with its direct implementation in the…

  10. Importing Education: Europeanisation and the Bologna Process in Europe's Backyard--The Case of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampayeva, Gulnara Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the problem of the implementation of European educational standards in Kazakhstan higher education. This is considered in the frame of post-socialist education, when reforms in several post-Soviet states were undertaken under the Bologna Process. Kazakhstan, as this article argues, is justified for consideration in the frame…

  11. What the Instructors and Administrators of Russia's Higher Educational Institutions Think about the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing integration of national educational systems, in particular in Europe, is giving rise to conflict among traditional forms of instruction, curricula, pedagogical norms and values, and firmly established standards of education. The center of this conflict now, which was catalyzed by Russia's joining the Bologna process, consists of the…

  12. The US Response to Bologna: Expanding Knowledge, First Steps of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The roads of incoming information to the US higher education system about the Bologna Process are varied and numerous. They include not only the on-line and traditional trade press, but also conferences of national organisations. Whether anyone remembers much of that information, on the other hand, is an open question, as a limited survey…

  13. A complete X-ray sample of the high latitude sky from HEAO-1 A-2: log N lo S and luminosity functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccinotti, G.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Marshall, F. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Shafer, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was performed in which a complete X-ray survey of the 8.2 steradians of the sky at galactic latitudes where the absolute value of b is 20 deg down to a limiting sensitivity of 3.1 x ten to the minus 11th power ergs/sq cm sec in the 2-10 keV band. Of the 85 detected sources 17 were identified with galactic objects, 61 were identified with extragalactic objects, and 7 remain unidentified. The log N - log S relation for the non-galactic objects is well fit by the Euclidean relationship. The X-ray spectra of these objects were used to construct log N - log S in physical units. The complete sample of identified sources was used to construct X-ray luminosity functions, using the absolute maximum likelihood method, for clusters galaxies and active galactic nuclei.

  14. Testing the Pairs-Reflection Model with X-Ray Spectral Variability and X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    1997-01-01

    This grant was awarded to Dr. C. Megan Urry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in response to two successful ADP proposals to use archival Ginga and Rosat X-ray data for 'Testing the Pairs-Reflection model with X-Ray Spectral Variability' (in collaboration with Paola Grandi, now at the University of Rome) and 'X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects' (in collaboration with then-graduate student Rita Sambruna, now a post-doc at Goddard Space Flight Center). In addition, post-docs Joseph Pesce and Elena Pian, and graduate student Matthew O'Dowd, have worked on several aspects of these projects. The grant was originally awarded on 3/01/94; this report covers the full period, through May 1997. We have completed our project on the X-ray properties of radio-selected BL Lacs.

  15. LabDisk with complete reagent prestorage for sample-to-answer nucleic acid based detection of respiratory pathogens verified with influenza A H3N2 virus.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, F; Schwemmer, F; Hutzenlaub, T; Baumann, D; Strohmeier, O; Dingemanns, G; Simons, G; Sager, C; Plobner, L; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Mark, D

    2016-01-01

    Portable point-of-care devices for pathogen detection require easy, minimal and user-friendly handling steps and need to have the same diagnostic performance compared to centralized laboratories. In this work we present a fully automated sample-to-answer detection of influenza A H3N2 virus in a centrifugal LabDisk with complete prestorage of reagents. Thus, the initial supply of the sample remains the only manual handling step. The self-contained LabDisk automates by centrifugal microfluidics all necessary process chains for PCR-based pathogen detection: pathogen lysis, magnetic bead based nucleic acid extraction, aliquoting of the eluate into 8 reaction cavities, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Prestored reagents comprise air dried specific primers and fluorescence probes, lyophilized RT-PCR mastermix and stick-packaged liquid reagents for nucleic acid extraction. Employing two different release frequencies for the stick-packaged liquid reagents enables on-demand release of highly wetting extraction buffers, such as sequential release of lysis and binding buffer. Microfluidic process-flow was successful in 54 out of 55 tested LabDisks. We demonstrate successful detection of the respiratory pathogen influenza A H3N2 virus in a total of 18 LabDisks with sample concentrations down to 2.39 × 10(4) viral RNA copies per ml, which is in the range of clinical relevance. Furthermore, we detected RNA bacteriophage MS2 acting as internal control in 3 LabDisks with a sample concentration down to 75 plaque forming units (pfu) per ml. All experiments were applied in a 2 kg portable, laptop controlled point-of-care device. The turnaround time of the complete analysis from sample-to-answer was less than 3.5 hours. PMID:26610171

  16. Gian Domenico Cassini in Bologna and his contributions to the assessment of the planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccesi, A.

    1998-10-01

    G. D. Cassini was hired as a professor of astronomy in Bologna in 1649, at the age of only 24, and left for Paris in 1669, when he was 44. We will outline in this Paper his major contributions to astronomy during those year according to the judgement of the scholars : the demonstration of the physical inequality of the Suns motion using the meridian line he had built in the church of S. Petronio and the discovery of Mars and Jupiter rotation. The first result unequivocally dismissed Aristotles celestial mechanics based on uniform circular motions, pointing to the unity of the terrestrial and celestial worlds; the second contributed to renew the debate on whether the dynamical structure of the planetary system was Ptolemaic or Copernican. In this respect, some recently discovered lessons, which Cassini gave in Bologna in the year 1666, appear enlightening. Excerpts are reported and commented upon.

  17. MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with VLBA Experiments. VI. Kinematics Analysis of a Complete Sample of Blazar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, M. L.; Cohen, M. H.; Homan, D. C.; Kadler, M.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Ros, E.; Savolainen, T.; Zensus, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the jet kinematics of a complete flux-density-limited sample of 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) resulting from a 13 year program to investigate the structure and evolution of parsec-scale jet phenomena. Our analysis is based on new 2 cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images obtained between 2002 and 2007, but includes our previously published observations made at the same wavelength, and is supplemented by VLBA archive data. In all, we have used 2424 images spanning the years 1994-2007 to study and determine the motions of 526 separate jet features in 127 jets. The data quality and temporal coverage (a median of 15 epochs per source) of this complete AGN jet sample represent a significant advance over previous kinematics surveys. In all but five AGNs, the jets appear one-sided, most likely the result of differential Doppler boosting. In general, the observed motions are directed along the jet ridge line, outward from the optically thick core feature. We directly observe changes in speed and/or direction in one third of the well-sampled jet components in our survey. While there is some spread in the apparent speeds of separate features within an individual jet, the dispersion is about three times smaller than the overall dispersion of speeds among all jets. This supports the idea that there is a characteristic flow that describes each jet, which we have characterized by the fastest observed component speed. The observed maximum speed distribution is peaked at ~10c, with a tail that extends out to ~50c. This requires a distribution of intrinsic Lorentz factors in the parent population that range up to ~50. We also note the presence of some rare low-pattern speeds or even stationary features in otherwise rapidly flowing jets that may be the result of standing re-collimation shocks, and/or a complex geometry and highly favorable Doppler factor.

  18. CosmoBolognaLib: Open source C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, Federico; Veropalumbo, Alfonso; Moresco, Michele

    2015-11-01

    CosmoBolognaLib contains numerical libraries for cosmological calculations; written in C++, it is intended to define a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. The software aids in handling real and simulated astronomical catalogs by measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space and performing cosmological analyses. These open source libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  19. Magnetic resonance for fluids in porous media at the University of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Fantazzini, Paola

    2005-02-01

    The magnetic resonance in porous media (MRPM) community is now a vast community of scientists from all over the world who recognize magnetic resonance as an instrument of choice for the characterization of pore space and of the distribution, diffusion and flow of fluids inside a vast range of different materials. The MRPM conferences are the occasions in which this community gets together, compares notes and grows. The scene was different in 1990, when this series of conferences was promoted at Bologna. I will go briefly over the history of these events, showing the role played by the University of Bologna and in particular by the intuition, ingenuity and passion of Giulio Cesare Borgia. The MRPM work at Bologna began in the mid-1980s. New correlations were found among parameters from NMR relaxation measurements and oil field parameters such as porosity, permeability to fluid flow, irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation and pore-system surface-to-volume ratio, and fast algorithms were developed to give the different NMR parameters. Interest in valid interpretation of data led to extensive work also on the inversion of multiexponential relaxation data and the effects of inhomogeneous fields from susceptibility differences on distributions of relaxation times. In the last few years, extensive developments were made of combined magnetic resonance imaging and relaxation measurements in different fields. PMID:15833602

  20. Comparing recidivism rates of treatment responders/nonresponders in a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed community-based sex offender treatment in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2012-02-01

    Analysis of psychometric data from a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed a U.K. probation-based sex offender treatment program was carried out to assess (a) the effectiveness of therapy in the short term and (b) the longer term implications of treatment in relation to sexual recidivism. It was found that 12% (51 offenders) of the sample had recidivated within 2 to 4 years. Of these recidivists, 86% (44 offenders) had been reconvicted for a sexually related offense. One hundred thirty-five offenders (33%) demonstrated a treated profile (i.e., demonstrated no offense-specific problems and few, or no, socioaffective problems at the posttreatment stage). This group was compared with a sample of offenders deemed as not responding to treatment, matched by their levels of pretreatment risk/need. It was found that a significantly smaller proportion (n = 12, 9%) of treatment responders had recidivated, compared to the treatment nonresponders (n = 20, 15%), indicating a 40% reduction in recidivism in those who had responded to treatment (effect size = .18). Matching length of treatment to the offenders' level of pretreatment risk/need (i.e., higher risk/treatment-need offenders typically undertook longer treatment) reduced the rate of recidivism among this group to the level of recidivism observed among the lower risk/need offenders. PMID:21187301

  1. [O iii] λ5007 and X-Ray Properties of a Complete Sample of Hard X-Ray Selected AGNs in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Ishino, Y.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Väisänen, P.; Ricci, C.; Berney, S.; Gandhi, P.; Koss, M.; Mushotzky, R.; Terashima, Y.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Crenshaw, M.

    2015-12-01

    We study the correlation between the [O iii] λ5007 and X-ray luminosities of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using a complete, hard X-ray (>10 keV) selected sample in the Swift/BAT 9-month catalog. From our optical spectroscopic observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory and the literature, a catalog of [O iii] λ5007 line flux for all 103 AGNs at Galactic latitudes of | b| \\gt 15^\\circ is compiled. Significant correlations with intrinsic X-ray luminosity ({L}{{X}}) are found for both observed ({L}[{{O} {{III}}] }) and extinction-corrected ({L}[{{O} {{III}}]}{{cor}}) luminosities, separately for X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs. We obtain the regression form of {L}[{{O} {{III}}] } \\propto \\{L}2-10\\{keV}1.18+/- 0.07 and {L}[{{O} {{III}}]}{{cor}} \\propto \\{L}2-10\\{keV}1.16+/- 0.09 from the whole sample. The absorbed AGNs with low (<0.5%) scattering fractions in soft X-rays show on average smaller {L}[{{O} {{III}}]}/{L}{{X}} and {L}[{{O} {{III}}]}{{cor}}/{L}{{X}} ratios than the other absorbed AGNs, while those in edge-on host galaxies do not. These results suggest that a significant fraction of this population is buried in tori with small opening angles. By using these {L}[{{O} {{III}}] } versus {L}{{X}} correlations, the X-ray luminosity function (LF) of local AGNs (including Compton-thick AGNs) in a standard population synthesis model gives much better agreement with the [O iii] λ5007 LF derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey than previously reported. This confirms that hard X-ray observations are a very powerful tool to find AGNs with high completeness.

  2. Deep IRAC1,2 Imaging of the Extended Tidal Debris Fields for the Complete GOALS Sample of LIRGs (Part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Barnes, Josh; Chan, Ben; Evans, Aaron; Frayer, David; Howell, Justin; Kewley, Lisa; Koda, Jin; Lord, Steve; Mazzarella, Joseph; Surace, Jason; U, Vivian

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain IRAC1,2 observations (~1400 sec) to complete our flux-limited sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Survey, in order to measure the full extent and internal structure of the large tidal debris fields that have recently been revealed (~70-130 kpc diameter) in deep optical imaging of these objects using the Subaru 8m Telescope on Mauna Kea. Our 115 targets represent the lower luminosity objects in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS), defining the important transition region between LIRGs and ULIRGs, for which we are obtaining both spacecraft and ground-based data at a wide range of wavelengths (radio thru X-Rays). All of our targets have previous shallow (~150 sec) IRAC observations, which are insufficient for detecting all but the brightest, and much less extended tidal features. Our deeper IRAC observations will allow us to fully characterize the history, geometry and morphology of the interaction (major and minor mergers) for comparison with new sets of model calculations using 'IDENTIKIT' (Barnes & Hibbard, 2009). We also plan to combine our new IRAC1,2 data with deep optical (Subaru and VLT) and NIR (HST-NIC, -WFC3) data to determine spectral energy distributions, and to measure stellar masses as well as detect warm dust in these extended features. These new data will also allow us for the first time to obtain a clearer picture of the possible interrelation of nearby objects (e.g. putative tidal dwarf galaxies, other disconnected debris arms, shells, etc.) to the merger history of our complete sample of local (U)LIRGs.

  3. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Background The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum

  4. H I emission and absorption in nearby, gas-rich galaxies - II. Sample completion and detection of intervening absorption in NGC 5156

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, S. N.; Sadler, E. M.; Allison, J. R.; Koribalski, B. S.; Curran, S. J.; Pracy, M. B.; Phillips, C. J.; Bignall, H. E.; Reynolds, C.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening 21 cm H I absorption in a sample of 10 nearby, gas-rich galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). This follows the six HIPASS galaxies searched in previous work and completes our full sample. In this paper, we searched for absorption along 17 sightlines with impact parameters between 6 and 46 kpc, making one new detection. We also obtained simultaneous H I emission-line data, allowing us to directly relate the absorption-line detection rate to the H I distribution. From this, we find the majority of the non-detections in the current sample are because sightline does not intersect the H I disc of the galaxy at sufficiently high column density, but that source structure is also an important factor. The detected absorption-line arises in the galaxy NGC 5156 (z = 0.01) at an impact parameter of 19 kpc. The line is deep and narrow with an integrated optical depth of 0.82 km s-1. High-resolution Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) images at 5 and 8 GHz reveal that the background source is resolved into two components with a separation of 2.6 arcsec (500 pc at the redshift of the galaxy), with the absorption likely occurring against a single component. We estimate that the ratio of the spin temperature and covering factor, TS/f, is approximately 950 K in the outer disc of NGC 5156, but further observations using very long baseline interferometry would allow us to accurately measure the covering factor and spin temperature of the gas.

  5. Chapter 27: Deja vu All Over Again: Using NVO Tools to Re-Investigate a Complete Sample of Texas Radio Survey Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Rohde, David; Tamura, Takayuki; van Dyne, Jeffrey

    At the first NVO Summer School in September 2004, a complete sample of Texas Radio Survey sources, first derived in 1989 and subsequently observed with the VLA in A-array snapshot mode in 1990, was revisited. The original investigators had never had the occasion to reduce the A-array 5-minute snapshot data, nor to do any other significant follow-up, though the sample still seemed a possibly useful but relatively small study of radio galaxies, AGN, quasars, extragalactic sources, and galaxy clusters, etc. At the time of the original sample definition in late 1989, the best optical material available for the region was the SRC-J plate from the UK Schmidt Telescope in Australia. In much more recent times, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has included the region in its DR2 data release, so good multicolor optical imaging in a number of standard bandpasses has finally become available. These data, along with other material in the radio, infrared, and (where available) were used to get a better preliminary idea of the nature of the objects in the 1989 sample. We also investigated one of the original questions: whether these radio sources with steeper (or at least non-flat) radio spectra were associated with galaxy clusters, and in some cases higher-redshift galaxy clusters and AGN. A rudimentary web service was created which allowed the user to perform simple cone searches and SIAP image extractions of specified field sizes for multiwavelength data across the electromagnetic spectrum, and a prototype web page was set up which would display the resulting images in wavelength order across the page for sources in the sample. Finally, as an additional investigation, using radio and X-ray IDs as a proxy for AGN which might be associated with large, central cluster galaxies, positional matches of radio and X-ray sources from two much larger catalogs were done using the tool TOPCAT in order to search for the degree of correlation between ID positions, radio luminosity, and cluster

  6. Deep IRAC1,2 Imaging of the Extended Tidal Debris Fields for the Complete HST-GOALS Sample of (U)LIRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Barnes, Josh; Chan, Ben; Evans, Aaron; Frayer, David; Howell, Justin; Kewley, Lisa; Koda, Jin; Lord, Steve; Mazzarella, Joseph; Surace, Jason; U, Vivian

    2010-06-01

    We propose to obtain IRAC1,2 observations (~1400 sec) of a flux-limited sample of 88 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) originally selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Survey, in order to measure the full extent and internal structure of the large tidal debris fields that have recently been revealed (~70-130 kpc diameter) in deep optical imaging of these objects using the Subaru 8m Telescope on Mauna Kea. Our 88 targets are part of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS), for which we are obtaining both spacecraft and ground-based data at a wide range of wavelengths (radio thru X-Rays). All of our targets have previous shallow (~150 sec) IRAC observations, which are insufficient for detecting all but the brightest, and much less extended tidal features. Our deeper IRAC observations will allow us to better characterize the history, geometry and morphology of the interaction for comparison with new sets of model calculations using 'IDENTIKIT' (Barnes & Hibbard, 2009). We also plan to combine our new IRAC1,2 data with deep optical (Subaru and VLT) and NIR (HST-NIC, -WFC3) data to determine spectral energy distributions, and to measure stellar masses as well as detect warm dust in these extended features. These new data will also allow us for the first time to obtain a clearer picture of the possible interrelatedness of nearby objects (e.g. putative tidal dwarf galaxies, and other previously disconnected arms, shells, etc.) to the merger history of this complete sample of local (U)LIRGs.

  7. Identification and complete genome analysis of kobuvirus in faecal samples of European roller (Coracias garrulus): for the first time in a bird.

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Kiss, Tamás; Reuter, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The genus Kobuvirus (Picornaviridae) consists of three species, Aichivirus A (e.g., Aichi virus, which infects humans), Aichivirus B and Aichivirus C. Kobuvirus have not been detected in non-mammal species including birds. In this study, a novel kobuvirus was identified in 3 (17 %) out of 18 faecal samples collected from European rollers (Coracias garrulus) in Hungary. The complete genome sequence of strain SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN (KJ934637), which was determined using a novel 5'/3' RACE method (dsRNA-RACE) involving a double-stranded (ds)RNA intermediate, has a type-V IRES at the 5' end and a cis-acting element (CRE) in the 3C gene and encodes L and 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary RNA structure in the 3'UTR. SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN has 72 %, 73 %, and 81 % amino acid sequence identity to the P1, P2, and P3 protein, respectively, of Aichi virus. Evolutionary analysis showed that SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN shares a common ancestor with other kobuviruses but belongs to a more ancient lineage in the species Aichivirus A. Investigation of the known kobuviruses in different animals and discovery of novel kobuviruses in potential host species helps to clarify the evolutionary connection and zoonotic potential of kobuviruses. PMID:25195063

  8. Reliability assessment of the complete 3D etch rate distribution of Si in anisotropic etchants based on vertically micromachined wagon wheel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosálvez, M. A.; Pal, Prem; Ferrando, N.; Sato, K.

    2011-12-01

    As a sequel to part I (Gosálvez et al J. Micromech. Microeng. 12 125007), the present paper is part II of a series of two papers dedicated to the presentation of a novel, large-throughput, experimental procedure to determine the complete three-dimensional orientation dependence of the etch rate of silicon by using vertically micromachined wagon wheel samples. While the first part provides the experimental details and compares the results to realistic simulations, the present paper focuses on characterizing the reliability of the obtained etch rates. For this purpose, the shape of the etched structures is analyzed and corresponding formulas are derived, enabling the estimation of an upper bound to the measured etch rates. It is shown that the measured etch rates remain below this limit, strongly indicating that the observed wedge retraction values are consistent with the assumed geometrical shape of the wedges. An exception to this rule are the etch rates of {1 1 0} obtained from lang1 1 0rang-oriented wafers, which are systematically larger. This deviation is explained by a kinetic acceleration process due to the small size of the step-flow structures that are formed on the affected wagon wheel spokes. The comparison to previous experiments indicates that the proposed method provides similar or even more accurate etch rates for some of the etchants with a more affordable and less labor-intensive approach.

  9. [Syphilis in sixteenth-century in Bologna. Health care and social assistance (Part one)].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S

    2006-03-01

    Syphilis arrived in Bologna in the summer of 1495, after Fornovo's battle on the Taro where Charles VIII's army, following the invasion of Naples, fought against the anti-French league who faced up to the invaders as they withdrew. It was the battle-weary Bolognesi, prisoners, deserters and probably some prostitutes following the French and mercenary army who introduced the infection into the city. At the beginning of the syphilis epidemic, the disease was very aggressive with particularly visible symptoms and many resulting deaths. Subsequently, contemporaries mention an abatement of this aggressivity in time spans that varied, but in no cases exceeded 60 years. In 1507 Bologna lost its political autonomy, becoming dependent on Rome. This was symptomatic of the upheavals throughout Italy in the sixteenth century. In this situation of economic and institutional crisis the Bolognesi were able to react with decision to the epidemic, re-converting the municipal hospital dedicated to S. Maria dei Guarini during the sixteenth century. This hospital, specializing in treating syphilis, was called "Ospedale di San Giobbe". It was closed in 1798, after the entry of the French army into Bologna. In 1560 the Bolognesi, realising that the most important causes of the spread of syphilis were social degradation, prostitution and poverty, founded another institution for the poor and for the prevention of prostitution. This institution was developed by the Opera dei Mendicanti and provided hospitality during the 1590 famine, in a city of 55,000 inhabitants, for as many as 1400 poor and sick. We also present the cure (guaiac and mercury) that they used at the time against syphilis. In such a difficult historical period beset with political and economic problems, the Bolognesi established two important institutions and showed that social solidarity is a value for the whole population. PMID:16794380

  10. Effects and interactions of sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and pediocin on the thermal inactivation of starved cells of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of bologna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3-60C) sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SDA; 0-2.5%), and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on starved Listeria monocytogenes on bologna were investigated. Bologna slices containing SL and SDA in the formulation were dipped in pediocin, surface inoc...

  11. The Challenge of Bologna: What United States Higher Education Has to Learn from Europe, and Why It Matters That We Learn It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, a declaration formalizing "the European process" was signed at and informally named for Europe's oldest university: Bologna. "The Bologna Process" has transformed higher education in Europe. This book is essential reading for anyone concerned about the ability of America's higher education system to position the country for…

  12. Impact of the Bologna Process and German Higher Education Reforms on Professorial Work and Role Definition at the University of Potsdam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Christen Cullum

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Process and German higher education reforms over the past decade have created significant waves of change at German universities. This case study focuses on the enduring impact of both the Bologna Process and German higher education reforms on how professors experience their work and define their roles during the winter term 2011-12 at…

  13. Women and the practice and teaching of medicine in Bologna in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2003-01-01

    When Bologna's political and intellectual elites had control over the university and associated institutions during the eighteenth century, a few women were allowed to participate in medical fields not typically associated with their gender. Laura Bassi could occasionally teach and debate on anatomy at the university, and the practical anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini could make contributions to the research and teaching of anatomy. With the arrival of the French in Bologna in 1796, the control of the university and associated institutions passed from the local elite to the Ministry of Public Instruction in Milan. This article shows that a few women were awarded degrees in medicine, surgery, and pharmacy from the University of Bologna when the French were in control-however, these women, unlike Bassi and Morandi, were directed to fields deemed appropriate to their gender, such as the training of midwives, or apothecary practice within female institutions. PMID:14523259

  14. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). PMID:27170193

  15. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A.

    2011-06-01

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  16. LCA of integrated MSW management systems: Case study of the Bologna District

    SciTech Connect

    Buttol, P. Masoni, P.; Bonoli, A.; Goldoni, S.; Belladonna, V.; Cavazzuti, C.

    2007-07-01

    LCA as a decision-supporting tool in planning integrated municipal solid waste management is not, as yet, widely used in Italy. This paper presents a study concerning the application of the LCA methodology to support the development of the new waste management plan for the Bologna District. The main goal of the study was to show decision-makers at the political level the benefits obtainable with the use of LCA, in terms of the identification and quantification of the potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies. The integrated waste management system of the Bologna District includes waste collection and transport, sorting, recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. Three scenarios, referring to 2006 and assuming the presence of 950,000 inhabitants and the production of {approx}566,000 t of waste in the district, have been compared. A detailed model has been developed in order to capture effects related to the waste fraction from separated collection and to the different waste treatments. The discussion of the results has focussed in particular on the greenhouse effect and the acidification potential. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysis of an additional scenario characterised by a further increase in separated collection has been put forward.

  17. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution. PMID:23828727

  18. LCA of integrated MSW management systems: case study of the Bologna District.

    PubMed

    Buttol, P; Masoni, P; Bonoli, A; Goldoni, S; Belladonna, V; Cavazzuti, C

    2007-01-01

    LCA as a decision-supporting tool in planning integrated municipal solid waste management is not, as yet, widely used in Italy. This paper presents a study concerning the application of the LCA methodology to support the development of the new waste management plan for the Bologna District. The main goal of the study was to show decision-makers at the political level the benefits obtainable with the use of LCA, in terms of the identification and quantification of the potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies. The integrated waste management system of the Bologna District includes waste collection and transport, sorting, recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. Three scenarios, referring to 2006 and assuming the presence of 950,000 inhabitants and the production of approximately 566,000 t of waste in the district, have been compared. A detailed model has been developed in order to capture effects related to the waste fraction from separated collection and to the different waste treatments. The discussion of the results has focussed in particular on the greenhouse effect and the acidification potential. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysis of an additional scenario characterised by a further increase in separated collection has been put forward. PMID:17418562

  19. Reforms of the pre-graduate curriculum for medical students: the Bologna process and beyond.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    For several years, all five medical faculties of Switzerland have embarked on a reform of their training curricula for two reasons: first, according to a new federal act issued in 2006 by the administration of the confederation, faculties needed to meet international standards in terms of content and pedagogic approaches; second, all Swiss universities and thus all medical faculties had to adapt the structure of their curriculum to the frame and principles which govern the Bologna process. This process is the result of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999 which proposes and requires a series of reforms to make European Higher Education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans students. The present paper reviews some of the results achieved in the field, focusing on several issues such as the shortage of physicians and primary care practitioners, the importance of public health, community medicine and medical humanities, and the implementation of new training approaches including e-learning and simulation. In the future, faculties should work on several specific challenges such as: students' mobility, the improvement of students' autonomy and critical thinking as well as their generic and specific skills and finally a reflection on how to improve the attractiveness of the academic career, for physicians of both sexes. PMID:23254322

  20. Complete genome sequence, lifestyle, and multi-drug resistance of the human pathogen Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 isolated from blood samples of a leukemia patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. Results The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W) gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. Conclusions The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of this newly recognized

  1. Has the Bologna Process Been Worthwhile? An Analysis of the Learning Society-Adapted Outcome Index through Quantile Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Sainz, A.; García-Merino, J. D.; Urionabarrenetxea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover whether the performance of university students has improved in the wake of the changes in higher education introduced by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and the construction of the European Higher Education Area. A principal component analysis is used to construct a multi-dimensional performance variable called the…

  2. Changing Meanings of "The Europe of Knowledge" and "Modernizing the University," from Bologna to the "New Lisbon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how the meaning of the phrases "Europe of Knowledge" and "modernization of the University" have changed since the Bologna Declaration. In terms of the former, the Europe of Knowledge is now seen essentially as a regionally based and governed space of innovation, which includes, but is by no means confined to…

  3. Higher Education Reform in Germany: How the Aims of the Bologna Process Can Be Simultaneously Supported and Missed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the current reform of higher education in Germany, which can be described as German reading of the Bologna process, about the problems and deficits occurring in this area, and about ways to correct unwelcome developments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper starts with a review…

  4. Towards the Two-Cycle Degree Structure: Bologna, Reform and Path Dependency in German and Norwegian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.; Michelsen, Svein; Vabo, Agnete

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and analyses changes made in the organisation of higher education studies in Germany and Norway, following the recommendations of the Bologna Declaration. In both countries, the characteristic modes of university study have been circumscribed by the tradition of Humboldtian values and ideals, albeit to a different extent. On…

  5. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  6. Making Higher Education More European through Student Mobility? Revisiting EU Initiatives in the Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of student mobility in the EU as a means to stimulate convergence of diverse higher education systems. The argument is based on official texts and other texts of political communication of the European Commission. The following discussion is placed within the current context of the Bologna process and its aim to…

  7. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  8. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  9. Pan-European Grading Scales: Lessons from National Systems and the ECTS. The Bologna Process: Retrospect and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of the Bologna Process on the grading schemes of EU member countries. In light of some problems regarding the implementation of the European Credit Transfer system (ECTS), the author proposes further reforms and offers some elements of a unified grading system for European higher education. The author explores the…

  10. Teacher Education Curricula after the Bologna Process--A Comparative Analysis of Written Curricula in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva; Tissari, Varpu; Ots, Aivar; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    During the Bologna process, from 2003 to 2006, degree programmes, including teacher education curricula, were developed in line with the two-tier system--the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and modularization. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the development of teacher education profiling measures by…

  11. Bologna in Context: A Horizontal Perspective on the Dynamics of Governance Sites for a Europe of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornitzka, Ase

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a horizontal perspective on the dynamics of governance sites currently active for the European of Knowledge and places the Bologna process in this wider European level context. It introduces two dynamics of change in political organisation: (a) institutional differentiation and specialisation and (b) the interaction between…

  12. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  13. The Bologna Process as a Hegemonic Tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): The Case of Chilean and Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Francis Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two "hegemonic tools": the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as a…

  14. Organizational Culture in the Adoption of the Bologna Process: A Study of Academic Staff at a Ukrainian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2013-01-01

    The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a state-centred model of higher education. The…

  15. The S(IV)-type Asteroids as Ordinary Chondrite Parent Body Candidates: Implications for the Completeness of the Meteorite Sample of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    1995-09-01

    (IV) objects are viable OC-parent bodies [3 Juno, 6 Hebe, and 7 Iris are the leading candidates], their proximity to the 3:1 chaotic zone would allow them to contribute a significant portion of the ordinary chondrites. In particular, dynamical models suggest that Hebe should be a major contributor to the terrestrial meteorite flux [9]. Each leading contender is currently undergoing detailed spectral evaluation as a potential OC source. From both asteroid observational constraints and from chemical and isotopic studies of meteorites, the ordinary chondrites appear to represent an extensive and relatively complete (by meteoritic standards) sample of a few asteroid source bodies. In a similar fashion, the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite suite sample a single primary parent body (Vesta) and are over-represented in meteorite collections due to a fortuitous (and temporary on a solar system timescale) emplacement of Vesta ejecta fragments close to the 3:1 resonance. This suggests that the particular value of the ordinary chondrites lies in the good sample provided for each source body rather than as representatives of an abundant asteroid type. Acknowledgments: Various portions of this research were supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics grant NAGW-642 and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST-9012180. References: [1] Wetherill G. W. and Chapman C. R. (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, pp. 35-67, Univ. of Arizona. [2] Bell J. F. et al. (1989) in Asteroids II, pp. 921-945, Univ. of Arizona. [3] Gaffey M. J. et al. (1989) in Asteroids II, pp. 98-127, Univ. of Arizona. [4] Britt D. T. and Pieters C. M. (1991) LPS XXII, 141-142. [5] Gaffey M. J. (1984) Icarus, 60, 83-114. [6] Binzel R. P. et al. (1993) Science, 262, 1541-1543. [7] Shui X. et al. (1995) Icarus, 115, 1-35. [8] Gaffey M. J. et al. (1993) Icarus, 106, 573-602. [9] Farinella P. et al. (1993) Icarus, 101, 174-187.

  16. Techniques and methods to guarantee Bologna-conform higher education in GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna Declaration is aiming for student-centered, outcome-related, and competence-based teaching. In order to fulfill these demands, deep level learning techniques should be used to meet the needs of adult-compatible and self-determined learning. The presentation will summarize selected case studies carried out in the framework of the lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" of the Geodetic Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruhe, Germany). The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The lecture course was migrated starting from a classically designed geodetic lecture course, which consisted of a well-adapted combination of teacher-centered classroom lectures and practical training (e.g., field exercises). The recent Bologna-conform blended learning concepts supports and motivates students to learn more sustainable using online and classroom learning methods. Therefore, an appropriate combination of - classroom lectures: Students and teacher give lectures - practical training: Students select topics individually - online learning: ILIAS (learning management system) is used as data, result, and communication platform. The framing didactical method is based on the so-called anchored instruction approach. Within this approach, an up-to-date scientific GNSS-related paper dealing with the large-scale geodetic project "Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link" is used as anchor. The students have to read the paper individually in the beginning of the semester. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them. At the end of the

  17. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN DIETARY AND DIETARY COMPOSITE SAMPLES TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE FROM DIETARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA's market basket study reports total arsenic concentrations from composite diet samples. The use of composite diets, based on market basket sampling, is the most cost effective means of obtaining a generic arsenic exposure estimate for a population. For example, the tota...

  18. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN DIETARY AND DIETARY COMPOSITE SAMPLES TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE FROM DIETARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA's market basket study reports total arsenic concentrations from composite diet samples. The use of composite diets, based on market basket sampling, is the most cost effective means of obtaining a generic exposure estimate for a population. For example, the total arseni...

  19. Chemical characterization of polar organic markers in aerosols in a local area around Bologna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Rossi, Mauro

    2013-08-01

    The composition and seasonal variations of water-soluble organic compounds, including 18 dicarboxylic acids and 7 sugars, were determined in the atmospheric aerosol in the surroundings of Bologna, Northern Italy, during intensive summer and winter campaigns. In both seasons the most abundant compound is levoglucosan, as the major by-product from biomass burning. The abundances of dicarboxylic acids exhibit a seasonal pattern with higher winter concentrations (mean total concentrations are 60 ng m-3 and 23 ng m-3, in winter and summer, respectively). The distribution profiles and the diagnostic ratios of these markers allowed to estimate the contribution of primary emission sources (power plants, vehicular circulation, biomass burning) associated with secondary constituents from both biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. The distinct seasonal pattern of abundances suggests, overall, the dominant role of secondary formation of particulate organics in summer, and the highest strength of primary emissions in winter.

  20. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions for Completing HUD-1... and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  1. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Instructions for Completing HUD-1... and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  2. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... instructions for completing the HUD-1 settlement statement, required under section 4 of RESPA and 24 CFR part... (24 CFR 3500.2) for specific definitions of many of the terms that are used in these instructions... is converted to a loan to finance purchase by the first user. For other loans covered by 24 CFR...

  3. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... instructions for completing the HUD-1 settlement statement, required under section 4 of RESPA and 24 CFR part... (24 CFR 3500.2) for specific definitions of many of the terms that are used in these instructions... is converted to a loan to finance purchase by the first user. For other loans covered by 24 CFR...

  4. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... instructions for completing the HUD-1 settlement statement, required under section 4 of RESPA and 24 CFR part... (24 CFR 3500.2) for specific definitions of many of the terms that are used in these instructions... is converted to a loan to finance purchase by the first user. For other loans covered by 24 CFR...

  5. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Dominic G; Davidson, Jane W; Nair, Chenicheri S

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  6. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Dominic G.; Davidson, Jane W.; Nair, Chenicheri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  7. Dual NRASQ61R and BRAFV600E mutation-specific immunohistochemistry completes molecular screening in melanoma samples in a routine practice.

    PubMed

    Uguen, Arnaud; Guéguen, Paul; Legoupil, Delphine; Bouvier, Stéphanie; Costa, Sebastian; Duigou, Sandrine; Lemasson, Gilles; Ledé, Françoise; Sassolas, Bruno; Talagas, Matthieu; Férec, Claude; Le Maréchal, Cédric; De Braekeleer, Marc; Marcorelles, Pascale

    2015-11-01

    NRAS and BRAF mutational status has become mandatory to treat patients with metastatic melanomas. Mutation-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) can help analyze challenging tumor samples. We report our experience integrating NRASQ61R (SP174) and BRAFV600E (VE1) IHC in routine practice in a cancer molecular genetic platform. All samples screened for BRAF and NRAS mutations during the year 2014 were analyzed by IHC and pyrosequencing, with an independent analysis of the 2 methods. Cases with first-line discordant results benefited from a complementary second-round IHC and next-generation sequencing (NGS) with a final interpretation taking into account the results of pyrosequencing, IHC, NGS, and quantification of the tumor cells. We analyzed 111 consecutive formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded melanoma samples from 101 patients. Twenty-two and 11 samples were concordant for BRAFV600E and NRASQ61R mutations, respectively. Second-round analyses of 9 discordant and 1 molecularly inconclusive samples allowed conclusion in 4 further mutated samples (2 BRAFV600E and 2 NRASQ61R). A sample remained NRASQ61R IHC negative but NRASQ61R mutated with molecular methods. Overall, BRAFV600 and NRASQ61 mutation frequencies were 31.7% and 30.7%, respectively. When compared to molecular results, the sensitivity and specificity of IHC were 100% for BRAFV600E IHC and 92.3% and 98.9% for NRASQ61R IHC, respectively. IHC interpretation required a more stringent cutoff for BRAFV600E IHC than NRASQ61R to minimize false results. We conclude that NRASQ61R and BRAFV600E IHC coupled with NGS allow detection of mutations in melanoma challenging samples. PMID:26297254

  8. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

  9. New astronomy library in Bologna is named after Guido Horn D'Arturo: a forefather of modern telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, M.; D'Arturo, G. H.

    2000-04-01

    Some BAA Journal readers with interests in large mirror telescopes may perhaps have read about the tessellated mirror,1 an instrument that, according to the astronomer Luigi Jacchia, was a forefather of the Multiple Mirror Telescope of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.The tessellated mirror is the most famous contribution to astronomy by Guido Horn D'Arturo (1879-1967), director of Bologna Astronomical Observatory from 1920 to 1949.

  10. Balancing Bologna: opportunities for university teaching that integrates academic and practical learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Lorenz; Pflug, Verena; Brandenburg, Christiane; Guggenberger, Thomas; Mentler, Axel; Wurzinger, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the Bologna Process, the quality of university teaching has become more prominent in the discourse on higher education. More attention is now paid to didactics and methods and learner-oriented modes of teaching are introduced. The application of knowledge, practical skills and in consequence the employability of university graduates have become requirements for university teaching. Yet, the lecture-style approach still dominates European universities, although empirical evidence confirms that student-centred, interdisciplinary and experiential learning is more effective. Referring to the learning taxonomy introduced by Bloom, we argue that standard approaches rarely move beyond the learning level of comprehension and fail to reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Considering the rapid changes and multiple challenges society faces today, responsible practitioners and scientists who can improve the current management of natural resources are urgently needed. Universities are expected to equip their graduates with the necessary skills to reflect and evaluate their actions when addressing 'real world' problems in order to improve impact and relevance of their work. Higher education thus faces the challenge of providing multi-level learning opportunities for students with diverse practical and theoretical learning needs. In this study, we reflect on three cases of university teaching attempting to bridge theory and practice and based on the principles of systemic, problem based learning. The described courses focus on organic farming, rural development and landscape planning and take place in Uganda, Nicaragua and Italy. We show that being part of a real-world community of stakeholders requires hands-on learning and the reflection and evaluation of actions. This prepares students in a more effective and realistic way for their future roles as responsible decision makers in complex social, economic and ecological systems. We