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Sample records for bond oxidation reaction

  1. Oxidation Protection of Porous Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics of both as-fabricated and coated reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) were studied at 900 and 1000 C with thermogravimetry. Uncoated RBSN exhibited internal oxidation and parabolic kinetics. An amorphous Si-C-O coating provided the greatest degree of protection to oxygen, with a small linear weight loss observed. Linear weight gains were measured on samples with an amorphous Si-N-C coating. Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Si3N4 coated RBSN exhibited parabolic kinetics, and the coating cracked severely. A continuous-SiC-fiber-reinforced RBSN composite was also coated with the Si-C-O material, but no substantial oxidation protection was observed.

  2. Mechanisms and kinetics of reaction-bonded aluminium oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Suxing; Holz, D.; Claussen, N. . Advanced Ceramics Group)

    1993-04-01

    Reaction-bonded Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (RBAO) ceramics were fabricated starting from mechanically alloyed Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/ZrO[sub 2], and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/ZrO[sub 2]/Zr mixtures. Isopressed compacts were heat-treated in air up to 1,550 C. Reaction-bonding mechanisms, kinetics, and the influence of ZrO[sub 2] and Zr additions are investigated. Independent of additive, oxidation of Al proceeds both as solid/gas and liquid/gas reaction, and the reaction kinetics follow a parabolic rate law. The reaction rate depends strongly on the particle size of Al. The activation energy of the reaction depends essentially on green density. Below the melting temperature of Al, in samples containing 45 vol% Al and 55 vol% Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], it is 112 and 152 kJ/mol at [approximately]64% and [approximately]74% TD, respectively, while above the melting temperature, it lies in the range [approximately]26--33 kJ/mol. Zr additions reduce the activation energy to some extent. Samples with only ZrO[sub 2] additions exhibit nearly the same activation energies as ZrO[sub 2]-free samples, though ZrO[sub 2] has a very positive effect on the microstructural development in RBAO ceramics. Microstructure evolution and some strength data of RBAO bodies are also reported.

  3. Fracture of flash oxidized, yttria-doped sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govila, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of a slip cast, yttria-doped, sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride after 'flash oxidation' was investigated. It was found that both the static oxidation resistance and flexural stress rupture life (creep deformation) were improved at 1000 C in air compared to those of the same material without flash oxidation. Stress rupture data at high temperatures (1000 to 1200 C) are presented to indicate applied stress levels for oxidation-dependent and independent failures.

  4. Oxidation behavior in reaction-bonded aluminum-silicon alloy/alumina powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, S.H.

    1992-12-01

    Goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of producing low-shrinkage mullite/alumina composites by applying the reaction-bonded alumina (RBAO) process to an aluminum-silicon alloy/alumina system. Mirostructural and compositional changes during heat treatment were studied by removing samples from the furnace at different steps in the heating schedule and then using optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDS and XRD to characterize the powder compacts. Results suggest that the oxidation behavior of the alloy compact is different from the model proposed for the pure Al/alumina system.

  5. Consequences of Metal–Oxide Interconversion for C–H Bond Activation during CH₄ Reactions on Pd Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Ya-Huei; Buda, Corneliu; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique

    2013-10-01

    Mechanistic assessments based on kinetic and isotopic methods combined with density functional theory are used to probe the diverse pathways by which C-H bonds in CH₄ react on bare Pd clusters, Pd cluster surfaces saturated with chemisorbed oxygen (O*), and PdO clusters. C-H activation routes change from oxidative addition to Habstraction and then to σ-bond metathesis with increasing O-content, as active sites evolve from metal atom pairs (*-*) to oxygen atom (O*-O*) pairs and ultimately to Pd cationlattice oxygen pairs (Pd2+-O2-) in PdO. The charges in the CH₃ and H moieties along the reaction coordinate depend on the accessibility and chemical state of the Pd and O centers involved. Homolytic C-H dissociation prevails on bare (*-*) and O*- covered surfaces (O*-O*), while C-H bonds cleave heterolytically on Pd2+-O2- pairs at PdO surfaces. On bare surfaces, C-H bonds cleave via oxidative addition, involving Pd atom insertion into the C-H bond with electron backdonation from Pd to C-H antibonding states and the formation of tight three-center (H₃C···Pd···H)‡ transition states. On O*-saturated Pd surfaces, C-H bonds cleave homolytically on O*-O* pairs to form radical-like CH3 species and nearly formed O-H bonds at a transition state (O*···CH3 •···*OH)‡ that is looser and higher in enthalpy than on bare Pd surfaces. On PdO surfaces, site pairs consisting of exposed Pd2+ and vicinal O2-, Pdox-Oox, cleave C-H bonds heterolytically via σ-bond metathesis, with Pd2+ adding to the C-H bond, while O2- abstracts the H-atom to form a four-center (H3Cδ-···Pdox···Hδ+···Oox) transition state without detectable Pdox reduction. The latter is much more stable than transition states on *-* and O*-O* pairs and give rise to a large increase in CH₄ oxidation turnover rates at oxygen chemical potentials leading to Pd to PdO transitions. These distinct mechanistic pathways for C-H bond activation, inferred from theory and experiment, resemble those prevalent on organometallic complexes. Metal centers present on surfaces as well as in homogeneous complexes act as both nucleophile and electrophile in oxidative additions, ligands (e.g., O* on surfaces) abstract H-atoms via reductive deprotonation of C-H bonds, and metal-ligand pairs, with the pair as electrophile and the metal as nucleophile, mediate σ-bond metathesis pathways.

  6. Oxidation effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1989-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded silicon nitride composites were measured after 100 hrs exposure at temperatures to 1400 C in nitrogen and oxygen environments. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The results indicate that composites heat treated in a nitrogen environment at temperatures to 1400 C showed deformation and fracture behavior equivalent to that of the as-fabricated composites. Also, the composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment beyond 400 C yielded significantly lower tensile strength values. Specifically in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 C, composites retained approx. 40 percent of their as-fabricated strength, and those heat treated in the temperatures from 1200 to 1400 C retained 70 percent. Nonetheless, for all oxygen heat treatment conditions, composite specimens displayed strain capability beyond the matrix fracture stress; a typical behavior of a tough composite.

  7. Aromatic Cations from Oxidative Carbon–Hydrogen Bond Cleavage in Bimolecular Carbon–Carbon Bond Forming Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Dane J.

    2012-01-01

    Chromenes and isochromenes react quickly with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) to form persistent aromatic oxocarbenium ions through oxidative carbon–hydrogen cleavage. This process is tolerant of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups on the benzene ring and additional substitution on the pyran ring. A variety of nucleophiles can be added to these cations to generate a diverse set of structures. PMID:22780559

  8. A hydrogen-bonding network is important for oxidation and isomerization in the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Chen, Lin; Sampson, Nicole S.; Vrielink, Alice

    2009-11-01

    The importance of active-site electrostatics for oxidative and reductive half-reactions in a redox flavoenzyme (cholesterol oxidase) have been investigated by a combination of biochemistry and atomic resolution crystallography. A detailed examination of active-site dynamics demonstrates that the oxidation of substrate and the re-oxidation of the flavin cofactor by molecular oxygen are linked by a single active-site asparagine. Cholesterol oxidase is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and isomerization of 3β-hydroxysteroids. Structural and mutagenesis studies have shown that Asn485 plays a key role in substrate oxidation. The side chain makes an NH⋯π interaction with the reduced form of the flavin cofactor. A N485D mutant was constructed to further test the role of the amide group in catalysis. The mutation resulted in a 1800-fold drop in the overall k{sub cat}. Atomic resolution structures were determined for both the N485L and N485D mutants. The structure of the N485D mutant enzyme (at 1.0 Å resolution) reveals significant perturbations in the active site. As predicted, Asp485 is oriented away from the flavin moiety, such that any stabilizing interaction with the reduced flavin is abolished. Met122 and Glu361 form unusual hydrogen bonds to the functional group of Asp485 and are displaced from the positions they occupy in the wild-type active site. The overall effect is to disrupt the stabilization of the reduced FAD cofactor during catalysis. Furthermore, a narrow transient channel that is shown to form when the wild-type Asn485 forms the NH⋯π interaction with FAD and that has been proposed to function as an access route of molecular oxygen, is not observed in either of the mutant structures, suggesting that the dynamics of the active site are altered.

  9. Sintered-reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Densified by a Gas Pressure Sintering Process Effects of Rare Earth Oxide Sintering Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. H.; Ko, J. W.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, H. D.; Lin, Hua-Tay; Becher, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitrides containing rare-earth oxide sintering additives were densified by gas pressure sintering. The sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant specimens were analyzed. For that purpose, Lu2O3-SiO2 (US), La2O3-MgO (AM) and Y2O3-Al2O3 (YA) additive systems were selected. Among the tested compositions, densification of silicon nitride occurred at the lowest temperature when using the La2O3-MgO system. Since the Lu2O3-SiO2 system has the highest melting temperature, full densification could not be achieved after sintering at 1950oC. However, the system had a reasonably high bending strength of 527 MPa at 1200oC in air and a high fracture toughness of 9.2 MPa m1/2. The Y2O3-Al2O3 system had the highest room temperature bending strength of 1.2 GPa

  10. Cu(ii)-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxidative cleavage of C(CO)-C(alkyl) bonds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ran; He, Liang-Nian; Liu, An-Hua; Song, Qing-Wen

    2016-01-26

    A novel Cu(ii)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones for the synthesis of esters has been developed with wide functional group tolerance. This process is assumed to go through a tandem sequence consisting of ?-oxygenation/esterification/nucleophilic addition/C-C bond cleavage and carbon dioxide is released as the only byproduct. PMID:26698150

  11. Stereoelectronic effects in C-H bond oxidation reactions of Ni(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Poulten, Rebecca C; Lpez, Isidoro; Llobet, Antoni; Mahon, Mary F; Whittlesey, Michael K

    2014-07-21

    Activation of O2 by the three-coordinate Ni(I) ring-expanded N-heterocyclic carbene complexes Ni(RE-NHC)(PPh3)Br (RE-NHC = 6-Mes, 1; 7-Mes, 2) produced the structurally characterized dimeric Ni(II) complexes Ni(6-Mes)(Br)(?-OH)(?-O-6-Mes')NiBr (3) and Ni(7-Mes)(Br)(?-OH)(?-O-7-Mes')NiBr (4) containing oxidized ortho-mesityl groups from one of the carbene ligands. NMR and mass spectrometry provided evidence for further oxidation in solution to afford bis-?-aryloxy compounds; the 6-Mes derivative was isolated, and its structure was verified. Low-temperature UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the reaction between 1 and O2 was too fast even at ca. -80 C to yield any observable intermediates and also supported the formation of more than one oxidation product. Addition of O2 to Ni(I) precursors containing a less electron-donating diamidocarbene (6-MesDAC, 7) or less bulky 6- or 7-membered ring diaminocarbene ligands (6- or 7-o-Tol; 8 and 9) proceeded quite differently, affording phosphine and carbene oxidation products (Ni(O?PPh3)2Br2 and (6-MesDAC)?O) and the mononuclear Ni(II) dibromide complexes (Ni(6-o-Tol)(PPh3)Br2 (10) and (Ni(7-o-Tol)(PPh3)Br2 (11)) respectively. Electrochemical measurements on the five Ni(I) precursors show significantly higher redox potentials for 1 and 2, the complexes that undergo oxygen atom transfer from O2. PMID:24972307

  12. Oxidation effects on the mechanical properties of a SiC-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1992-01-01

    The room-temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded silicon nitride composites were measured after 100 hrs exposure at temperatures to 1400 C in nitrogen and oxygen environments. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The results indicate that composites heat treated in a nitrogen environment at temperatures to 1400 C showed deformation and fracture behavior equivalent to that of the as-fabricated composites. Also, the composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment beyond 400 C yielded significantly lower tensile strength values. Specifically in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 C, composites retained approx. 40 percent of their as-fabricated strength, and those heat treated in the temperatures from 1200 to 1400 C retained 70 percent. Nonetheless, for all oxygen heat treatment conditions, composite specimens displayed strain capability beyond the matrix fracture stress; a typical behavior of a tough composite.

  13. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik

    2011-12-29

    This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and morpholinones and related analogues such as quinoxalinones and benzoxazin-2-ones.

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of cleavage of the N-O bond of N-oxides by a vanadium(III) complex: enhanced oxygen atom transfer reaction rates for adducts of nitrous oxide and mesityl nitrile oxide.

    PubMed

    Palluccio, Taryn D; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V; Majumdar, Subhojit; Cai, Xiaochen; Chui, Megan; Temprado, Manuel; Silvia, Jared S; Cozzolino, Anthony F; Tofan, Daniel; Velian, Alexandra; Cummins, Christopher C; Captain, Burjor; Hoff, Carl D

    2013-07-31

    Thermodynamic, kinetic, and computational studies are reported for oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to the complex V(N[t-Bu]Ar)3 (Ar = 3,5-C6H3Me2, 1) from compounds containing N-O bonds with a range of BDEs spanning nearly 100 kcal mol(-1): PhNO (108) > SIPr/MesCNO (75) > PyO (63) > IPr/N2O (62) > MesCNO (53) > N2O (40) > dbabhNO (10) (Mes = mesityl; SIPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropyl)phenylimidazolin-2-ylidene; Py = pyridine; IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropyl)phenylimidazol-2-ylidene; dbabh = 2,3:5,6-dibenzo-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene). Stopped flow kinetic studies of the OAT reactions show a range of kinetic behavior influenced by both the mode and strength of coordination of the O donor and its ease of atom transfer. Four categories of kinetic behavior are observed depending upon the magnitudes of the rate constants involved: (I) dinuclear OAT following an overall third order rate law (N2O); (II) formation of stable oxidant-bound complexes followed by OAT in a separate step (PyO and PhNO); (III) transient formation and decay of metastable oxidant-bound intermediates on the same time scale as OAT (SIPr/MesCNO and IPr/N2O); (IV) steady-state kinetics in which no detectable intermediates are observed (dbabhNO and MesCNO). Thermochemical studies of OAT to 1 show that the V-O bond in O≡V(N[t-Bu]Ar)3 is strong (BDE = 154 ± 3 kcal mol(-1)) compared with all the N-O bonds cleaved. In contrast, measurement of the N-O bond in dbabhNO show it to be especially weak (BDE = 10 ± 3 kcal mol(-1)) and that dissociation of dbabhNO to anthracene, N2, and a (3)O atom is thermodynamically favorable at room temperature. Comparison of the OAT of adducts of N2O and MesCNO to the bulky complex 1 show a faster rate than in the case of free N2O or MesCNO despite increased steric hindrance of the adducts. PMID:23805977

  15. Metal-Free Oxidative C-C Bond Formation through C-H Bond Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rishikesh; Matcha, Kiran; Antonchick, Andrey P

    2015-10-12

    The formation of C-C bonds embodies the core of organic chemistry because of its fundamental application in generation of molecular diversity and complexity. C-C bond-forming reactions are well-known challenges. To achieve this goal through direct functionalization of C-H bonds in both of the coupling partners represents the state-of-the-art in organic synthesis. Oxidative C-C bond formation obviates the need for prefunctionalization of both substrates. This Minireview is dedicated to the field of C-C bond-forming reactions through direct C-H bond functionalization under completely metal-free oxidative conditions. Selected important developments in this area have been summarized with representative examples and discussions on their reaction mechanisms. PMID:26239615

  16. Sintering of reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A process to produce sintered reaction-bonded Si3N4 (SRBSN) articles has been developed. This process consists of the addition of an appropriate sintering aid to reaction-bonded Si3N4 followed by sintering between 1780 and 2000 C, using an over pressure of nitrogen. The principal advantage of this process is the low sintering shrinkages of 5 to 10 percent. The properties and microstructure of two SRBSN systems sintered with MgO and Y2O3 additives are described and were found to be comparable to corresponding hot-pressed Si3N4 systems. Examples of applications of both systems are illustrated, demonstrating near net shape fabrication capability of the process.

  17. Effect of processing parameters on reaction bonding of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, M. H.; Gregory, O. J.; Magida, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reaction bonded silicon nitride was developed. The relationship between the various processing parameters and the resulting microstructures was to design and synthesize reaction bonded materials with improved room temperature mechanical properties.

  18. Photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wittig, C.

    1993-05-01

    This paper discusses photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded binary complexes in which the constituents are only mildly perturbed by the intermolecular bond. Such complexes, with their large zero point excursions, set the stage for events that occur following electronic excitation of one of the constituents. This can take several forms, but in all cases, entrance channel specificity is imposed by the character of the complex as well as the nature of the photoinitiation process. This has enabled us to examine aspects of bimolecular processes: steric effects, chemical branching ratios, and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, monitoring reactions directly in the time domain can reveal mechanisms that cannot be inferred from measurements of nascent product excitations. Consequently, we examined several systems that had been studied previously by our group with product state resolution. With CO{sub 2}/HI, in which reaction occurs via a HOCO intermediate, the rates agree with RRKM predictions. With N{sub 2}O/HI, the gas phase single collision reaction yielding OH + N{sub 2} has been shown to proceed mainly via an HNNO intermediate that undergoes a 1,3-hydrogen shift to the OH + N{sub 2} channel. With complexes, ab initio calculations and high resolution spectroscopic studies of analogous systems suggest that the hydrogen, while highly delocalized, prefers the oxygen to the nitrogen. We observe that OH is produced with a fast risetime (< 250 fs) which can be attributed to either direct oxygen-side attack or rapid HNNO decomposition and/or a termolecular contribution involving the nearby iodine.

  19. Reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Behrendt, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the reaction-bonded SiC- and Si3N4-matrix types of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (FRCMC). A variety of reaction-bonding methods are being pursued for FRCMC fabrication: CVI, CVD, directed metal oxidation, and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Due to their high specific modulus and strength, toughness, and fabricability, reaction-bonded FRCMC are important candidate materials for such heat-engine components as combustor liners, nozzles, and turbine and stator blading. The improvement of long-term oxidative stability in these composites is a major goal of current research.

  20. Reaction bonded silicon carbide gimbaled pointing mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, J.; Akerstrom, A.; Frey, S.; Crompton, D.; Cucchiaro, P.; Deveau, G.; Peters, M.; Mason, S.; Ullathorne, C.

    2007-09-01

    A Silicon Carbide (SiC) based wide field of view Pointing Mirror Assembly (PMA) has been developed to provide two axis line-of-sight control for a fixed, space based imaging sensor. Thermal modeling has been completed in order to project the excellent thermal stability anticipated from the SiC PMA, and closed loop servo testing of the hardware has been conducted in order to quantify the bandwidth associated with line-of-sight control. In addition to the system level testing the SiC mirror substrate itself has been tested for thermal stability. We also report on results obtained with a novel polishing technique which has been applied in order to allow optical finishing of the two-phased Reaction Bonded (RB) SiC mirror substrate without the need for Silicon or SiC claddings.

  1. Silver-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of difluoroacetates: efficient access to C-CF2 bond formation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wen; Ma, Guobin; Li, Jialiang; Chen, Yunrong; Hu, Qingyang; Li, Minjie; Jiang, Haizhen; Deng, Hongmei; Hao, Jian

    2016-01-28

    A mild, versatile and efficient method for the silver(i)-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylative gem-difluoromethylenation has been developed. The radical cascade reaction comprises the addition of an oxidatively generated difluoromethylene radical to the isonitrile functionality and subsequent homolytic aromatic substitution. It provides a novel and efficient access to the C-CF2 bond formation. PMID:26662493

  2. Development and application of bond cleavage reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Peng R

    2016-02-16

    Bioorthogonal chemical reactions are a thriving area of chemical research in recent years as an unprecedented technique to dissect native biological processes through chemistry-enabled strategies. However, current concepts of bioorthogonal chemistry have largely centered on 'bond formation' reactions between two mutually reactive bioorthogonal handles. Recently, in a reverse strategy, a collection of 'bond cleavage' reactions has emerged with excellent biocompatibility. These reactions have expanded our bioorthogonal chemistry repertoire, enabling an array of exciting new biological applications that range from the chemically controlled spatial and temporal activation of intracellular proteins and small-molecule drugs to the direct manipulation of intact cells under physiological conditions. Here we highlight the development and applications of these bioorthogonal cleavage reactions. Furthermore, we lay out challenges and propose future directions along this appealing avenue of research. PMID:26881764

  3. Conservation of bond order during hydrogenolysis and dehydrogenation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blowers, Paul; Masel, Rich

    1998-11-01

    Previous investigations have used bond-order conservation to make useful predictions about surface phenomena, but the accuracy of bond-order conservation for complicated processes is unknown. In this paper, we use ab-initio calculations at the MP2=(full)/6-31g* level to investigate bond-order conservation, and its implications, for the following gas-phase reactions: H ?+CH 3OH?CH 3H ?+OH , , H ?+CH 3OH?HOH ?+CH 3, , H ?+CH 3OH?HH ?+CH 2OH , , H ?+CH 3OH?HH ?+CH 3O , , H ?+CH 3OH?H+CH 2H ?OH , , H ?+CH 3OH?H+CH 3OH ?. We find that bond order is approximately conserved during the atom transfer reactions, but is not conserved during hydrogenolysis reactions. The transition state is predicted to be too early for hydrogen exchange on oxygen, too late for the hydrogenolysis reactions, and about right for the hydrogen transfer reactions. Even though the transition-state structures are not well represented using conserved total bond order, the energies of the barriers predicted this way are off by only 1-2 kcal mol -1. Physically, the potential energy surfaces are so flat near the transition state that errors in geometry do not produce significant errors in energy. Consequently, although bond-order conservation does not predict the correct transition states geometry the energies of the transition state predicted with bond-order conserved pathways are very close to their ab initio values.

  4. Dynamic fracture toughnesses of reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.; Liaw, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The room-temperature dynamic fracture response of reaction-bonded silicon nitride is investigated using a hybrid experimental-numerical procedure. In this procedure, experimentally determined crack velocities are utilized to drive a dynamic finite-element code or dynamic finite-difference code in its generation mode in order to extract numerically the dynamic stress intensity factor of the fracturing specimen. Results show that the dynamic fracture toughness vs crack velocity relations of the two reaction-bonded silicon nitrides do not follow the general trend in those relations of brittle polymers and steel. A definite slow crack velocity during the initial phase of dynamic crack propagation is observed in reaction-bonded silicon nitride, which results in a nonunique dynamic fracture toughness vs crack velocity relation. In addition, it is found that a propagating crack will continue to propagate under a static stress intensity factor substantially lower than K(IC).

  5. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type

  6. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type…

  7. Bonding of chlorophenols on iron and aluminum oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, K.S.; McBride, M.B. )

    1991-04-01

    The adsorption of 10 chlorophenols on synthetic, naturally occurring iron and aluminum oxides was studied to elucidate the mechanism of binding and relative bond strength of the chlorine-substituted phenols was identified by spectroscopic methods. Chlorophenolates were found to be chemisorbed on oxide surfaces via an inner-sphere coordination. Chlorophenols also bonded on oxides by weak physical forces (H bonding and condensation), but these types of weak bonding were identified only when adsorption occurred from the vapor phase onto dry surfaces. Physisorbed chlorophenols, unlike chemisorbed molecules, were readily removed from oxide surfaces by washing with water. Poorly crystallized iron and aluminum oxides showed similar mechanisms of chlorophenol binding, although the bond for chlorophenolate chemisorbed on iron oxide was stronger than that on aluminum oxide. Only physically adsorbed chlorophenols were detected on crystalline gibbsite, suggesting that the dominant (001) crystal face, with surface hydroxyl groups doubly coordinated to Al, was not specifically reactive with the chlorophenols. Chemisorption, however, was identified on the crystalline iron, geothite. From the extent of perturbation of aromatic ring electrons, the surface bond strength for chlorophenolates on aluminum oxide was found to correlate with the Lewis basicity of the phenolate anions (the higher the pK{sub {alpha}} of the chlorophenols, the stronger the surface bond). Nevertheless, the amount of chlorophenol adsorbed on noncrystalline iron oxide at controlled pH of 5.4 was limited by the extent of deprotonation (the lower the pK{sub a}, the more adsorption).

  8. Microscopic aspects of interfacial reactions in diffusion bonding processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, M. P.; Bauer, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Microscopic aspects of interfacial reactions are discussed, such as interdiffusion, formation of intermetallic phases, generation and annihilation of lattice defects, effect of temperature, grain size, etc., which normally occur in diffusion bonding processes. Relationships between properties and microstructure in thin film couples are examined utilizing a unique combination of contact resistance measurements and characterization by transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Reversible conversion of valence-tautomeric copper metal-organic frameworks dependent single-crystal-to-single-crystal oxidation/reduction: a redox-switchable catalyst for C-H bonds activation reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Wu, Jie; Song, Chuanjun; Ding, Ran; Qiao, Yan; Hou, Hongwei; Chang, Junbiao; Fan, Yaoting

    2015-06-28

    Upon single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) oxidation/reduction, reversible structural transformations take place between the anionic porous zeolite-like Cu(I) framework and a topologically equivalent neutral Cu(I)Cu(II) mixed-valent framework. The unique conversion behavior of the Cu(I) framework endowed it as a redox-switchable catalyst for the direct arylation of heterocycle C-H bonds. PMID:25994106

  10. Syntheses of sulfides and selenides through direct oxidative functionalization of C(sp3)-H bond.

    PubMed

    Du, Bingnan; Jin, Bo; Sun, Peipei

    2014-06-01

    A new protocol for C-S and C-Se bond formation by the direct functionalization of the C(sp(3))-H bond of alkanes under metal-free conditions was developed. Using (t)BuOO(t)Bu as the oxidant, the reaction of disulfides or diselenides with alkanes gave sulfides or selenides in moderate to good yields. The method was very simple and atom-economical. PMID:24835082

  11. Synthesis of Sulfur-Containing Heterocycles through Oxidative CarbonHydrogen Bond Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yubo; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Vinyl sulfides react rapidly and efficiently with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) to form ?,?-unsaturated thiocarbenium ions through oxidative carbonhydrogen bond cleavage. These electrophiles couple with appended ?-nucleophiles to yield sulfur-containing heterocycles through carboncarbon bond formation. Several nucleophiles are compatible with the procedure and the reactions generally proceed through readily-predictable transition states. PMID:22420412

  12. Alkali metal mediated C–C bond coupling reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-14

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C–C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz){sub 2}, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz){sub 2}, the structure of [Li(Bz){sub 2}]{sup −} was drastically changed: Bz–Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C–C single bond was formed in the C{sub 1}–C{sub 1}′ position of Bz–Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz–Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C–C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  13. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2]- was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  14. A comparison of the bonding in the second-row transition-metal oxides and carbenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbahn, Per E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations including electron correlation of all valence electrons have been performed for the sequence of second-row transition-metal oxides and carbenes. For the atoms to the right the bond strengths of the carbenes and the oxides are similar while for the atoms to the left the oxide bond strengths are much larger. The origin of this difference is the interaction between the oxygen lone pairs and empty 4d orbitals on the metal. With the large donation of electrons from the oxygen lone pair to the metal for the atoms to the left, the bonding can almost be described as triple bond formation for YO, ZrO and NbO. For MoO, where a 4d ? orbital is singly occupied on the metal, the bond strength is much smaller than for the oxides to the left. For the metal carbenes two covalent bonds are formed. The ground state spin for the oxides to the right is higher than for the corresponding carbenes, which can be explained by the presence of the ? degeneracy for the oxides. The relevance of the present results for the epoxidation and the olefin metathesis reactions are discussed.

  15. REACTIONS OF ISOPROPOXY RADICALS WITH NITROGEN OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information was sought concerning reactions of isopropoxy radicals with nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Isopropyl nitrate was photodissociated in the presence of oxides of nitrogen and an inert gas. The reaction was found to be less important than the alkoxy radical NO reactio...

  16. Phase Evolution in Boride-Based Cermets and Reaction Bonding onto Plain Low Carbon Steel Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, B.; Upadhyaya, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reaction sinter bonding is a process that aims to bond two materials for improvement in properties through reactive sintering technique. The process has been effectively used to sinter hard materials like borides in situ which not only possess excellent oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance but also resistant to abrasive wear. Sinter bonding is a unique surface modification process achieved through powder metallurgy and is competent with other techniques like boronizing sintering and sinter-brazing since it eliminates the additional operations of heat treatment and assembly and removes the inherent setbacks with these processes. This study focuses on identifying the phase evolution mechanism using characterization tools like x-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy and study of sinter bonding of the boron containing precursors (Mo-Cr-Fe-Ni-FeB-MoB) onto plain carbon steel. A microstructure containing Fe-based matrix dispersed with complex borides develops with temperature in the tape cast sheets. A fivefold increase in hardness between plain carbon steel in wrought condition and sinter bonded steel was observed. The multilayer consisted of a reaction zone adjacent to the interface and was investigated with the composition profile and hardness measurements. A model of sinter bonding between the cermet and the steel has also been proposed.

  17. Recent aspects of the proton transfer reaction in H-bonded complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafran, Miros?aw

    1996-07-01

    Proton transfer processes cover a very wide range of situations and time scales and they are of great interest from the viewpoint of chemical reactions in solution. These processes can occur via thermally activated crossing or tunneling. This review considers various aspects of this many-faceted field. Spectroscopic, dielectric, colligative and energetic properties and structures of various species with H-bonds are examined. Proton transfer reactions in water and organic solvents, and the contribution of various H-bonded species and ions to these processes are discussed. Among other topics, this survey includes the effects of solvent, acid-base stoichiometry, concentration, temperature and impurity on proton transfer reactions in complexes of phenols and carboxylic acids with amines, pyridines and pyridine N-oxides. The contribution of the nonstoichiometric acid-base complexes and ionic species to the reversible proton transfer mechanism is discussed.

  18. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and formation reactions in drug metabolism and the role of metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bolleddula, Jayaprakasam; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2015-11-01

    Elimination of xenobiotics from the human body is often facilitated by a transformation to highly water soluble and more ionizable molecules. In general, oxidation-reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation reactions are common biotransformation reactions that are catalyzed by various metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P450s (CYPs), non-CYPs, and conjugative enzymes. Although carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation and cleavage reactions are known to exist in plant secondary metabolism, these reactions are relatively rare in mammalian metabolism and are considered exceptions. However, various reactions such as demethylation, dealkylation, dearylation, reduction of alkyl chain, ring expansion, ring contraction, oxidative elimination of a nitrile through C-C bond cleavage, and dimerization, and glucuronidation through C-C bond formation have been reported for drug molecules. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions for drug molecules are primarily catalyzed by CYP enzymes, dimerization is mediated by peroxidases, and C-glucuronidation is catalyzed by UGT1A9. This review provides an overview of C-C bond cleavage and formation reactions in drug metabolism and the metabolic enzymes associated with these reactions. PMID:26390887

  19. Oxidative addition of carbon-carbon bonds to gold.

    PubMed

    Joost, Maximilian; Estvez, Laura; Miqueu, Karinne; Amgoune, Abderrahmane; Bourissou, Didier

    2015-04-20

    The oxidative addition of strained C?C bonds (biphenylene, benzocyclobutenone) to DPCb (diphosphino-carborane) gold(I) complexes is reported. The resulting cationic organogold(III) complexes have been isolated and fully characterized. Experimental conditions can be adjusted to obtain selectively acyl gold(III) complexes resulting from oxidative addition of either the C(aryl)?C(O) or C(alkyl)?C(O) bond of benzocyclobutenone. DFT calculations provide mechanistic insight into this unprecedented transformation. PMID:25727203

  20. Uranium oxidation: characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Smyrl, N.R.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.

    1983-04-27

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. Results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. 27 figures.

  1. Fracture of yttria-doped, sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govila, R. K.; Mangels, J. A.; Baer, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Flexural strength of an yttria-doped, slip-cast, sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride was evaluated as a function of temperature (20 to 1400 C in air), applied stress, and time. Static oxidation at 700 to 1400 C was investigated in detail; in tests at 1000 C in air, the material showed anomalous weight gain. Flexural stress-rupture testing at 800 to 1200 C in air indicated that the material is susceptible to stress-enhanced oxidation and early failure. Fractographic evidence for time-dependent and -independent failures is presented.

  2. Copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling reaction between allylic C-H bonds and ?-C-H bonds of ketones or aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing-Fen; Salman, Muhammad; Huang, Zhi-Zhen

    2014-05-26

    A dehydrogenative cross-coupling reaction between allylic C-H bonds and the ?-C-H bond of ketones or aldehydes was developed using Cu(OTf)2 as a catalyst and DDQ as an oxidant. This synthetic approach to ?,?-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes has the advantages of broad scope for both ketones and aldehydes as reactants, mild reaction conditions, good yields and atom economy. A plausible mechanism using Cu(OTf)2 as a Lewis acid catalyst was also proposed (DDQ=2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone; Tf=trifluoromethanesulfonate). PMID:24757128

  3. Oxidative addition of the C-I bond on aluminum nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Turbasu; Das, Susanta; Pal, Sourav

    2015-07-01

    Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly sensitive to the geometrical shapes and electronic structures of the clusters rather than their size, imposing the fact that comprehensive studies on aluminum clusters can be beneficial for nanoscience and nanotechnology. To understand the possible reaction mechanism in detail, the reaction pathway is investigated with the ab initio Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulation and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. In short, our theoretical study highlights the thermodynamic and kinetic details of C-I bond dissociation on aluminum clusters for future endeavors in cluster chemistry.Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly sensitive to the geometrical shapes and electronic structures of the clusters rather than their size, imposing the fact that comprehensive studies on aluminum clusters can be beneficial for nanoscience and nanotechnology. To understand the possible reaction mechanism in detail, the reaction pathway is investigated with the ab initio Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulation and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. In short, our theoretical study highlights the thermodynamic and kinetic details of C-I bond dissociation on aluminum clusters for future endeavors in cluster chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cartesian coordinates for the optimized structures and harmonic frequencies, sample IRC data and plot, grid data for three dimensional potential energy surface and contour plot and data for BOMD simulation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02278a

  4. Tailoring oxidation degrees of graphene oxide by simple chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Gongkai; Sun Xiang; Lian Jie; Liu Changsheng

    2011-08-01

    High quality graphene oxide (GO) with controllable degrees of oxidation was synthesized by simple chemical reactions inspired by approaches to unzip single wall carbon nanotubes using strong oxidizing agents. As compared to the conventional Hummers method, these reactions are less exo-therm involved without emission of toxic gases. The structural characteristics of the synthesized GO with various oxidation degrees were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and UV-vis-IR spectroscopy. GO with tailored degrees of oxidation displays tunable optoelectronic properties and may have a significant impact on developing graphene- or GO-based platforms for various technological applications.

  5. Rhodium catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H bond functionalization reactions

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Denise A.; Tsai, Andy S.; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus Over the last several decades, researchers have achieved remarkable progress in the field of organometallic chemistry. The development of metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions represents a paradigm shift in chemical synthesis, and today synthetic chemists can readily access carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds from a vast array of starting compounds. Although we cannot understate the importance of these methods, the required pre-functionalization to carry out these reactions adds cost and reduces the availability of the starting reagents. The use of C-H bond activation in lieu of pre-functionalization has presented a tantalizing alternative to classical cross-coupling reactions. Researchers have met the challenges of selectivity and reactivity associated with the development of C-H bond functionalization reactions with an explosion of creative advances in substrate and catalyst design. Literature reports on selectivity based on steric effects, acidity, and electronic and directing group effects are now numerous. Our group has developed an array of C-H bond functionalization reactions that take advantage of a chelating directing group, and this Account surveys our progress in this area. The use of chelation control in C-H bond functionalization offers several advantages with respect to substrate scope and application to total synthesis. The predictability and decreased dependence on the inherent stereoelectronics of the substrate generally result in selective and high yielding transformations with broad applicability. The nature of the chelating moiety can be chosen to serve as a functional handle in subsequent elaborations. Our work began with the use of Rh(I) catalysts in intramolecular aromatic C-H annulations, which we further developed to include enantioselective transformations. The application of this chemistry to the simple olefinic C-H bonds found in ?,?-unsaturated imines allowed access to highly substituted olefins, pyridines, and piperidines. We observed complementary reactivity with Rh(III) catalysts and developed an oxidative coupling with unactivated alkenes. Further studies on the Rh(III) catalysts led us to develop methods for the coupling of C-H bonds to polarized ? bonds such as those in imines and isocyanates. In several cases the methods that we have developed for chelation-controlled C-H bond functionalization have been applied to the total synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products, highlighting the utility of these methods in organic synthesis. PMID:22148885

  6. Diffusion bonding of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel PM2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittel, Wiebke; Basuki, Widodo W.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2013-11-01

    Ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are well suited as structural materials, e.g. for claddings in fission reactors and for plasma facing components in fusion power plants due to their high mechanical and oxidation stability at high temperatures and their high irradiation resistance. PM2000 is an iron based ODS ferritic steel with homogeneously distributed nanometric yttria particles. Melting joining techniques are not suitable for such ODS materials because of the precipitation and agglomeration of the oxide particles and hence the loss of their strengthening effect. Solid state diffusion bonding is thus chosen to join PM2000 and is investigated in this work with a focus on oxide particles. The diffusion bonding process is aided by the computational modeling, including the influence of the ODS particles. For modeling the microstructure stability and the creep behavior of PM2000 at various, diffusion bonding relevant temperatures (50-80% Tm) are investigated. Particle distribution (TEM), strength (tensile test) and toughness (Charpy impact test) obtained at temperatures relevant for bonding serve as input for the prediction of optimal diffusion bonding parameters. The optimally bonded specimens show comparable strength and toughness relative to the base material.

  7. Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.

    1998-09-01

    The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study.

  8. Toluene derivatives as simple coupling precursors for cascade palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-H bond acylation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinuo; Choy, Pui Ying; Mao, Fei; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2013-01-25

    A palladium-catalyzed cascade cross-coupling of acetanilide and toluene for the synthesis of ortho-acylacetanilide is described. Toluene derivatives can act as effective acyl precursors (upon sp(3)-C-H bond oxidation by a Pd/TBHP system) in the oxidative coupling between two C-H bonds. This dehydrogenative Pd-catalyzed ortho-acylation proceeds under mild reaction conditions. PMID:23230572

  9. Oxidative Reactions with Nonaqueous Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan S. Dordick; Douglas Clark; Brian H Davison; Alexander Klibanov

    2001-12-30

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept of enzymatic oxidative processing in nonaqueous media using alkene epoxidation and phenolic polymerization as relevant targets. This project will provide both the fundamental and applied investigations necessary to initiate the implementation of oxidative biocatalysts as commercially relevant alternatives to chemical processing in general, and to phenolic polymerizations and alkene epoxidation specifically. Thus, this work will address the Bioprocessing Solicitation Area to: (1) makes major improvements to phenolic polymerization and alkene epoxidation technologies; (2) is expected to be cost competitive with competing conventional processes; and (3) produces higher yields with less waste.

  10. Method of densifying an article formed of reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, John A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of densifying an article formed of reaction bonded silicon nitride is disclosed. The reaction bonded silicon nitride article is packed in a packing mixture consisting of silicon nitride powder and a densification aid. The reaction bonded silicon nitride article and packing powder are sujected to a positive, low pressure nitrogen gas treatment while being heated to a treatment temperature and for a treatment time to cause any open porosity originally found in the reaction bonded silicon nitride article to be substantially closed. Thereafter, the reaction bonded silicon nitride article and packing powder are subjected to a positive high pressure nitrogen gas treatment while being heated to a treatment temperature and for a treatment time to cause a sintering of the reaction bonded silicon nitride article whereby the strength of the reaction bonded silicon nitride article is increased.

  11. Ab initio modeling of the bonding of benzotriazole corrosion inhibitor to reduced and oxidized copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kokalj, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The bonding of benzotriazole-an outstanding corrosion inhibitor for copper-on reduced and oxidized copper surfaces is discussed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculations reveal that benzotriazole is able to bond with oxide-free and oxidized copper surfaces and on both of them it bonds significantly stronger to coordinatively unsaturated Cu sites. This suggests that benzotriazole is able to passivate the reactive under-coordinated surface sites that are plausible microscopic sites for corrosion attack. Benzotriazole can adsorb in a variety of different forms, yet it forms a strong molecule-surface bond only in deprotonated form. The bonding is even stronger when the deprotonated form is incorporated into organometallic adcomplexes. This is consistent with existing experimental evidence that benzotriazole inhibits corrosion by forming protective organometallic complexes. It is further shown that adsorption of benzotriazole considerably reduces the metal work function, which is a consequence of a large permanent molecular dipole and a properly oriented adsorption structure. It is argued that such a pronounced effect on the work function might be relevant for corrosion inhibition, because it should diminish the anodic corrosion reaction, which is consistent with existing experimental evidence that benzotriazole, although a mixed type inhibitor, predominantly affects the anodic reaction. PMID:25955130

  12. Transient liquid phase bonding of ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnardula, Venu Gopal

    2006-04-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys possess excellent properties including resistance to oxidation, corrosion, creep and thermal fatigue. In addition, ferritic ODS alloys exhibit resistance to void swelling and are of particular interest to the nuclear industry. The present study involves the joining of fuel cans to end caps that will be utilized in the nuclear industry. Mechanically alloyed (MA) ODS alloys possess coarse columnar grain structure strengthened with nanosize yttria dispersoids. In that past, fusion welding techniques resulted in microstructural disruption leading to poor joints. This work investigated joining of two ferritic MA ODS alloys, MA956 and PM2000, using; (a) Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and (b) Solid-state diffusion bonding. TLP bonds were prepared with MA956 and PM2000 in the unrecrystallized and recrystallized conditions using electron beam physical vapor deposited (EBPVD) boron thin films as interlayers. The use of thin interlayers reduced the amount of substrate dissolution and minimized the bondline microstructural disruption. Different bond orientations were also investigated. Successful bonds with better microstructural continuity were obtained when substrates were joined in the unrecrystallized condition followed by post bond recrystallization heat treatment with the substrate faying surface aligned along the working (extrusion or rolling) direction than when substrates were aligned perpendicular to the working direction. This was attributed to the number of yttria stringers cut by the bondline, which is less when the substrate faying surface is lying parallel to the working direction than when the substrate faying surface is lying perpendicular to the working direction. Solid-state diffusion bonding was conducted using MA956 and PM2000 in the unrecrystallized and recrystallized conditions. Bonding occurred only when an unrecrystallized substrate was involved. Bonding occurred at unusually low stresses. This may be attributed to the grain boundary diffusion, owing to submicron grain size of the unrecrystallized substrates. Post bond heat treatment was conducted in order to induce recrystallization in the bonds. Room temperature mechanical testing was conducted on the bonds and the bulk. Bond shear strengths and tensile strengths of up to 80% and 110% of bulk, respectively, were obtained. Defects in the bulk material such as porosity and unwanted fine grain formation were observed. Pore formation at the bondline during post bond heat treatment seems to decrease the bond strength. These defects were attributed to prior thermomechanical history of the materials.

  13. Nucleophilicity and P-C Bond Formation Reactions of a Terminal Phosphanido Iridium Complex.

    PubMed

    Serrano, ngel L; Casado, Miguel A; Ciriano, Miguel A; de Bruin, Bas; Lpez, Jos A; Tejel, Cristina

    2016-01-19

    The diiridium complex [{Ir(ABPN2)(CO)}2(?-CO)] (1; [ABPN2](-) = [(allyl)B(Pz)2(CH2PPh2)](-)) reacts with diphenylphosphane affording [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(H) (PPh2)] (2), the product of the oxidative addition of the P-H bond to the metal. DFT studies revealed a large contribution of the terminal phosphanido lone pair to the HOMO of 2, indicating nucleophilic character of this ligand, which is evidenced by reactions of 2 with typical electrophiles such as H(+), Me(+), and O2. Products from the reaction of 2 with methyl chloroacetate were found to be either [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(H)(PPh2CH2CO2Me)][PF6] ([6]PF6) or [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(Cl)(H)] (7) and the free phosphane (PPh2CH2CO2Me), both involving P-C bond formation, depending on the reaction conditions. New complexes having iridacyclophosphapentenone and iridacyclophosphapentanone moieties result from reactions of 2 with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and dimethyl maleate, respectively, as a consequence of a further incorporation of the carbonyl ligand. In this line, the terminal alkyne methyl propiolate gave a mixture of a similar iridacyclophosphapentanone complex and [Ir(ABPN2){CH?C(CO2Me)-CO}{PPh2-CH?CH(CO2Me)}] (10), which bears the functionalized phosphane PPh2-CH?CH(CO2Me) and an iridacyclobutenone fragment. Related model reactions aimed to confirm mechanistic proposals are also studied. PMID:26695592

  14. Oxidative trifluoromethylation and trifluoromethylthiolation reactions using (trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane as a nucleophilic CF3 source.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lingling; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2014-05-20

    The trifluoromethyl group is widely prevalent in many pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals because its incorporation into drug candidates could enhance chemical and metabolic stability, improve lipophilicity and bioavailability, and increase the protein bind affinity. Consequently, extensive attention has been devoted toward the development of efficient and versatile methods for introducing the CF3 group into various organic molecules. Direct trifluoromethylation reaction has become one of the most efficient and important approaches for constructing carbon-CF3 bonds. Traditionally, the nucleophilic trifluoromethylation reaction involves an electrophile and the CF3 anion, while the electrophilic trifluoromethylation reaction involves a nucleophile and the CF3 cation. In 2010, we proposed the concept of oxidative trifluoromethylation: the reaction of nucleophilic substrates and nucleophilic trifluoromethylation reagents in the presence of oxidants. In this Account, we describe our recent studies of oxidative trifluoromethylation reactions of various nucleophiles with CF3SiMe3 in the presence of oxidants. We have focused most of our efforts on constructing carbon-CF3 bonds via direct trifluoromethylation of various C-H bonds. We have demonstrated copper-mediated or -catalyzed or metal-free oxidative C-H trifluoromethylation of terminal alkynes, tertiary amines, arenes and heteroarenes, and terminal alkenes. Besides various C-H bonds, aryl boronic acids proved to be viable nucleophilic coupling partners for copper-mediated or -catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with CF3SiMe3. To further expand the reaction scope, we also applied H-phosphonates to the oxidative trifluoromethylation system to construct P-CF3 bonds. Most recently, we developed silver-catalyzed hydrotrifluoromethylation of unactivated olefins. These studies explore boronic acids, C-H bonds, and P-H bonds as novel nucleophiles in transition-metal-mediated or -catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with CF3SiMe3, opening new viewpoints for future trifluoromethylation reactions. Furthermore, we also achieved the oxidative trifluoromethylthiolation reactions of aryl boronic acids and terminal alkynes to construct carbon-SCF3 bonds by using CF3SiMe3 and elemental sulfur as the nucleophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagent. These oxidative trifluoromethylation and trifluoromethylthiolation reactions tolerate a wide range of functional groups, affording a diverse array of CF3- and CF3S-containing compounds with high efficiencies, and provide elegant and complementary alternatives to classical trifluoromethylation and trifluoromethylthiolation reactions. Because of the importance of the CF3 and SCF3 moieties in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, these reactions would have potential applications in the life science fields. PMID:24773518

  15. Metal-Free Preparation of Cycloalkyl Aryl Sulfides via Di-tert-butyl Peroxide-Promoted Oxidative C(sp3)[BOND]H Bond Thiolation of Cycloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jincan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi; Li, Guigen

    2014-01-01

    A concise thiolation of C(sp3)H bond of cycloalkanes with diaryl disulfides in the presence of oxidant of di-tert-butylperoxide (DTBP) has been developed. This reaction without using any of metal catalyst, tolerates varieties of disulfides and cycloalkanes substrates, giving good to excellent chemical yields, which provides a useful approach to cycloalkyl aryl sulfides from unactivated cycloalkanes. PMID:25505857

  16. Effect of bond coat creep and oxidation on TBC integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duderstadt, E. C.; Pilsner, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on high-pressure turbine (HPT) nozzles and blades is limited at present by the inability to quantitatively predict TBC life for these components. The goal is to isolate the major TBC failure mechanisms, which is part of the larger program aimed at developing TBC life prediction models. Based on the results of experiments to isolate TBC failure mechanisms, the effects of bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep on TBC integrity is discussed. In bond coat oxidation experiments, Rene prime 80 specimens coated with a NiCrAlY/ZrO2-8 percent Y2O3 TBC received isothermal pre-exposures at 2000 F in static argon, static air, or received no pre-exposure. The effects of oxidation due to the pre-exposures were determined by thermal cycle tests in both static air and static argon at 2000 F. To study the effect of bond coat creep on TBS behavior, four bond coats with different creep properties were evaluated by thermal cycle tests in air at 2000 F. The test results, the relative importance of these two failure mechanisms, and how their effects may be quantified will also be discussed.

  17. Synthesis of Quinoxaline Derivatives via Tandem Oxidative Azidation/Cyclization Reaction of N-Arylenamines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haichao; Li, Dianjun; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-19

    A new method was developed for the synthesis of quinoxalines. This method employs N-arylenamines and TMSN3 as the starting materials and implements two oxidative C-N bond-forming processes in a tandem pattern by using (diacetoxyiodo)benzene as the common oxidant. The present reaction conditions are mild and simple and thus are useful in practical synthesis. PMID:26863185

  18. BN Bonded BN fiber article from boric oxide fiber

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1978-12-19

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising boron oxide fibers and boric acid, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the boric acid and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  19. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  20. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  1. Catalytic ?-activation of carbon-carbon triple bonds: reactions of propargylic alcohols and alkynes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rapolu Kiran; Bi, Xihe

    2016-01-01

    The majority reactions of alkynes in the literature are reported to proceed via either structural ?-activation or catalytic ?-activation of C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C bonds. We skillfully designed novel methods for the catalytic ?-activation of C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C bonds of alkynyl compounds. For terminal alkynyl compounds, ?-activation was achieved by silver(i)-catalyzed C-H functionalization. Whereas ?-activation of internal alkynes was accomplished by the generation of propargylic cations from propargylic alcohols under Lewis-acid catalysis. These ?-activated species have been successfully used for new C-C and C-heteroatom bond formation reactions. Plausible reaction pathways were proposed based on typical control experiments to help the readers to gain insights into reactions and for further discovery of new reactions based on this concept of catalytic ?-activation of C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C bonds. PMID:26658835

  2. Effects of Cu and Pd addition on Au bonding wire/Al pad interfacial reactions and bond reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gam, Sang-Ah; Kim, Hyoung-Joon; Cho, Jong-Soo; Park, Yong-Jin; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2006-11-01

    Finer pitch wire bonding technology has been needed since chips have more and finer pitch I/Os. However, finer Au wires are more prone to Au-Al bond reliability and wire sweeping problems when molded with epoxy molding compound. One of the solutions for solving these problems is to add special alloying elements to Au bonding wires. In this study, Cu and Pd were added to Au bonding wire as alloying elements. These alloyed Au bonding wiresAu-1 wt.% Cu wire and Au-1 wt.% Pd wirewere bonded on Al pads and then subsequently aged at 175C and 200C. Cu and Pd additions to Au bonding wire slowed down interfacial reactions and crack formation due to the formation of a Cu-rich layer and a Pd-rich layer at the interface. Wire pull testing (WPT) after thermal aging showed that Cu and Pd addition enhanced bond reliability, and Cu was more effective for improving bond reliability than Pd. In addition, comparison between the results of observation of interfacial reactions and WPT proved that crack formation was an important factor to evaluate bond reliability.

  3. SURFACE REACTIONS OF OXIDES OF SULFUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface reactions of several sulfur-containing molecules have been studied in order to understand the mechanism by which sulfate ions are formed on atmospheric aerosols. At 25C the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 to sulfuric acid and sulfate ions occurred on hydrated silica...

  4. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance of Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongjun; Tang, Pei; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hanjun; Yan, Ning; Hu, Gang; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Ding

    2016-02-01

    A heterogeneous, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly graphene oxide catalytic system for the C-H bond arylation of benzene enables the formation of biaryl compounds in the presence of aryl iodides. The oxygen functional groups in these graphene oxide sheets and the addition of KOtBu are essential for the observed catalytic activity. Reactions with various model compounds and DFT calculations confirmed that these negatively charged oxygen atoms promote the overall transformation by stabilizing and activating K(+) ions, which in turns facilitates the activation of the C-I bond. However, the graphene ??system also greatly facilitates the overall reaction as the aromatic coupling partners are easily adsorbed. PMID:26809892

  5. A pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that oxidizes an unactivated carbon-carbon bond.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Ling; Singh, Rahul; Alkhalaf, Lona M; Kuatsjah, Eugene; He, Hai-Yan; Eltis, Lindsay D; Ryan, Katherine S

    2016-03-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes have wide catalytic versatility but are rarely known for their ability to react with oxygen to catalyze challenging reactions. Here, using in vitro reconstitution and kinetic analysis, we report that the indolmycin biosynthetic enzyme Ind4, from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12648, is an unprecedented O2- and PLP-dependent enzyme that carries out a four-electron oxidation of L-arginine, including oxidation of an unactivated carbon-carbon (C-C) bond. We show that the conjugated product of this reaction, which is susceptible to nonenzymatic deamination, is efficiently intercepted and stereospecifically reduced by the partner enzyme Ind5 to give D-4,5-dehydroarginine. Thus, Ind4 couples the redox potential of O2 with the ability of PLP to stabilize anions to efficiently oxidize an unactivated C-C bond, with the subsequent stereochemical inversion by Ind5 preventing off-pathway reactions. Altogether, these results expand our knowledge of the catalytic versatility of PLP-dependent enzymes and enrich the toolbox for oxidative biocatalysis. PMID:26807714

  6. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L. )

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of [alpha] versus [beta]-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  7. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L.

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of {alpha} versus {beta}-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  8. O-H bond oxidation by a monomeric Mn(III)-OMe complex.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Gayan B; Day, Victor W; Jackson, Timothy A

    2015-02-21

    Manganese-containing, mid-valent oxidants (Mn(III)-OR) that mediate proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions are central to a variety of crucial enzymatic processes. The Mn-dependent enzyme lipoxygenase is such an example, where a Mn(III)-OH unit activates fatty acid substrates for peroxidation by an initial PCET. This present work describes the quantitative generation of the Mn(III)-OMe complex, [Mn(III)(OMe)(dpaq)](+) (dpaq = 2-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)]amino-N-quinolin-8-yl-acetamidate) via dioxygen activation by [Mn(II)(dpaq)](+) in methanol at 25 C. The X-ray diffraction structure of [Mn(III)(OMe)(dpaq)](+) exhibits a Mn-OMe group, with a Mn-O distance of 1.825(4) , that is trans to the amide functionality of the dpaq ligand. The [Mn(III)(OMe)(dpaq)](+) complex is quite stable in solution, with a half-life of 26 days in MeCN at 25 C. [Mn(III)(OMe)(dpaq)](+) can activate phenolic O-H bonds with bond dissociation free energies (BDFEs) of less than 79 kcal mol(-1) and reacts with the weak O-H bond of TEMPOH (TEMPOH = 2,2'-6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-ol) with a hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect (H/D KIE) of 1.8 in MeCN at 25 C. This isotope effect, together with other experimental evidence, is suggestive of a concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) mechanism for O-H bond oxidation by [Mn(III)(OMe)(dpaq)](+). A kinetic and thermodynamic comparison of the O-H bond oxidation reactivity of [Mn(III)(OMe)(dpaq)](+) to other M(III)-OR oxidants is presented as an aid to gain more insight into the PCET reactivity of mid-valent oxidants. In contrast to high-valent counterparts, the limited examples of M(III)-OR oxidants exhibit smaller H/D KIEs and show weaker dependence of their oxidation rates on the driving force of the PCET reaction with O-H bonds. PMID:25597362

  9. Mullite fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, T.; Sayir, A.; Lightfoot, A.; Haggerty, J.

    1996-01-01

    Fracture toughnesses of brittle ceramic materials have been improved by introducing reinforcements and carefully tailored interface layers. Silicon carbide and Si3N4 have been emphasized as matrices of structural composites intended for high temperature service because they combine excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal and physical properties. Both matrices have been successfully toughened with SiC fibers, whiskers and particles for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) parts made by sintering, hot pressing or reaction forming processes. These SiC reinforced CMCs have exhibited significantly improved toughnesses at low and intermediate temperature levels, as well as retention of properties at high temperatures for selected exposures; however, they are vulnerable to attack from elevated temperature dry and wet oxidizing atmospheres after the matrix has cracked. Property degradation results from oxidation of interface layers and/or reinforcements. The problem is particularly acute for small diameter (-20 tim) polymer derived SiC fibers used for weavable toes. This research explored opportunities for reinforcing Si3N4 matrices with fibers having improved environmental stability; the findings should also be applicable to SiC matrix CMCs.

  10. Low temperature direct bonding mechanisms of tetraethyl orthosilicate based silicon oxide films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbione, C.; Di Cioccio, L.; Vandroux, L.; Nieto, J.-P.; Rieutord, F.

    2012-09-01

    Bonding behaviour and surface adhesion mechanisms of tetraethyl orthosilicate silicon oxide films are investigated. Prior to the bonding, infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to assess chemical composition of the bonding layers. The incorporation of -OH groups during the deposition process and the moisture absorption is shown and a specific effect of the applied RF power is highlighted. A strong correlation is found between trapped species and the evolution of the bonded layers during subsequent thermal annealing. The first observed phenomenon is an overall hardness reduction of the film deposited at low RF power which results in an increase of local adhesion area, hence an enhancement of the bonding energy. In the meantime, in this configuration water production is promoted in the volume of the film through silanol condensation and silicon oxidation occurs at the interface between the bonding layer and the silicon bulk. As a by-product of this reaction, hydrogen is released and it migrates towards the bonding interface. As a consequence, defects appear at the bonding interface. Thanks to the use of a stop barrier at the bulk interface, silicon oxidation is prevented, defect free bonding is obtained and the described scenario is confirmed.

  11. Impact of an easily reducible disulfide bond on the oxidative folding rate of multi-disulfide-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Leung, H J; Xu, G; Narayan, M; Scheraga, H A

    2005-01-01

    The burial of native disulfide bonds, formed within stable structure in the regeneration of multi-disulfide-containing proteins from their fully reduced states, is a key step in the folding process, as the burial greatly accelerates the oxidative folding rate of the protein by sequestering the native disulfide bonds from thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Nevertheless, several proteins retain solvent-exposed disulfide bonds in their native structures. Here, we have examined the impact of an easily reducible native disulfide bond on the oxidative folding rate of a protein. Our studies reveal that the susceptibility of the (40-95) disulfide bond of Y92G bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) to reduction results in a reduced rate of oxidative regeneration, compared with wild-type RNase A. In the native state of RNase A, Tyr 92 lies atop its (40-95) disulfide bond, effectively shielding this bond from the reducing agent, thereby promoting protein oxidative regeneration. Our work sheds light on the unique contribution of a local structural element in promoting the oxidative folding of a multi-disulfide-containing protein. PMID:15686534

  12. Oxidation reactions on neutral cobalt oxide clusters: experimental and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Dong, Feng; Heinbuch, Scott; Rocca, Jorge J; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2010-01-28

    Reactions of neutral cobalt oxide clusters (Co(m)O(n), m = 3-9, n = 3-13) with CO, NO, C(2)H(2), and C(2)H(4) in a fast flow reactor are investigated by time of flight mass spectrometry employing 118 nm (10.5 eV) single photon ionization. Strong cluster size dependent behavior is observed for all the oxidation reactions; the Co(3)O(4) cluster has the highest reactivity for reactions with CO and NO. Cluster reactivity is also highly correlated with either one or more following factors: cluster size, Co(iii) concentration, the number of the cobalt atoms with high oxidation states, and the presence of an oxygen molecular moiety (an O-O bond) in the Co(m)O(n) clusters. The experimental cluster observations are in good agreement with condensed phase Co(3)O(4) behavior. Density functional theory calculations at the BPW91/TZVP level are carried out to explore the geometric and electronic structures of the Co(3)O(4) cluster, reaction intermediates, transition states, as well as reaction mechanisms. CO, NO, C(2)H(2), and C(2)H(4) are predicted to be adsorbed on the Co(ii) site, and react with one of the parallel bridge oxygen atoms between two Co(iii) atoms in the Co(3)O(4) cluster. Oxidation reactions with CO, NO, and C(2)H(2) on the Co(3)O(4) cluster are estimated as thermodynamically favorable and overall barrierless processes at room temperature. The oxidation reaction with C(2)H(4) is predicted to have a very small overall barrier (<0.23 eV). The oxygen bridge between two Co(iii) sites in the Co(3)O(4) cluster is responsible for the oxidation reactions with CO, NO, C(2)H(2), and C(2)H(4). Based on the gas phase experimental and theoretical cluster studies, a catalytic cycle for these oxidation reactions on a condensed phase cobalt oxide catalyst is proposed. PMID:20066380

  13. Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Progress report, April 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1995-01-31

    Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. Our approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. Our current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. Oxide catalysis can be a complex process with both metal cation and oxygen anions participating in the chemical reactions. From an energy perspective carbon-carbon bond formation is particularly relevant to CO hydrogenation in isosynthesis. Hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation form the basis for heteroatom removal in fuels processing. Understanding the catalysis of these processes (and others) requires isolating reaction steps in the overall cycle and determining how structure and composition influence the individual reaction steps. Specially designed oxides, such as we use, permit one to study some of the steps in oxidation, carbon-carbon coupling and heteroatom removal catalysis. During the course of our studies we have: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by methathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

  14. If CH Bonds Could Talk Selective CH Bond Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Timothy; Baran, Phil S.

    2014-01-01

    CH oxidation has a long history and an ongoing presence in research at the forefront of chemistry and interrelated fields. As such, numerous highly useful texts and reviews have been written on this subject. Logically, these are generally written from the perspective of the scope and limitations of the reagents employed. This minireview instead attempts to emphasize chemoselectivity imposed by the nature of the substrate. Consequently many landmark discoveries in the field of CH oxidation are not discussed, but hopefully the perspective taken herein will allow for the more ready incorporation of CH oxidation reactions into synthetic planning. PMID:21413105

  15. A Macroscopic Reaction: Direct Covalent Bond Formation between Materials Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Tomoko; Kakuta, Takahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Cross-coupling reactions are important to form C-C covalent bonds using metal catalysts. Although many different cross-coupling reactions have been developed and applied to synthesize complex molecules or polymers (macromolecules), if cross-coupling reactions are realized in the macroscopic real world, the scope of materials should be dramatically broadened. Here, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions are realized between macroscopic objects. When acrylamide gel modified with an iodophenyl group (I-gel) reacts with a gel possessing a phenylboronic group (PB-gel) using a palladium catalyst, the gels bond to form a single object. This concept can also be adapted for bonding between soft and hard materials. I-gel or PB-gel selectively bonds to the glass substrates whose surfaces are modified with an electrophile or nucleophile, respectively.

  16. A Macroscopic Reaction: Direct Covalent Bond Formation between Materials Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Tomoko; Kakuta, Takahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Cross-coupling reactions are important to form CC covalent bonds using metal catalysts. Although many different cross-coupling reactions have been developed and applied to synthesize complex molecules or polymers (macromolecules), if cross-coupling reactions are realized in the macroscopic real world, the scope of materials should be dramatically broadened. Here, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions are realized between macroscopic objects. When acrylamide gel modified with an iodophenyl group (I-gel) reacts with a gel possessing a phenylboronic group (PB-gel) using a palladium catalyst, the gels bond to form a single object. This concept can also be adapted for bonding between soft and hard materials. I-gel or PB-gel selectively bonds to the glass substrates whose surfaces are modified with an electrophile or nucleophile, respectively. PMID:25231557

  17. Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed annulation of arenes with alkynes assisted by an internal oxidizing N-O bond.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Tang, Guo-Dong; Pan, Cheng-Ling; Li, Xingwei

    2015-12-01

    Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation of 3-aryl-dihydroisoxazoles in the coupling with diarylacetylenes has been developed under redox-neutral conditions. This reaction occurred under mild conditions with no by-product, and the N-O bond functions as an oxidizing directing group, leading to efficient synthesis of isoquinolines functionalized with a proximal secondary alcohol. PMID:26477970

  18. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cicchillo, Robert M; Zhang, Houjin; Blodgett, Joshua A.V.; Whitteck, John T; Li, Gongyong; Nair, Satish K; van derDonk, Wilfred A; Metcalf, William W

    2010-01-12

    Natural products containing phosphorus-carbon bonds have found widespread use in medicine and agriculture. One such compound, phosphinothricin tripeptide, contains the unusual amino acid phosphinothricin attached to two alanine residues. Synthetic phosphinothricin (glufosinate) is a component of two top-selling herbicides (Basta and Liberty), and is widely used with resistant transgenic crops including corn, cotton and canola. Recent genetic and biochemical studies showed that during phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (HEP) is converted to hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP). Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of this unprecedented C(sp{sup 3})-C(sp{sup 3}) bond cleavage reaction and X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. The protein is a mononuclear non-haem iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase that converts HEP to HMP and formate. In contrast to most other members of this family, the oxidative consumption of HEP does not require additional cofactors or the input of exogenous electrons. The current study expands the scope of reactions catalysed by the 2-His-1-carboxylate mononuclear non-haem iron family of enzymes.

  19. Orbital reconstruction and covalent bonding at an oxide interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Chakhalian, J.; Freeland, J. W.; Habermeier, H.-U.; Cristiani, G.; Khaliullin, G.; van Veenendaal, M.; Keimer, B.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Arkansas; Max Planck Inst.for Solid State Research; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2007-11-16

    Orbital reconstructions and covalent bonding must be considered as important factors in the rational design of oxide heterostructures with engineered physical properties. We have investigated the interface between high-temperature superconducting (Y,Ca)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and metallic La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} by resonant x-ray spectroscopy. A charge of about -0.2 electron is transferred from Mn to Cu ions across the interface and induces a major reconstruction of the orbital occupation and orbital symmetry in the interfacial CuO{sub 2} layers. In particular, the Cu d{sub 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2}} orbital, which is fully occupied and electronically inactive in the bulk, is partially occupied at the interface. Supported by exact-diagonalization calculations, these data indicate the formation of a strong chemical bond between Cu and Mn atoms across the interface. Orbital reconstructions and associated covalent bonding are thus important factors in determining the physical properties of oxide heterostructures.

  20. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S ? N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed. PMID:26586916

  1. Luminomagnetic bifunctionality of Mn2+-bonded graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide two dimensional nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amandeep; Kedawat, Garima; Kumar, Pawan; Anshul, Avaneesh; Deshmukh, Abhay D.; Singh, Om Pal; Gupta, R. K.; Amritphale, S. S.; Gupta, Govind; Singh, V. N.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the luminomagnetic bifunctional properties of two-dimensional (2D) Mn2+ bonded graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets synthesized using a facile route of oxidation followed by a solvothermal reduction method. Photoluminescence (PL) studies (excited by different wavelengths) revealed that the resonant energy transfer between Mn2+ and sp3/sp2 clusters of GO/RGO is responsible for the enhancement of emissions. Moreover, pH-sensitive PL behaviors have also been investigated in detail. The ferromagnetic behavior is believed to arise due to defects in Mn2+ bonded GO composites. Thus, present reduction method provides a direct route to tune and enhance the optical properties of GO and RGO nanosheets bonded with Mn2+ ions, which creates an opportunity for various technological applications.Herein, we report the luminomagnetic bifunctional properties of two-dimensional (2D) Mn2+ bonded graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets synthesized using a facile route of oxidation followed by a solvothermal reduction method. Photoluminescence (PL) studies (excited by different wavelengths) revealed that the resonant energy transfer between Mn2+ and sp3/sp2 clusters of GO/RGO is responsible for the enhancement of emissions. Moreover, pH-sensitive PL behaviors have also been investigated in detail. The ferromagnetic behavior is believed to arise due to defects in Mn2+ bonded GO composites. Thus, present reduction method provides a direct route to tune and enhance the optical properties of GO and RGO nanosheets bonded with Mn2+ ions, which creates an opportunity for various technological applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01095k

  2. Mode specificity in bond selective reactions F + HOD → HF + OD and DF + OH

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hongwei; Guo, Hua

    2015-05-07

    The influence of vibrational excitations in the partially deuterated water (HOD) reactant on its bond selective reactions with F is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method on an accurate global potential energy surface. Despite the decidedly early barrier of the F + H{sub 2}O reaction, reactant vibrational excitation in each local stretching mode of HOD is found to significantly enhance the reaction which breaks the excited bond. In the mean time, excitation of the HOD bending mode also enhances the reaction, but with much lower efficacy and weaker bond selectivity. Except for low collision energies, all vibrational modes are more effective in promoting the bond selective reactions than the translational energy. These results are compared with the predictions of the recently proposed sudden vector projection model.

  3. Mode specificity in bond selective reactions F + HOD ? HF + OD and DF + OH.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwei; Guo, Hua

    2015-05-01

    The influence of vibrational excitations in the partially deuterated water (HOD) reactant on its bond selective reactions with F is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method on an accurate global potential energy surface. Despite the decidedly early barrier of the F + H2O reaction, reactant vibrational excitation in each local stretching mode of HOD is found to significantly enhance the reaction which breaks the excited bond. In the mean time, excitation of the HOD bending mode also enhances the reaction, but with much lower efficacy and weaker bond selectivity. Except for low collision energies, all vibrational modes are more effective in promoting the bond selective reactions than the translational energy. These results are compared with the predictions of the recently proposed sudden vector projection model. PMID:25956102

  4. Heterogeneous reaction of ozone with aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    Rates and collision efficiencies for ozone decomposition on aluminum oxide surfaces were determined. Samples were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, particle size, and chemical analysis. Collision efficiencies were found to be between 2 times 10 to the -10 power and 2 times 10 to the -9 power. This is many orders of magnitude below the value of 0.000001 to 0.00001 needed for appreciable long-term ozone loss in the stratosphere. An activation energy of 7.2 kcal/mole was found for the heterogeneous reaction between -40 C and 40 C. Effects of pore diffusion, outgassing and treatment of the aluminum oxide with several chemical species were also investigated.

  5. Iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cleavage of the C-C ?-bond using air as the oxidant: chemoselective synthesis of carbon chain-shortened aldehydes, ketones and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qi; Lv, Hui; Xia, Chungu; Li, Fuwei

    2016-01-11

    A simple iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-C ?-bond cleavage of ketones has been developed. Readily available and environmentally benign air is used as the oxidant. This reaction avoids the use of noble metal catalysts or specialized oxidants, chemoselectively yielding carbon chain-shortened aldehydes, ketones and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds without overoxidation. PMID:26529597

  6. Noncovalent Organocatalysis Based on Hydrogen Bonding: Elucidation of Reaction Paths by Computational Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzenbach-Effers, Kerstin; Berkessel, Albrecht

    In this article, the functions of hydrogen bonds in organocatalytic reactions are discussed on atomic level by presenting DFT studies of selected examples. Theoretical investigation provides a detailed insight in the mechanism of substrate activation and orientation, and the stabilization of transition states and intermediates by hydrogen bonding (e.g. oxyanion hole). The examples selected comprise stereoselective catalysis by bifunctional thioureas, solvent catalysis by fluorinated alcohols in epoxidation by hydrogen peroxide, and intramolecular cooperative hydrogen bonding in TADDOL-type catalysts.

  7. Strength of hot isostatically pressed and sintered reaction bonded silicon nitrides containing Y2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Mieskowski, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    The hot isostatic pressing of reaction bonded Si3N4 containing Y2O3 produced specimens with greater room temperature strengths than those by high pressure nitrogen sintering of the same material. Average room temperature bend strengths for hot isostatically pressed reaction bonded silicon nitride and high pressure nitrogen sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride were 767 and 670 MPa, respectively. Values of 472 and 495 MPa were observed at 1370 C. For specimens of similar but lower Y2O3 content produced from Si3N4 powder using the same high pressure nitrogen sintering conditions, the room temperature strength was 664 MPa and the 1370 C strength was 402 MPa. The greater strengths of the reaction bonded silicon nitride materials in comparison to the sintered silicon nitride powder material are attributed to the combined effect of processing method and higher Y2O3 content.

  8. Topological description of the bond-breaking and bond-forming processes of the alkene protonation reaction in zeolite chemistry: an AIM study.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, María Fernanda; Peruchena, Nélida Maria

    2011-10-01

    Density functional theory and atoms in molecules theory were used to study bond breakage and bond formation in the trans-2-butene protonation reaction in an acidic zeolitic cluster. The progress of this reaction along the intrinsic reaction coordinate, in terms of several topological properties of relevant bond critical points and atomic properties of the key atoms involved in these concerted mechanisms, were analyzed in depth. At B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level, the results explained the electron density redistributions associated with the progressive bond breakage and bond formation of the reaction under study, as well as the profiles of the electronic flow between the different atomic basins involved in these electron reorganization processes. In addition, we found a useful set of topological indicators that are useful to show what is happening in each bond/atom involved in the reaction site as the reaction progresses. PMID:21193939

  9. Proton transfer reactions and hydrogen-bond networks in protein environments

    PubMed Central

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Saito, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In protein environments, proton transfer reactions occur along polar or charged residues and isolated water molecules. These species consist of H-bond networks that serve as proton transfer pathways; therefore, thorough understanding of H-bond energetics is essential when investigating proton transfer reactions in protein environments. When the pKa values (or proton affinity) of the H-bond donor and acceptor moieties are equal, significantly short, symmetric H-bonds can be formed between the two, and proton transfer reactions can occur in an efficient manner. However, such short, symmetric H-bonds are not necessarily stable when they are situated near the protein bulk surface, because the condition of matching pKa values is opposite to that required for the formation of strong salt bridges, which play a key role in proteinprotein interactions. To satisfy the pKa matching condition and allow for proton transfer reactions, proteins often adjust the pKa via electron transfer reactions or H-bond pattern changes. In particular, when a symmetric H-bond is formed near the protein bulk surface as a result of one of these phenomena, its instability often results in breakage, leading to large changes in protein conformation. PMID:24284891

  10. Pyridine N-Oxide vs Pyridine Substrates for Rh(III)-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H Bond Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Neufeldt, Sharon R; Jimnez-Oss, Gonzalo; Huckins, John R; Thiel, Oliver R; Houk, K N

    2015-08-12

    The origin of the high reactivity and site selectivity of pyridine N-oxide substrates in O-pivaloyl hydroxamic acid-directed Rh(III)-catalyzed (4+2) annulation reactions with alkynes was investigated computationally. The reactions of the analogous pyridine derivatives were previously reported to be slower and to display poor site selectivity for functionalization of the C(2)-H vs the C(4)-H bonds of the pyridine ring. The N-oxide substrates are found to be more reactive overall because the directing group interacts more strongly with Rh. For N-oxide substrates, alkyne insertion is rate-limiting and selectivity-determining in the reaction with a dialkyl alkyne, but C-H activation can be selectivity-determining with other coupling partners such as terminal alkynes. The rates of reaction with a dialkyl alkyne at the two sites of a pyridine substrate are limited by two different steps: C-H activation is limiting for C(2)-functionalization, while alkyne insertion is limiting for C(4)-functionalization. Consistent with the observed poor site selectivity in the reaction of a pyridine substrate, the overall energy barriers for functionalization of the two positions are nearly identical. High C(2)-selectivity in the C-H activation step of the reaction of the N-oxide is due to a cooperative effect of the C-H Brnsted acidity, the strength of the forming C-Rh bond, and intramolecular electrostatic interactions between the [Rh]Cp* and the heteroaryl moieties. On the other hand, some of these forces are in opposition in the case of the pyridine substrate, and C(4)-H activation is moderately favored overall. The alkyne insertion step is favored at C(2) over C(4) for both substrates, and this preference is largely influenced by electrostatic interactions between the alkyne and the heteroarene. Experimental results that support these calculations, including kinetic isotope effect studies, H/D exchange studies, and results using a substituted pyridine, are also described. PMID:26197041

  11. Modeling and experimental evaluation of the diffusion bonding of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel PM2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittel, Wiebke; Basuki, Widodo W.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2015-10-01

    A modeling based optimization process of the solid state diffusion bonding is presented for joining ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steels PM2000. An optimization study employing varying bonding temperatures and pressures results in almost the same strength and toughness of the bonded compared to the as received material. TEM investigations of diffusion bonded samples show a homogeneous distribution of oxide particles at the bonding seam similar to that in the bulk. Hence, no loss in strength or creep resistance due to oxide particle agglomeration is found, as verified by the mechanical properties observed for the joint.

  12. Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Final report, August 1, 1986--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1995-10-20

    Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. The approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. The current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. During the course of these studies the author has: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by metathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

  13. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation/Alkyne Annulation by Weak Coordination of Peresters with O-O Bond as an Internal Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jiayu; Wang, Lianhui; Cui, Xiuling

    2015-10-16

    A redox-economic strategy has been developed, involved in an efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative C-H activation and alkyne annulation with perester as the oxidizing directing group. In this process, the cleavage of an oxidizing O-O bond as an internal oxidant is described for the first time. This reaction could be carried out under mild conditions and exhibits excellent regioselectivity and wide functional groups tolerance. PMID:26414431

  14. Graphene-hemin hybrid material as effective catalyst for selective oxidation of primary C-H bond in toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjia; Huang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yujing; Xu, Yuxi; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Enbo; Duan, Xiangfeng; Huang, Yu

    2013-05-01

    An effective hemin catalyst on graphene support for selective oxidation of primary C-H bond in toluene is reported with an over 50% conversion rate achieved at mild conditions. Significantly this hybrid material shows catalytic efficiency in toluene oxidation with selectivity towards benzoic acid. The role of graphene support is discussed here as providing large contact area between the catalyst and the substrate, maintaining hemin in catalytically active monomer form, attracting electron to promote site isolation, as well as protecting hemin from oxidative degradation during the reaction. Moreover, graphene is suggested to largely alter the final product selectivity, due to the different ?-? interaction strength between the graphene support and the substrate/oxidized products. With longer reaction time, overall conversion rate tends to maintain relatively unchanged while toluene undergoes a series of oxidation to convert mostly to benzoic acid.

  15. Reaction of nitrosonium cation with resorc[4]arenes activated by supramolecular control: covalent bond formation.

    PubMed

    Ghirga, Francesca; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Mannina, Luisa; Molinaro, Carmela; Nevola, Laura; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Pierini, Marco; Botta, Bruno

    2013-07-19

    Resorc[4]arenes 1 and 2, which previously proved to entrap NO(+) cation within their cavities under conditions of host-to-guest excess, were treated with a 10-fold excess of NOBF4 salt in chloroform. Kinetic and spectral UV-visible analyses revealed the formation of isomeric 1:2 complexes as a direct evolution of the previously observed event. Accordingly, three-body 1-(NO(+))2 and 2-(NO(+))2 adducts were built by MM and fully optimized by DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. Notably, covalent nitration products 4, 5 and 6, 7 were obtained by reaction of NOBF4 salt with host 1 and 2, respectively, involving macrocycle ring-opening and insertion of a nitro group in one of the four aromatic rings. In particular, compounds 4 and 6, both containing a trans-double bond in the place of the methine bridge, were oxidized to aldehydes 5 and 7, respectively, after addition of water to the reaction mixture. Calculation of the charge and frontier orbitals of the aromatic donor (HOMO) and the NO(+) acceptor (LUMO) clearly suggests an ipso electrophilic attack by a first NO(+) unit on the resorcinol ring, mediated by the second NO(+) unit. PMID:23786237

  16. A molecular dynamics study of bond exchange reactions in covalent adaptable networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Yu, Kai; Mu, Xiaoming; Shi, Xinghua; Wei, Yujie; Guo, Yafang; Qi, H Jerry

    2015-08-21

    Covalent adaptable networks are polymers that can alter the arrangement of network connections by bond exchange reactions where an active unit attaches to an existing bond then kicks off its pre-existing peer to form a new bond. When the polymer is stretched, bond exchange reactions lead to stress relaxation and plastic deformation, or the so-called reforming. In addition, two pieces of polymers can be rejoined together without introducing additional monomers or chemicals on the interface, enabling welding and reprocessing. Although covalent adaptable networks have been researched extensively in the past, knowledge about the macromolecular level network alternations is limited. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the macromolecular details of bond exchange reactions in a recently reported epoxy system. An algorithm for bond exchange reactions is first developed and applied to study a crosslinking network formed by epoxy resin DGEBA with the crosslinking agent tricarballylic acid. The trace of the active units is tracked to show the migration of these units within the network. Network properties, such as the distance between two neighboring crosslink sites, the chain angle, and the initial modulus, are examined after each iteration of the bond exchange reactions to provide detailed information about how material behaviors and macromolecular structure evolve. Stress relaxation simulations are also conducted. It is found that even though bond exchange reactions change the macroscopic shape of the network, microscopic network characteristic features, such as the distance between two neighboring crosslink sites and the chain angle, relax back to the unstretched isotropic state. Comparison with a recent scaling theory also shows good agreement. PMID:26166382

  17. Radical Chain Polymerization Catalyzed by Graphene Oxide and Cooperative Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongcheng; Shi, Shengjie; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is effective in catalyzing a wide variety of organic reactions and a few types of polymerization reactions. No radical chain polymerizations catalyzed by GO have been reported. In this article, we probe the catalytic role and acceleration effect of GO for self-initiated radical chain polymerizations of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of GO and a pre-existing polymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), from a calorimetric perspective. Gelation experiments and DSC studies show that GO can function as a catalyst to accelerate the radical chain polymerization of AA. Isothermal polymerization kinetic data shows that the addition of GO diminishes the induction periods and increases the polymerization rates, as indicated by the much enhanced overall kinetic rate constants and lowered activation energies. The catalytic effect of GO for the polymerization of AA is attributed to the acidity of GO and the hydrogen bonding interactions between GO and monomer molecules and/or polymers. PMID:26775874

  18. Bimolecular Coupling Reactions through Oxidatively Generated Aromatic Cations: Scope and Stereocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yubo; Villafane, Louis A.; Clausen, Dane J.

    2013-01-01

    Chromenes, isochromenes, and benzoxathioles react with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone to form stable aromatic cations that react with a range of nucleophiles. These oxidative fragment coupling reactions provide rapid access to structurally diverse heterocycles. Conducting the reactions in the presence of a chiral Brnsted acid results in the formation of an asymmetric ion pair that can provide enantiomerically enriched products in a rare example of a stereoselective process resulting from the generation of a chiral electrophile through oxidative carbonhydrogen bond cleavage. PMID:23913987

  19. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Thermal Expansion and Mechanical Properties of Sic Fiber-reinforced Reaction-bonded Si3n4 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal expansion curves for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix composites (SiC/RBSN) and unreinforced RBSN were measured from 25 to 1400 C in nitrogen and in oxygen. The effects of fiber/matrix bonding and cycling on the thermal expansion curves and room-temperature tensile properties of unidirectional composites were determined. The measured thermal expansion curves were compared with those predicted from composite theory. Predicted thermal expansion curves parallel to the fiber direction for both bonding cases were similar to that of the weakly bonded composites, but those normal to the fiber direction for both bonding cases resulted in no net dimensional changes at room temperature, and no loss in tensile properties from the as-fabricated condition. In contrast, thermal cycling in oxygen for both composites caused volume expansion primarily due to internal oxidation of RBSN. Cyclic oxidation affected the mechanical properties of the weakly bonded SiC/RBSN composites the most, resulting in loss of strain capability beyond matrix fracture and catastrophic, brittle fracture. Increased bonding between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix due to oxidation of the carbon-rich fiber surface coating and an altered residual stress pattern in the composite due to internal oxidation of the matrix are the main reasons for the poor mechanical performance of these composites.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (generic). 721.10375... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (PMN P-10-200)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (generic). 721.10375... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (PMN P-10-200)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (generic). 721.10375... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (PMN P-10-200)...

  3. Estimation of the bond dissociation energies from the kinetic characteristics of liquid-phase radical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Evgenii T.; Tumanov, V. E.

    2005-09-01

    Three methods used in the kinetics of liquid-phase radical reactions for estimating the dissociation energies of individual bonds in polyatomic molecules are described. The first approach is based on the study of the equilibrium in radical abstraction reactions involving stable radicals and measurements of the equilibrium constants. The second method is based on the study of the kinetics of homolytic decomposition of molecules. Measuring the activation energy of these reactions makes it possible to estimate the dissociation energies of the weakest bonds, e.g., the O-O bonds in various peroxides. The essence of the third approach developed in the framework of the model of intersecting parabolas is calculations of the bond dissociation energy from the activation energy of a radical reaction involving the molecules under consideration. This method allowed the dissociation energies of the C-H, N-H, O-H and S-H bonds in a large number of organic compounds to be estimated. The scope and the specific features of application of each method are discussed and the bond dissociation energies determined by these methods are given.

  4. Oxidative addition of methane and benzene C--H bonds to rhodium center: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhu, Shufen

    2006-11-01

    A density functional theory study on mechanisms of the oxidative addition of methane and benzene C-H bonds to the rhodium center containing Cp and PMe 3 ligands has been performed. Our calculated results confirm that the C-H bond cleavage from a sigma complex to a hydride alkyl complex is the rate-determining step. Compared with the case of methane C-H bond, the oxidative addition of benzene C-H bond is more favorable kinetically and thermodynamically. Stronger backdonation from metal center to the σ ∗ antibonding orbital of benzene C-H bond is responsible for the observations.

  5. Recent developments in enzyme promiscuity for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yufeng; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-04-01

    Numerous enzymes have been found to catalyze additional and completely different types of reactions relative to the natural activity they evolved for. This phenomenon, called catalytic promiscuity, has proven to be a fruitful guide for the development of novel biocatalysts for organic synthesis purposes. As such, enzymes have been identified with promiscuous catalytic activity for, one or more, eminent types of carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions like aldol couplings, Michael(-type) additions, Mannich reactions, Henry reactions, and Knoevenagel condensations. This review focuses on enzymes that promiscuously catalyze these reaction types and exhibit high enantioselectivities (in case chiral products are obtained). PMID:25598537

  6. Oxidative bond formation and reductive bond cleavage at main group metal centers: reactivity of five-valence-electron MX? radicals.

    PubMed

    Protchenko, Andrey V; Dange, Deepak; Blake, Matthew P; Schwarz, Andrew D; Jones, Cameron; Mountford, Philip; Aldridge, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Monomeric five-valence-electron bis(boryl) complexes of gallium, indium, and thallium undergo oxidative M-C bond formation with 2,3-dimethylbutadiene, in a manner consistent with both the redox properties expected for M(II) species and with metal-centered radical character. The weaker nature of the M-C bond for the heavier two elements leads to the observation of reversibility in M-C bond formation (for indium) and to the isolation of products resulting from subsequent B-C reductive elimination (for both indium and thallium). PMID:25036798

  7. Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

  8. Bond cleavage, fragment modification and reassembly in enantioselective three-component reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Zhou, Jun; Xia, Fei; Kang, Zhenghui; Hu, Wenhao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical bond cleavage and reconstruction are common processes in traditional rearrangement reactions. In contrast, the process that involves bond cleavage, fragment modification and then reconstruction of the modified fragment provides an efficient way to build structurally diversified molecules. Here, we report a palladium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid catalysed three-component reaction of aryldiazoacetates, enamines and imines to afford ?-amino-?-oxo pentanoic acid derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and high enantioselectivities. The stereoselective reaction went through a unique process that involves cleavage of a CN bond, modification of the resulting amino fragment and selective reassembly of the modified fragment. This innovative multi-component process represents a highly efficient way to build structurally diversified polyfunctional molecules in an atom and step economic fashion. A keto-iminium is proposed as a key intermediate and a chiral palladium/phosphate complex is proposed as an active catalyst. PMID:25586817

  9. Theory of chemical bonds in metalloenzymes - Manganese oxides clusters in the oxygen evolution center -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Shoji, M.; Saito, T.; Isobe, H.; Yamada, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kawakami, T.; Kitagawa, Y.; Yamanaka, S.; Okumura, M.

    2012-12-01

    In early 1980 we have initiated broken-symmetry (BS) MO theoretical calculations of transition-metal oxo species M = O (M = Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Ni,Cu) to elucidate the nature of d?-p? and d?-p? bonds. It has been concluded that high-valent M = O species such as [Mn(IV) = O]2+ and [Fe(IV) = O]2+ exhibit electrophilic property in a sharp contrast with nucleophilic character of low-valent M = O bonds: [M(II)O2-]0, and closed-shell d?-p? bonds of high-valent M = O species often suffer the triplet-instability, giving rise to open-shell (BS) configurations with significant metal-diradical (MDR) character: M-O: note that these bonds are therefore regarded as typical examples of strongly correlated electron systems. Because of the MDR character, 1,4-metal diradical mechanism was indeed preferable to four-centered mechanism in the case of addition reaction of naked Mn(IV) = O to ethylene. Recently the manganese-oxo species have been receiving renewed interest in relation to catalytic cycle of oxygen evolution from water molecules in the photosynthesis II (PSII) system. Accumulated experimental results indicate that this process is catalyzed with four manganese oxide clusters coordinated with calcium ion (CaMn4O4). Past decade we have performed BS MO theoretical investigations of manganese oxide clusters related to CaMn4O4. These calculations have elucidated that high-valent Mn(X) = O (X = IV,V) bonds exhibit intermediate MDR character (y=40-60%) in the case of total low-spin (LS) configuration but the MDR character decreases with coordination of Ca2+ and water molecules. While the MDR character of the Mn-oxo bonds becomes very high at the high-spin (HS) configuration. Our computational results enabled us to propose two possible mechanisms on the theoretical ground: (A) electrophilic (EP) mechanism and (B) radical coupling (RC) mechanism. The theoretical results indicate that the EP mechanism is preferable for the low-spin (LS) state in polar media like in the protein environments (native OEC), whereas the RC mechanism is feasible at the state without such environmental stabilization: local singlet and local triplet diradical mechanisms are proposed for the OO coupling process. Possibilities of EP and RC mechanisms are examined in comparison with a lot of experimental results accumulated and theoretical results with several groups.

  10. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Laboratory-Scale CarbonCarbon Bond-Forming Reactions of Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vaneet; Stokes, Benjamin J.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene, the simplest alkene, is the most abundantly synthesized organic molecule by volume. It is readily incorporated into transitionmetalcatalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions through migratory insertions into alkylmetal intermediates. Because of its D2h symmetry, only one insertion outcome is possible. This limits byproduct formation and greatly simplifies analysis. As described within this Minireview, many carboncarbon bond-forming reactions incorporate a molecule (or more) of ethylene at ambient pressure and temperature. In many cases, a useful substituted alkene is incorporated into the product. PMID:24105881

  11. Reaction-diffusion analysis for one-step plasma etching and bonding of microfluidic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rosso, Michel; Steijn, Volkert van; Smet, Louis C. P. M. de; Sudhoelter, Ernst J. R.; Kreutzer, Michiel T.; Kleijn, Chris R.

    2011-04-25

    A self-similar reaction front develops in reactive ion etching when the ions penetrate channels of shallow height h. This relates to the patterning of microchannels using a single-step etching and bonding, as described by Rhee et al. [Lab Chip 5, 102 (2005)]. Experimentally, we report that the front location scales as x{sub f{approx}}ht{sup 1/2} and the width is time-invariant and scales as {delta}{approx}h. Mean-field reaction-diffusion theory and Knudsen diffusion give a semiquantitative understanding of these observations and allow optimization of etching times in relation to bonding requirements.

  12. Prediction of Reliable Metal-PH? Bond Energies for Ni, Pd, and Pt in the 0 and +2 Oxidation States

    SciTech Connect

    Craciun, Raluca; Vincent, Andrew J.; Shaughnessy, Kevin H.; Dixon, David A.

    2010-06-21

    Phosphine-based catalysts play an important role in many metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions yet reliable values of their bond energies are not available. We have been studying homogeneous catalysts consisting of a phosphine bonded to a Pt, Pd, or Ni. High level electronic structure calculations at the CCSD(T)/complete basis set level were used to predict the M-PH? bond energy (BE) for the 0 and +2 oxidation states for M=Ni, Pd, and Pt. The calculated bond energies can then be used, for example, in the design of new catalyst systems. A wide range of exchange-correlation functionals were also evaluated to assess the performance of density functional theory (DFT) for these important bond energies. None of the DFT functionals were able to predict all of the M-PH3 bond energies to within 5 kcal/mol, and the best functionals were generalized gradient approximation functionals in contrast to the usual hybrid functionals often employed for main group thermochemistry.

  13. C-H Bond Oxidation Catalyzed by an Imine-Based Iron Complex: A Mechanistic Insight.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Giorgio; Nardi, Martina; Vdal, Diego; Barbieri, Alessia; Lapi, Andrea; Gmez, Laura; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas, Miquel; Di Stefano, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    A family of imine-based nonheme iron(II) complexes (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 has been prepared, characterized, and employed as C-H oxidation catalysts. Ligands LX (X = 1, 2, 3, and 4) stand for tridentate imine ligands resulting from spontaneous condensation of 2-pycolyl-amine and 4-substituted-2-picolyl aldehydes. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex occurs just upon mixing aldehyde, amine, and Fe(OTf)2 in a 2:2:1 ratio in acetonitrile solution. The solid-state structures of (L1)2Fe(OTf)(ClO4) and (L3)2Fe(OTf)2 are reported, showing a low-spin octahedral iron center, with the ligands arranged in a meridional fashion. (1)H NMR analyses indicate that the solid-state structure and spin state is retained in solution. These analyses also show the presence of an amine-imine tautomeric equilibrium. (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 efficiently catalyze the oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds employing H2O2 as a terminal oxidant. Manipulation of the electronic properties of the imine ligand has only a minor impact on efficiency and selectivity of the oxidative process. A mechanistic study is presented, providing evidence that C-H oxidations are metal-based. Reactions occur with stereoretention at the hydroxylated carbon and selectively at tertiary over secondary C-H bonds. Isotopic labeling analyses show that H2O2 is the dominant origin of the oxygen atoms inserted in the oxygenated product. Experimental evidence is provided that reactions involve initial oxidation of the complexes to the ferric state, and it is proposed that a ligand arm dissociates to enable hydrogen peroxide binding and activation. Selectivity patterns and isotopic labeling studies strongly suggest that activation of hydrogen peroxide occurs by heterolytic O-O cleavage, without the assistance of a cis-binding water or alkyl carboxylic acid. The sum of these observations provides sound evidence that controlled activation of H2O2 at (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 differs from that occurring in biomimetic iron catalysts described to date. PMID:26457760

  14. Potential energy surfaces for CH bond cleavage reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L.B.

    1996-12-31

    Ab initio, multi-reference, configuration interaction calculations are reported for CH{sub 4}{leftrightarrow}CH{sub 3}+H, CH{sub 3}F{leftrightarrow}CH{sub 2}F+H, CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}{leftrightarrow}CHF{sub 2}+H, and CHF{sub 3}{leftrightarrow}CF{sub 3}+H. Two equivalent, barrier-less paths are found for the CH{sub 3}+H recombination, two inequivalent, barrier-less paths are found for the CH{sub 2}F+H and CHF{sub 2}+H recombinations (depending on which side of the radical the H atom approaches), and only one barrier-less path is found for the CF{sub 3}+H recombination. Minimum energy path for H atom approaching CF{sub 3} from the concave side is predicted to have a barrier of 27 kcal/mole. Both minimum energy path energies and transitional frequencies as function of R{sub CH} for all 4 reactions are predicted to be similar.

  15. Gas-phase reaction of CeV2O7+ with C2H4: activation of C-C and C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia-Bi; Yuan, Zhen; Meng, Jing-Heng; Liu, Qing-Yu; He, Sheng-Gui

    2014-12-15

    The reactivity of metal oxide clusters toward hydrocarbon molecules can be changed, tuned, or controlled by doping. Cerium-doped vanadium cluster cations CeV2O7(+) are generated by laser ablation, mass-selected by a quadrupole mass filter, and then reacted with C2H4 in a linear ion trap reactor. The reaction is characterized by a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Three types of reaction channels are observed: 1) single oxygen-atom transfer , 2) double oxygen-atom transfer , and 3) C=C bond cleavage. This study provides the first bimetallic oxide cluster ion, CeV2O7(+), which gives rise to C=C bond cleavage of ethene. Neither Ce(x)O(y)(±) nor V(x)O(y)(±) alone possess the necessary topological and electronic properties to bring about such a reaction. PMID:25208512

  16. Nitrogen-doped and simultaneously reduced graphene oxide with superior dispersion as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol-Ho; Yun, Jin-Mun; Lee, Sungho; Jo, Seong Mu; Yoo, Sung Jong; Cho, Eun Ae; Khil, Myung-Seob; Joh, Han-Ik

    2014-11-15

    Nitrogen doped graphene oxide (Nr-GO) with properties suitable for electrocatalysts is easily synthesized using phenylhydrazine as a reductant at relatively low temperature. The reducing agent removes various oxygen functional groups bonded to graphene oxide and simultaneously dope the nitrogen atoms bonded with phenyl group all over the basal planes and edge sites of the graphene. The Nr-GO exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the commercial carbon black and graphene oxide due to the electronic modification of the graphene structure. In addition, Nr-GO shows excellent dispersibility in various solvent due to the dopant molecules.

  17. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrov, Vesselin; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2012-12-15

    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  18. From DNA to catalysis: a thymine-acetate ligated non-heme iron(iii) catalyst for oxidative activation of aliphatic C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Risnen, Minn; Repo, Timo

    2016-01-26

    A non-heme, iron(iii)/THA(thymine-1-acetate) catalyst together with H2O2 as an oxidant is efficient in oxidative C-H activation of alkanes. Although having a higher preference for tertiary C-H bonds, the catalyst also oxidizes aliphatic secondary C-H bonds into carbonyl compounds with good to excellent conversions. Based on the site selectivity of the catalyst and our mechanistic studies the reaction proceeds via an Fe-oxo species without long lived carbon centered radicals. PMID:26685988

  19. Reaction pathways of NO oxidation by sodium chlorite powder.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Ko, Kyoung Bo; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won; Lee, Kiman; Shin, Dong Nam; Koh, Dong Jun

    2009-07-01

    NO oxidation is an important prerequisite step to assist selective catalytic reduction at low temperatures (< 250 degrees C). If sodium chlorite powder (NaClO2(s)) can oxidize NO to NO2, the injection of NaClO2(s) can be simply adapted to NO oxidation. Therefore, we explored the reaction pathways of NO oxidation by NaClO2(s). Known concentrations of NO and NO2 in N2 balance were injected into packed-bed reactor containing NaClO2(s) at 130 degreesC. NaClO2(s) oxidized NO to NO2 which reacts again with NaClO2(s) to produce OClO. Comparison of experimental data with simulation results demonstrates that each NO2 molecule removed by the reaction with NaClO2(s) generated one OClO molecule, which also oxidized NO to NO2 with the production of ClNO and ClNO2. Using these results, we conclude that the oxidation of NO by NaClO2(s) occurred by two pathways. One is through the direct reaction of NO with NaClO(s). The other is through both the reaction of NO with OlCO produced by the reaction of NO2 with NaClO2(s) and the reaction of NO with ClO produced by the reaction of NO with OClO. PMID:19673306

  20. Relationship of bond strengths to selectivity in heterogeneous surface reactions: Mercaptoethanol and ethanedithiol on Ni(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, D.R.

    1995-08-24

    The reaction selectivities and bonding configurations in mercaptoethanol (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH) and ethanedithiol (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH) on Ni(110) were determined and found to be correlated to the relative strengths of the C-S and C-O bonds. Mechanistic details of the mercaptoethanol reaction have been elucidated. Mercaptoethanol reacts with Ni(110) to form ethanol, acetaldehyde, methane, CO, and hydrogen. Mercaptoethanol reactivity is dominated by thiolate formation as suggested by the S 2p core level binding energy. Near 200-250K, the C-S bond cleaves with the evolution of ethanol and formation of surface ethoxide which is easily discernible from vibrational spectroscopy. The ethoxide dehydrogenates to form acetaldehyde, which either desorbs or reacts to form methane and CO. In dramatic contrast, the structurally similar ethanedithiol apparently adsorbs in a bidentate fashion, resulting in a dithiolate which selectively splits out thylene and produces surface sulfur. The difference in the reactivity of ethanedithiol and mercaptoethanol is understood in terms of the inactivity of the Ni(110) surface toward C-O bond scission, which is primarily a reflection of the strength of C-O bonds compared with C-S bonds. 35 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. From polymer to monomer: cleavage and rearrangement of Si-O-Si bonds after oxidation yielded an ordered cyclic crystallized structure.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yujing; Gou, Zhiming; Cao, Jinfeng; Yang, Zhou; Lu, Haifeng; Feng, Shengyu

    2015-07-27

    Polymerization reactions are very common in the chemical industry, however, the reaction in which monomers are obtained from polymers is rarely invesitgated. This work reveals for the first time that oxone can break the Si-O-Si bond and induce further rearrangement to yield an ordered cyclic structure. The oxidation of P1, which is obtained by reaction of 2,2'-1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy)bis(ethanethiol) (DBOET) with 1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (MM(Vi)), with oxone yielded cyclic crystallized sulfone-siloxane dimer (P1-ox) after unexpected cleavage and rearrangement of the Si-O-Si bond. PMID:26186500

  2. Heterogeneous ozone oxidation reactions of 1-pentene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene, and a menthenol derivative studied by sum frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Grace Y; Buchbinder, Avram M; Gibbs-Davis, Julianne M; Scheidt, Karl A; Geiger, Franz M

    2008-11-20

    We report vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra of glass surfaces functionalized with 1-pentene, 2-hexene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene, and a menthenol derivative. The heterogeneous reactions of ozone with hydrocarbons covalently linked to oxide surfaces serve as models for studying heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic terpenes adsorbed to mineral aerosol surfaces commonly found in the troposphere. Vibrational SFG is also used to track the C=C double bond oxidation reactions initiated by ozone in real time and to characterize the surface-bound product species. Combined with contact angle measurements carried out before and after ozonolysis, the kinetic and spectroscopic studies presented here suggest reaction pathways involving vibrationally hot Criegee intermediates that compete with pathways that involve thermalized surface species. Kinetic measurements suggest that the rate limiting step in the heterogeneous C=C double bond oxidation reactions is likely to be the formation of the primary ozonide. From the determination of the reactive uptake coefficients, we find that ozone molecules undergo between 100 and 10000 unsuccessful collisions with C=C double bonds before the reaction occurs. The magnitude of the reactive uptake coefficients for the cyclic and linear olefins studied here does not follow the corresponding gas-phase reactivities but rather correlates with the accessibility of the C=C double bonds at the surface. PMID:18942815

  3. Formation of chemical bonds with visible light: The sensitized oxidation of iodide and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James M.

    This thesis reports on visible light sensitized oxidation chemistry that drives the formation of I-I and O-O bonds in solution and at surfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to a general overview of the fundamental iodine redox chemistry related to the making and breaking of I-I bonds. The relevance of I-I bonds to the functionality to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is discussed. In Chapter 2, the importance of strong photo-oxidants for solar water splitting and the transient generation of free iodine atoms are examined. The synthesis of the photo-oxidants was completed by Jovan Giaimuccio. Chapter 3 further expands on the formation of iodine atoms from potent photo-oxidants and the cleaving of I-I bonds from the direct photochemistry of I3-. Maria Abrahamsson is gratefully acknowledged for assistance with low temperature measurements. Chapter 4 addresses the mechanistic details of iodide oxidation and concerted I-I bond formation as compared with sequential oxidation and bond forming steps. The synthesis of the photo-catalysts was completed by Andras Marton. A limitation for producing functional water oxidation photocatalysts is the generation of significant concentrations of oxidizing equivalents to drive the multi-electron water oxidation chemistry necessary to form O-O bonds. The design of visible light absorbing, high surface area semiconductors with minimized distances for hole diffusion to the solution interface could improve water oxidation efficiency and are discussed in Chapter 5. Su Kim is acknowledged for assistance in assembling high surface area semiconductor electrodes for water splitting. Within Appendix 1 we discuss the synthesis and characterization of the rutile, anatase, and brookite phase nanoparticles of TiO2, which are known to be photo-oxidants capable of oxidizing water to O2. David Reyes-Coronado is gratefully acknowledged for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles during an extended research collaboration with our laboratories.

  4. Thermochemistry and reaction paths in the oxidation reaction of benzoyl radical: C6H5C•(═O).

    PubMed

    Sebbar, Nadia; Bozzelli, Joseph W; Bockhorn, Henning

    2011-10-27

    Alkyl substituted aromatics are present in fuels and in the environment because they are major intermediates in the oxidation or combustion of gasoline, jet, and other engine fuels. The major reaction pathways for oxidation of this class of molecules is through loss of a benzyl hydrogen atom on the alkyl group via abstraction reactions. One of the major intermediates in the combustion and atmospheric oxidation of the benzyl radicals is benzaldehyde, which rapidly loses the weakly bound aldehydic hydrogen to form a resonance stabilized benzoyl radical (C6H5C(•)═O). A detailed study of the thermochemistry of intermediates and the oxidation reaction paths of the benzoyl radical with dioxygen is presented in this study. Structures and enthalpies of formation for important stable species, intermediate radicals, and transition state structures resulting from the benzoyl radical +O2 association reaction are reported along with reaction paths and barriers. Enthalpies, ΔfH298(0), are calculated using ab initio (G3MP2B3) and density functional (DFT at B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) calculations, group additivity (GA), and literature data. Bond energies on the benzoyl and benzoyl-peroxy systems are also reported and compared to hydrocarbon systems. The reaction of benzoyl with O2 has a number of low energy reaction channels that are not currently considered in either atmospheric chemistry or combustion models. The reaction paths include exothermic, chain branching reactions to a number of unsaturated oxygenated hydrocarbon intermediates along with formation of CO2. The initial reaction of the C6H5C(•)═O radical with O2 forms a chemically activated benzoyl peroxy radical with 37 kcal mol(-1) internal energy; this is significantly more energy than the 21 kcal mol(-1) involved in the benzyl or allyl + O2 systems. This deeper well results in a number of chemical activation reaction paths, leading to highly exothermic reactions to phenoxy radical + CO2 products. PMID:21942384

  5. Students' Understandings of Chemical Bonds and the Energetics of Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    1998-01-01

    Investigates Grade 12 students' understandings of the nature of chemical bonds and the energetics elicited across five familiar chemical reactions following a course of instruction. Discusses the many ways in which students can misconstruct concepts and principles. Contains 63 references. (DDR)

  6. Reactions of imines, nitriles, and isocyanides with pentaphenylborole: coordination, ring expansion, C-H bond activation, and hydrogen migration reactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kexuan; Couchman, Shannon A; Wilson, David J D; Dutton, Jason L; Martin, Caleb D

    2015-09-21

    The reactions of pentaphenylborole with imines, isocyanides, and acetonitrile were investigated experimentally and theoretically. On the basis of literature precedent, we envisioned that the dipolar substrates would undergo facile ring expansion reactions to yield new BNC5 heterocycles. For acetonitrile and one particular imine, this ring expansion process was observed. However, in many cases, unexpected reactivity occurred. This included hydride migration of an imine ring expanded product and the ortho C-H bond activation of an aryl group of an imine if two phenyl groups were present on the α-carbon. A bulky group on the nitrogen atom of an imine prevented coordination to the boron center, and no reaction was observed, indicating that coordination to the borole is a critical step for any type of reaction to occur. Isocyanides made coordination complexes, but heating to induce further reactivity resulted in mixtures. The mechanisms were elucidated via DFT calculations, which complement the experimental findings. PMID:26325341

  7. Water oxidation reaction in natural and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal

    2013-12-10

    Understanding the structure and mechanism of water oxidation catalysts is an essential component for developing artificial photosynthetic devices. In the natural water oxidation catalyst, the geometric and electronic structure of its inorganic core, the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5} cluster, has been studied by spectroscopic and diffraction measurements. In inorganic systems, metal oxides seem to be good candidates for water oxidation catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanism in both natural and oxide-based catalysts will helpin further developing efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts.

  8. C-H bond activation by aluminum oxide cluster anions, an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Hua; Ma, Tong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Na; He, Sheng-Gui

    2013-08-21

    Aluminum oxide cluster anions are produced by laser ablation and reacted with n-butane in a fast flow reactor. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to detect the cluster distribution before and after the reactions. Aluminum oxide clusters Al₂O4,6⁻ and Al₃O₇⁻ can react with n-C₄H₁₀ to produce Al₂O4,6H⁻ and Al₃O₇⁻, respectively, while cluster Al₃O₆⁻ reacts with n-C₄H₁₀ to produce both the Al₃O₆H⁻ and Al₃O₆H₂⁻. The theoretical calculations are performed to study the structures and bonding properties of clusters Al₂O4,6⁻ and Al₃O6,7⁻ as well as the reaction mechanism of Al₂O₄⁻ + n-C₄H₁₀. The calculated results show that the mononuclear oxygen-centred radicals (O⁻˙) on Al₂O4,6⁻ and Al₃O₇⁻, and oxygen-centred biradical on Al₃O₆⁻ are the active sites responsible for the observed hydrogen atom abstraction reactivity. Furthermore, mechanism investigation of the O⁻˙ generation in Al₃O₇⁻ upon O₂ molecule adsorption on un-reactive Al₃O₅⁻ is performed by theoretical calculations. PMID:23807463

  9. Modeling of metal-oxide semiconductor: Analytical bond-order potential for cupric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Yang, Wen; Wei, Ji-Lin; Du, Shi-Wen; Li, Yong-Tang

    2014-04-01

    Atomistic potentials for cupric element and cupric oxide are derived based on the analytical bond-order scheme that was presented by Brenner [Brenner D W, Erratum: Empirical potential for hydrocarbons for use in simulating the chemical vapor deposition of diamond films, Phys. Rev. B 1992, 46 1948]. In this paper, for the pure cupric element, the energy and structural parameters for several bulk phases as well as dimmer structure are well reproduced. The reference data are taken from our density functional theory calculations and the available experiments. The model potential also provides a good description of the bulk properties of various solid structures of cupric oxide compound structures, including cohesive energies, lattice parameters, and elastic constants.

  10. Electrochromic reactions in manganese oxides I. Raman analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, M.C.; Hugot-Le Goff, A.; Thi, B.V. . UPR 15 du CNRS Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie); Cordoba de Torresi, S. . Dept. de Fisica Aplicada)

    1993-11-01

    Like nickel oxide, manganese oxide is a widely studied material in the primary batteries field. The reactions taking place during voltametric cycling of manganese oxides can be determined using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The main difficulty for the oxide identification is to obtain relevant Raman reference spectra because of the many possible compounds and, for some of these compounds, of their instability in the laser beam. As a consequence, several modifications of different tetra-, tri- and divalent manganese oxides and oxyhydroxides were carefully studied. The electrochromic behavior of three types of manganese oxides, two prepared by thermal oxidations and the other by electrochemical deposition, were then compared. The presence of nonstoichiometry in the pristine material was necessary to obtain a reversible electrochromic effect. The reaction during electrochromic cycling is more complicated than a simple passage from MnO[sub 2] to MnOOH.

  11. Organosulfur compounds: electrophilic reagents in transition-metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

    PubMed

    Dubbaka, Srinivas Reddy; Vogel, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions are among the most powerful methods in organic synthesis and play a crucial role in modern materials science and medicinal chemistry. Recent developments in the area of ligands and additives permit the cross-coupling of a large variety of reactants, including inexpensive and readily available sulfonyl chlorides. Their desulfitative carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions (Negishi, Stille, carbonylative Stille, Suzuki-Miyaura, and Sonogashira-Hagihara-type cross-couplings and Mizoroki-Heck-type arylations) are reviewed together with carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions with other organosulfur compounds as electrophilic reagents. PMID:16287179

  12. A comparison of atomistic and continuum approaches to the study of bonding dynamics in electrocatalysis: microcantilever stress and in situ EXAFS observations of platinum bond expansion due to oxygen adsorption during the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Oruc, Muhammed E; Wetzel, David J; Cason, Michael W; Hoang, Thao T H; Small, Matthew W; Li, Diya; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Gewirth, Andrew A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2014-08-19

    Microcantilever stress measurements are examined to contrast and compare their attributes with those from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy to elucidate bonding dynamics during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on a Pt catalyst. The present work explores multiple atomistic catalyst properties that notably include features of the Pt-Pt bonding and changes in bond strains that occur upon exposure to O2 in the electrochemical environment. The alteration of the Pt electronic and physical structures due to O2 exposure occurs over a wide potential range (1.2 to 0.4 V vs normal hydrogen electrode), a range spanning potentials where Pt catalyzes the ORR to those where Pt-oxide forms and all ORR activity ceases. We show that Pt-Pt surface bond strains due to oxygen interactions with Pt-Pt bonds are discernible at macroscopic scales in cantilever-based bending measurements of Pt thin films under O2 and Ar. Complementary extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements of nanoscale Pt clusters supported on carbon provide an estimate of the magnitude and direction of the in-operando bond strains. The data show that under O2 the M-M bonds elongate as compared to an N2 atmosphere across a broad range of potentials and ORR rates, an interfacial bond expansion that falls within a range of 0.23 (0.15)% to 0.40 (0.20)%. The EXAFS-measured Pt-Pt bond strains correspond to a stress thickness and magnitude that is well matched to the predictions of a mechanics mode applied to experimentally determined data obtained via the cantilever bending method. The data provide new quantitative understandings of bonding dynamics that will need to be considered in theoretical treatments of ORR catalysis and substantiate the subpicometer resolution of electrochemically mediated bond strains detected on the macroscale. PMID:25066179

  13. Iodine Oxide Thermite Reactions: Physical and Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Rod; Pantoya, Michelle; Bless, Stephan; Clark, William

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for some thermite-like material reactions to kill bacteria spores. Iodine oxides and silver oxides react vigorously with metals like aluminum, tantalum, and neodymium. These reactions theoretically produce temperatures as high as 8000K, leading to vaporization of the reactants, producing very hot iodine and/or silver gases. We performed a series of computations and experiments to characterize these reactions under both quasi-static and ballistic impact conditions. Criteria for impact reaction were established. Measurements of temperature and pressure changes and chemical evolution will be reported. Basic combustion characterizations of these reactions, such as thermal equilibrium analysis and reaction propagation rates as well as ignition sensitivity, will be discussed. Additionally, testing protocols were developed to characterize the biocidal effects of these reactive materials on B. subtilis spores. The evidence from these tests indicates that these reactions produce heat, pressure, and highly biocidal gases.

  14. Interfacial bonding, wettability and reactivity in metal/oxide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustathopoulos, N.; Drevet, B.

    1994-10-01

    Pure non-reactive metals develop weak interactions with iono-covalent oxides (insulators) which can be both physical (van der Waals) and chemical (low density interfacial electronic states). As a result, non-wetting is generally observed, the contact angle being larger than 90 degrees. Improvement of wetting can be obtained by alloying the metal with a reactive solute B capable of modifying in a favourable sense the metal/oxide interface. This can be achieved via two mechanisms depending on the strength of the interactions between solute B and dissolved oxygen. For moderate O-B interactions, the solute B can modify the liquid-side of the interface by adsorption of OB clusters, the oxygen coming from the dissolution of the oxide substrate. This mechanism can lead to a decrease of θ down to ≈ 60^{circ}. For strong O-B interactions, the solute B can also lead to the precipitation at the solid-side of the interface of a new phase. When this new phase features metallic bonding, wetting can be strongly improved and nearly perfect wetting can be obtained. La liaison interfaciale entre un métal pur non réactif et un oxyde iono-covalent (isolant) est généralement assurée par de faibles interactions de type physique (van der Waals) et chimique (états électroniques interfaciaux de faible densité). Par conséquent, un mauvais mouillage est observé, caractérisé par un angle de contact supérieur à 90^{circ}. Un moyen d'améliorer le mouillage est de rajouter, dans une matrice métallique, un soluté B capable de modifier favorablement l'interface métal/oxyde. Cet effet est obtenu via deux mécanismes, dépendant de la force des interactions entre le soluté B et l'oxygène dissous. Pour des interactions 0-B modérées, l'interface côté liquide peut être modifiée par adsorption de clusters OB, l'oxygène provenant de la dissolution du substrat d'oxyde. Ce mécanisme entraîne une diminution de θ jusqu'à des valeurs de l'ordre de 60^{circ}. Pour de fortes interactions 0-B, l'élément B peut conduire à la précipitation d'une nouvelle phase à l'interface. Lorsque ce produit possède un caractère partiellement métallique, le mouillage est amélioré de façon significative, un mouillage presque parfait pouvant être obtenu.

  15. Design Insights for Tuning the Electrocatalytic Activity of Perovskite Oxides for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Manivannan, A; Balasubramanian, M; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2015-04-16

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers based on aqueous alkaline electrolytes hold the potential to be sustainable solutions to address the challenge of storing large amounts of electrical energy generated from solar and wind resources. For these batteries and electrolyzers to be economically viable, it is essential to have efficient, durable, and inexpensive electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction. In this article, we describe new insights for predicting and tuning the activity of inexpensive transition metal oxides for designing efficient and inexpensive electrocatalysts. We have focused on understanding the factors determining the electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution in a strong alkaline medium. To this end, we have conducted a systematic investigation of nanophase calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt manganese oxide, an example of a mixed metal oxide that can be tuned for its electrocatalytic activity by varying the transition metal composition. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical polarization experiments, and analysis of mechanisms, we have identified the key determinants of electrocatalytic activity. We have found that the Tafel slopes are determined by the oxidation states and the bond energy of the surface intermediates of Mn-OH and Co-OH bonds while the catalytic activity increased with the average d-electron occupancy of the sigma* orbital of the M-OH bond. We anticipate that such understanding will be very useful in predicting the behavior of other transition metal oxide catalysts.

  16. Hydrogen bonding constrains free radical reaction dynamics at serine and threonine residues in peptides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel A; Sohn, Chang Ho; Gao, Jinshan; Beauchamp, J L

    2014-09-18

    Free radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry derives advantage from the introduction of highly selective low-energy dissociation pathways in target peptides. An acetyl radical, formed at the peptide N-terminus via collisional activation and subsequent dissociation of a covalently attached radical precursor, abstracts a hydrogen atom from diverse sites on the peptide, yielding sequence information through backbone cleavage as well as side-chain loss. Unique free-radical-initiated dissociation pathways observed at serine and threonine residues lead to cleavage of the neighboring N-terminal C?-C or N-C? bond rather than the typical C?-C bond cleavage observed with other amino acids. These reactions were investigated by FRIPS of model peptides of the form AARAAAXAA, where X is the amino acid of interest. In combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the experiments indicate the strong influence of hydrogen bonding at serine or threonine on the observed free radical chemistry. Hydrogen bonding of the side-chain hydroxyl group with a backbone carbonyl oxygen aligns the singly occupied ? orbital on the ?-carbon and the N-C? bond, leading to low-barrier ?-cleavage of the N-C? bond. Interaction with the N-terminal carbonyl favors a hydrogen-atom transfer process to yield stable c and z() ions, whereas C-terminal interaction leads to effective cleavage of the C?-C bond through rapid loss of isocyanic acid. Dissociation of the C?-C bond may also occur via water loss followed by ?-cleavage from a nitrogen-centered radical. These competitive dissociation pathways from a single residue illustrate the sensitivity of gas-phase free radical chemistry to subtle factors such as hydrogen bonding that affect the potential energy surface for these low-barrier processes. PMID:24605822

  17. Oxide adherence and porcelain bonding to titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Mackert, J R; Parry, E E; Fairhurst, C W

    1990-06-01

    The bonding of an experimental low-fusing porcelain to titanium and Ti-6Al-4V was evaluated by an x-ray spectrometric technique that measures the area that remains covered with porcelain following a controlled deformation of the metallic substrate. Oxide adherence strength values for titanium and Ti-6Al-4V oxidized at 750 degrees and 1000 degrees C were measured in tension with use of high-strength adhesives. The effect of further oxidation that would occur during porcelain firing was evaluated via simulated porcelain firings without actual porcelain application. Interface cross-sections of the titanium-porcelain and Ti-6Al-4V-porcelain bonds were examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The porcelain was found to delaminate completely from the metal substrate, leaving less than 1% of the surface covered with porcelain. The oxide adherence of the specimens oxidized at 750 degrees C was good, but those oxidized at 1000 degrees C exhibited significantly lower oxide adherence (p = 0.001). The simulated porcelain-firing oxidation treatments also produced a significant decrease in oxide adherence (p = 0.004). The 750 degrees C oxidation treatments produced oxide films too thin to be visualized in the SEM, whereas the 1000 degrees C oxidation treatments produced oxide films approximately 1 micron thick. The lower oxide adherence of the 1-micron-thick oxide films is consistent with reports in the titanium literature of oxide delamination when the oxide film reaches 1 micron in thickness. PMID:2191979

  18. Acetaldehyde partial oxidation on the Au(111) model catalyst surface: C-C bond activation and formation of methyl acetate as an oxidative coupling product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatok, Mustafa; Vovk, Evgeny I.; Shah, Asad A.; Turksoy, Abdurrahman; Ozensoy, Emrah

    2015-11-01

    Partial oxidation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) on the oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst was investigated via Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction Spectroscopy (TPRS) techniques, where ozone (O3) was utilized as the oxygen delivery agent providing atomic oxygen to the reacting surface. We show that for low exposures of O3 and small surface oxygen coverages, two partial oxidation products namely, methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) can be generated without the formation of significant quantities of carbon dioxide. The formation of methyl acetate as the oxidative coupling reaction product implies that oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst surface can activate C-C bonds. In addition to the generation of these products; indications of the polymerization of acetaldehyde on the gold surface were also observed as an additional reaction route competing with the partial and total oxidation pathways. The interplay between the partial oxidation, total oxidation and polymerization pathways reveals the complex catalytic chemistry associated with the interaction between the acetaldehyde and atomic oxygen on catalytic gold surfaces.

  19. Studying Chemical Reactions, One Bond at a Time, with Single Molecule AFM Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Julio M.

    2008-03-01

    The mechanisms by which mechanical forces regulate the kinetics of a chemical reaction are unknown. In my lecture I will demonstrate how we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and protein engineering to study the effect of force on the kinetics of thiol/disulfide exchange. Reduction of disulfide bond via the thiol/disulfide exchange chemical reaction is crucial in regulating protein function and is of common occurrence in mechanically stressed proteins. While reduction is thought to proceed through a substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) reaction, the role of a mechanical force in modulating this chemical reaction is unknown. We apply a constant stretching force to single engineered disulfide bonds and measure their rate of reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT). We find that while the reduction rate is linearly dependent on the concentration of DTT, it is exponentially dependent on the applied force, increasing 10-fold over a 300 pN range. This result predicts that the disulfide bond lengthens by 0.34 at the transition state of the thiol/disulfide exchange reaction. In addition to DTT, we also study the reduction of the engineered disulfide bond by the E. coli enzyme thioredoxin (Trx). Thioredoxins are enzymes that catalyze disulfide bond reduction in all organisms. As before, we apply a mechanical force in the range of 25-450 pN to the engineered disulfide bond substrate and monitor the reduction of these bonds by individual enzymes. In sharp contrast with the data obtained with DTT, we now observe two alternative forms of the catalytic reaction, the first requiring a reorientation of the substrate disulfide bond, causing a shortening of the substrate polypeptide by 0.760.07 , and the second elongating the substrate disulfide bond by 0.210.01 . These results support the view that the Trx active site regulates the geometry of the participating sulfur atoms, with sub-ngstrm precision, in order to achieve efficient catalysis. Single molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, as shown here, can probe dynamic rearrangements within an enzyme's active site which cannot be resolved with any other current structural biological technique. Furthermore, our work at the single bond level directly demonstrates that thiol/disulfide exchange in proteins is a force-dependent chemical reaction. Our findings suggest that mechanical force plays a role in disulfide reduction in vivo, a property which has never been explored by traditional biochemistry. 1.-Wiita, A.P., Ainavarapu, S.R.K., Huang, H.H. and Julio M. Fernandez (2006) Force-dependent chemical kinetics of disulfide bond reduction observed with single molecule techniques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(19):7222-7 2.-Wiita, A.P., Perez-Jimenez, R., Walther, K.A., Grter, F. Berne, B.J., Holmgren, A., Sanchez-Ruiz, J.M., and Fernandez, J.M. (2007) Probing the chemistry of thioredoxin catalysis with force. Nature, 450:124-7.

  20. In-process oxidation protection in fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.; Featherston, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Aluminum is cleaned of its oxide coating and is sealed immediately with polymeric material which makes it suitable for fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding. Time involved between cleaning and brazing is no longer critical factor.

  1. CONTAMINANT ADSORPTION AND OXIDATION VIA FENTON REACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground water treatment process is proposed involving two cgemical processes: adsorption and oxidation. Adsorption of an organic compound onto granulated activated carbon (GAC) containing iron conveniently results in immobilizing and concentrating contaminants from the ground w...

  2. From reactants to products via simple hydrogen-bonding networks: Information transmission in chemical reactions

    PubMed Central

    Brancato, Giuseppe; Coutrot, Frdric; Leigh, David A.; Murphy, Aden; Wong, Jenny K. Y.; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    The transmission of information is ubiquitous in nature and often occurs through supramolecular hydrogen bonding processes. Here we report that there is a remarkable correlation during synthesis between the efficiency of the hydrogen-bond-directed assembly of peptide-based [2]rotaxanes and the symmetry distortion of the macrocycle in the structure of the final product. It transpires that the ability of the flexible macrocycle-precursor to wrap around an unsymmetrical hydrogen bonding template affects both the reaction yield and a quantifiable measure of the symmetry distortion of the macrocycle in the product. When the yields of peptide rotaxane-forming reactions are high, so is the symmetry distortion in the macrocycle; when the yields are low, indicating a poor fit between the components, the macrocycle symmetry is relatively unaffected by the thread. Thus during a synthetic sequence, as in complex biological assembly processes, hydrogen bonding can code and transmit informationin this case a distortion from symmetrybetween chemical entities by means of a supramolecularly driven multicomponent assembly process. If this phenomenon is general, it could have far reaching consequences for the use of supramolecular-directed reactions in organic chemistry. PMID:11959948

  3. The role of the steps in the cleavage of the C-C bond during ethanol oxidation on platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Colmati, Flavio; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Bern, Antonio; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M

    2009-10-28

    Ethanol oxidation has been studied on stepped platinum single crystal electrodes in acid media using electrochemical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The electrodes used belong to two different series of stepped surfaces: those having (111) terraces with (100) monoatomic steps and those with (111) terraces with (110) monoatomic steps. The behaviors of the two series of stepped surfaces for the oxidation of ethanol are very different. On the one hand, the presence of (100) steps on the (111) terraces provides no significant enhancement of the activity of the surfaces. On the other hand, (110) steps have a double effect on the ethanol oxidation reaction. At potentials below 0.7 V, the step catalyzes the C-C bond cleavage and also the oxidation of the adsorbed CO species formed. At higher potentials, the step is not only able to break the C-C bond, but also to catalyze the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and acetaldehyde. The highest catalytic activity from voltammetry for ethanol oxidation was obtained with the Pt(554) electrode. PMID:19812831

  4. Evaluation of reaction mechanism of coal-metal oxide interactions in chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Poston, James; Tian, Hanjing; Miller, Duane; Simonyi, Thomas

    2010-11-15

    The knowledge of reaction mechanism is very important in designing reactors for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. Recent CLC studies have considered the more technically difficult problem of reactions between abundant solid fuels (i.e. coal and waste streams) and solid metal oxides. A definitive reaction mechanism has not been reported for CLC reaction of solid fuels. It has often been assumed that the solid/solid reaction is slow and therefore requires that reactions be conducted at temperatures high enough to gasify the solid fuel, or decompose the metal oxide. In contrast, data presented in this paper demonstrates that solid/solid reactions can be completed at much lower temperatures, with rates that are technically useful as long as adequate fuel/metal oxide contact is achieved. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations as well as experimental techniques such as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), flow reactor studies, in situ X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to evaluate how the proximal interaction between solid phases proceeds. The data indicate that carbon induces the Cu-O bond breaking process to initiate the combustion of carbon at temperatures significantly lower than the spontaneous decomposition temperature of CuO, and the type of reducing medium in the vicinity of the metal oxide influences the temperature at which the oxygen release from the metal oxide takes place. Surface melting of Cu and wetting of carbon may contribute to the solid-solid contacts necessary for the reaction. (author)

  5. Reaction Mechanism for m-Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed S; Chung, Suk Ho

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. PMID:26334187

  6. High temperature heterogeneous reaction kinetics and mechanisms of tungsten oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabourin, Justin L.

    Tungsten, which is a material used in many high temperature applications, is limited by its susceptibility to oxidation at elevated temperatures. Although tungsten has the highest melting temperature of any metal, at much lower temperatures volatile oxides are formed during oxidation with oxygen containing species. This differs from many heterogeneous oxidation reactions involving metals since most reactions form very stable oxides that have higher melting or boiling points than the pure metal (e.g., aluminum, iron). Understanding heterogeneous oxidation and vaporization processes may allow for the expansion and improvement of high temperature tungsten applications. In order to increase understanding of the oxidation processes of tungsten, there is a need to develop reaction mechanisms and kinetics for oxidation processes involving oxidizers and environmental conditions of interest. Tungsten oxidation was thoroughly studied in the past, and today there is a good phenomenological understanding of these processes. However, as the design of large scale systems increasingly relies on computer modeling there becomes a need for improved descriptions of chemical reactions. With the increase in computing power over the last several decades, and the development of quantum chemistry and physics theories, heterogeneous systems can be modeled in detail at the molecular level. Thermochemical parameters that may not be measured experimentally may now be determined theoretically, a tool that was previously unavailable to scientists and engineers. Additionally, chemical kinetic modeling software is now available for both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This study takes advantage of these new theoretical tools, as well as a thermogravimetric (TG) flow reactor developed as part of this study to learn about mechanisms and kinetics of tungsten oxidation. Oxidizers of interest are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), water (H2O), and other oxidizers present in combustion and energy systems. The primary application for this research topic is the migration of erosion processes in solid rocket motor nozzles. Since oxidation is the primary erosion mechanism of tungsten based nozzles, mitigation of this process through improved comprehension of the chemical mechanisms will increase performance of future rocket systems. In this dissertation, results of the high temperature reaction rates of bulk tungsten are studied using TG analysis in oxidizing atmospheres of O2, CO2, and H2O using helium (He) as an inert carrier gas. Isothermal reaction rates were determined at temperatures up to 1970 K, and oxidizing species partial pressures up to 64.6 torr. Kinetic parameters such as activation energies, frequency factors, and pressure exponents were determined for each reactive system. An important contribution of this work was quantifying the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) on the CO2 reaction, and hydrogen (H2) on the H2O reaction. In both cases the non-oxidizing species significantly reduced oxidation rates. Results have led to new interpretations and thought processes for limiting nozzle erosion in rocket motors. Combined with the TG analysis, as well as recent theoretical interpretations of reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, a new mechanism for tungsten and O2 oxidation has been developed using a one-dimensional numerical model of the TG flow reactor. Important chemical processes and species are also identified for reaction systems involving H2O and CO2. In the future, additional studies are needed to improve our understanding of these chemical species and processes so that more advanced kinetic mechanisms may be developed. In addition to a detailed analysis of high temperature tungsten corrosion processes, synthetic graphite corrosion processes are studied in detail as well. Details of these studies are presented in an attached appendix of this dissertation. These studies considered not only oxidation processes, but decomposition of synthetic graphite in the presence of reducing and inert gas environments.

  7. The Effect of Metal Oxide on Nanoparticles from Thermite Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lewis Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how metal oxide used in a thermite reaction can impact the production of nanoparticles. The results showed the presence of nanoparticles (less than 1 micron in diameter) of at least one type produced by each metal oxide. The typical particles were metallic spheres, which ranged from 300 nanometers in…

  8. Theoretical Study of Proton Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions: The Effect of Hydrogen Bond Bending Motion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Song, Kai; Xu, Yang; Shi, Qiang

    2015-06-25

    We investigate theoretically the effect of hydrogen bond bending motion on the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction, using a model system where an intramolecular hydrogen-bonded phenol group is the proton donor. It is shown that, in a two-dimensional (2D) model of the PCET reaction, the bending and stretching vibrational motions are separated, and due to the hydrogen bond configuration and anharmonicity of the potential energy surface, the bending vibration can play a role in the PCET reaction. The results are also compared with two different sets of one-dimensional models (1D-linear and 1D-curved). Due to contributions of the bending motion, the rate constants in the 2D model are larger than those in the 1D-linear model, although the differences between the total rate constants and KIEs for 2D and 1D models are not major. Results from the 1D-curved model lie between the 2D- and 1D-linear models, indicating that it can include some effect of bending motion in reducing the potential energies along the reaction path. PMID:25996343

  9. Classification of metal-oxide bonded interactions based on local potential- and kinetic-energy densities

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Cox, David; Crawford, T Daniel; Rosso, Kevin M.; Ross, Nancy; Downs, R. T.

    2006-02-28

    A classification of the HF bonded interactions comprising a large number of molecules has been proposed by Espinosa et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 5529 (2002)] based on the ratio |V(rc)|/G(rc) where |V(rc)| is the magnitude of the local potential energy density and G(rc) is the local kinetic density evaluated at the bond critical points, rc. A calculation of the ratio for the MO bonded interactions comprising a relatively large number of molecules and earth materials, together with the constraints imposed by the values of 2?(rc) and the local electronic energy density H(rc) = G(rc) + V(rc) in the HF study, yielded the same classification for the oxides as found for the fluorides. This is true despite the different trends of the bond critical point and local energy properties with the bond length displayed by the HF and MO bonded interactions. LiO, NaO and MgO bonded interactions classify as closed shell ionic bonds, BeO, AlO, SiO, BO and PO bonded interactions classify as bonds of intermediate character and NO bonded interactions classify as shared covalent bonds. CO and SO bonded interactions classify as both intermediate and covalent bonded interactions. The CO triple bonded interaction classifies as a bond of intermediate character and the CO single bonded interaction classifies as a covalent bond whereas their H(rc) value indicates that they are both covalent bonds. The |V(rc)|/G(rc) ratios for the BeO, AlO and SiO bonded interactions indicate that they have a substantial component of ionic character despite their classification as bonds of intermediate character. The trend between |V(rc)|/G(rc) and the character of the bonded interaction is consistent with trends expected from electronegativity considerations. The connection between the net charges and the experimental SiO bond length evaluated for the Si and O atoms comprising two orthosilicates are examined in terms of the |V(rc)|/G(rc) values.

  10. Carbon-oxygen bond cleavage reactions by electron transfer. 1. Electrochemical studies on the formation and subsequent reaction pathways of cyanoanisole radical anions

    SciTech Connect

    Koppang, M.D.; Woolsey, N.F.; Bartak, D.E.

    1984-05-16

    The radical anions of three isomers of cyanoanisole have been electrochemically generated and subsequently shown to react by at least three different reaction pathways in dry N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The o-cyanoanisole radical anion (E/sub pc/ = -2.3 V vs. SCE) dimerizes (k/sub 2/ = 3.2 X 10/sup 2/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/) to form an intermediate dimeric dianion. The dianion, which can be oxidized (E/sub pa = 1.1 V vs. SCE), undergoes a slow intramolecular disproportionation reaction to form o-cyanophenoxide ion, methide ion, and unreduced substrate (k/sub 3/ = 1.9 X 10/sup -2/s/sup -1/). Subsequent protonation results in the formation of methane and p-cyanophenol in an overall two-electron process. The m-cyanoanisole radical anion (E/sub pc/ = -2.3 V vs. SCE) is very stable (t/sub 1/2/ > 10/sup 3/ s) under anhydrous DMF conditions. Overall, slow carbon-carbon bond cleavage with loss of cyanide occurs competitively with ..beta.. carbon-oxygen bond cleavage to produce anisole and m-cyanophenol, respectively. The final products of the reduction of p-cyanoanisole are p-cyanophenol and methane; however, the radical anion of p-cyanoanisole (E/sub pc/ = -2.5 V vs. SCE) undergoes a relatively rapid unimolecular fragmentation reaction (k/sub 1/ = 7 s/sup -1/). The initial products of the fragmentation are p-cyanophenoxide ion and the methyl radical, which is reduced further to methide ion. Hydrogen atom abstraction reactions by the methyl radical can also occur in the bulk solution to produce methane.

  11. Formation of aromatics in thermally induced reactions of chemically bonded RP-C18 stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Prus, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    In continuation of the research on the thermally induced chemical transformation of the silica-based chemically bonded stationary phases (C18), the oxidative cleavage of the silicon-carbon bonds with hydrogen peroxide and potassium fluoride was utilized, followed by the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study of the resulting products. These investigations allowed determination of the probable structures of certain thermal modification products as the various different alkyl derivatives of the phenylsilane ligands. Apart from aromatic compounds, the products with unsaturated bonds and carbonyl functionalities were found in the analyzed extracts. The analysis of the GC-MS chromatograms reveals that under the applied working conditions, the investigated process runs with relatively low yields. PMID:24105920

  12. Catalysis of the Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction by Hydrogen and Halogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nziko, Vincent de Paul N; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-03-18

    The combination of H2C═NH and cis-1,3-butadiene to form a six-membered ring was examined by quantum calculations. The energy barrier for this reaction is substantially lowered by the introduction of an imidazolium catalyst with either a H or halogen (X) atom in the 2-position, which acts via a H or halogen bond to the N atom of the imine, respectively. X = I has the largest effect, and Cl the smallest; Br and H are roughly equivalent. The catalyst retards the formation of the incipient N-C bond from imine to diene while simultaneously accelerating the C-C bond formation. The energy of the π* LUMO of the imine is lowered by the catalyst, which thereby enhances charge transfer from the diene to the imine. Assessment of free energies suggests catalytic rate acceleration by as much as 4-6 orders of magnitude. PMID:26907727

  13. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of perfluoroalkylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms operative in thermal oxidative degradation of Fomblin Z and hexafluoropropene oxide derived fluids and the effect of alloys and additives upon these processes are investigated. The nature of arrangements responsible for the inherent thermal oxidative instability of the Fomblin Z fluids is not established. It was determined that this behavior is not associated with hydrogen end groups or peroxy linkages. The degradation rate of these fluids at elevated temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres is dependent on the surface/volume ratio. Once a limiting ratio is reached, a steady rate appears to be attained. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, CF2OCF2CF2O2, no. CF2CF2O, is one of the major arrangements present. The action of the M-50 and Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloys is much more drastic in the case of Fomblin Z fluids than that observed for the hexafluoropropene derived materials. The effectiveness of antioxidation anticorrosion additives, P-3 and phospha-s-triazine, in the presence of metal alloys is very limited at 316 C; at 288 C the additives arrested almost completely the fluid degradation. The phospha-s-triazine appears to be at least twice as effective as the P-3 compound; it also protected the coupon better. The Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloy degraded the fluid mainly by chain scission processes this takes place to a much lesser degree with M-50.

  14. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  15. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of perfluoroalklethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Harris, D. H.; Smythe, M. E.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the mechanisms operative in thermal and thermal oxidative degradation of Fomblin Z and hexafluoropropene oxide derived fluids and the effect of alloys and additives upon these processes. The nature of arrangements responsible for the inherent thermal oxidative instability of the Fomblin Z fluids has not been established. It was determined that this behavior was not associated with hydrogen end-groups or peroxy linkages. The degradation rate of these fluids at elevated temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres was found to be dependent on the surface/volume ratio. Once a limiting ratio was reached, a steady rate appeared to be attained. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, -CF2OCF2CF2O-, not -CF2CF2O-, is one of the major arrangements present. The action of the M-50 and Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloys was found to be much more drastic in the case of Fomblin Z fluids than that observed for the hexalfuoropropane oxide derived materials. The effectiveness of antioxidation/anticorrosion additives, P-3 and phospha-s-triazine, in the presence of metal alloys was very limited at 316 C; at 288 C the additives arrested almost completely the fluid degradation. The phospha-s-triazine appeared to be at least twice as effective as the P-3 compound; it also protected the coupon better. The Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloy degraded the fluid mainly by chain scission processes; this took place to a much lesser degree with M-50.

  16. The influence of microstructure on the strength of reaction bonded silicon nitride /RBSN/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, S. C.; Jennings, H. M.; Richman, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the microstructure of reaction bonded silicon nitride on strength is examined. The morphologies of the various microconstituents (alpha-matte, beta-spikes, residual silicon and porosity) each play a role in determining the strength of the material. While density and hence percent porosity greatly affect strength, it is shown that the pore size and pore size distribution affect strength with equal importance. By minimizing the pore size and distribution and maximizing the alpha-beta ratio, a reaction bonded material (2.4 kg/cu m) has been produced with a room temperature modulus of rupture (three-point bending) of 297 MPa from a low green density starting material (1.5 kg/cu m).

  17. Covalent organic frameworks formed with two types of covalent bonds based on orthogonal reactions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruyi; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Huacheng; Yao, Xin; Ma, Xing; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-28

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. So far, successful methods for the constructions of COFs have been limited to a few condensation reactions based on only one type of covalent bond formation. Thus, the exploration of a new judicious synthetic strategy is a crucial and emergent task for the development of this promising class of porous materials. Here, we report a new orthogonal reaction strategy to construct COFs by reversible formations of two types of covalent bonds. The obtained COFs consisting of multiple components show high surface area and high H2 adsorption capacity. The strategy is a general protocol applicable to construct not only binary COFs but also more complicated systems in which employing regular synthetic methods did not work. PMID:25581488

  18. The role of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in nucleophilic addition reactions of ketenaminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations of the geometries and electronic structures of molecules of ketenaminals 3-(diaminomethylene)-2,4-pentanedione and dimethyl-2-(diaminomethylene)-malonate and calculations of the structures of intermediates in the reaction of the nucleophilic addition of the ketenaminals to the acetonitrile molecule are performed by B3LYP/6-31+G** method. Two possible scenarios of the process are shown, depending on the mutual orientation of reacting molecules. The nucleophilic addition proceeds in two stages. It is found that the rate-limiting stage of the process is the transfer of the proton of the intramolecular hydrogen bond in a ketenaminal molecule. The experimentally observed faster reaction of pyrimidine formation for the 3-(diaminomethylene)-2,4-pentanedione molecule relative to that for dimethyl-2-(diaminomethylene)-malonate is explained by the hydrogen bond being stronger and the barrier of proton transfer from the aminogroup to the ketogroup oxygen falling upon nucleophilic attack in the former molecule.

  19. Iterative reactions of transient boronic acids enable sequential C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Battilocchio, Claudio; Feist, Florian; Hafner, Andreas; Simon, Meike; Tran, Duc N; Allwood, Daniel M; Blakemore, David C; Ley, Steven V

    2016-04-01

    The ability to form multiple carbon-carbon bonds in a controlled sequence and thus rapidly build molecular complexity in an iterative fashion is an important goal in modern chemical synthesis. In recent times, transition-metal-catalysed coupling reactions have dominated in the development of C-C bond forming processes. A desire to reduce the reliance on precious metals and a need to obtain products with very low levels of metal impurities has brought a renewed focus on metal-free coupling processes. Here, we report the in situ preparation of reactive allylic and benzylic boronic acids, obtained by reacting flow-generated diazo compounds with boronic acids, and their application in controlled iterative C-C bond forming reactions is described. Thus far we have shown the formation of up to three C-C bonds in a sequence including the final trapping of a reactive boronic acid species with an aldehyde to generate a range of new chemical structures. PMID:27001732

  20. Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C−O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-07-15

    Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C−O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C−O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C−O cleavage occurs via a C−H → O−H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C−O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C−O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

  1. Bond length estimates for oxide crystals with a molecular power law expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.

    2015-07-01

    A molecular power law bond length regression expression, R(M-O) = 1.39( s/ r)-0.22, defined in terms of the quotient, s/ r, where s is the averaged Pauling bond strength for the bonded interaction comprising a given molecular coordination polyhedron and r is the periodic table row number for the M atom, serves to replicate the bulk of the 470 individual experimental M-O average bond lengths estimated with Shannon's (Acta Crystallogr A 32(5):751-767, 1976) crystal radii for oxides to within 0.10 . The success of the molecular expression is ascribed to a one-to-one deep-seated connection that obtains between the electron density accumulated between bonded pairs of atoms and the average Pauling bond strength. It also implies that the bonded interactions that constitute oxide crystals are governed in large part by local forces. Although the expression reproduces the bond lengths involving rare earth atoms typically to within ~0.05 , it does not reproduce the lanthanide ionic radius contraction. It also fails to reproduce the experimental bond lengths for selected transition cations like Cu1+, Ag1+ and VILSFe2+ and for cations like IVK+, VIBa2+ and IIU6+.

  2. Deamination, oxidation, and C-C bond cleavage reactivity of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine.

    PubMed

    Schiesser, Stefan; Pfaffeneder, Toni; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Hackner, Benjamin; Steigenberger, Barbara; Schrder, Arne S; Steinbacher, Jessica; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Carell, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Three new cytosine derived DNA modifications, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (hmdC), 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (fdC) and 5-carboxy-2'-deoxycytidine (cadC) were recently discovered in mammalian DNA, particularly in stem cell DNA. Their function is currently not clear, but it is assumed that in stem cells they might be intermediates of an active demethylation process. This process may involve base excision repair, C-C bond cleaving reactions or deamination of hmdC to 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (hmdU). Here we report chemical studies that enlighten the chemical reactivity of the new cytosine nucleobases. We investigated their sensitivity toward oxidation and deamination and we studied the C-C bond cleaving reactivity of hmdC, fdC, and cadC in the absence and presence of thiols as biologically relevant (organo)catalysts. We show that hmdC is in comparison to mdC rapidly oxidized to fdC already in the presence of air. In contrast, deamination reactions were found to occur only to a minor extent. The C-C bond cleavage reactions require the presence of high concentration of thiols and are acid catalyzed. While hmdC dehydroxymethylates very slowly, fdC and especially cadC react considerably faster to dC. Thiols are active site residues in many DNA modifiying enzymes indicating that such enzymes could play a role in an alternative active DNA demethylation mechanism via deformylation of fdC or decarboxylation of cadC. Quantum-chemical calculations support the catalytic influence of a thiol on the C-C bond cleavage. PMID:23980549

  3. Reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from wet attrition-milled silicon. [fractography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herball, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Shaw, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon powder wet milled in heptane was dried, compacted into test bar shape, helium-sintered, and then reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 volume percent hydrogen. As-nitrided bend strengths averaged approximately 290 MPa at both room temperature and 1400 C. Fracture initiation appeared to be associated with subsurface flaws in high strength specimens and both subsurface and surface flaws in low strength specimens.

  4. Cyanoalkylation: Alkylnitriles in Catalytic C-C Bond-Forming Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lpez, Rosa; Palomo, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Alkylnitriles are one of the most ubiquitous nitrogen-containing chemicals and are widely employed in reactions which result in nitrile-group conversion into other functionalities. Nevertheless, their use as carbon pronucleophiles in carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions has been hampered by difficulties associated mainly with the catalytic generation of active species, that is, ?-cyano carbanions or metalated nitriles. Recent investigations have addressed this challenge and have resulted in different modes of alkylnitrile activation. This review illustrates these findings, which have set the foundation for the development of practical and conceptually new catalytic, direct cyanoalkylation methodologies. PMID:26387483

  5. Oxidation of antibiotics during water treatment with potassium permanganate: reaction pathways and deactivation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lanhua; Stemig, Amanda M; Wammer, Kristine H; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2011-04-15

    Recent work demonstrates that three widely administered antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim) are oxidized by potassium permanganate [KMnO(4), Mn(VII)] under conditions relevant to water treatment operations. However, tests show that little to no mineralization occurs during reactions with Mn(VII), so studies were undertaken to characterize the reaction products and pathways and to assess the effects of Mn(VII)-mediated transformations on the antibacterial activity of solutions. Several oxidation products were identified for each antibiotic by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For ciprofloxacin, 12 products were identified, consistent with oxidation of the tertiary aromatic and secondary aliphatic amine groups on the piperazine ring and the cyclopropyl group. For lincomycin, seven products were identified that indicate structural changes to the pyrrolidine ring and thioether group. For trimethoprim, seven products were identified, consistent with Mn(VII) reaction at C═C double bonds on the pyrimidine ring and the bridging methylene group. Oxidation pathways are proposed based on the identified products. Bacterial growth inhibition bioassays (E. coli DH5α) show that the mixture of products resulting from Mn(VII) reactions with the antibiotics collectively retain negligible antibacterial potency in comparison to the parent antibiotics. These results suggest that permanganate can be an effective reagent for eliminating the pharmaceutical activity of selected micropollutants during drinking water treatment. PMID:21417319

  6. Synthesis and reactions of the oxides of hexafluoropropylene trimers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapevalov, A.Ya.; Filyakova, T.I.; Peschanskii, N.V.; Kodess, M.I.; Kolenko, I.P.

    1986-03-10

    By the oxidation of the hexafluoropropylene trimers with an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of acetonitrile the following ..cap alpha..-oxides were obtained: 2,3-Epoxyperfluoro-3-isopropyl-4-methylpentane and 2,3-epoxyperfluoro-3-ethyl-2,4-dimethylpentane. According to the /sup 19/F NMR data, the epoxidation takes place stereoselectively with the formation of only one conformer of the ..cap alpha..-oxide in each case. The determining effect of the steric factors on the reactivity of the oxides of hexafluoropropylene trimers in reaction with nucleophiles was demonstrated.

  7. A Serendipitous Rendezvous with a Four-Center Two-Electron Bonded Intermediate in the Aerial Oxidation of Hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ambar; Ganguly, Gaurab; Roy, Lisa; Pathak, Shubhrodeep; Paul, Ankan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation by dioxygen has a rich repertoire of mechanistic intricacies. Herein, we report a hitherto unknown paradigm of dioxygen activation reaction which propagates through a four?center two?electron (4c-2e) bound species. Using static DFT and ab initio quantum chemical techniques we have unraveled the oxidation pathway for hydrazine and its methylated analogues by dioxygen which involves formation of this unconventional 4c-2e bonded species en route to the oxidation products. Inconvertible evidence in favor of such an unprecedented dioxygen activation route is provided by capturing the events of formation of the 4c-2e species in aqueous phase for hydrazine and its congeners and the experimentally observed products from the respective 4c-2e species, like H2 O2 and N2 H2 , diazene in the case of hydrazine using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26552004

  8. Concerted O atom-proton transfer in the O—O bond forming step in water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier C.; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao; Hoertz, Paul G.; Meyer, Thomas J

    2010-04-20

    As the terminal step in photosystem II, and a potential half-reaction for artificial photosynthesis, water oxidation (2H2O → O2 + 4e- + 4H+) is key, but it imposes a significant mechanistic challenge with requirements for both 4e-/4H- loss and O—O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine]. When oxidized from RuII-OH22+ to RuV = O3+, these complexes undergo O—O bond formation by O-atom attack on a H2O molecule, which is often the rate-limiting step. Microscopic details of O—O bond formation have been explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the results of which provide detailed insight into mechanism and a strategy for enhancing catalytic rates. It utilizes added bases as proton acceptors and concerted atom–proton transfer (APT) with O-atom transfer to the O atom of a water molecule in concert with proton transfer to the base (B). Base catalyzed APT reactivity in water oxidation is observed both in solution and on the surfaces of oxide electrodes derivatized by attached phosphonated metal complex catalysts. These results have important implications for catalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation.

  9. Cleavage of ether, ester, and tosylate C(sp3)-O bonds by an iridium complex, initiated by oxidative addition of C-H bonds. Experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sabuj; Choi, Jongwook; Wang, David Y; Choliy, Yuriy; Emge, Thomas J; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2013-04-01

    A pincer-ligated iridium complex, (PCP)Ir (PCP = ?(3)-C6H3-2,6-[CH2P(t-Bu)2]2), is found to undergo oxidative addition of C(sp(3))-O bonds of methyl esters (CH3-O2CR'), methyl tosylate (CH3-OTs), and certain electron-poor methyl aryl ethers (CH3-OAr). DFT calculations and mechanistic studies indicate that the reactions proceed via oxidative addition of C-H bonds followed by oxygenate migration, rather than by direct C-O addition. Thus, methyl aryl ethers react via addition of the methoxy C-H bond, followed by ?-aryloxide migration to give cis-(PCP)Ir(H)(CH2)(OAr), followed by iridium-to-methylidene hydride migration to give (PCP)Ir(CH3)(OAr). Methyl acetate undergoes C-H bond addition at the carbomethoxy group to give (PCP)Ir(H)[?(2)-CH2OC(O)Me] which then affords (PCP-CH2)Ir(H)(?(2)-O2CMe) (6-Me) in which the methoxy C-O bond has been cleaved, and the methylene derived from the methoxy group has migrated into the PCP Cipso-Ir bond. Thermolysis of 6-Me ultimately gives (PCP)Ir(CH3)(?(2)-O2CR), the net product of methoxy group C-O oxidative addition. Reaction of (PCP)Ir with species of the type ROAr, RO2CMe or ROTs, where R possesses ?-C-H bonds (e.g., R = ethyl or isopropyl), results in formation of (PCP)Ir(H)(OAr), (PCP)Ir(H)(O2CMe), or (PCP)Ir(H)(OTs), respectively, along with the corresponding olefin or (PCP)Ir(olefin) complex. Like the C-O bond oxidative additions, these reactions also proceed via initial activation of a C-H bond; in this case, C-H addition at the ?-position is followed by ?-migration of the aryloxide, carboxylate, or tosylate group. Calculations indicate that the ?-migration of the carboxylate group proceeds via an unusual six-membered cyclic transition state in which the alkoxy C-O bond is cleaved with no direct participation by the iridium center. PMID:23469859

  10. Intramolecular anodic olefin coupling reactions: using competition studies to probe the mechanism of oxidative cyclization reactions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Chao; Moeller, Kevin D

    2010-04-16

    A competition experiment was designed so that the relative rates of anodic cyclization reactions under various electrolysis conditions can be determined. Reactions with ketene dithioacetal and enol ether-based substrates that use lithium methoxide as a base were shown to proceed through radical cation intermediates that were trapped by a sulfonamide anion. Results for the oxidative coupling of a vinyl sulfide with a sulfonamide anion using the same conditions were consistent with the reaction proceeding through a nitrogen-radical. PMID:20302359

  11. Pathways to soot oxidation: reaction of OH with phenanthrene radicals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David E; Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Lester, William A; Frenklach, Michael

    2014-09-18

    Energetics and kinetics of the oxidation of possible soot surface sites by hydroxyl radicals were investigated theoretically. Energetics were calculated by employing density functional theory. Three candidate reactions were selected as suitable prototypes of soot oxidation by OH. The first two, OH + benzene and OH + benzene-phenol complex, did not produce pathways that lead to substantial CO expulsion. The third reaction, OH attack on the phenanthrene radical, had multiple pathways leading to CO elimination. The kinetics of the latter reaction system were determined by solving the master equations with the MultiWell suite of codes. The barrierless reaction rates of this system were computed using the VariFlex program. The computations were carried out over the ranges 1500-2500 K and 0.01-10 atm. At higher temperatures, above 2000 K, the oxidation of phenanthrene radicals by OH followed a chemically activated path. At temperatures lower than 2000 K, chemical activation was not sufficient to drive the reaction to products; reaction progress was impeded by intermediate adducts rapidly de-energizing before reaching products. In such cases, the reaction system was modeled by treating the accumulating adducts as distinct chemical species and computing their kinetics via thermal decomposition. The overall rate coefficient of phenanthrene radical oxidation by OH forming CO was found to be insensitive to pressure and temperature and is approximately 1 10(14) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). The oxidation of phenanthrene radicals by OH is shown to be controlled by two main processes: H atom migration/elimination and oxyradical decomposition. H atom migration and elimination made possible relatively rapid rearrangement of the aromatic edge to form oxyradicals with favorable decomposition rates. The reaction then continues down the fastest oxyradical pathways, eliminating CO. PMID:24761798

  12. Reactions of calcium orthosilicate and barium zirconate with oxides and sulfates of various elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1979-01-01

    Calcium orthosilicate and barium zirconate were evaluated as the insulation layer of thermal barrier coatings for air cooled gas turbine components. Their reactions with various oxides and sulfates were studied at 1100 C and 1300 C for times ranging up to 400 and 200 hours, respectively. These oxides and sulfates represent potential impurities or additives in gas turbine fuels and in turbine combustion air, as well as elements of potential bond coat alloys. The phase compositions of the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. BaZrO3 and 2CaO-SiO2 both reacted with P2O5, V2O5, Cr2O3, Al2O3, and SiO2. In addition, 2CaO-SiO2 reacted with Na2O, BaO, MgO, and CoO and BaZrO3 reacted with Fe2O3.

  13. Cluster reactivity experiments: Employing mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular level details of catalytic oxidation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Grant E.; Tyo, Eric C.; Castleman, A. W.

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is the most widely used tool in the study of the properties and reactivity of clusters in the gas phase. In this article, we demonstrate its use in investigating the molecular-level details of oxidation reactions occurring on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts via cluster reactivity experiments. Guided ion beam mass spectrometry (GIB-MS) employing a quadrupole–octopole–quadrupole (Q–O–Q) configuration enables mass-selected cluster ions to be reacted with various chemicals, providing insight into the effect of size, stoichiometry, and ionic charge state on the reactivity of catalyst materials. For positively charged tungsten oxide clusters, it is shown that species having the same stoichiometry as the bulk, WO3+, W2O6+, and W3O9+, exhibit enhanced activity and selectivity for the transfer of a single oxygen atom to propylene (C3H6), suggesting the formation of propylene oxide (C3H6O), an important monomer used, for example, in the industrial production of plastics. Furthermore, the same stoichiometric clusters are demonstrated to be active for the oxidation of CO to CO2, a reaction of significance to environmental pollution abatement. The findings reported herein suggest that the enhanced oxidation reactivity of these stoichiometric clusters may be due to the presence of radical oxygen centers (W–O●) with elongated metal–oxygen bonds. The unique insights gained into bulk-phase oxidation catalysis through the application of mass spectrometry to cluster reactivity experiments are discussed. PMID:18687883

  14. Unification of catalytic water oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions: amorphous beat crystalline cobalt iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Indra, Arindam; Menezes, Prashanth W; Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Bergmann, Arno; Das, Chittaranjan; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeier, Dieter; Strasser, Peter; Driess, Matthias

    2014-12-17

    Catalytic water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is considered as one of the convenient routes for the sustainable energy conversion. Bifunctional catalysts for the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are pivotal for the energy conversion and storage, and alternatively, the photochemical water oxidation in biomimetic fashion is also considered as the most useful way to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Here we present a facile solvothermal route to control the synthesis of amorphous and crystalline cobalt iron oxides by controlling the crystallinity of the materials with changing solvent and reaction time and further utilize these materials as multifunctional catalysts for the unification of photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation as well as for the oxygen reduction reaction. Notably, the amorphous cobalt iron oxide produces superior catalytic activity over the crystalline one under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation and oxygen reduction conditions. PMID:25469760

  15. Application of a C-C Bond-Forming Conjugate Addition Reaction in Asymmetric Dearomatization of ?-Naphthols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongxu; Wang, Linqing; Kai, Ming; Li, Dan; Yao, Xiaojun; Wang, Rui

    2015-08-10

    A C-C bond-forming conjugate reaction was successfully applied to the enantioselective dearomatization of ?-naphthols. A C(sp2)-C(sp3) bond is formed by using propargylic ketones as reactive partners. Good to excellent Z/E?ratios and ee?values were obtained by employing an in?situ generated magnesium catalyst. Further transformations of the Z-configured C-C double bond in the products were achieved under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the stereocontrolling element of this magnesium-catalyzed dearomatization reaction was explored by computational chemistry. PMID:26173841

  16. DFT study of the hydrolysis reaction in atranes and ocanes: the influence of transannular bonding.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Igor S; Montejo, Manuel; Rodriguez Ortega, Pilar G; Kochina, Tatiana A; Lpez Gonzlez, Juan Jess

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical kinetics of hydrolysis reactions of compounds with transannular intramolecular MN bonds, i.e., atranes RM(OCH2CH2)3N and ocanes R2M(OCH2CH2)2NH (M?=?Si, Ge; R?=?F, Cl, Me), is studied at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ theoretical level. Several DFT methods are assessed for the reproduction of the experimental activation barrier for the Si-O bond cleavage of 1-methylsilatrane. Activation barriers for atranes and ocanes show the tendency for their growth with the decrease of the electronegativity of a substituent R on going from F to Me and their decrease from Si to Ge. Hydrolysis activation barriers of atranes and ocanes are compared with those of their acyclic analogs RM(OCH3)3 and R2M(OCH2)2NH in order to study the role of transannular MN bonds in the stability of these molecules to hydrolysis. Substantially larger barriers for atranes support the opinion that stability of atranes may be explained by the formation of intramolecular bonds; however, the strengthening of transannular MN bonds results in lower M-O cleavage barriers. It was proposed that the M-O cleavage barrier height is determined not by a weak MN bonding itself, but rather by the contribution of a nitrogen lone pair to the antibonding orbitals of M-O bonds. The NBO analysis show that this interaction increases with the decrease of the electronegativity of a substituent R and decreases on going from atranes to ocanes. In ocanes, the presence of MN bonds does not kinetically hinder the hydrolytic process; M-O cleavage activation barriers for acyclic analogs are higher. M-Hal cleavage barriers are substantially higher than those for M-O cleavage for R?=?F, but lower for R?=?Cl. Graphical Abstract The experimental barrier height of the Si-O bond cleavage in 1-methylsilatrane is well reproduced when three explicit water molecules are included in the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ theoretical model. PMID:26645807

  17. Direct functionalization of M-C (M = Pt(II), Pd(II)) bonds using environmentally benign oxidants, O2 and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Vedernikov, Andrei N

    2012-06-19

    Atom economy and the use of "green" reagents in organic oxidation, including oxidation of hydrocarbons, remain challenges for organic synthesis. Solutions to this problem would lead to a more sustainable economy because of improved access to energy resources such as natural gas. Although natural gas is still abundant, about a third of methane extracted in distant oil fields currently cannot be used as a chemical feedstock because of a dearth of economically and ecologically viable methodologies for partial methane oxidation. Two readily available "atom-economical" "green" oxidants are dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide, but few methodologies have utilized these oxidants effectively in selective organic transformations. Hydrocarbon oxidation and C-H functionalization reactions rely on Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes. These reagents have practical advantages because they can tolerate moisture and atmospheric oxygen. But this tolerance for atmospheric oxygen also makes it challenging to develop novel organometallic palladium and platinum-catalyzed C-H oxidation reactions utilizing O(2) or H(2)O(2). This Account focuses on these challenges: the development of M-C bond (M = Pt(II), Pd(II)) functionalization and related selective hydrocarbon C-H oxidations with O(2) or H(2)O(2). Reactions discussed in this Account do not involve mediators, since the latter can impart low reaction selectivity and catalyst instability. As an efficient solution to the problem of direct M-C oxidation and functionalization with O(2) and H(2)O(2), this Account introduces the use of facially chelating semilabile ligands such as di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate and the hydrated form of di(2-pyridyl)ketone that enable selective and facile M(II)-C(sp(n)) bond functionalization with O(2) (M = Pt, n = 3; M = Pd, n = 3 (benzylic)) or H(2)O(2) (M = Pd, n = 2). The reactions proceed efficiently in protic solvents such as water, methanol, or acetic acid. With the exception of benzylic Pd(II) complexes, the organometallic substrates studied form isolable high-valent Pt(IV) or Pd(IV) intermediates as a result of an oxidant attack at the M(II) atom. The resulting high-valent M(IV) intermediates undergo C-O reductive elimination, leading to products in high yields. Guidelines for the synthesis of products containing other C-X bonds (X = OAc, Cl, Br) while using O(2) or H(2)O(2) as oxidants are also discussed. Although the M(II)-C bond functionalization reactions including high-valent intermediates are well understood, the mechanism for the aerobic functionalization of benzylic Pd(II) complexes will require a more detailed exploration. Importantly, further optimization of the systems suitable for stoichiometric M(II)-C bond functionalization led to the development of catalytic reactions, including selective acetoxylation of benzylic C-H bonds with O(2) as the oxidant and hydroxylation of aromatic C-H bonds with H(2)O(2) in acetic acid solutions. Both reactions proceed efficiently with substrates that contain a directing heteroatom. This Account also describes catalytic methods for ethylene dioxygenation with H(2)O(2) using M(II) complexes supported by facially chelating ligands. Mechanistic studies of these new oxidation reactions point to important ways to improve their substrate scope and to develop "green" CH functionalization chemistry. PMID:22087633

  18. Pd(ii)-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative Heck dearomative reaction: approach to thiazole-fused pyrrolidinones with a C2-azaquarternary center.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Yang, Chi; Huang, Yue; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming; Yao, Hequan; Lin, Aijun

    2016-01-21

    A Pd(ii)-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative Heck dearomative reaction for the construction of thiazole-fused pyrrolidinones with a C2-azaquarternary center and C3-exo-double bond has been achieved for the first time. The reaction exhibited good functional group tolerance and gram-scale capacity. PMID:26620717

  19. Reactions of Propylene Oxide on Supported Silver Catalysts: Insights into Pathways Limiting Epoxidation Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Apoorva; Bedolla-Pantoja, Marco; Singh, Suyash; Lobo, Raul F.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Barteau, Mark A.

    2012-02-04

    The reactions of propylene oxide (PO) on silver catalysts were studied to understand the network of parallel and sequential reactions that may limit the selectivity of propylene epoxidation by these catalysts. The products of the anaerobic reaction of PO on Ag/a-Al2O3 were propanal, acetone and allyl alcohol for PO conversions below 23%. As the conversion of PO was increased either by increasing the temperature or the contact time, acrolein was formed at the expense of propanal, indicating that acrolein is a secondary reaction product in PO decomposition. With addition of oxygen to the feedstream the conversion of PO increased moderately. In contrast to the experiments in absence of oxygen, CO2 was a signi?cant product while the selectivity to propanal decreased as soon as oxygen was introduced in the system. Allyl alcohol disappeared completely from the product stream in the presence of oxygen, reacting to form acrolein and CO2. The product distribution may be explained by a network of reactions involving two types of oxametallacycles formed by ring opening of PO: one with the oxygen bonded to C1 (OMC1, linear) and the other with oxygen bonded to C2 (OMC2, branched). OMC1 reacts to form PO, propanal, and allyl alcohol.

  20. IBX-mediated synthesis of indazolone via oxidative N-N bond formation and unexpected formation of quinazolin-4-one: in situ generation of formaldehyde from dimethoxyethane.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Won; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hun; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Ku, Jin-Mo; Lee, Sang Yeul; Nam, Tae-Gyu

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis of indazolone derivatives, which exhibit diverse biological and pharmaceutical activities, were achieved by hypervalent λ(5) iodine reagents, such as iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX),-mediated oxidative N-N bond forming cyclization. In this study, the equivalence of IBX was optimized to promote the formation of N-N bond by oxidatively generated acylnitrenium ion. Dimethoxyethane and dichloroethane were discovered as alternative solvents and the reaction could be conducted in more concentrated condition. Some unprecedented substrates successfully afforded the corresponding indazolone in new condition discovered in this study. When the reactions were conducted in DME solvent, substrates with no electron-rich phenyl substituted amides afforded the unanticipated quinazolin-4-ones in moderate yields, which were not formed in DCE solvent. The formation of quinazolin-4-ones was attributed to the in situ generation of formaldehyde from DME. Therefore, the reaction might undergo different pathway in DME when the substrate aryl amides have phenyl rings without electron donating substituents. PMID:26780246

  1. Interplay of Experiment and Theory in Elucidating Mechanisms of Oxidation Reactions by a Nonheme Ru(IV)O Complex.

    PubMed

    Dhuri, Sunder N; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Lee, Yong-Min; Shin, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Mandal, Debasish; Shaik, Sason; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the reactivity patterns and reaction mechanisms in alkane hydroxylation, olefin epoxidation, cyclohexene oxidation, and sulfoxidation reactions by a mononuclear nonheme ruthenium(IV)-oxo complex, [Ru(IV)(O)(terpy)(bpm)](2+) (1), has been conducted. In alkane hydroxylation (i.e., oxygen rebound vs oxygen non-rebound mechanisms), both the experimental and theoretical results show that the substrate radical formed via a rate-determining H atom abstraction of alkanes by 1 prefers dissociation over oxygen rebound and desaturation processes. In the oxidation of olefins by 1, the observations of a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value of 1 and styrene oxide formation lead us to conclude that an epoxidation reaction via oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from the Ru(IV)O complex to the C?C double bond is the dominant pathway. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the epoxidation reaction is a two-step, two-spin-state process. In contrast, the oxidation of cyclohexene by 1 affords products derived from allylic C-H bond oxidation, with a high KIE value of 38(3). The preference for H atom abstraction over C?C double bond epoxidation in the oxidation of cyclohexene by 1 is elucidated by DFT calculations, which show that the energy barrier for C-H activation is 4.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than the energy barrier for epoxidation. In the oxidation of sulfides, sulfoxidation by the electrophilic Ru-oxo group of 1 occurs via a direct OAT mechanism, and DFT calculations show that this is a two-spin-state reaction in which the transition state is the lowest in the S = 0 state. PMID:26075466

  2. Reaction of ethanol on oxidized and metallic cobalt surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Matthew P.; Vohs, John M.

    2011-02-01

    The reaction of ethanol on metallic and oxidized cobalt surfaces was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to determine the dependence of the reaction pathways on the cobalt oxidation state. The primary reaction for ethoxide species on metallic cobalt surfaces was decarbonylation producing CO, H 2 and carbon. This reaction was facile and occurred below 400 K. In contrast, CoO x surfaces which predominantly contained Co 2+ were selective for the dehydrogenation of ethoxide groups to produce acetaldehyde at 400 K. A fraction of the acetaldehyde molecules produced by this pathway were further oxidized to acetate which decomposed to produce CO 2 at 495 K. More highly oxidized Co surfaces that contained both CO 2+ and Co 3+ were active for the complete oxidation of ethanol producing CO, CO 2, and H 2O as the primary products. The insights that these results provide for understanding the mechanism of the steam reforming of ethanol on cobalt catalysts is discussed.

  3. Exploring Regioselective Bond Cleavage and Cross-Coupling Reactions using a Low-Valent Nickel Complex.

    PubMed

    Desnoyer, Addison N; Friese, Florian W; Chiu, Weiling; Drover, Marcus W; Patrick, Brian O; Love, Jennifer A

    2016-03-14

    Recently, esters have received much attention as transmetalation partners for cross-coupling reactions. Herein, we report a systematic study of the reactivity of a series of esters and thioesters with [{(dtbpe)Ni}2 (μ-η(2) :η(2) -C6 H6 )] (dtbpe=1,2-bis(di-tert-butyl)phosphinoethane), which is a source of (dtbpe)nickel(0). Trifluoromethylthioesters were found to form η(2) -carbonyl complexes. In contrast, acetylthioesters underwent rapid Cacyl -S bond cleavage followed by decarbonylation to generate methylnickel complexes. This decarbonylation could be pushed backwards by the addition of CO, allowing for regeneration of the thioester. Most of the thioester complexes were found to undergo stoichiometric cross-coupling with phenylboronic acid to yield sulfides. While ethyl trifluoroacetate was also found to form an η(2) -carbonyl complex, phenyl esters were found to predominantly undergo Caryl -O bond cleavage to yield arylnickel complexes. These could also undergo transmetalation to yield biaryls. Attempts to render the reactions catalytic were hindered by ligand scrambling to yield nickel bis(acetate) complexes, the formation of which was supported by independent syntheses. Finally, 2-naphthyl acetate was also found to undergo clean Caryl -O bond cleavage, and although stoichiometric cross-coupling with phenylboronic acid proceeded with good yield, catalytic turnover has so far proven elusive. PMID:26879766

  4. Enthalpy of hydrogen bond formation in a protein-ligand binding reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, P R; Aldape, R A; Bruzzese, F J; Chambers, S P; Fitzgibbon, M J; Fleming, M A; Itoh, S; Livingston, D J; Navia, M A; Thomson, J A

    1994-01-01

    Parallel measurements of the thermodynamics (free-energy, enthalpy, entropy and heat-capacity changes) of ligand binding to FK506 binding protein (FKBP-12) in H2O and D2O have been performed in an effort to probe the energetic contributions of single protein-ligand hydrogen bonds formed in the binding reactions. Changing tyrosine-82 to phenylalanine in FKBP-12 abolishes protein-ligand hydrogen bond interactions in the FKBP-12 complexes with tacrolimus or rapamycin and leads to a large apparent enthalpic stabilization of binding in both H2O and D2O. High-resolution crystallographic analysis reveals that two water molecules bound to the tyrosine-82 hydroxyl group in unliganded FKBP-12 are displaced upon formation of the protein-ligand complexes. A thermodynamic analysis is presented that suggests that the removal of polar atoms from water contributes a highly unfavorable enthalpy change to the formation of C=O...HO hydrogen bonds as they occur in the processes of protein folding and ligand binding. Despite the less favorable enthalpy change, the entropic advantage of displacing two water molecules upon binding leads to a slightly more favorable free-energy change of binding in the reactions with wild-type FKBP-12. Images PMID:7510408

  5. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  6. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  7. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  8. Selective oxidation reactions of natural compounds with hydrogen peroxide mediated by methyltrioxorhenium.

    PubMed

    Amato, Maria E; Ballistreri, Francesco P; Pappalardo, Andrea; Tomaselli, Gaetano A; Toscano, Rosa M; Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe Trusso

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the oxidative behaviour of natural compounds such as methyl abietate (1), farnesyl acetate (2), ?-ionone (3), ?-ionone (4), methyl linolelaidate (5), methyl linolenate (6) and bergamottin (7) with the oxidant system methyltrioxo-rhenium/ H2O2/pyridine. The reactions, performed in CH2Cl2/H2O at 25 C, have shown good regio- and stereoselectivity. The oxidation products were isolated by HPLC or silica gel chromatography and characterized by MS(EI), 1H-, 13C-NMR, APT, gCOSY, HSQC, TOCSY and NOESY measurements. The selectivity seems to be controlled by the nucleophilicity of double bonds and by stereoelectronic and steric effects. PMID:24213654

  9. Bond activation sequence observed in the chemisorption and surface reaction of ethanol on Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. M.; Russell, J. N.; Yates, J. T.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism of ethanol decomposition on the Ni(111) surface has been investigated between 155 and 500 K. The sequence of bond scission steps which occur as ethanol undergoes dissociative reactions on this surface has been deduced using deuterium and 13C isotopic labels. Bond activation occurs in the order (1) O?H, (2) CH 2 (methylene C?H), (3) C?C, (4) CH 3 (methyl C?H). The products observed are CH 3?CHO(g), CH 4(g), CO(g), H 2(g) and surface carbon, C(a). The latter species exhibits a carbidic AES lineshape in the temperature range 450 to 670 K, at which temperature it dissolves into the Ni bulk. Acetaldehyde, CH 3?CHO, and methane, CH 4, desorb with the same threshold temperature (260-265 K), and the formation of both of these products is controlled by scission of the methylene C?H bond (CH 2 group). The CH 3 group is cleaved from the intermediate surface CH 3?CHO species to form CH 3(ads). H 2 exhibits a broad, doublet desorption peak from 300 to 450 K. The carbon?oxygen bond in ethanol remains intact and CO ultimately desorbs in a single desorption limited process ( Tp = 430 K). A small fraction of CO(a) species undergo exchange with the carbidic surface carbon in a minor process observed above 440 K.

  10. Low-temperature thermal oxide to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide wafer bonding for thin-film transfer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. S.; Fan, A.; Chen, K. N.; Reif, R.

    2003-04-01

    Low-temperature direct plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) oxide to thermal oxide bonding is described. The PECVD oxide is densified at 350 °C and chemical-mechanically polished to obtain reasonably smooth surface for bonding. The PECVD oxide wafer is bonded to the thermal oxide wafer at room temperature after piranha clean that leaves the wafer surfaces hydrophilic. A postbonding anneal at 300 °C completes the bonding. A void-free bonding interface is observed from infrared imaging and the bonding strength is estimated to be 432 mJ/m2. This bonding method can be used in a variety of applications, including three-dimensional integration.

  11. Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay: the effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation.

    PubMed

    Ferris, J P; Kamaluddin

    1989-01-01

    Adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to Na(+)-montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides. Thymidine nucleotides binds less strongly to Na(+)-montmorillonite than do the corresponding adenine deoxynucleotides. Oligomers of 2'-dpA up to the tetramer were detected in the reaction 2'-d-5'-AMP with EDAC (a water-soluble carbodiimide) in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite. Reaction of 3'-d-5'-AMP with EDAC on Na(+)-montmorillonite yields 3'-d-2',5'-pApA while the reaction of 2'-d-3'-AMP yields almost exclusively 3',5'-cdAMP. The reaction of 5'-TMP under the same reaction conditions give 3',5'-cpTpT and 3',5'-pTpT while 3'-TMP gives mainly 3',5'-cpT. The yield of dinucleotide products (dpNpN) containing the phosphodiester bond is 1% or less when Na(+)-montmorillonite is omitted from the reaction mixture. PMID:11538680

  13. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay: The effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, James P.; Kamaluddin

    1989-11-01

    Adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to Na+-montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides. Thymidine nucleotides binds less strongly to Na+-montmorillonite than do the corresponding adenine deoxynucleotides. Oligomers of 2'-dpA up to the tetramer were detected in the reaction 2'-d-5'-AMP with EDAC (a water-soluble carbodiimide) in the presence of Na+-montmorillonite. Reaction of 3'-d-5'-AMP with EDAC on Na+-montmorillonite yields 3'-d-2',5'-pApA while the reaction of 2'-d-3'-AMP yields almost exclusively 3',5'-cdAMP. The reaction of 5'-TMP under the same reaction conditions give 3',5'-cpTpT and 3',5'-pTpT while 3'-TMP gives mainly 3',5'-cpT. The yield of dinucleotide products (dpNpN) containing the phosphodiester bond is 1% or less when Na+-montmorillonite is omitted from the reaction mixture.

  14. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  15. A critical study of the role of the surface oxide layer in titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The molecular understanding of the role which the surface oxide layer of the adherend plays in titanium bonding is studied. The effects of Ti6-4 adherends pretreatment, bonding conditions, and thermal aging of the lap shear specimens were studied. The use of the SEM/EDAX and ESCA techniques to study surface morphology and surface composition was emphasized. In addition, contact angles and both infrared and visible reflection spectroscopy were used in ancillary studies.

  16. Improving the bond strength between steel rebar and concrete by oxidation treatments of the rebar

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Oxidation treatments of steel rebar by water immersion (2--5 days) and ozone exposure increased the bond strength between steel rebar and concrete by 14% and 22% respectively. The treatments slightly increased the electrical contact resistivity between rebar and concrete. Increase of the water immersion time to 7 or 10 days caused the bond strength to decrease to values still above that of the case without water treatment. The contact resistivity increased monotonically with the water immersion time.

  17. Studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of perfluoroether reactions on iron and oxidized iron surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napier, Mary E.; Stair, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Polymeric perfluoroalkylethers are being considered for use as lubricants in high temperature applications, but have been observed to catalytically decompose in the presence of metals. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to explore the decomposition of three model fluorinated ethers on clean polycrystalline iron surfaces and iron surfaces chemically modified with oxygen. Low temperature adsorption of the model fluorinated ethers on the clean, oxygen modified and oxidized iron surfaces was molecular. Thermally activated defluorination of the three model compounds was observed on the clean iron surface at remarkably low temperatures, 155 K and below, with formation of iron fluoride. Preferential C-F bond scission occurred at the terminal fluoromethoxy, CF3O, of perfluoro-1-methoxy-2-ethoxy ethane and perfluoro-1-methoxy-2-ethoxy propane and at CF3/CF2O of perfluoro-1,3-diethoxy propane. The reactivity of the clean iron toward perfluoroalkylether decomposition when compared to other metals is due to the strength of the iron fluoride bond and the strong electron donating ability of the metallic iron. Chemisorption of an oxygen overlayer lowered the reactivity of the iron surface to the adsorption and decomposition of the three model fluorinated ethers by blocking active sites on the metal surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with chemisorbed oxygen results in a reaction which resembles the defluorination reaction observed on the clean iron surface. Perfluoro-1-methoxy-2-ethoxy ethane reacts on the oxidized iron surface at 138 K, through a Lewis acid assisted cleavage of the carbon oxygen bond, with preferential attack at the terminal fluoromethoxy, CF3O. The oxidized iron surface did not passivate, but became more reactive with time. Perfluoro-1-methoxy-2-ethoxy propane and perfluoro-1,3-diethoxy propane desorbed prior to the observation of decomposition on the oxidized iron surface.

  18. Discovery and synthetic applications of novel silicon-carbon bond cleavage reactions based on the coordination number change of organosilicon compounds

    PubMed Central

    TAMAO, Kohei

    2008-01-01

    Some synthetically useful transformations of organosilicon compounds have been developed since the mid 1970s, based on the new concept that the silicon-carbon bonds are activated toward electrophilic cleavage via the formation of penta- and hexa-coordinate species. This review mainly consists of the following aspects: (1) a general concept for the activation of the silicon-carbon bond via penta- and hexa-coordinate species, (2) synthetic application of hexa-coordinate organopentafluorosilicates, and (3) development of the H2O2 oxidation of the silicon-carbon bond and its synthetic applications via the intramolecular hydrosilylation, silicon-tethered intramolecular radical cyclization and Diels-Alder reaction, and some silicon-containing organometallic reagents for nucleophilic hydroxymethylation and hydroxyallylation synthons. PMID:18941292

  19. Oxidative addition of an aromatic ortho C-H bond of tetraphosphine to asymmetric diiridium(i) centres.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takayuki; Noda, Sayo; Sakamoto, Miyuki; Matsui, Aya; Nakamae, Kanako; Kure, Bunsho; Ura, Yasuyuki; Tanase, Tomoaki

    2016-03-21

    Reactions of a tetraphosphine, meso-bis{[(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phenyl]phosphino}propane (dpmppp), with [IrCl(cod)]2 and CO (1 atm) or isocyanide (RNC) in the presence of NH4PF6 at 80-100 °C in dichloromethane/acetonitrile/acetone and/or methanol mixed solvents afforded asymmetric diiridium(ii) complexes, [Ir2(H)(Cl)(μ-(dpmppp-H)-κP(4)C)(CO)3]PF6 (1) and [Ir2(H)(μ-(dpmppp-H)-κP(4)C)(RNC)4)]-(PF6)2 (R = 2,6-xylyl (2), 2,4,6-mesityl (3); dpmppp-H = {PPh(o-C6H4)CH2P(Ph)(CH2)3P(Ph)CH2PPh2}(-)). A similar reaction with (t)BuNC resulted in the formation of a mononuclear Ir(III) complex of [Ir(H)(dpmppp-κP(3))((t)BuNC)2](PF6)2 (4). Complexes 1-3 were characterized by ESI mass spectrometry, (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. They were found to consist of cis/trans-P,P asymmetric Ir(II)-Ir(II) bonded dinuclear structures derived from oxidative addition of an ortho C-H bond of dpmppp (Ir-Ir = 2.8044(2) Å (1), 2.8569(2) Å (2), and 2.8524(5) Å (3)), resulting in a [IrPCCIr] intermetallic cyclometal-bridge and a terminal hydride. DFT calculations indicated the presence of Ir-Ir, Ir-H, and Ir-Cortho covalent bonds. Initial stages of the reactions with CO and XylNC at room temperature were investigated by (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy and found to contain a symmetrical Ir(I) dinuclear unit with dpmppp that was readily transformed into 1 and 2 upon heating. The Ir intermediate with XylNC, [Ir2(XylNC)4(μ-dpmppp)](PF6)2 (6), was isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations as an electron-deficient 32e(-) Ir species involving a Ir(I)→Ir(I) dative bond (2.7989(5) Å). The reaction pathways from 6 to 2 were investigated by DFT calculations. The present study suggested that a novel oxidative addition of an ortho C-H bond proceeded on the cis/trans-P,P asymmetric diiridium(i) scaffold supported by the tetraphosphine, dpmppp, which was assumed to be facilitated by dimetal cooperation with switching Ir→Ir dative interactions. PMID:26863395

  20. A critical study of the role of the surface oxide layer in titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SEM/XPS) analysis of fractured adhesively bonded Ti 6-4 samples is discussed. The text adhesives incuded NR 056X polyimide, polypheylquinoxaline (PPQ), and LARC-13 polyimide. Differentiation between cohesive and interfacial failure was based on the absence of presence of a Ti 2p XPS photopeak. In addition, the surface oxide layer on Ti-(6A1-4V) adherends is characterized and bond strength and durability are addressed. Bond durability in various environmental conditions is discussed.

  1. Femtosecond dynamics of dative bonding: Concepts of reversible and dissociative electron transfer reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dongping; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    1999-01-01

    With fs time, speed, and angular resolution of the elementary steps in electron transfer reactions, we report direct observation of reversible and dissociative processes for dative bonding involving covalent and ionic characters. For bimolecular reactions of various donors and acceptors we find strong correlation between the structure and the dynamics. The dynamics from the transition state to final products involve two elementary processes, with different reaction times, speed, and angular distributions. For example, for the R2S?I2 (R = C2H5) system, it is shown that after charge separation, the reversible electron transfer occurs in less than 150 fs (fastest trajectory) and is followed by the rupture of the II bond with the release of the first I-atom in 510 fs. However, the second process of the remaining and trapped I-atom takes 1.15 ps with its speed (500 m/s) being much smaller than the first one (1,030 m/s). The SII average angle is 130. These findings, on this and the other systems reported here, elucidate the mechanism and address some concepts of nonconcertedness, caging, and restricted energy redistribution. PMID:10077556

  2. Hydrogen-bond Dynamics at The Interface Between Water and Oxidized Atactic Polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele, Selemon; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen bonding is very critical to a wide range of systems, from the existence of liquid water at room temperature to the structure of DNA (double helix) and many other biomolecules. The presence of an interface is expected to significantly change the structure and dynamics of the hydrogen bonded network as compared to the situation in the bulk. Understanding the strength and dynamics of hydrogen bonds at surfaces and interfaces has thus stimulated a large and growing body of experimental and theoretical work in recent years. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the dynamics of hydrogen-bond (H-bond) between water and oxidized atactic polystyrene (aPS). The number of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and oxidized polystyrene is found to monotonically increase with oxygen concentration on the aPs surface. The life-time of this H-bond and the frequency of its formation have also been investigated as a function of oxygen concentration and the results will be presented. This work is supported by NSF grant DMR0847580.

  3. Olefin cis-Dihydroxylation and Aliphatic C-H Bond Oxygenation by a Dioxygen-Derived Electrophilic Iron-Oxygen Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2015-08-01

    Many iron-containing enzymes involve metal-oxygen oxidants to carry out O2-dependent transformation reactions. However, the selective oxidation of C-H and C=C bonds by biomimetic complexes using O2 remains a major challenge in bioinspired catalysis. The reactivity of iron-oxygen oxidants generated from an Fe(II)-benzilate complex of a facial N3 ligand were thus investigated. The complex reacted with O2 to form a nucleophilic oxidant, whereas an electrophilic oxidant, intercepted by external substrates, was generated in the presence of a Lewis acid. Based on the mechanistic studies, a nucleophilic Fe(II)-hydroperoxo species is proposed to form from the benzilate complex, which undergoes heterolytic O-O bond cleavage in the presence of a Lewis acid to generate an Fe(IV)-oxo-hydroxo oxidant. The electrophilic iron-oxygen oxidant selectively oxidizes sulfides to sulfoxides, alkenes to cis-diols, and it hydroxylates the C-H bonds of alkanes, including that of cyclohexane. PMID:26088714

  4. Early hydrogen-bonding events in the folding reaction of ubiquitin.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, M S; Roder, H

    1992-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen-bonded structure in the folding reaction of ubiquitin, a small cytoplasmic protein with an extended beta-sheet and an alpha-helix surrounding a pronounced hydrophobic core, has been investigated by hydrogen-deuterium exchange labeling in conjunction with rapid mixing methods and two-dimensional NMR analysis. The time course of protection from exchange has been measured for 26 back-bone amide protons that form stable hydrogen bonds upon refolding and exchange slowly under native conditions. Amide protons in the beta-sheet and the alpha-helix, as well as protons involved in hydrogen bonds at the helix/sheet interface, become 80% protected in an initial 8-ms folding phase, indicating that the two elements of secondary structure form and associate in a common cooperative folding event. Somewhat slower protection rates for residues 59, 61, and 69 provide evidence for the subsequent stabilization of a surface loop. Most probes also exhibit two minor phases with time constants of about 100 ms and 10 s. Only two of the observed residues, Gln-41 and Arg-42, display significant slow folding phases, with amplitudes of 37% and 22%, respectively, which can be attributed to native-like folding intermediates containing cis peptide bonds for Pro-37 and/or Pro-38. Compared with other proteins studied by pulse labeling, including cytochrome c, ribonuclease, and barnase, the initial formation of hydrogen-bonded structure in ubiquitin occurs at a more rapid rate and slow-folding species are less prominent. Images PMID:1312711

  5. Cold-bonding in sub-10 nm indium tin oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neng, Wan; Tao, Lin; Jun, Xu

    2016-04-01

    Cold-bonding in a typical metal oxide material nanostructure, indium tin oxide nanorods (ITONs), was observed and studied by combining precise in situ nano-manipulation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and on-line electrical properties measurements. Our studies revealed an oriented attachment process caused by enhanced atom mobility or diffusion and rearrangement at the contact, which worked efficiently in reconnecting the ITONs. Electrical measurements exhibited low contact resistance between the re-connectable ITON segments. Our observations indicate that small-sized nanostructures could be cold-bonded easily following a similar mechanism with their electrical properties retained.

  6. Cold-bonding in sub-10 nm indium tin oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Neng, Wan; Tao, Lin; Jun, Xu

    2016-04-22

    Cold-bonding in a typical metal oxide material nanostructure, indium tin oxide nanorods (ITONs), was observed and studied by combining precise in situ nano-manipulation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and on-line electrical properties measurements. Our studies revealed an oriented attachment process caused by enhanced atom mobility or diffusion and rearrangement at the contact, which worked efficiently in reconnecting the ITONs. Electrical measurements exhibited low contact resistance between the re-connectable ITON segments. Our observations indicate that small-sized nanostructures could be cold-bonded easily following a similar mechanism with their electrical properties retained. PMID:26939723

  7. Theoretical Study of the Reaction Formalhydrazone with Singlet Oxygen. Fragmentation of the C=N Bond, Ene Reaction, and Other Processes

    PubMed Central

    Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Castillo, lvaro; Ghogare, Ashwini A.; Liebman, Joel F.; Greer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Photobiologic and synthetic versatility of hydrazones has not yet been established with 1O2 as a route to commonly encountered nitrosamines. Thus, to determine whether the parent reaction of formalhydrazone and 1O2 leads to facile C=N bond cleavage and resulting nitrosamine formation, we have carried out CCSD(T)//DFT calculations and analyzed the energetics of the oxidation pathways. A [2 + 2] pathway occurs via diradicals and formation of 3-amino-1,2,3-dioxazetidine in a 16 kcal/mol process. Reversible addition or physical quenching of 1O2 occurs either on the formalhydrazone carbon for triplet diradicals at 23 kcal/mol, or on the nitrogen (N(3)) atom forming zwitterions at ~15 kcal/mol, although the quenching channel by charge-transfer interaction was not computed. The computations also predict a facile conversion of formalhydrazone and 1O2 to hydroperoxymethyl diazene in a low-barrier ene process, but no 2-amino-oxaziridine-O-oxide (perepoxide-like) intermediate was found. A Benson-like analysis (group increment calculations) on the closed shell species are in accord with the quantum chemical results. PMID:24354600

  8. Theoretical study of the reaction formalhydrazone with singlet oxygen. Fragmentation of the C=N bond, ene reaction and other processes.

    PubMed

    Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Castillo, Alvaro; Ghogare, Ashwini A; Liebman, Joel F; Greer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Photobiologic and synthetic versatility of hydrazones has not yet been established with (1)O2 as a route to commonly encountered nitrosamines. Thus, to determine whether the "parent" reaction of formalhydrazone and (1)O2 leads to facile C=N bond cleavage and resulting nitrosamine formation, we have carried out CCSD(T)//DFT calculations and analyzed the energetics of the oxidation pathways. A [2 + 2] pathway occurs via diradicals and formation of 3-amino-1,2,3-dioxazetidine in a 16 kcal/mol(-1) process. Reversible addition or physical quenching of (1)O2 occurs either on the formalhydrazone carbon for triplet diradicals at 2-3 kcal mol(-1), or on the nitrogen (N(3)) atom forming zwitterions at ~15 kcal/mol(-1), although the quenching channel by charge-transfer interaction was not computed. The computations also predict a facile conversion of formalhydrazone and (1)O2 to hydroperoxymethyl diazene in a low-barrier 'ene' process, but no 2-amino-oxaziridine-O-oxide (perepoxide-like) intermediate was found. A Benson-like analysis (group increment calculations) on the closed-shell species are in accord with the quantum chemical results. PMID:24354600

  9. Selective molecular recognition, C-H bond activation, and catalysis in nanoscale reaction vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, Dorothea; Leung, Dennis H.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2004-11-27

    Supramolecular chemistry represents a way to mimic enzyme reactivity by using specially designed container molecules. We have shown that a chiral self-assembled M{sub 4}L{sub 6} supramolecular tetrahedron can encapsulate a variety of cationic guests, with varying degrees of stereoselectivity. Reactive iridium guests can be encapsulated and the C-H bond activation of aldehydes occurs, with the host cavity controlling the ability of substrates to interact with the metal center based upon size and shape. In addition, the host container can act as a catalyst by itself. By restricting reaction space and preorganizing the substrates into reactive conformations, it accelerates the sigmatropic rearrangement of enammonium cations.

  10. High-temperature tensile properties of fiber reinforced reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablonski, David A.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of tensile properties of unidirectional silicon carbide fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) composite specimens were carried out in air at 25, 1300, and 1500 C, using a new testing technique and a specially designed gripping system that minimizes bending moment and assures that failure always occurred in the gage section. The material was found to display metallike stress-strain behavior at all temperatures tested, and a noncatastrophic failure beyond the matrix fracture. The tensile properties were found to be temperature dependent, with the values of the ultimate tensile strength decreasing with temperature, from 543 MPa at 25 C to 169 at 1500 C.

  11. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay - The effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; KAMALUDDIN

    1989-01-01

    The formation of oligomers from deoxynucleotides, catalyzed by Na(+)-montmorillonite, was investigated with special attention given to the effect of the monomer structure on the phosphodiester bond formation. It was found that adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides and thymidine nucleotides. Tetramers of 2-prime-dpA were detected in the reaction of 2-prime-d-5-prime-AMP with a water-soluble carbodiimide EDAC in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite, illustrating the possible role of minerals in the formation of biopolymers on the primitive earth.

  12. Bend strengths of reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from dry attrition milled silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dry attrition milled silicon powder was compacted, sintered in helium, and reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 volume percent hydrogen. Bend strengths of bars with as-nitrided surfaces averaged as high as 210 MPa at room temperature and 220 MPa at 1400 C. Bars prepared from the milled powder were stronger than those prepared from as-received powder at both room temperature and at 1400 C. Room temperature strength decreased with increased milling time and 1400 C strength increased with increased milling time.

  13. Real-time observation of bond-by-bond interface formation during oxidation of H-terminated (111)Si by second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokce, Bilal; Adles, Eric J.; Aspnes, David E.; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2011-03-01

    Structure of solids is typically determined at the atomic level by techniques such as X-ray and electron diffraction, which are sensitive to positions of atomic nuclei. However, structure is determined by bonds between atoms, which are difficult to measure directly. We combine second-harmonic generation and the bond-charge model of nonlinear optics to probe, in real time, the dynamics of bond-by-bond chemical changes during the oxidation of H-terminated (111)Si, a surface that has been well characterized by static methods. Oxidation is activated by applied macroscopic strain, and exhibits anisotropic kinetics with one of the three equivalent back- bonds of on-axis samples reacting differently from the other two. This also leads to transient changes in bond directions.~Strain is known to increase oxidation rate of Si for thermal oxides, however its affects at the microscopic scale has not been studied at the bond level. By comparing results for surfaces strained in different directions, we show that in-plane control of surface chemistry is possible. The use of nonlinear optics as a bond-specific characterization tool is readily adaptable for studying structural and chemical dynamics in many other condensed-matter systems.

  14. Chemical reactions on metal oxide surfaces investigated by vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuemin; Wll, Christof

    2009-06-01

    The most successful method to unravel the microscopic mechanisms governing reactions in heterogeneous catalysis is the "surface science" approach which is based on well-controlled studies on model catalysts (usually single crystal surfaces) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions [G. Ertl, Angew. Chem. 47 (2008) 3524]. In this review our recent vibrational spectroscopic studies on selected model reactions at various single-crystalline metal oxide surfaces are summarized. Two vibrational spectroscopic methods, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS), were applied to characterize the adsorbed species and to elucidate the elementary processes of chemical reactions at oxide surfaces ranging from well-defined single crystals to modified surfaces with deliberately introduced defects. The combination of both methods allows us to extend the vibrational spectroscopic studies from ideal to complex systems.

  15. Regioselective Gold-Catalyzed Oxidative CN Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel protocol for the regioselective intermolecular amination of various arenes has been developed. By using an I(III) oxidant in the presence of a Au(I) catalyst, a direct and novel route for regioselectively accessing a variety of substituted aniline moieties has been achieved with yields as high as 90%. Mechanistic insight suggests that regioselectivity can be predicted based on electrophilic aromatic metalation patterns. PMID:25539392

  16. [Modeling the oxidative detoxication function of the liver using electrochemical oxidation reactions].

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, G F; Izotov, M V; Karuzina, I I; Lopukhin, Iu M; Archakov, A I

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical system is developed, which permits to simulate oxidative reactions, processing in presence of cytochrome P-450. The system, combined with a dialyzing apparatus, may be used for oxidation and elimination of various hydrophobic substances of exoand endogenous origin from animal and human organisms. PMID:442594

  17. Raman spectroscopic characterization of the core-rim structure in reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotti, Phillip; Subhash, Ghatu; Zheng, James Q.; Halls, Virginia; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Salamone, S.; Aghajanian, Michael K.

    2015-01-26

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics. Compositional and structural gradation in the silicon-doped boron carbide phase (rim), which develops around the parent boron carbide region (core) due to the reaction between silicon and boron carbide, was evaluated using changes in Raman peak position and intensity. Peak shifting and intensity variation from the core to the rim region was attributed to changes in the boron carbide crystal structure based on experimental Raman observations and ab initio calculations reported in literature. The results were consistent with compositional analysis determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Raman analysis revealed the substitution of silicon atoms first into the linear 3-atom chain, and then into icosahedral units of the boron carbide structure. Thus, micro-Raman spectroscopy provided a non-destructive means of identifying the preferential positions of Si atoms in the boron carbide lattice.

  18. Sintered reaction bonded Si3N4 for the AGT 101 turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The sintered reaction reaction bonded Si3N4 (SRBSN) process, with Y2O3 as a sintering aid, was selected for the fabrication of the AGT 101 turbine rotor. Experiments to determine the optimum Y2O3 composition of this system are discussed. The room temperature strength of the optimum material (RM-1) exceeds 700 MPa while the 1200 C strength exceeds 550 MPa. The slip casting fabrication technique employed for the AGT 101 simulated rotor is described. Rotors have been cast, nitrided and sintered. Densities exceeding 97% of theoretical (3.26 g/cc) have been obtained. Problems relating to sintering reproducibility, and the overall quality of the simulated rotors have been identified.

  19. A cascade reaction: ring-opening insertion of dioxaphospholane into lutetium alkyl bonds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin R D; Hayes, Paul G

    2014-02-14

    Geometrically constrained dioxaphospholane rings were incorporated into a bis(phosphinimine)carbazole ligand (HL) in an effort to generate an ancillary ligand system that is capable of supporting reactive lutetium alkyl functionalities and resistant to cyclometalation reactivity. This new ligand was used to prepare a lutetium dialkyl species, LLu(CH2SiMe3)2; however, the complex exhibited low thermal stability at ambient temperature. This dialkyl compound was found to be highly susceptible to a cascading inter- and intramolecular reaction that resulted in the sole formation of an asymmetric bimetallic tetraalkoxide complex. The product of this reaction, generated by the ring-opening insertion of dioxaphospholane moieties into lutetium-carbon bonds, was characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:24306090

  20. Predicting gold-mediated catalytic oxidative-coupling reactions from single crystal studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingjun; Madix, Robert J; Friend, Cynthia M

    2014-03-18

    Though metallic gold is chemically inert under ambient conditions, its surface is extremely reactive and selective for many key oxidative chemical transformations when activated by atomic oxygen. A molecular-level understanding of the mechanism of these processes could allow researchers to design "green" catalytic processes mediated by gold-based materials. This Account focuses on the mechanistic framework for oxidative-coupling reactions established by fundamental studies on oxygen-activated Au(111) and the application of these principles to steady-state catalytic conditions. We also discuss the importance of the paradigms discovered both for predicting new oxidative-coupling reactions and for understanding existing literature. The mechanistic framework for the oxidative coupling of alcohols on gold surfaces predicts that new oxidative-coupling reactions should occur between amines and aldehydes and amines and alcohols as well as through alcohol carbonylation. Adsorbed atomic oxygen on the gold surface facilitates the activation of the substrates, and nucleophilic attack and ?-H elimination are the two fundamental reactions that propagate the versatile chemistry that ensues. In the self-coupling of primary alcohols, adsorbed atomic oxygen first activates the O-H bond in the hydroxyl group at ?150 K, which forms the corresponding adsorbed alkoxy groups. The rate-limiting step of the self-coupling reaction is the ?-H elimination reaction of alkoxy groups to form the corresponding aldehydes and occurs with an activation barrier of approximately 12 kcal/mol. The remaining alkoxy groups nucleophilically attack the electron-deficient aldehyde carbonyl carbon to yield the adsorbed "hemiacetal". This intermediate undergoes facile ?-H elimination to produce the final coupling products, esters with twice the number of carbon atoms as the starting alcohols. This mechanistic insight suggests that cross-coupling occurs between alcohols and aldehydes, based on the logic that the nucleophilic reaction should be independent of the origin of the aldehydes, whether formed in situ or introduced externally. As a further example, adsorbed amides, formed from deprotonation of amines by atomic oxygen, can also attack aldehydes nucleophilically to yield the corresponding amides. Our mechanistic framework can also explain more elaborate gold-mediated chemistry, such as a unique carbonylation reaction via two subsequent nucleophilic attacks. These model studies on well-defined Au(111) at low pressure predict steady-state catalytic behavior on nanoporous gold under practical conditions. The fundamental principles of this research can also explain many other oxygen-assisted gold-mediated reactions observed under ambient conditions. PMID:24387694

  1. Method for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions, device for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Beuhler, Robert J. (East Moriches, NY); White, Michael G. (Blue Point, NY); Hrbek, Jan (Rocky Point, NY)

    2006-08-15

    A catalytic process for the oxidation of organic. Oxygen is loaded into a metal foil by heating the foil while in contact with an oxygen-containing fluid. After cooling the oxygen-activated foil to room temperature, oxygen diffuses through the foil and oxidizes reactants exposed to the other side of the foil.

  2. Developing mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes relevant to reactive intermediates of biological oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shinobu

    2015-07-21

    Active-oxygen species generated on a copper complex play vital roles in several biological and chemical oxidation reactions. Recent attention has been focused on the reactive intermediates generated at the mononuclear copper active sites of copper monooxygenases such as dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM), tyramine β-monooxygenase (TβM), peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM), and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMO). In a simple model system, reaction of O2 and a reduced copper(I) complex affords a mononuclear copper(II)-superoxide complex or a copper(III)-peroxide complex, and subsequent H(•) or e(-)/H(+) transfer, which gives a copper(II)-hydroperoxide complex. A more reactive species such as a copper(II)-oxyl radical type species could be generated via O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide complex. However, little had been explored about the chemical properties and reactivity of the mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes due to the lack of appropriate model compounds. Thus, a great deal of effort has recently been made to develop efficient ligands that can stabilize such reactive active-oxygen complexes in synthetic modeling studies. In this Account, I describe our recent achievements of the development of a mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex using a simple tridentate ligand consisting of an eight-membered cyclic diamine with a pyridylethyl donor group. The superoxide complex exhibits a similar structure (four-coordinate tetrahedral geometry) and reactivity (aliphatic hydroxylation) to those of a proposed reactive intermediate of copper monooxygenases. Systematic studies based on the crystal structures of copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of the related tridentate supporting ligands have indicated that the rigid eight-membered cyclic diamine framework is crucial for controlling the geometry and the redox potential, which are prerequisites for the generation of such a unique mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex. Reactivity of a mononuclear copper(II)-alkylperoxide complex has also been examined to get insights into the intrinsic reactivity of copper(II)-peroxide species, which is usually considered as a sluggish oxidant or just a precursor of copper-oxyl radical type reactive species. However, our studies have unambiguously demonstrated that copper(II)-alkylperoxide complex can be a direct oxidant for C-H bond activation of organic substrates, when the C-H bond activation is coupled with O-O bond cleavage (concerted mechanism). The reactivity studies of these mononuclear copper(II) active-oxygen species (superoxide and alkylperoxide) will provide significantly important insights into the catalytic mechanism of copper monooxygenases as well as copper-catalyzed oxidation reactions in synthetic organic chemistry. PMID:26086527

  3. Oxidation of triclosan by ferrate: reaction kinetics, products identification and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Li-Juan; Fang, Yi-Xiang; Nghiem, Long Duc

    2011-02-15

    The oxidation of triclosan by commercial grade aqueous ferrate (Fe(VI)) was investigated and the reaction kinetics as a function of pH (7.0-10.0) were experimentally determined. Intermediate products of the oxidation process were characterized using both GC-MS and RRLC-MS/MS techniques. Changes in toxicity during the oxidation process of triclosan using Fe(VI) were investigated using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth inhibition tests. The results show that triclosan reacted rapidly with Fe(VI), with the apparent second-order rate constant, k(app), being 754.7 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7. At a stoichiometric ratio of 10:1 (Fe(VI):triclosan), complete removal of triclosan was achieved. Species-specific rate constants, k, were determined for reaction of Fe(VI) with both the protonated and deprotonated triclosan species. The value of k determined for neutral triclosan was 6.7(1.9)10(2) M(-1) s(-1), while that measured for anionic triclosan was 7.6(0.6)10(3) M(-1) s(-1). The proposed mechanism for the oxidation of triclosan by the Fe(VI) involves the scission of ether bond and phenoxy radical addition reaction. Coupling reaction may also occur during Fe(VI) degradation of triclosan. Overall, the degradation processes of triclosan resulted in a significant decrease in algal toxicity. The toxicity tests showed that Fe(VI) itself dosed in the reaction did not inhibit green algae growth. PMID:21093982

  4. Bioinspired Nonheme Iron Catalysts for C-H and C═C Bond Oxidation: Insights into the Nature of the Metal-Based Oxidants.

    PubMed

    Oloo, Williamson N; Que, Lawrence

    2015-09-15

    Recent efforts to design synthetic iron catalysts for the selective and efficient oxidation of C-H and C═C bonds have been inspired by a versatile family of nonheme iron oxygenases. These bioinspired nonheme (N4)Fe(II) catalysts use H2O2 to oxidize substrates with high regio- and stereoselectivity, unlike in Fenton chemistry where highly reactive but unselective hydroxyl radicals are produced. In this Account, we highlight our efforts to shed light on the nature of metastable peroxo intermediates, which we have trapped at -40 °C, in the reactions of the iron catalyst with H2O2 under various conditions and the high-valent species derived therefrom. Under the reaction conditions that originally led to the discovery of this family of catalysts, we have characterized spectroscopically an Fe(III)-OOH intermediate (EPR g(max) = 2.19) that leads to the hydroxylation of substrate C-H bonds or the epoxidation and cis-dihydroxylation of C═C bonds. Surprisingly, these organic products show incorporation of (18)O from H2(18)O, thereby excluding the possibility of a direct attack of the Fe(III)-OOH intermediate on the substrate. Instead, a water-assisted mechanism is implicated in which water binding to the iron(III) center at a site adjacent to the hydroperoxo ligand promotes heterolytic cleavage of the O-O bond to generate an Fe(V)(O)(OH) oxidant. This mechanism is supported by recent kinetic studies showing that the Fe(III)-OOH intermediate undergoes exponential decay at a rate enhanced by the addition of water and retarded by replacement of H2O with D2O, as well as mass spectral evidence for the Fe(V)(O)(OH) species obtained by the Costas group. The nature of the peroxo intermediate changes significantly when the reactions are carried out in the presence of carboxylic acids. Under these conditions, spectroscopic studies support the formation of a (κ(2)-acylperoxo)iron(III) species (EPR g(max) = 2.58) that decays at -40 °C in the absence of substrate to form an oxoiron(IV) byproduct, along with a carboxyl radical that readily loses CO2. The alkyl radical thus formed either reacts with O2 to form benzaldehyde (as in the case of PhCH2COOH) or rebounds with the incipient Fe(IV)(O) moiety to form phenol (as in the case of C6F5COOH). Substrate addition leads to its 2-e(-) oxidation and inhibits these side reactions. The emerging mechanistic picture, supported by DFT calculations of Wang and Shaik, describes a rather flat reaction landscape in which the (κ(2)-acylperoxo)iron(III) intermediate undergoes O-O bond homolysis reversibly to form an Fe(IV)(O)((•)OC(O)R) species that decays to Fe(IV)(O) and RCO2(•) or isomerizes to its Fe(V)(O)(O2CR) electromer, which effects substrate oxidation. Another short-lived S = 1/2 species just discovered by Talsi that has much less g-anisotropy (EPR g(max) = 2.07) may represent either of these postulated high-valent intermediates. PMID:26280131

  5. Reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters with methanol.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Heinbuch, Scott; Xie, Yan; Rocca, Jorge J; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2009-04-01

    Reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters with methanol and ethanol in a fast-flow reactor are investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Single-photon ionization through soft X-ray (46.9 nm, 26.5 eV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 118 nm, 10.5 eV) lasers is employed to detect both neutral cluster distributions and reaction products. In order to distinguish isomeric products generated in the reactions V(m)O(n) + CH(3)OH, partially deuterated methanol (CD(3)OH) is also used as a reactant in the experiments. Association products are observed for most vanadium oxide clusters in reaction with methanol. Products VOD, V(2)O(3)D, V(3)O(6)D, and V(4)O(9)D are observed for oxygen-deficient vanadium oxide clusters reacting with methanol, while oxygen-rich and the most stable clusters can extract more than one hydrogen atom (H/D) from CD(3)OH to form products VO(2)DH(0,1), V(2)O(4)DH(0,1), V(2)O(5)DH(0,1), V(3)O(7)DH(0,1), and V(4)O(10)DH(0,1). Species VO(2)(CH(3))(2), VO(3)(CH(3))(2), V(2)O(5)(CH(3))(2), V(3)O(7)(CH(3))(2), and V(3)O(8)(CH(3))(2) are identified as some of the main products generated from a dehydration reaction for V(m)O(n) + CH(3)OH. A minor reaction channel that generates VOCH(2)O (VOCD(2)O) and VO(2)CH(2)O (VO(2)CD(2)O) can also be identified. An obviously different behavior appears in the reaction V(m)O(n) + C(2)H(5)OH. The main observed products for this reaction are association products of the form V(m)O(n)C(2)H(5)OH. In order to explore the mechanism of V(m)O(n) + CH(3)OH reactions, DFT calculations are performed to study the reaction pathways of VO(2) + CH(3)OH and VO + CH(3)OH reaction systems. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:19278217

  6. Copper-catalyzed intramolecular N-S bond formation by oxidative dehydrogenative cyclization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Kuninobu, Yoichiro; Kanai, Motomu

    2013-07-19

    Copper-catalyzed synthesis of benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-ones and N-acyl-benzothiazetidine by intramolecular dehydrogenative cyclization is described. In this reaction, a new nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) bond is formed by N-H/S-H coupling. The present reaction has high functional group tolerance and gives products in gram scale. This method promotes double cyclization, allowing for synthesis of a drug intermediate. PMID:23786601

  7. Design, fabrication, and test of a meter-class reaction bonded SiC mirror blank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Eph; Magida, Matthew B.; Kishner, Stanley J.; Krim, Michael H.

    1995-10-01

    The potential for using silicon carbide as an optical substrate has been recognized for a number of years. The primary characteristics silicon carbide offers relative to other more traditional materials include high stiffness, high toughness, low toxicity, low thermal distortion and potential cost and schedule advantages. These attractive properties become accentuated as the size of the mirror blank increases, especially when considering space borne applications. In this paper, we report on the continuing development of silicon carbide for use in large lightweight mirror applications. In particular we describe the design, fabrication and testing of a 0.8 multiplied by 1.1 meter open backed, 'egg-crate' reaction bonded silicon carbide mirror blank. Several process demonstration (sub-scale blank fabrication repeatability and optical finishing) and material evaluation (coefficient of thermal expansion, modulus of rupture, and chemistry) tasks were performed to initiate a database for future optical designs and evaluation. Finally, the results of cryogenic testing of the blank are presented. All of the silicon carbide blank fabrication work in support of this program was performed by Carborundum Specialty Products. The results indicate that reaction bonded silicon carbide is an excellent material for large lightweight mirror substrates.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of reaction bonded silicon carbide/carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have generated considerable excitement in the scientific and engineering communities because of their exceptional mechanical and physical properties observed at the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes possess exceptionally high stiffness and strength combined with high electrical and thermal conductivities. These novel material properties have stimulated considerable research in the development of nanotube-reinforced composites (Thostenson et al 2001 Compos. Sci. Technol. 61 1899, Thostenson et al 2005 Compos. Sci. Technol. 65 491). In this research, novel reaction bonded silicon carbide nanocomposites were fabricated using melt infiltration of silicon. A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (NT-CMCs) were fabricated and the structure and properties were characterized. Here we show that carbon nanotubes are present in the as-fabricated NT-CMCs after reaction bonding at temperatures above 1400 C. Characterization results reveal that a very small volume content of carbon nanotubes, as low as 0.3 volume %, results in a 75% reduction in electrical resistivity of the ceramic composites. A 96% decrease in electrical resistivity was observed for the ceramics with the highest nanotube volume fraction of 2.1%.

  9. Atomic Wire Oxidation of H-Terminated Si(100)-( 21): Domino Reaction via Oxidation and H Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Koichi; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Heike, Seiji; Hashizume, Tomihiro; Uda, Tsuyoshi

    2001-03-01

    We studied oxidation at a dangling bond (DB) on the H-terminated Si(100) surface by the first-principles calculations. We found that oxidation easily occurs at the exposed DB on the H-terminated Si(100) surface. The dissociated O atoms are chemisorbed at a dimer bond and a back bond, resulting in adjacent H atom migration onto the DB. As a consequence of the alternate oxidation and subsequent H atom migration processes, the atomic wire oxidation is actually found to occur on the H-terminated Si(100) surface at low temperatures without desorbing H atoms, as observed in our scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  10. Oxidative homolysis reactions between organochromium macrocycles and dihalide radical anions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Shi; Espenson, J.H. ); Meyerstein, D. ); Meisel, D. )

    1991-11-13

    Many electron acceptors are able to oxidize organometals. In the case of organochromium(III) complexes such as (H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CrR{sup 2+} and RCrL(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} (L = (15)aneN{sub 4} = 1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane), studies of the oxidation step have been examined for the acceptors Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 3+}, {sup 2}E-Cr(bpy){sub 3}{sup 3+}, Ni((14)aneN{sub 4}){sup 3+}, and IrCl{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}. As a result of the reaction between R{sm bullet} and I{sub 2}, I{sm bullet} is formed and thus I{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}. The form of the rate law for the reaction between I{sub 2} and RCrL(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} allowed us to infer that one of the chain-propagating steps was the oxidation of the organometal by I{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}. The study of the I{sub 2} reaction did not give a value of this rate constant, because k for the chain reaction is a composite that contains also the rate constants for the initiation and termination steps. The authors decided to investigate the reaction involving I{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} for several reasons. First, they wanted to confirm that such a reaction occurs rapidly enough for it to be a chain propagation step in the iodine reaction. Second, they wanted to use its rate constant, in conjunction with the observed constant for the chain reaction, to calculate the rate constant for other elementary steps in the chain. Third, by variation of the group R and by use of other X{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} radicals, they sought to learn more about the nature of the rate-determining step in the reaction. The point behind the use of the macrocycle is that, in donating considerable electron density to the metal, is assists oxidative pathways (for X{sub 2} and X{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}) and decreases solvolytic and homolytic decomposition pathways.

  11. Reaction Energies of Oxides using Random Phase Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Hummelshoej, Jens; Nrskov, Jens

    2013-03-01

    Oxides are widely used in industrial heterogeneous catalysis, photo catalysis, electrochemistry and in making batteries and fuel cells. To facilitate the computational engineer and design of novel materials in these fields, it is vital important to quantitatively predict the formation and reactions energies of the oxides. LDA/GGA, the success of which has largely relied on the mysterious error cancellation in the exchange-correlation term, generally failed for these oxides, showing systematic and non-canceling errors. Recently, the use of exact exchange (EXX), plus correlation energy from Random Phase Approximation (RPA) emerges as a promising approach to obtain non-empirical exchange-correlation terms. Exact exchange energy is free of self-interaction error, while RPA correlation energy takes into account dynamic electronic screening and is fully non-local. EXX +RPA has shown to systematically improve lattice constants, atomization energies, adsorption energies, reaction barriers for a wide range of systems that have ironic, covalent and van der Waals interactions. In this talk I will present our results comparing RPA and GGA functional for the formation and reaction energies of oxides.

  12. Biotransformations Utilizing β-Oxidation Cycle Reactions in the Synthesis of Natural Compounds and Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Œwizdor, Alina; Panek, Anna; Milecka-Tronina, Natalia; Kołek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    β-Oxidation cycle reactions, which are key stages in the metabolism of fatty acids in eucaryotic cells and in processes with a significant role in the degradation of acids used by microbes as a carbon source, have also found application in biotransformations. One of the major advantages of biotransformations based on the β-oxidation cycle is the possibility to transform a substrate in a series of reactions catalyzed by a number of enzymes. It allows the use of sterols as a substrate base in the production of natural steroid compounds and their analogues. This route also leads to biologically active compounds of therapeutic significance. Transformations of natural substrates via β-oxidation are the core part of the synthetic routes of natural flavors used as food additives. Stereoselectivity of the enzymes catalyzing the stages of dehydrogenation and addition of a water molecule to the double bond also finds application in the synthesis of chiral biologically active compounds, including medicines. Recent advances in genetic, metabolic engineering, methods for the enhancement of bioprocess productivity and the selectivity of target reactions are also described. PMID:23443116

  13. Multiple Reaction Pathways during Radiolytic Oxidation of Pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefticariu, L.; Pratt, L.; Laverne, J. A.; Ripley, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    Passage of ionizing radiation through groundwater produces a complex mixture of short-lived ions, free radicals, and excited molecules that participate in a wide range of chemical reactions and accelerate water-rock interaction. Radiolysis of groundwater in contact with sulfide minerals or elemental sulfur can produce plumes of partially to fully oxidized sulfur species, thereby stimulating microbial metabolism in unexpected subsurface environments. In order to study fractionation of sulfur isotopes during radiolysis, initial experiments were performed using sealed quartz tubes that contained pyrite and millimolar solutions of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that were reacted at temperatures from 4 to 150 C over time periods of days to week. Mineralogical, chemical, and stable isotopic date from H2O2 experiments reveal multiple pathways for pyrite oxidation and distinct assemblages of products at difference temperatures. Sulfur isotopic signatures of oxidized products are enriched in 32S by 0.5 to 2 per mil compared to source sulfate. Radiation experiments were carried out using a 60Co gamma sources at the Radiation Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. Sealed quartz tubes that contained pyrite and deoxygenated DI water were irradiated from 1 to 14 hours with a dose rate of 11.3 krad/min (113 Gy/min). Initial experiments produced oxidized sulfur as gaseous (e.g., SO2) and aqueous (e.g, SO4) species at concentrations directly correlated to the volume of water and total irradiation dose. Radiolysis proves to be an effective mechanism for the production of oxidizing species in geologically long-lived oxidizing systems. Iron sulfide minerals are decomposed and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals and sulfate ions are produced. Recognizing geochemical signatures of radiolytic oxidation is particularly important for understanding biotic and abiotic reaction pathways in environments where molecular oxygen is negligible and for assessing potential sources of chemical energy for microbial metabolism in the deep subsurface of Earth and Mars.

  14. Disulfide Bond Formation and Activation of Escherichia coli β-Galactosidase under Oxidizing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Affentranger, Roman; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Daura, Xavier; Villaverde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli β-galactosidase is probably the most widely used reporter enzyme in molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology because of the easy detection of its activity. Its large size and tetrameric structure make this bacterial protein an interesting model for crystallographic studies and atomic mapping. In the present study, we investigate a version of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase produced under oxidizing conditions, in the cytoplasm of an Origami strain. Our data prove the activation of this microbial enzyme under oxidizing conditions and clearly show the occurrence of a disulfide bond in the β-galactosidase structure. Additionally, the formation of this disulfide bond is supported by the analysis of a homology model of the protein that indicates that two cysteines located in the vicinity of the catalytic center are sufficiently close for disulfide bond formation. PMID:22286993

  15. Aluminum oxide mediated C-F bond activation in trifluoromethylated arenes.

    PubMed

    Papaianina, O; Amsharov, K Yu

    2016-01-14

    Thermally activated ?-aluminium oxide was found to be very effective for C-F bond activation in trifluoromethylated arenes. Depending on the activation degree the respective arenes can be converted either to cyclic ketones or to the respective carboxylic acids with good to excellent yields. PMID:26659896

  16. Metal-catalyzed oxidations of C-H to C-N bonds.

    PubMed

    Zalatan, David N; Du Bois, J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers a general review of selective methods for the oxidative conversion of C-H to C-N bonds. Special focus has been given to the many disparate catalyst types that are capable of promoting this unique transformation. PMID:21500412

  17. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidations of C-H to C-N Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalatan, David N.; Bois, J. Du

    This chapter offers a general review of selective methods for the oxidative conversion of C-H to C-N bonds. Special focus has been given to the many disparate catalyst types that are capable of promoting this unique transformation.

  18. Metal-free oxidative cleavage of the C-C bond in ?-hydroxy-?-oxophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Battula, Satyanarayana; Kumar, Atul; Ahmed, Qazi Naveed

    2015-10-21

    The potential of TBHP to promote oxidative hydroxylation of ?-hydroxy-?-oxophosphonates (HOPs) through C(CO)-C bond cleavage is described. This cleavage, as depicted in the mechanism is expected through an isomer of HOP that reacts with TBHP to generate acids. PMID:26365809

  19. The oxidative burst reaction in mammalian cells depends on gravity.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Astrid; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Sromicki, Juri; Brungs, Sonja; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Hock, Bertold; Kolanus, Waldemar; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Ullrich, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Gravity has been a constant force throughout the Earth's evolutionary history. Thus, one of the fundamental biological questions is if and how complex cellular and molecular functions of life on Earth require gravity. In this study, we investigated the influence of gravity on the oxidative burst reaction in macrophages, one of the key elements in innate immune response and cellular signaling. An important step is the production of superoxide by the NADPH oxidase, which is rapidly converted to H2O2 by spontaneous and enzymatic dismutation. The phagozytosis-mediated oxidative burst under altered gravity conditions was studied in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages by means of a luminol assay. Ground-based experiments in "functional weightlessness" were performed using a 2 D clinostat combined with a photomultiplier (PMT clinostat). The same technical set-up was used during the 13th DLR and 51st ESA parabolic flight campaign. Furthermore, hypergravity conditions were provided by using the Multi-Sample Incubation Centrifuge (MuSIC) and the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC). The results demonstrate that release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the oxidative burst reaction depends greatly on gravity conditions. ROS release is 1.) reduced in microgravity, 2.) enhanced in hypergravity and 3.) responds rapidly and reversible to altered gravity within seconds. We substantiated the effect of altered gravity on oxidative burst reaction in two independent experimental systems, parabolic flights and 2D clinostat / centrifuge experiments. Furthermore, the results obtained in simulated microgravity (2D clinorotation experiments) were proven by experiments in real microgravity as in both cases a pronounced reduction in ROS was observed. Our experiments indicate that gravity-sensitive steps are located both in the initial activation pathways and in the final oxidative burst reaction itself, which could be explained by the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in the assembly and function of the NADPH oxidase complex. PMID:24359439

  20. The oxidative burst reaction in mammalian cells depends on gravity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gravity has been a constant force throughout the Earths evolutionary history. Thus, one of the fundamental biological questions is if and how complex cellular and molecular functions of life on Earth require gravity. In this study, we investigated the influence of gravity on the oxidative burst reaction in macrophages, one of the key elements in innate immune response and cellular signaling. An important step is the production of superoxide by the NADPH oxidase, which is rapidly converted to H2O2 by spontaneous and enzymatic dismutation. The phagozytosis-mediated oxidative burst under altered gravity conditions was studied in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages by means of a luminol assay. Ground-based experiments in functional weightlessness were performed using a 2 D clinostat combined with a photomultiplier (PMT clinostat). The same technical set-up was used during the 13th DLR and 51st ESA parabolic flight campaign. Furthermore, hypergravity conditions were provided by using the Multi-Sample Incubation Centrifuge (MuSIC) and the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC). The results demonstrate that release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the oxidative burst reaction depends greatly on gravity conditions. ROS release is 1.) reduced in microgravity, 2.) enhanced in hypergravity and 3.) responds rapidly and reversible to altered gravity within seconds. We substantiated the effect of altered gravity on oxidative burst reaction in two independent experimental systems, parabolic flights and 2D clinostat / centrifuge experiments. Furthermore, the results obtained in simulated microgravity (2D clinorotation experiments) were proven by experiments in real microgravity as in both cases a pronounced reduction in ROS was observed. Our experiments indicate that gravity-sensitive steps are located both in the initial activation pathways and in the final oxidative burst reaction itself, which could be explained by the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in the assembly and function of the NADPH oxidase complex. PMID:24359439

  1. Hydrolysis of Surfactants Containing Ester Bonds: Modulation of Reaction Kinetics and Important Aspects of Surfactant Self-Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Dan; Stjerndahl, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of self-assembly on the hydrolysis kinetics of surfactants that contain ester bonds are discussed. A number of examples on how reaction rates and apparent reaction orders can be modulated by changes in the conditions, including an instance of apparent zero-order kinetics, are presented. Furthermore, it is shown that the examples on…

  2. Hydrolysis of Surfactants Containing Ester Bonds: Modulation of Reaction Kinetics and Important Aspects of Surfactant Self-Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Dan; Stjerndahl, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of self-assembly on the hydrolysis kinetics of surfactants that contain ester bonds are discussed. A number of examples on how reaction rates and apparent reaction orders can be modulated by changes in the conditions, including an instance of apparent zero-order kinetics, are presented. Furthermore, it is shown that the examples on

  3. Variational RRKM theory calculation of thermal rate constant for carbonhydrogen bond fission reaction of nitro benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manesh, Afshin Taghva; Heidarnezhad, Zabi alah; Masnabadi, Nasrin

    2013-07-01

    The present work provides quantitative results for the rate of unimolecular carbon-hydrogen bond fission reaction of benzene and nitro benzene at elevated temperatures up to 2000 K. The potential energy surface for each C-H (in the ortho, meta, and para sites) bond fission reaction of nitro benzene was investigated by ab initio calculations. The geometry and vibrational frequencies of the species involved in this process were optimized at the MP2 level of theory, using the cc-pvdz basis set. Since C-H bond fission channel is barrier less reaction, we have used variational RRKM theory to predict rate constants. By means of calculated rate constant at the different temperatures, the activation energy and exponential factor were determined. The Arrhenius expression for C-H bond fission reaction of nitro benzene on the ortho, meta and para sites are k( T) = 2.1 1017exp(-56575.98/ T), k( T) = 2.1 1017exp(-57587.45/ T), and k( T) = 3.3 1016exp(-57594.79/ T) respectively. The Arrhenius expression for C-H bond fission reaction of benzene is k( T) = 2 1018exp(-59343.48.18/ T). The effect of NO2 group, location of hydrogen atoms on the substituted benzene ring, reaction degeneracy, benzene ring resonance and tunneling effect on the rate expression have been discussed.

  4. Exploiting the oxidative coupling reaction of MBTH for indapamide determination.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, David S M; Prior, João A V; Santos, João L M; Lopes, João A; Lima, José L F C

    2009-09-15

    The oxidative coupling reaction between aromatic amines and 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone (MBTH) in the presence of cerium(IV) has been extensively used with quantitative analytical purposes. Nevertheless, a literature survey reveals that different wavelengths (visible range) can be used to monitor the reaction products when using MBTH and Ce(IV) as colour developing reagents. In the present work, the oxidative coupling reaction of indapamide (an oral antihypertensive diuretic drug) with MBTH in the presence of cerium(IV) was evaluated using distinct reaction approaches and was implemented in an automated multipumping flow system. The developed methodology was applied in the spectrophotometric control of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations. The optimization of the proposed multipumping flow system was performed by using an experimental design approach, namely by exploiting a Plackett-Burman factorial design and a central cubic faces design. This work revealed the formation of products with different reaction kinetics, chemical stabilities and absorbance spectra, depending on the sequence of addition of the reagents. By exploiting a specific sequence in the addition of reagents, the proposed automatic system allowed the rapid quantification of indapamide in pharmaceutical formulations, with a determination rate of about 25 h(-1), and a relative deviation under 2.1% when comparing with the reference procedure. Detection limit was approximately 1 mg L(-1). PMID:19615526

  5. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of anthracene with selected atmospheric oxidants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Shu, Jinian; Zhang, Yuanxun; Yang, Bo

    2013-09-01

    The reactions of gas-phase anthracene and suspended anthracene particles with O3 and O3-NO were conducted in a 200-L reaction chamber, respectively. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formations from gas-phase reactions of anthracene with O3 and O3-NO were observed. Meanwhile, the size distributions and mass concentrations of SOA were monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) during the formation processes. The rapid exponential growths of SOA reveal that the atmospheric lifetimes of gas-phase anthracene towards O3 and O3-NO are less than 20.5 and 4.34 hr, respectively. The particulate oxidation products from homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were analyzed with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analyses of oxidation products of anthracene were carried out for assigning the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra of products from homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Anthrone, anthraquinone, 9,10-dihydroxyanthracene, and 1,9,10-trihydroxyanthracene were the ozonation products of anthracene, while anthrone, anthraquinone, 9-nitroanthracene, and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone were the main products of anthracene with O3-NO. PMID:24520724

  6. Reactions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with coenzyme Q: involvement of the isoprenic chain.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Paola; Charles, Laurence; Gigmes, Didier; Greci, Lucedio; Rizzoli, Corrado; Sorana, Federico; Stipa, Pierluigi

    2013-02-28

    The formation of a di-tert-alkyl nitroxide has been observed by Electron Spin Resonance during the exposure of coenzyme CoQ(10), in both the oxidized and reduced forms, to nitrogen dioxide (?NO(2)) or to nitric oxide (?NO) in the presence of oxygen. The same kind of nitroxide has been observed also with CoQ(1), CoQ(3) or with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-2-butene, chosen as model compounds. In all cases, the formation of the nitroxide may be justified only by admitting the involvement of the isoprenic chain of the coenzymes and in particular the addition of ?NO(2) to the double bond. A mechanism which accounts for the formation of the nitroxide as well as the other compounds observed in the reactions is proposed and confirmed by a spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, X-ray analysis) and by ESI-MS. PMID:23334659

  7. Oxidation of Annelated Diarylamines: Analysis of Reaction Pathways to Nitroxide Diradical and Spirocyclic Products

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Boraty; #324; ski, Przemyslaw J.; Pink, Maren; Miyasaka, Makoto; Rajca, Suchada

    2012-02-06

    Oxidation of diaryldiamine 2, a tetrahydrodiazapentacene derivative, provides diarylnitroxide diradical 1 accompanied by an intermediate nitroxide monoradical and a multitude of isolable diamagnetic products. DFT-computed tensors for EPR spectra and paramagnetic {sup 1}H NMR isotropic shifts for nitroxide diradical 1 show good agreement with the experimental EPR spectra in rigid matrices and paramagnetic {sup 1}H NMR spectra in solution, respectively. Examination of the diamagnetic products elucidates their formation via distinct pathways involving C-O bond-forming reactions, including Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidations. An unusual diiminoketone structure and two spirocyclic structures of the predominant diamagnetic products are confirmed by either X-ray crystallography or correlations between DFT-computed and experimental spectroscopic data such as {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N NMR chemical shifts and electronic absorption spectra.

  8. Manufacture of ?1.2m reaction bonded silicon carbide mirror blank CFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ge; Zhao, Rucheng; Zhao, Wenxing; Bao, Jianxun

    2010-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a new type candidate material for large-scale lightweight space mirror. Its low thermal distortion, high stiffness, fine optical quality and dimensional stability, make SiC an ideal material for large space born telescope. Since ten years Changchun institute optics, fine mechanics and physics (CIOMP) has developed reaction bonded SiC (RB-SiC) technology for space application, and can fabricate RB-SiC mirror with scale less than 1.0 meter for telescope. The green body is prepared with gel-casting method which is an attractive new ceramic forming process for making high-quality, complex-shaped ceramic parts. And then unmolding, drying, binder burning out, reacting bonded, the RB-SiC can be obtained. But with the development of space-born or ground telescope, the scale of primary mirror has exceeded 1.0 meter. So CIOMP has developed an assembly technique which called novel reaction-formed joint technology for larger RB-SiC mirror blank. The steps include joining of green bodies with mixture comprised of SiC particles and phenolic resin etc, firing, machining and sintering. Joining the ?1.2 meter RB-SiC mirror blank by the novel reaction-formed joint technology. And testing the welding layer's performance, the results show that the thickness of 54-77?m, the microstructure and thermal property can be comparable to the substrate and the mechanical property are excellent in bending strength of 307MPa.

  9. Theoretical study of the reaction mechanism of platinum oxide with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Der-Yan; Mebel, Alexander M.

    2002-10-01

    Density functional B3LYP calculations have been employed to investigate the reaction of platinum oxide with methane. PtO is shown to form a molecular complex with CH 4 bound by 13 kcal/mol. At elevated temperatures, direct abstraction of a hydrogen atom is possible leading to PtOH and free methyl radical with a barrier of 26 kcal/mol. A minor reaction channel is insertion into a C-H bond to produce a CH 3PtOH molecule, which can be also formed by recombination of PtOH and CH 3. CH 3PtOH would preferably dissociates through a mechanism involving 1,2-CH 3 migration to produce a PtCH 3OH complex and eventually Pt+CH 3OH.

  10. Organocatalytic Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic sp(3) C-H Bonds of Ethers and Alkylarenes Promoted by a Recyclable TEMPO Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguang; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jianjun; Xie, Hexin; Li, Hao; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    An entirely metal-free catalyst system consisting of an easily prepared recyclable new TEMPO derived sulfonic salt catalyst, and mineral acids (NaNO2 and HCl) has been developed for selective aerobic oxidation of structurally diverse benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds of ethers and alkylarenes. The mild reaction conditions allow for the generation of synthetically and biologically valued isochromanones and xanthones from readily accessible alkyl aromatic precursors in good yields. PMID:26513695

  11. Effects of Oxide Layer on the Bonding Strength of Ni-Cr Alloys with Porcelain Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Park, W U; Jung, S H; Zhao, Jingming; Hwang, Kyu H; Lee, J K; Mitchell, John C

    2015-08-01

    The metal-ceramic crown restoration was the most actively used at esthetic restoration for its convenience of forming. Due to constant rise of gold price, non-precious metal such as Ni-Cr alloy have been widely used as metal-ceramic restorations. For easy casting and lower melting point Be was added as minor component to Ni-Cr for a long time, but the use of Be was regulated to deteriorate to human lung. In this study, Ni-Cr specimens containing Be (T-3, Ticonium, USA) and non-Be (Bellabond Plus, BEGO, Germany) were fabricated and by heat treatments at 800-1050 0C oxide layer was formed for subsequent bonding to porcelain ceramics. By heat treatment of the non-Be specimens at high temperature more thick oxide layer was formed and showed lower bonding strength due to the debonding at oxide layers. But in the Be-containing specimens debonding was occurred at porcelain layer so that they showed higher bonding strength. So by heat treatment of non-Be specimens at vacuum condition rather thinner oxide film could be formed so that showed higher coupling strength due to the debonding at porcelain layers than oxide layers. PMID:26369169

  12. Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Enargite Oxidation at Roasting Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Rafael; Aracena, Alvaro; Ruiz, Maria C.

    2012-10-01

    Roasting of enargite (Cu3AsS4) in the temperature range of 648 K to 898 K (375 C to 625 C) in atmospheres containing variable amounts of oxygen has been studied by thermogravimetric methods. From the experimental results of weight loss/gain data and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of partially reacted samples, the reaction mechanism of the enargite oxidation was determined, which occurred in three sequential stages:

  13. Elementary reaction modeling of solid oxide electrolysis cells: Main zones for heterogeneous chemical/electrochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenying; Shi, Yixiang; Luo, Yu; Cai, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of solid oxide electrolysis cells considering the heterogeneous elementary reactions, electrochemical reactions and the transport process of mass and charge is applied to study the relative performance of H2O electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis and CO2/H2O co-electrolysis and the competitive behavior of heterogeneous chemical and electrochemical reactions. In cathode, heterogeneous chemical reactions exist near the outside surface and the electrochemical reactions occur near the electrolyte. According to the mathematical analysis, the mass transfer flux D ?c determines the main zone size of heterogeneous chemical reactions, while the charge transfer flux ? ?V determines the other one. When the zone size of heterogeneous chemistry is enlarged, more CO2 could react through heterogeneous chemical pathway, and polarization curves of CO2/H2O co-electrolysis could be prone to H2O electrolysis. Meanwhile, when the zone size of electrochemistry is enlarged, more CO2 could react through electrochemical pathway, and polarization curves of CO2/H2O co-electrolysis could be prone to CO2 electrolysis. The relative polarization curves, the ratio of CO2 participating in electrolysis and heterogeneous chemical reactions, the mass and charge transfer flux and heterogeneous chemical/electrochemical reaction main zones are simulated to study the effects of cathode material characteristics (porosity, particle diameter and ionic conductivity) and operating conditions (gas composition and temperature).

  14. Csp(3)-P versus Csp(2)-P Bond Formation: Catalyst-Controlled Highly Regioselective Tandem Reaction of Ene-Yne-Ketones with H-Phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Yi, Songjian; Zhu, Chuanle; Hu, Weigao; Gao, Bingjie; Chen, Yang; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-02-01

    Under copper-catalyzed or base-promoted conditions, a wide range of ene-yne-ketones react with H-phosphonates to afford various phosphorylated furans in good yields. A copper carbene generation or a Michael addition is proposed as the key step in the selective construction of the Csp(3)-P or Csp(2)-P bond, which is supported by carbene capture reactions and interval (31)P NMR experiments. Furthermore, this method features inexpensive metal catalysts, no usage of oxidant, and high atom economy, which make it attractive and practical. PMID:26760227

  15. Manganese chlorins immobilized on silica as oxidation reaction catalysts.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kelly A D F; Pires, Snia M G; Ribeiro, Marcos A; Simes, Mrio M Q; Neves, M Graa P M S; Schreiner, Wido H; Wypych, Fernando; Cavaleiro, Jos A S; Nakagaki, Shirley

    2015-07-15

    Synthetic strategies that comply with the principles of green chemistry represent a challenge: they will enable chemists to conduct reactions that maximize the yield of products with commercial interest while minimizing by-products formation. The search for catalysts that promote the selective oxidation of organic compounds under mild and environmentally friendly conditions constitutes one of the most important quests of organic chemistry. In this context, metalloporphyrins and analogues are excellent catalysts for oxidative transformations under mild conditions. In fact, their reduced derivatives chlorins are also able to catalyze organic compounds oxidation effectively, although they have been still little explored. In this study, we synthesized two chlorins through porphyrin cycloaddition reactions with 1.3-dipoles and prepared the corresponding manganese chlorins (MnCHL) using adequate manganese(II) salts. These MnCHL were posteriorly immobilized on silica by following the sol-gel process and the resulting solids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UVVIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XPS, and EDS. The catalytic activity of the immobilized MnCHL was investigated in the oxidation of cyclooctene, cyclohexene and cyclohexane and the results were compared with the ones obtained under homogeneous conditions. PMID:25841060

  16. Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H bond Activation. Understanding the electronic continuum of C-H bond activation through transition-state and reaction pathway interaction energy decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Goddard, William A.; Periana, Roy A.

    2010-10-29

    The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal-ligand-mediated alkane C-H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7-9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d8, d6, d4, and d0), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal-ligand fragment and the coordinated C-H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C-H bond allows classification of C-H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, σ-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C-H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C-H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d6 Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe3)Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C-H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in metathesis reactions with W(II) and Sc(III) metal center complexes in reactions as well as late transition metal Ir(I) and Rh(I) pincer complexes that undergo C-H bond insertion. Comparison of pincer ligands shows that the PCP ligand imparts more nucleophilic character to an Ir metal center than a deprotonated PNP ligand. The PCP and POCOP ligands do not show a substantial difference in the electronics of C-H activation. It was also found that Rh(I) is substantially more nucleophilic than Ir(I). Lastly, as a qualitative approximation, investigation of transition-state fragment orbital energies showed that relative frontier orbital energy gaps correctly reflect electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic charge-transfer stabilization patterns.

  17. Reaction rate oscillations during catalytic CO oxidation: A brief overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, T. T.; Sane, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    It is not the intent here to present a comprehensive review of the dynamic behavior of the catalytic oxidation of CO. This reaction is one of the most widely studied in the field of catalysis. A review paper by Engel and Ertl has examined the basic kinetic and mechanistic aspects, and a comprehensive paper by Razon and Schmitz was recently devoted to its dynamic behavior. Those interested in further study of the subject should consult these reviews and a number of general review papers on catalytic reaction dynamics. The goal is to present a brief overview of certain interesting aspects of the dynamic behavior of this reaction and to discuss a few questions and issues, which are still the subject of study and debate.

  18. Photocatalytic reactions of oxygenates on tropospheric oxide particles

    SciTech Connect

    Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G.; Miller, A.

    1996-10-01

    Oxygenates such as ethanol and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are finding increased use as additives to fuels. The relative merits of ethanol and MTBE have become the focus of intense debate with their ultimate fate as fugitive emissions representing one aspect of this controversy. Both species are known to react homogeneously with photogenerated OH radicals. Here we show that both can also photoreact on suspended solid particulates in the atmosphere with rates comparable to those of OH reactions. Heterogeneous reactions of ethanol yield acetaldehyde and those of MTBE give isobutene and formaldehyde (carcinogenic). Experiments by spectroscopic and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe and Ti oxides. In addition, the effects of humidity and alkali addition on the activity and selectivity of these reactions are also discussed. This work appears to be the first demonstration that volatile organic compounds can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere.

  19. Reaction between nitric oxide and ozone in solid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, D.; Pimentel, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is produced when nitric oxide, NO, and ozone, O3, are suspended in a nitrogen matrix at 11-20 K. The NO2 is formed with first-order kinetics, a 12 K rate constant of (1.4 + or - 0.2) x 0.00001/sec, and an apparent activation energy of 106 + or - 10 cal/mol. Isotopic labeling, variation of concentrations, and cold shield experiments show that the growth of NO2 is due to reaction between ozone molecules and NO monomers, and that the reaction is neither infrared-induced nor does it seem to be a heavy atom tunneling process. Reaction is attributed to nearest-neighbor NO.O3 pairs probably held in a specific orientational relationship that affects the kinetic behavior. When the temperature is raised, more such reactive pairs are generated, presumably by local diffusion. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Reaction rate oscillations during catalytic CO oxidation: A brief overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsotsis, T. T.; Sane, R. C.

    1987-04-01

    It is not the intent here to present a comprehensive review of the dynamic behavior of the catalytic oxidation of CO. This reaction is one of the most widely studied in the field of catalysis. A review paper by Engel and Ertl has examined the basic kinetic and mechanistic aspects, and a comprehensive paper by Razon and Schmitz was recently devoted to its dynamic behavior. Those interested in further study of the subject should consult these reviews and a number of general review papers on catalytic reaction dynamics. The goal is to present a brief overview of certain interesting aspects of the dynamic behavior of this reaction and to discuss a few questions and issues, which are still the subject of study and debate.

  1. Kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, W. L.; Hanson, R. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Mixtures of NO and H2 diluted in argon or krypton were heated by incident shock waves, and the infrared emission from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO at 5.3 microns was used to monitor the time-varying NO concentration. The reaction kinetics were studied in the temperature range 2400-4500 K using a shock-tube technique. The decomposition of nitric oxide behind the shock was found to be modeled well by a fifteen-reaction system. A principle result of the study was the determination of the rate constant for the reaction H + NO yields N + OH, which may be the rate-limiting step for NO removal in some combustion systems. Experimental values of k sub 1 were obtained for each test through comparisons of measured and numerically predicted NO profiles.

  2. Short Access to Belt Compounds with Spatially Close C=C Bonds and Their Transannular Reactions.

    PubMed

    Camps, Pelayo; Gmez, Tnia; Otermin, Ane; Font-Bardia, Merc; Estarellas, Carolina; Luque, Francisco Javier

    2015-09-28

    Two domino Diels-Alder adducts were obtained from 3,7-bis(cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-ylidene)-cis-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate or N-methylmaleimide under microwave irradiation. From the first adduct, a C20H24 diene with C2v symmetry was obtained by Zn/AcOH reduction, hydrolysis, oxidative decarboxylation, and selective hydrogenation. Photochemical [2+2] cycloaddition of this diene gave a thermally unstable cyclobutane derivative, which reverts to the diene. However, both the diene and the cyclobutane derivatives could be identified by X-ray diffraction analysis upon irradiation of the diene crystal. New six-membered rings are formed upon the transannular addition of bromine or iodine to the diene. The N-type selectivity of the addition was examined by theoretical calculations, which revealed the distinct susceptibility of the doubly bonded carbon atoms to the bromine attack. PMID:26376331

  3. SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for fabricating strong and tough SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composites (SiC/RBSN) was developed. Using this technique, composites containing approximately 23, 30, and 40 volume fractions of aligned 140 micron diameter, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers were fabricated. The room temperature physical and mechanical properties were evaluated. The results for composite tensile strength, bend strength, and fracture strain indicate that the composite displays excellent properties when compared with the unreinforced matrix of comparable porosity. The composite stress at which the matrix first cracks and the ultimate composite fracture strength increase with increasing volume fraction of fibers, and the composite fails gracefully. The mechanical property data of this ceramic composite are compared with similar data for unreinforced commercially available Si3N4 materials and for SEP SiC/SiC composites.

  4. Experimental investigation on material migration phenomena in micro-EDM of reaction-bonded silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Pay Jun; Yan, Jiwang; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2013-07-01

    Material migration between tool electrode and workpiece material in micro electrical discharge machining of reaction-bonded silicon carbide was experimentally investigated. The microstructural changes of workpiece and tungsten tool electrode were examined using scanning electron microscopy, cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray under various voltage, capacitance and carbon nanofibre concentration in the dielectric fluid. Results show that tungsten is deposited intensively inside the discharge-induced craters on the RB-SiC surface as amorphous structure forming micro particles, and on flat surface region as a thin interdiffusion layer of poly-crystalline structure. Deposition of carbon element on tool electrode was detected, indicating possible material migration to the tool electrode from workpiece material, carbon nanofibres and dielectric oil. Material deposition rate was found to be strongly affected by workpiece surface roughness, voltage and capacitance of the electrical discharge circuit. Carbon nanofibre addition in the dielectric at a suitable concentration significantly reduced the material deposition rate.

  5. Effect of loading rate on dynamic fracture of reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    Wedge-loaded, modified tapered double cantilever beam (WL-MTDCB) specimens under impact loading were used to determine the room temperature dynamic fracture response of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN). The crack extension history, with the exception of the terminal phase, was similar to that obtained under static loading. Like its static counterpart, a distinct crack acceleration phase, which was not observed in dynamic fracture of steel and brittle polymers, was noted. Unlike its static counterpart, the crack continued to propagate at nearly its terminal velocity under a low dynamic stress intensity factor during the terminal phase of crack propagation. These and previously obtained results for glass and RBSN show that dynamic crack arrest under a positive dynamic stress intensity factor is unlikely in static and impact loaded structural ceramics.

  6. Gelcasting of silicon preforms for the production of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O. Jr.; Nunn, S.D.; Tiegs, T.N.; Davisson, C.C.; Coffey, D.W.; Maria, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Gelcasting of silicon metal for the production of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN) was investigated in order to identify associated advantages over conventional forming techniques, i.e., die and isostatic pressing. Compacts were formed from identical powder mixtures by both gelcasting and pressing, and were nitrided and sintered to produce SRBSN ceramics using both conventional and microwave heating. Characterization of the samples included measurement of green density, green and nitrided pore structure, weight gain during nitridation, final density, microstructure, toughness, and flexural strength. It was found that a more uniform pore structure existed in the green gelcast samples. It is believed that this pore configuration aided in nitridation, and manifested itself in a more uniform final microstructure. In addition, improved mechanical properties were achieved in the gelcast samples. This improvement can be attributed to green microstructure homogeneity. An additional finding of this study was that microwave hearing combined with gelcast forming resulted in SRBSN materials with improved mechanical properties.

  7. Brnsted acid mediated N-O bond cleavage for ?-amination of ketones through the aromatic nitroso aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Isai; Sahoo, Harekrishna; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2016-02-11

    A Brnsted acid mediated N-O bond cleavage for ?-amination of ketones has been developed through the nitroso aldol reaction of less-reactive aromatic nitroso compounds and silyl enol ethers having a disilane (-SiMe2TMS) backbone. This transformation is operationally simple and scalable, offering structurally diverse ?-amino ketones in high yields (up to 98%) with complete regioselectivity. It represents a mechanistically unique and rare example of a metal-free N-O bond cleavage process. PMID:26810365

  8. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-N bond forming reactions using organic azides as the nitrogen source: a journey for the mild and versatile C-H amination.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwangmin; Kim, Hyunwoo; Chang, Sukbok

    2015-04-21

    Owing to the prevalence of nitrogen-containing compounds in functional materials, natural products and important pharmaceutical agents, chemists have actively searched for the development of efficient and selective methodologies allowing for the facile construction of carbon-nitrogen bonds. While metal-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions have been established as one of the most general protocols for C-N bond formation, these methods require starting materials equipped with functional groups such as (hetero)aryl halides or their equivalents, thus generating stoichiometric amounts of halide salts as byproducts. To address this aspect, a transition-metal-catalyzed direct C-H amination approach has emerged as a step- and atom-economical alternative to the conventional C-N cross-coupling reactions. However, despite the significant recent advances in metal-mediated direct C-H amination reactions, most available procedures need harsh conditions requiring stoichiometric external oxidants. In this context, we were curious to see whether a transition-metal-catalyzed mild C-H amination protocol could be achieved using organic azides as the amino source. We envisaged that a dual role of organic azides as an environmentally benign amino source and also as an internal oxidant via N-N2 bond cleavage would be key to develop efficient C-H amination reactions employing azides. An additional advantage of this approach was anticipated: that a sole byproduct is molecular nitrogen (N2) under the perspective catalytic conditions. This Account mainly describes our research efforts on the development of rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed direct C-H amination reactions with organic azides. Under our initially optimized Rh(III)-catalyzed amination conditions, not only sulfonyl azides but also aryl- and alkyl azides could be utilized as facile amino sources in reaction with various types of C(sp(2))-H bonds bearing such directing groups as pyridine, amide, or ketoxime. More recently, a new catalyst system using Ir(III) species was developed for the direct C-H amidation of arenes and alkenes with acyl azides under exceptionally mild conditions. As a natural extension, amidation of primary C(sp(3))-H bonds could also be realized on the basis of the superior activity of the Cp*Ir(III) catalyst. Mechanistic investigations revealed that a catalytic cycle is operated mainly in three stages: (i) chelation-assisted metallacycle formation via C-H bond cleavage; (ii) C-N bond formation through the in situ generation of a metal-nitrenoid intermediate followed by the insertion of an imido moiety to the metal carbon bond; (iii) product release via protodemetalation with the concomitant catalyst regeneration. In addition, this Account also summarizes the recent advances in the ruthenium- and cobalt-catalyzed amination reactions using organic azides, developed by our own and other groups. Comparative studies on the relative performance of those catalytic systems are briefly described. PMID:25821998

  9. Time-resolved EPR study on reorganization energies for charge recombination reactions in the systems involving hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yago, Tomoaki; Kobori, Yasuhiro; Akiyama, Kimio; Tero-Kubota, Shozo

    2003-02-01

    Hydrogen bonding effects on reorganization energies ( ?) in the photoinduced electron donor-acceptor system of duroquinone (DQ)-1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene (TMB) in benzonitrile have been investigated by time-resolved EPR and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The solvent reorganization energies ( ?S) determined for the radical ion pair systems involving the hydrogen-bonded complexes are larger by 0.2 eV than those calculated from the Marcus continuum dielectric model. The present results suggest that dissociation of the DQ anion-alcohol hydrogen-bonded complex results in the new component of ?S for the charge recombination reaction in polar solvents.

  10. Photovoltaic-driven organic electrosynthesis and efforts toward more sustainable oxidation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bichlien H; Perkins, Robert J; Smith, Jake A

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combination of visible light, photovoltaics, and electrochemistry provides a convenient, inexpensive platform for conducting a wide variety of sustainable oxidation reactions. The approach presented in this article is compatible with both direct and indirect oxidation reactions, avoids the need for a stoichiometric oxidant, and leads to hydrogen gas as the only byproduct from the corresponding reduction reaction. PMID:25815081

  11. Identification and cleavage of breakable single bonds by selective oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Zevely, J.; Mayo, F.R.

    1981-11-12

    The objective of this project is to determine the structure of bituminous coal by determining the proportions of the various kinds of connecting bonds and how they can best be broken. Results obtained during the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: (1) extractions and fractionations of coal products which covers pyridine extraction, fractionation of TIPS fractions, EDA extraction of Illinois No. 6 coal and swelling ratios of coal samples; (2) experiments on breakable single bonds which cover reactions of ethylenediamine and model ethers, reaction of pyridine-extracted coal with Me/sub 3/SiI, Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, reaction to diphenylmethane with 15% HNO/sub 3/, cleavage of TIPS with ZnI/sub 2/, and cleavage of black acids; and (3) oxygen oxidation No. 18. Some of the highlights of these studies are: (1) some model ethers are not cleaved by EDA under extraction conditions; (2) oxidation of diaryl ketones with m-chloroperbenzoic acid and saponification of the resulting esters in promising for identifying ketones, (3) treatment of a black acid with pyridine hydroiodide reduced the acid's molecular weight and increased its solubility in pyridine, but treatment with ZnI/sub 2/ was ineffective; (4) in comparison with 0.1 M K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/, 0.01 M persulfate is relatively ineffective in accelerating oxidation of BnNH/sub 2/-extracted coal in water suspension. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Forming mechanism of nitrogen doped graphene prepared by thermal solid-state reaction of graphite oxide and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Zhigang; Chen, Xiaoye; Du, Yukou; Wang, Xiaomei; Yang, Ping; Wang, Suidong

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen doped graphene was synthesized from graphite oxide and urea by thermal solid-state reaction. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra, element analysis, and electrical conductivity measurement. The results reveal that there is a gradual thermal transformation of nitrogen bonding configurations from amide form nitrogen to pyrrolic, then to pyridinic, and finally to "graphitic" nitrogen in graphene sheets with increasing annealing temperature from 200 to 700 C. The products prepared at 600 C and 700 C show that the quantity of nitrogen incorporated into graphene lattice is 10 at.% with simultaneous reduction of graphite oxide. Oxygen-containing functional groups in graphite oxide are responsible for the doping reaction to produce nitrogen doped graphene.

  13. Reaction injection molding and direct covalent bonding of OSTE+ polymer microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandström, N.; Shafagh, R. Z.; Vastesson, A.; Carlborg, C. F.; van der Wijngaart, W.; Haraldsson, T.

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we present OSTE+RIM, a novel reaction injection molding (RIM) process that combines the merits of off-stoichiometric thiol-ene epoxy (OSTE+) thermosetting polymers with the fabrication of high quality microstructured parts. The process relies on the dual polymerization reactions of OSTE+ polymers, where the first curing step is used in OSTE+RIM for molding intermediately polymerized parts with well-defined shapes and reactive surface chemistries. In the facile back-end processing, the replicated parts are directly and covalently bonded and become fully polymerized using the second curing step, generating complete microfluidic devices. To achieve unprecedented rapid processing, high replication fidelity and low residual stress, OSTE+RIM uniquely incorporates temperature stabilization and shrinkage compensation of the OSTE+ polymerization during molding. Two different OSTE+ formulations were characterized and used for the OSTE+RIM fabrication of optically transparent, warp-free and natively hydrophilic microscopy glass slide format microfluidic demonstrator devices, featuring a storage modulus of 2.3 GPa and tolerating pressures of at least 4 bars.

  14. Effect of phosphate-bonded investments on titanium reaction layer and crown fit.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sicknan Soares da; Nogueira, Fabiane; Pieralini, Anelise Rodolfo Ferreira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the reaction layer and measured the marginal crown fit of cast titanium applied to different phosphate-bonded investments, prepared under the following conditions (liquid concentration/casting temperature): Rema Exakt (RE) - 100%/237 degrees C, 75%/287 degrees C, Castorit Super C (CS)-100%/70 degrees C, 75%/141 degrees C and Rematitan Plus (RP)- 100%/430 degrees C (special to titanium cast, as the control group). The reaction layer was studied using the Vickers hardness test, and analyzed by two way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). Digital photographs were taken of the crowns seated on the die, the misfit was measured using an image analysis system and One-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test was applied (alpha = 0.05). The hardness decreased from the surface (601.17 VHN) to 150 microm (204.03 VHN). The group CS 75%/141 degrees C presented higher hardness than the other groups, revealing higher surface contamination, but there were no differences among the groups at measurements deeper than 150 mum. The castings made with CS - 100%/70 degrees C presented the lowest levels of marginal misfit, followed by RE -100%/237 degrees C. The conventional investments CS (100%) and RE (100%) showed better marginal fit than RP, but the CS (75%) had higher surface contamination. PMID:20658031

  15. Complete reaction mechanisms of mercury oxidation on halogenated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Rungnim, Chompoonut; Promarak, Vinich; Hannongbua, Supa; Kungwan, Nawee; Namuangruk, Supawadee

    2016-06-01

    The reaction mechanisms of mercury (Hg) adsorption and oxidation on halogenated activated carbon (AC) have been completely studied for the first time using density functional theory (DFT) method. Two different halogenated AC models, namely X-AC and X-AC-X (X=Cl, Br, I), were adopted. The results revealed that HgX is found to be stable-state on the AC edge since its further desorption from the AC as HgX, or further oxidation to HgX2, are energetically unfavorable. Remarkably, the halide type does not significantly affect the Hg adsorption energy but it strongly affects the activation energy barrier of HgX formation, which obviously increases in the order HgIBr-AC>Cl-AC. Thus, the study of the complete reaction mechanism is essential because the adsorption energy can not be used as a guideline for the rational material design in the halide impregnated AC systems. The activation energy is an important descriptor for the predictions of sorbent reactivity to the Hg oxidation process. PMID:26943019

  16. Oxidation Reactions of Dithiocarbamate Complexes of Ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Leung, Wa-Hung; Chim, Joyce L. C.; Hou, Hongwei; Hun, Tom S. M.; Williams, Ian D.; Wong, Wing-Tak

    1997-09-24

    The reaction of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2) (Et(2)dtc = N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) with t-BuNC gave trans-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CN-t-Bu)(2), 1. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 9.753(2) , b = 11.583(2) , c = 12.974(2) , and beta = 91.8(2) degrees for Z = 2. The crystal structure of 1 shows the trans disposition of the two isocyanides; the mean Ru-S and Ru-C distances are 2.409 and 1.977(2) , respectively. Treatment of [Ru(diene)Cl(2)](n)() with Na(Et(2)dtc) afforded Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(diene) (diene = bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene (NBD), 2, 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), 3). Complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 7.316(1) , b = 10.346(1) , c = 15.123(2) , alpha = 103.69(2) degrees, beta = 93.54(2) degrees, and gamma = 100.61(2) degrees for Z = 2. The mean Ru-S and Ru-C distances in 2 are 2.416 and 2.137 , respectively. The reaction of cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CO)(2) with iodine gave the 2:1 molecular iodine complex cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CO)(2).(1)/(2)I(2) 4, which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 7.347(2), b = 22.227(2) , c = 12.891(2) , and beta =95.98 (2) degrees for Z = 4. The mean Ru-S and Ru-C and the I-I distances in complex 4 are 2.427, 1.903, and 2.745(1) , respectively. Treatment of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2) with I(2) gave the linear Ru(II)-Ru(III)-Ru(III) trimer [Ru(3)(Et(2)dtc)(6)(DMSO)(2)](I(3))(2), 5, which crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 14.125(3) , b = 20.829(6) , c = 13.658(3) , alpha = 97.57(2) degrees, beta = 110.01(2) degrees, and gamma = 71.25(2) degrees for Z = 2. The structure of complex 6 can be viewed as consisting of a {Ru(2)(III)(Et(2)dtc)(4)}(2+) core and a {Ru(II)(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2)} moiety, which are linked together via the two dithiocarbamate sulfurs of the latter. While the two Ru(III) centers are connected by a Ru-Ru single bond (Ru-Ru = 2.826(2) ), there is no direct interaction between the Ru(III) and Ru(II) centers. Oxidation of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)L(2) (L = PPh(3), t-BuNC) by I(2) gave the respective [Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)L(2)](+) cations. The reaction of cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(PPh(3))(2) with excess tosyl azide gave the diamagnetic Ru(IV) tetrazene complex Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(Ts(2)N(4)), 7. Complex 7 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 10.380(1) , b = 11.322(1) , c = 15.310(1) , alpha = 106.84(2) degrees, beta = 106.87(2) degrees, and gamma = 92.63(2) degrees for Z = 2. The Ru-S and Ru-N(alpha) distances in 7 are 2.385 and 1.98 , respectively. The formal potentials of the Ru dithiocarbamate complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry. PMID:11670104

  17. Photosynthetic water oxidation: binding and activation of substrate waters for O-O bond formation.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, David J; Khan, Sahr; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-12-22

    Photosynthetic water oxidation occurs at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II (PSII). The OEC, which contains a Mn4CaO5 inorganic cluster ligated by oxides, waters and amino-acid residues, cycles through five redox intermediates known as Si states (i = 0-4). The electronic and structural properties of the transient S4 intermediate that forms the O-O bond are not well understood. In order to gain insight into how water is activated for O-O bond formation in the S4 intermediate, we have performed a detailed analysis of S-state dependent substrate water binding kinetics taking into consideration data from Mn coordination complexes. This analysis supports a model in which the substrate waters are both bound as terminal ligands and react via a water-nucleophile attack mechanism. PMID:26447686

  18. Kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, W. L.; Hanson, R. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen has been studied in the temperature range 2400-4500 K using a shock-tube technique. Mixtures of NO and H2 diluted in argon or krypton were heated by incident shock waves, and the infrared emission from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO at 5.3 microns was used to monitor the time-varying NO concentration. The decomposition of nitric oxide behind the shock was found to be modeled well by a fifteen-reaction system. A principal result of the study was the determination of the rate constant k1 for the reaction H + NO yields N + OH, which may be the rate-limiting step for NO removal in some combustion systems. Experimental values of k1 were obtained for each test through comparisons of measured and numerically predicted NO profiles. The data are fit closely by the expression k1 = 1.34 times 10 to the fourteenth power exp(-49 200/RT) cu cm/mole-sec. These data appear to be the first available for this rate constant.

  19. Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR)

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Justine P.

    2015-03-03

    Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR) Research during the project period focused primarily on mechanisms of water oxidation by structurally defined transition metal complexes. Competitive oxygen isotope fractionation of water, mediated by oxidized precursors or reduced catalysts together with ceric, Ce(IV), ammonium nitrate in aqueous media, afforded oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects (O-18 KIEs). Measurement, calculation, and interpretation of O-18 KIEs, described in the accompanying report has important ramifications for the production of electricity and solar hydrogen (as fuel). The catalysis division of BES has acknowledged that understanding mechanisms of transition metal catalyzed water oxidation has major ramifications, potentially leading to transformation of the global economy and natural environment in years to come. Yet, because of program restructuring and decreased availability of funds, it was recommended that the Solar Photochemistry sub-division of BES would be a more appropriate parent program for support of continued research.

  20. Laccase-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Assemblies as Efficient Nanobiocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Patila, Michaela; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene oxide-enzyme layers present in the nanostructure. The fGO-TvL nanoassemblies exhibit an enhanced thermal stability at 60 °C, as demonstrated by a 4.7-fold higher activity as compared to the free enzyme. The multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies can efficiently catalyze the oxidation of anthracene, as well as the decolorization of an industrial dye, pinacyanol chloride. These materials retained almost completely their decolorization activity after five reaction cycles, proving their potential as efficient nano- biocatalysts for various applications. PMID:26927109

  1. Origin of the synchronicity in bond formation in polar Diels-Alder reactions: an ELF analysis of the reaction between cyclopentadiene and tetracyanoethylene.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Prez, Patricia; Sez, Jose A

    2012-05-21

    The origin of the synchronicity in C-C bond formation in polar Diels-Alder (P-DA) reactions involving symmetrically substituted electrophilic ethylenes has been studied by an ELF analysis of the electron reorganization along the P-DA reaction of cyclopentadiene (Cp) with tetracyanoethylene (TCE) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. The present study makes it possible to establish that the synchronicity in C-C bond formation in P-DA reactions is controlled by the symmetric distribution of the electron-density excess reached in the electrophile through the charge transfer process, which can be anticipated by an analysis of the spin electron-density at the corresponding radical anion. The ELF comparative analysis of bonding along the DA reactions of Cp with ethylene and with TCE asserts that these DA reactions, which have a symmetric electron reorganization, do not have a cyclic electron reorganization as the pericyclic mechanism states. Due to the very limited number of cases of symmetrically substituted ethylenes, we can conclude that the synchronous mechanism is an exception of DA reactions. PMID:22527420

  2. The structure of spinel/oxide reaction fronts during spinel-forming solid state reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, D.; Scholz, R.; Senz, S.; Sieber, H.; Werner, P.; Heydenreich, J.

    1995-09-01

    A series of spinels were grown by topotaxial solid state reaction on MgO(001) and sapphire (11.2) substrates. The structure of the various spinel/oxide reaction fronts was investigated by cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy and other methods. While for extremely low misfit the reaction front is completely coherent, different interfacial defects form in other cases, depending on sing and amount of the spinel/oxide lattice misfit. For a large positive misfit, a network of misfit dislocations occurred all running along <100>, with Burgers vectors of types a/2[101] and a/2[011] pointing out of the interface. The perpendicular Burgers vector component along [001] permits these dislocations to glide in order to cope with the advancing reaction front, avoiding kinetically unfavorable climb processes. The latter have, however, been observed in negative misfit, where the interfacial dislocation run along <110>, with their Burgers vectors lying in the interface plane. At the sapphire/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} front the structure is completely different. Here the h.c.p.-type oxygen sublattice of sapphire is reconstructed into the f.c.c.-type oxygen sublattice of the spinel, which requires a tilt of the MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} lattice and the formation of interfacial ledges.

  3. Reaction of gas phase OH with unsaturated self-assembled monolayers and relevance to atmospheric organic oxidations.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Samar G; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-08-28

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of gas phase OH radicals with organics on surfaces are of fundamental chemical interest, as well as relevant to understanding the degradation of organics on tropospheric surfaces or when they are components of airborne particles. We report here studies of the oxidation of a terminal alkene self-assembled monolayer (7-octenyltrichlorosilane, C8= SAM) on a germanium attenuated total reflectance crystal by OH radicals at a concentration of 2.1 x 10(5) cm(-3) at 1 atm total pressure and 298 K in air. Loss of the reactant SAM and the formation of surface products were followed in real time using infrared spectroscopy. From the rate of loss of the C=C bond, a reaction probability within experimental error of unity was derived. The products formed on the surface include organic nitrates and carbonyl compounds, with yields of 10 +/- 4% and < or = 7 +/- 4%, respectively, and there is evidence for the formation of organic products with C-O bonds such as alcohols, ethers and/or alkyl peroxides and possibly peroxynitrates. The yield of organic nitrates relative to carbonyl compounds is higher than expected based on analogous gas phase mechanisms, suggesting that the branching ratio for the RO(2) + NO reaction is shifted to favor the formation of organic nitrates when the reaction occurs on a surface. Water uptake onto the surface was only slightly enhanced upon oxidation, suggesting that oxidation per se cannot be taken as a predictor of increased hydrophilicity of atmospheric organics. These experiments indicate that the mechanisms for the surface reactions are different from gas phase reactions, but the OH oxidation of surface species will still be a significant contributor to determining their lifetimes in air. PMID:20532334

  4. RH and H2 production in reactions between ROH and small molybdenum oxide cluster anions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Sarah E; Jarrold, Caroline C

    2014-09-18

    To test recent computational studies on the mechanism of metal oxide cluster anion reactions with water [Ramabhadran, R. O.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 3066; Ramabhadran, R. O.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 17039], the reactivity of molybdenum oxo–cluster anions, Mo(x)O(y)(–) (x = 1 – 4; y ≤ 3x) toward both methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH) has been studied using mass spectrometric analysis of products formed in a high-pressure, fast-flow reactor. The size-dependent product distributions are compared to previous Mo(x)O(y)(–) + H2O/D2O reactivity studies, with particular emphasis on the Mo2O(y)(–) and Mo3O(y)(–) series. In general, sequential oxidation, Mo(x)O(y)(–) + ROH → Mo(x)O(y+1)(–) + RH, and addition reactions, Mo(x)O(y)(–) + ROH → Mo(x)O(y+1)RH(–), largely corresponded with previously studied Mo(x)O(y)(–) + H2O/D2O reactions [Rothgeb, D. W., Mann, J. E., and Jarrold, C. C. J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 133, 054305], though with much lower rate constants than those determined for Mo(x)O(y)(–) + H2O/D2O reactions. This finding is consistent with the computational studies that suggested that −H mobility on the cluster–water complex was an important feature in the overall reactivity. There were several notable differences between cluster–ROH and cluster–water reactions associated with lower R–OH bond dissociation energies relative to the HO–H dissociation energy. PMID:24661103

  5. A radical process towards the development of transition-metal-free aromatic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tek Long; Wu, Yinuo; Choy, Pui Ying; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2013-11-18

    Transition-metal-free cross-coupling reactions have been a hot topic in recent years. With the aid of a radical initiator, a number of unactivated arene C-H bonds can be directly arylated/functionalized by using aryl halides through homolytic aromatic substitution. Commercially available or specially designed promoters (e.g. diamines, diols, and amino alcohols) have been used to make this synthetically attractive method viable. This protocol offers an inexpensive, yet efficient route to aromatic C-C bond formations since transition metal catalysts and impurities can be avoided by using this reaction system. In this article, we focus on the significance of the reaction conditions (e.g. bases and promoters), which allow this type of reaction to proceed smoothly. Substrate scope limitations and challenges, as well as mechanistic discussion are also included. PMID:24166759

  6. Substrate Controlled Synthesis of Benzisoxazole and Benzisothiazole Derivatives via PhI(OAc)2-Mediated Oxidation Followed by Intramolecular Oxidative O-N/S-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Devireddy; Patel, Om P S; Maurya, Rahul K; Kant, Ruchir; Yadav, Prem P

    2015-12-18

    A phenyliodine(III) diacetate (PIDA)-mediated, highly efficient and tandem approach for the synthesis of aryldiazenylisoxazolo(isothiazolo)arenes from simple 2-amino-N'-arylbenzohydrazides has been developed. The reaction proceeds via formation of (E)-(2-aminoaryl)(aryldiazenyl)methanone as the key intermediate, followed by intramolecular oxidative O-N/S-N bond formation in one pot at room temperature. The quiet different reactivity of the substrate is due to the formation of a diazo intermediate which encounters a nucleophilic attack by carbonyl oxygen on the electrophilic amine to produce isoxazole products, as compared to the previous reportsa,b,4 in which an N-acylnitrenium ion intermediate is intramolecularly trapped by an amine group. PMID:26565748

  7. An in vitro study to evaluate the effects of addition of zinc oxide to an orthodontic bonding agent

    PubMed Central

    Jatania, Archana; Shivalinga, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test the antimicrobial effect of zinc oxide when incorporated into an orthodontic bonding material and to check the effect of addition of zinc oxide on the shear bond strength of the bonding material. Materials and Methods: Zinc oxide was added to a resin modified light cure glass ionomer cement (GIC) (Fuji Ortho LC GC America, Alsip, Ill) to make modified bonding agent containing 13% and 23.1% ZnO and the antimicrobial assay was done using agar disc diffusion method. Discs of the modified bonding agent were prepared and a culture of Streptococcus mutans mixed with soft agar was poured over it and incubated at 38°C for 48 h and zones of inhibition were measured. The test was repeated after a month to check the antimicrobial effect. In addition shear bond strength of the brackets bonded with the modified bonding agent was tested. Results: The agar disc showed zones of inhibition around the modified bonding agent and the antimicrobial activity was more when the concentration of ZnO was increased. The antimicrobial effect was present even after a month. The shear bond strength decreased as the concentration of ZnO increased. Conclusion: The incorporation of ZnO into a resin modified light cure GIC (Fuji Ortho LC GC America, Alsip, Ill) added antimicrobial property to the original compound. PMID:24966757

  8. Oxidation reactions catalyzed by manganese peroxidase isoenzymes from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora.

    PubMed

    Urza, U; Fernando Larrondo, L; Lobos, S; Larran, J; Vicua, R

    1995-09-01

    A total of 11 manganese peroxidase isoenzymes (MnP1-MnP11) with isoelectric points (pIs) in the range of 4.58-3.20 were isolated from liquid- and solid-state cultures of the basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, these isoenzymes showed different requirements for Mn(II) in the oxidation of vanillylacetone, o-dianisidine, p-anisidine and ABTS, whereas oxidation of guaiacol by any isoenzyme did not take place when this metal was omitted. Km values for o-dianisidine and p-anisidine in the absence of Mn(II) are in the range of 0.5-1.0 mM and 4.5-42.0 mM, respectively. Oxalate and citrate, but not tartrate, accelerate the oxidation of o-dianisidine, both in the presence and in the absence of Mn(II). MnPs from this fungus are able to oxidize kojic acid without externally added hydrogen peroxide, indicating that they can also act as oxidases. In this reaction, however, the requirement for Mn(II) is absolute. PMID:7672112

  9. Photochemical reactions of biologically important quinoxaline n-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoryantseva, G.G.; Tetenchuk, K.P.; Pol'shakov, V.I.; Elina, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    The authors study the photochemical reactions of quinoxidine, dioxidine, and a number of related derivatives of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides containing methyl, halomethyl, and carboxamide groups in the pyrazine ring. Thin-layer chromatography, UV spectrophotometry, and NMR/sup 1/H and /sup 13/C spectroscopy were used as the main methods for monitoring the photolysis process and establishing the structure of the products formed. The investigation established that two types of photochemical reactions are observed in the series of compounds discussed: photoisomerization with migration of a substitutent to the nitrogen atom of the heterocycle, and photorearrangement with elimination of a substituent and the formation of the corresponding lactams.

  10. [Inactivation of o-diphenoloxidase in the pyrocatechol oxidation reaction].

    PubMed

    Butovich, I A; Tertykh, V A

    1984-01-01

    The inactivation kinetics of o-diphenoloxidase isolated from potato tubers was studied in the process of pyrocatechol oxidation. The enzyme when saturated with the substrate is inactivated with the inactivation rate constant kin = 0.5-1.0 min-1; kin depends on the initial concentration of pyrocatechol. The ultimate yield of the enzymic reaction product increases linearly with the initial concentration of the enzyme. Introduction of ethylene-diaminosulphate, a substance which condenses with o-quinones, does not increase the operation stability of o-diphenoloxidase. The data obtained evidence for inactivation of o-diphenoloxidase either at the level of the enzyme-substrate complex or due to bimolecular reaction with the substrate. PMID:6438852

  11. Oxidation reactions of thymol: a pulse radiolysis and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Venu, S; Naik, D B; Sarkar, S K; Aravind, Usha K; Nijamudheen, A; Aravindakumar, C T

    2013-01-17

    The reactions of (•)OH and O(•-), with thymol, a monoterpene phenol and an antioxidant, were studied by pulse radiolysis technique and DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Thymol was found to efficiently scavenge OH radicals (k = 8.1 × 10(9) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) to produce reducing adduct radicals, with an absorption maximum at 330 nm and oxidizing phenoxyl radicals, with absorption maxima at 390 and 410 nm. A major part of these adduct radicals was found to undergo water elimination, leading to phenoxyl radicals, and the process was catalyzed by OH(-) (or Na(2)HPO(4)). The rate of reaction of O(•-) with thymol was found to be comparatively low (k = 1.1 × 10(9) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)), producing H abstracted species of thymol as well as phenoxyl radicals. Further, these phenoxyl radicals of thymol were found to be repaired by ascorbate (k = 2.1 × 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)). To support the interpretation of the experimental results, DFT calculations were carried out. The transients (both adducts and H abstracted species) have been optimized in gas phase at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of calculation. The relative energy values and thermodynamic stability suggests that the ortho adduct (C6_OH adduct) to be most stable in the reaction of thymol with OH radicals, which favors the water elimination. However, theoretical calculations showed that C4 atom in thymol (para position) can also be the reaction center as it is the main contributor of HOMO. The absorption maxima (λ(max)) calculated from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for these transient species were close to those obtained experimentally. Finally, the redox potential value of thymol(•)/thymol couple (0.98 V vs NHE) obtained by cyclic voltammetry is less than those of physiologically important oxidants, which reveals the antioxidant capacity of thymol, by scavenging these oxidants. The repair of the phenoxyl radicals of thymol with ascorbate together with the redox potential value makes it a potent antioxidant with minimum pro-oxidant effects. PMID:23240914

  12. Direct Reaction of Amides with Nitric Oxide To Form Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the apparently unprecedented direct reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with amides to generate ions of structure R(C=O)NH–N(O)=NO–, with examples including R = Me (1a) or 3-pyridyl (1b). The sodium salts of both released NO in pH 7.4 buffer, with 37 °C half-lives of 1–3 min. As NO-releasing drug candidates, diazeniumdiolated amides would have the advantage of generating only 1 equiv of base on hydrolyzing exhaustively to NO, in contrast to their amine counterparts, which generate 2 equiv of base. PMID:25210948

  13. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400 C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount of carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. {alpha}-Iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but ?-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  14. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Phillips, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2) sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  15. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2)sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative arylalkylation of activated alkenes: dual C-H bond cleavage of an arene and acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Mu, Xin; Liu, Guosheng

    2011-12-23

    Not one but two: The title reaction proceeds through the dual C-H bond cleavage of both aniline and acetonitrile. The reaction affords a variety of cyano-bearing indolinones in excellent yield. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that this reaction involves a fast arylation of the olefin and a rate-determining C-H activation of the acetonitrile. PMID:22076660

  17. Molybdenum(VI) network polymers based on anion-? interaction and hydrogen bonding: Synthesis, crystal structures and oxidation catalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Ge; Shi, Zhan; Yang, Mu; Luck, Rudy L.

    2009-11-01

    A crystallographic investigation of anion-? interactions and hydrogen bonds on the preferred structural motifs of molybdenum(VI) complexes has been carried out. Two molybdenum(VI) network polymers MoO 2F 4(Hinca) 2 ( 1) and MoO 2F 3(H 2O)(Hinpa) ( 2), where inca = isonicotinamide and inpa = isonipecotamide, have been synthesized, crystallographically characterized and successfully applied to alcohol oxidation reaction. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space C2/ c: a = 16.832(3) , b = 8.8189(15) , c = 12.568(2) , ? = 118.929(3), V = 1560.1(5) 3, Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space P-1: a = 5.459(2) , b = 9.189(4) , c = 12.204(5) , ? = 71.341(6), ? = 81.712(7), ? = 77.705(7), V = 564.8(4) 3, Z = 2. Complex 1 consists of hydrogen bonding and anion-? interactions, both of which are considered as important factors for controlling the geometric features and packing characteristics of the crystal structure. The geometry of the sandwich complex of [MoO 2F 4] 2- with two pyridine rings indicates that the anion-? interaction is an additive and provides a base for the design and synthesis of new complexes. For complex 2, the anions and the protonated inpa ligands form a 2D supramolecular network by four different types of hydrogen contacts (N-H⋯F, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯F and O-H⋯O). The catalytic ability of complexes 1 and 2 has also been evaluated by applying them to the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with TBHP as oxidant.

  18. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. Thesemore » results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce low-temperature reactivity during autoignition.« less

  19. Influence of interfacial shear strength on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the influence of interfacial microstructure and shear strength on the mechanical properties of a 30 vol pct uniaxially-aligned SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4-matrix composite whose interface microstructure was varied through control of fabrication conditions and by heat-treatment in an oxidizing environment. The carbon-rich coating of the as-produced SiC fibers was stable in composites fabricated at 1200 C in an N or N + 4-percent H mixture for 40 hrs. This coating was degraded in composites fabricated at 1350 C in N + 4 percent H for 40 and 72 hrs, as well as after heat-treatment in an oxidizing environment at 600 C for 100 hrs even after fabrication at 1200 C in N. This degradation occurred via carbon removal.

  20. A half-reaction alternative to water oxidation: chloride oxidation to chlorine catalyzed by silver ion.

    PubMed

    Du, Jialei; Chen, Zuofeng; Chen, Chuncheng; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-03-11

    Chloride oxidation to chlorine is a potential alternative to water oxidation to oxygen as a solar fuels half-reaction. Ag(I) is potentially an oxidative catalyst but is inhibited by the high potentials for accessing the Ag(II/I) and Ag(III/II) couples. We report here that the complex ions AgCl2(-) and AgCl3(2-) form in concentrated Cl(-) solutions, avoiding AgCl precipitation and providing access to the higher oxidation states by delocalizing the oxidative charge over the Cl(-) ligands. Catalysis is homogeneous and occurs at high rates and low overpotentials (10 mV at the onset) with ?M Ag(I). Catalysis is enhanced in D2O as solvent, with a significant H2O/D2O inverse kinetic isotope effect of 0.25. The results of computational studies suggest that Cl(-) oxidation occurs by 1e(-) oxidation of AgCl3(2-) to AgCl3(-) at a decreased potential, followed by Cl(-) coordination, presumably to form AgCl4(2-) as an intermediate. Adding a second Cl(-) results in "redox potential leveling", with further oxidation to {AgCl2(Cl2)}(-) followed by Cl2 release. PMID:25700124

  1. Optimization of reaction conditions in selective oxidation of styrene over fine crystallite spinel-type CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} complex oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Pardeshi, Satish K.; Pawar, Ravindra Y.

    2010-05-15

    The CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel-type catalyst was synthesized by citrate gel method and well characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The crystallization temperature of the spinel particle prepared by citrate gel method was 600 {sup o}C which was lower than that of ferrite prepared by other methods. CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalysts prepared by citrate gel method show better activity for styrene oxidation in the presence of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%) as an oxidizing agent. In this reaction the oxidative cleavage of carbon-carbon double bond of styrene takes place selectively with 38 {+-} 2 mol% conversion. The major product of the reaction is benzaldehyde up to 91 {+-} 2 mol% and minor product phenyl acetaldehyde up to 9 {+-} 2 mol%, respectively. The products obtained in the styrene oxidation reaction were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The influence of the catalyst, reaction time, temperature, amount of catalyst, styrene/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molar ratio and solvents on the conversion and product distribution were studied.

  2. Evidence of a reduction reaction of oxidized iron/cobalt by boron atoms diffused toward naturally oxidized surface of CoFeB layer during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Soshi Honjo, Hiroaki; Niwa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-06

    We have investigated the redox reaction on the surface of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction stack samples after annealing at 300, 350, and 400 °C for 1 h using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for precise analysis of the chemical bonding states. At a capping tantalum layer thickness of 1 nm, both the capping tantalum layer and the surface of the underneath CoFeB layer in the as-deposited stack sample were naturally oxidized. By comparison of the Co 2p and Fe 2p spectra among the as-deposited and annealed samples, reduction of the naturally oxidized cobalt and iron atoms occurred on the surface of the CoFeB layer. The reduction reaction was more significant at higher annealing temperature. Oxidized cobalt and iron were reduced by boron atoms that diffused toward the surface of the top CoFeB layer. A single CoFeB layer was prepared on SiO{sub 2}, and a confirmatory evidence of the redox reaction with boron diffusion was obtained by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the naturally oxidized surface of the CoFeB single layer after annealing. The redox reaction is theoretically reasonable based on the Ellingham diagram.

  3. Evidence of a reduction reaction of oxidized iron/cobalt by boron atoms diffused toward naturally oxidized surface of CoFeB layer during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Soshi; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo; Niwa, Masaaki

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the redox reaction on the surface of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction stack samples after annealing at 300, 350, and 400 °C for 1 h using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for precise analysis of the chemical bonding states. At a capping tantalum layer thickness of 1 nm, both the capping tantalum layer and the surface of the underneath CoFeB layer in the as-deposited stack sample were naturally oxidized. By comparison of the Co 2p and Fe 2p spectra among the as-deposited and annealed samples, reduction of the naturally oxidized cobalt and iron atoms occurred on the surface of the CoFeB layer. The reduction reaction was more significant at higher annealing temperature. Oxidized cobalt and iron were reduced by boron atoms that diffused toward the surface of the top CoFeB layer. A single CoFeB layer was prepared on SiO2, and a confirmatory evidence of the redox reaction with boron diffusion was obtained by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the naturally oxidized surface of the CoFeB single layer after annealing. The redox reaction is theoretically reasonable based on the Ellingham diagram.

  4. Synthesis and oxidation behavior of nanocrystalline MCrAlY bond coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdelsztajn, L.; Tang, F.; Schoenung, J. M.; Kim, G. E.; Provenzano, V.

    2005-03-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems protect turbine blades against high-temperature corrosion and oxidation. They consist of a metal bond coat (MCrAlY, M = Ni, Co) and a ceramic top layer (ZrO2/Y2O3). In this work, the oxidation behavior of conventional and nanostructured high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) NiCrAlY coatings has been compared. Commercially available NiCrAlY powder was mechanically cryomilled and HVOF sprayed on a nickel alloy foil to form a nanocrystalline coating. Freestanding bodies of conventional and nanostructured HVOF NiCrAlY coatings were oxidized at 1000 C for different time periods to form the thermally grown oxide layer. The experiments show an improvement in oxidation resistance in the nanostructured coating when compared with that of the conventional one. The observed behavior is a result of the formation of a continuous Al2O3 layer on the surface of the nanostructured HVOF NiCrAlY coating. This layer protects the coating from further oxidation and avoids the formation of mixed oxide protrusions present in the conventional coating.

  5. Reactions of 4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole with alkylating agents and compounds with activated multiple bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Vereshchagin, L.I.; Kuznetsova, N.I.; Kirillova, L.P.; Shcherbakov, V.V.; Sukhanov, G.T.; Gareev, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    When 4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole is alkylated, a mixture of N1- and N2-isomers is formed, with the latter usually predominating. The same behavior is also observed in addition reactions of 4-nitrotriazole to activated multiple bonds.

  6. Recent advancements and challenges of palladiumII-catalyzed oxidation reactions with molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Gligorich, Keith M.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    During the past 10 years there have been significant advances in PdII-catalyzed oxidation reactions where the use of ligands has led to the development of catalytic systems capable of achieving high turnover numbers, which employ molecular oxygen as the sole stoichiometric oxidant. This Feature article will highlight some of the recent developments in direct molecular oxygen-coupled PdII-catalyzed oxidation reactions with an emphasis on enhanced catalytic systems and new reactions. Additionally, limitations of current catalytic systems, such as ligand oxidation, are presented and their implications for the development of new reactions are discussed. PMID:19662234

  7. Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Fons-Font, Antonio; Amig-Borrs, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, Mara; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubn A.; Sol-Ruiz, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 m aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (?=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-W<0.001). The worst techniques were Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Rely X; Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Multilink and Lava TM + CoJet + silane + Multilink. Adhesive failure (separation of cement and ceramic) was produced at a lesser force than cohesive failure (fracture of cement) (p-value M-W<0.001). Electron microscopy confirmed that the surface treatments modified the zirconium-oxide ceramic, creating a more rough and retentive surface, thus providing an improved micromechanical interlocking between the cement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

  8. Gas-phase reaction of CeVO5(+) cluster ions with C2H4: the reactivity of cluster bonded peroxides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia-Bi; Meng, Jing-Heng; He, Sheng-Gui

    2015-02-21

    Cerium-vanadium oxide cluster cations CeVO5(+) were generated by laser ablation, mass-selected using a quadrupole mass filter, thermalized through collisions with helium atoms, and then reacted with ethene molecules in a linear ion trap reactor. The cluster reactions have been characterized by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations. The CeVO5(+) cluster has a closed-shell electronic structure and contains a peroxide (O2(2-)) unit. The cluster bonded O2(2-) species is reactive enough to oxidize a C2H4 molecule to generate C2H4O2 that can be an acetic acid molecule. Atomic oxygen radicals (O(-)˙), superoxide radicals (O2(-)˙), and peroxides are the three common reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of cluster bonded O(-)˙ and O2(-)˙ radicals has been widely studied while the O2(2-) species were generally thought to be much less reactive or inert toward small molecules under thermal collision conditions. This work is among the first to report the reactivity of the peroxide unit on transition metal oxide clusters with hydrocarbon molecules, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:25573178

  9. Development of a classical force field for the oxidized Si surface: Application to hydrophilic wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel J.; Payne, Mike C.; Csányi, Gábor; Mark Spearing, S.; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio

    2007-11-01

    We have developed a classical two- and three-body interaction potential to simulate the hydroxylated, natively oxidized Si surface in contact with water solutions, based on the combination and extension of the Stillinger-Weber potential and of a potential originally developed to simulate SiO2 polymorphs. The potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the structure, charge distribution, tensile surface stress, and interactions with single water molecules of a natively oxidized Si surface model previously obtained by means of accurate density functional theory simulations. We have applied the potential to the case of hydrophilic silicon wafer bonding at room temperature, revealing maximum room temperature work of adhesion values for natively oxidized and amorphous silica surfaces of 97 and 90mJ /m2, respectively, at a water adsorption coverage of approximately 1 ML. The difference arises from the stronger interaction of the natively oxidized surface with liquid water, resulting in a higher heat of immersion (203 vs 166mJ/m2), and may be explained in terms of the more pronounced water structuring close to the surface in alternating layers of larger and smaller densities with respect to the liquid bulk. The computed force-displacement bonding curves may be a useful input for cohesive zone models where both the topographic details of the surfaces and the dependence of the attractive force on the initial surface separation and wetting can be taken into account.

  10. Density Functional Theory Calculations and Analysis of Reaction Pathways for Reduction of Nitric Oxide by Hydrogen on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Farberow, Carrie A.; Dumesic, James A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-10-03

    Reaction pathways are explored for low temperature (e.g., 400 K) reduction of nitric oxide by hydrogen on Pt(111). First-principles electronic structure calculations based on periodic, self-consistent density functional theory(DFT-GGA, PW91) are employed to obtain thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for proposed reaction schemes on Pt(111). The surface of Pt(111) during NO reduction by H? at low temperatures is predicted to operate at a high NO coverage, and this environment is explicitly taken into account in the DFT calculations. Maximum rate analyses are performed to assess the most likely reaction mechanisms leading to formation of N?O, the major product observed experimentally at low temperatures. The results of these analyses suggest that the reaction most likely proceeds via the addition of at least two H atoms to adsorbed NO, followed by cleavage of the N-O bond.

  11. Palladium- and copper-mediated N-aryl bond formation reactions for the synthesis of biological active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Summary N-Arylated aliphatic and aromatic amines are important substituents in many biologically active compounds. In the last few years, transition-metal-mediated N-aryl bond formation has become a standard procedure for the introduction of amines into aromatic systems. While N-arylation of simple aromatic halides by simple amines works with many of the described methods in high yield, the reactions may require detailed optimization if applied to the synthesis of complex molecules with additional functional groups, such as natural products or drugs. We discuss and compare in this review the three main N-arylation methods in their application to the synthesis of biologically active compounds: Palladium-catalysed BuchwaldHartwig-type reactions, copper-mediated Ullmann-type and ChanLam-type N-arylation reactions. The discussed examples show that palladium-catalysed reactions are favoured for large-scale applications and tolerate sterically demanding substituents on the coupling partners better than ChanLam reactions. ChanLam N-arylations are particularly mild and do not require additional ligands, which facilitates the work-up. However, reaction times can be very long. Ullmann- and BuchwaldHartwig-type methods have been used in intramolecular reactions, giving access to complex ring structures. All three N-arylation methods have specific advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting the reaction conditions for a desired CN bond formation in the course of a total synthesis or drug synthesis. PMID:21286396

  12. Quantification of reaction violence and combustion enthalpy of plastic bonded explosive 9501 under strong confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, W. Lee; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    The confinement experienced by an explosive during thermal self-initiation can substantially affect performance in terms of deflagration-to-detonation characteristics and explosion/detonation violence. To this end, we have developed an experiment to quantitatively observe enthalpy change and reaction violence in thermally initiated plastic bonded explosive (PBX) 9501. Traditionally, researchers attempt to quantify violence using terminal observations of fragment size, fragment velocity, and through subjective observations. In the work presented here, the explosive was loaded into a heated gun assembly where we subjected a 300 mg charge to a cook-off schedule and a range of static and inertial confinements. Static confinement was controlled using rupture disks calibrated at 34.5 and 138 MPa. The use of 3.15 and 6.3 g projectile masses provided a variation in inertial confinement. This was a regime of strong confinement; a significant fraction of the explosive energy was required to rupture the disk, and the projectile mass was large compared to the charge mass. The state variables pressure and volume were measured in the breech. From these data, we quantified both the reaction enthalpy change and energy release rate of the explosive on a microsecond time scale using a thermodynamic analyisis. We used these values to unambiguously quantify explosion violence as a function of confinement at a fixed cook-off schedule of 190 C for 1 h. P2?, a measure of critical shock energy required for shock ignition of an adjacent explosive was also computed. We found variations in this confinement regime to have a weak effect on enthalpy change, power, violence and shock energy. Violence was approximately 100 times lower than detonating trinitrotoluene, but the measured shock energy approached the critical shock energy for initiating secondary high explosives.

  13. Synthesis of Polyheteroaromatic Compounds via Rhodium-Catalyzed Multiple C-H Bond Activation and Oxidative Annulation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shiyong; Liu, Suna; Zhang, Sai; Cao, Shengyu; Sun, Jiangtao

    2015-10-16

    Polyheteroaromatic compounds are potential optoelectronic conjugated materials due to their electro- and photochemical properties. Transition-metal-catalyzed multiple C-H activation and sequential oxidative annulation allows rapidly assembling of those compounds from readily available starting materials. A rhodium-catalyzed cascade oxidative annulation of ?-enamino esters or 4-aminocoumarins with internal alkynes is described to access those compounds, featuring multiple C-H/N-H bond cleavages and sequential C-C/C-N bond formations in one pot. PMID:26439472

  14. Infrared driven CO oxidation reactions on isolated platinum cluster oxides, Pt(n)O(m)+.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Alexander C; Hamilton, Suzanne M; Cooper, Graham A; Kerpal, Christian; Harding, Dan J; Meijer, Gerard; Fielicke, Andr; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2012-01-01

    This collaboration has recently shown that infrared excitation can drive decomposition reactions of molecules on the surface of gas-phase transition metal clusters. We describe here a significant extension of this work to the study of bimolecular reactions initiated in a similar manner. Specifically, we have observed the infrared activated CO oxidation reaction (CO(ads) + O(ads) --> CO2(g)) on isolated platinum oxide cations, Pt(n)O(m)+. Small platinum cluster oxides Pt(n)O(m)+ (n = 3-7, m = 2, 4), have been decorated with CO molecules and subjected to multiple photon infrared excitation in the range 400-2200 cm(-1) using the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX). The Pt(n)O(m)CO+ clusters have been characterised by infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy using messenger atom tagging. Evidence is observed for isomers involving both dissociatively and molecularly adsorbed oxygen on the cluster surface. Further information is obtained on the evolution of the cluster structure with number of platinum atoms and CO coverage. In separate experiments, Pt(n)O(m)CO+ clusters have been subjected to infrared heating via the CO stretch around 2100 cm(-1). On all clusters investigated, the CO oxidation reaction, indicated by CO2 loss and production of Pt(n)O(m) = 1+, is found to compete effectively with the CO desorption channel. The experimental observations are compared with the results of preliminary DFT calculations in order to identify both cluster structures and plausible mechanisms for the surface reaction. PMID:23230771

  15. Formation, structure and bond dissociation thresholds of gas-phase vanadium oxide cluster ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. C.; Zemski, K. A.; Justes, D. R.; Castleman, A. W.

    2001-01-01

    The formation and structure of gas-phase vanadium oxide cluster anions are examined using a guided ion beam mass spectrometer coupled with a laser vaporization source. The dominant peaks in the anion total mass distribution correspond to clusters having stoichiometries of the form (VO2)n(VO3)m(O2)q-. Collision-induced dissociation studies of the vanadium oxide species V2O4-6-, V3O6-9-, V4O8-10-, V5O11-13-, V6O13-15-, and V7O16-18- indicate that VO2, VO3, and V2O5 units are the main building blocks of these clusters. There are many similarities between the anion mass distribution and that of the cation distribution studied previously. The principal difference is a shift to higher oxygen content by one additional oxygen atom for the stoichiometric anions (VxOy-) as compared to the cations with the same number of vanadium atoms, which is attributed to the extra pair of electrons of the anionic species. The oxygen-rich clusters, VxOy(O2)-, are shown to more tightly adsorb molecular oxygen than those of the corresponding cationic clusters. In addition, the bond dissociation thresholds for the vanadium oxide clusters ΔE(V+-O)=6.09±0.28 eV, ΔE(OV+-O)=3.51±0.36 eV, and ΔE(O2V--O)=5.43±0.31 eV are determined from the energy-dependent collision-induced dissociation cross sections with Xe as the collision partner. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first bond dissociation energy reported for the breaking of the V-O bond of a vanadium oxide anion.

  16. Porous platinum mesoflowers with enhanced activity for methanol oxidation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Lina; Wang Wenjin; Hong Feng; Yang Shengchun; You Hongjun; Fang Jixiang; Ding Bingjun

    2012-07-15

    Porous Pt and Pt-Ag alloy mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesized using Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic reaction. The silver content in Pt-Ag alloys can be facilely controlled by nitric acid treatment. And the pure Pt MFs can be obtained by selective removal of silver element from Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} MFs electrochemically. Both Pt{sub 45}Ag{sub 55}, Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} and pure Pt show a high catalytic performance in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Especially, pure Pt MFs exhibited a 2 to 3 times current density enhancement in MOR compared with the commercial used Pt black, which can be attributed to their porous nanostructure with 3-dimentional nature and small crystal sizes. - Graphical Abstract: The CVs of MOR on Pt (red) and Pt black (green) catalysts in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and 0.5 M CH{sub 3}OH for specific mass current. The insert shows the SEM images of two porous Pt MFs. Platinum mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesised with Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic replacement. The porous Pt MFs exhibited a more than 3 times enhancement in electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation reaction compared the commercial used Pt black. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Pt and Pt-Ag mesoflowers (MFs) were synthesized using Ag MFs sacrifical template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pt MFs presents an improved catalytic activity in MOR compared with Pt black. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provided a facile approach for the development of high performance Pt electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  17. Effect of composition on the processing and properties of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.; Montgomery, F.C.; Lin, H.T.; Barker, D.L.; Snodgrass, J.D.; Sabolsky, E.M.; Coffey, D.W.

    1996-04-01

    The type of silicon powder and sintering additive were found to influence the processing and final mechanical properties of sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride. High purity silicon powders produced low {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} content during nitridation. The Si powder type had no apparent effect on densification. More complete nitridation and higher room temperature mechanical properties were observed for the Si powders with higher Fe contents. However, the higher Fe contents resulted in greater high temperature strength degradation and so there was better high temperature strength retention with the higher purity Si. High {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} contents were found after nitridation with {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} seeded materials and with MgO-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the sintering additive. Densification was inhibited by refractory additives, such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. The highest room temperature strength and fracture toughness values correlated to high nitrided {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} contents. The high temperature strength behavior was similar for all additive types.

  18. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to determine if the formation of the generally observed layer of large porosity adjacent to the as-nitride surfaces of reaction bonded silicon nitrides could be prevented during processing. Isostatically pressed test bars were prepared from wet vibratory milled Si powder. Sintering and nitriding were each done under three different conditions:(1) bars directly exposed to the furnance atmosphere; (2) bars packed in Si powder; (3) bars packed in Si3N4 powder. Packing the bars in either Si of Si3N4 powder during sintering retarded formation of the layer of large porosity. Only packing the bars in Si prevented formation of the layer during nitridation. The strongest bars (316 MPa) were those sintered in Si and nitrided in Si3N4 despite their having a layer of large surface porosity; failure initiated at very large pores and inclusions. The alpha/beta ratio was found to be directly proportional to the oxygen content; a possible explanation for this relationship is discussed.

  19. CBr4 Mediated Oxidative C-N Bond Formation: Applied in the Synthesis of Imidazo[1,2-α]pyridines and Imidazo[1,2-α]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Huo, Congde; Tang, Jing; Xie, Haisheng; Wang, Yajun; Dong, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The carbon tetrabromide mediated oxidative carbon-nitrogen bond formation of 2-aminopyridines or 2-aminopyrimidines with β-keto esters or 1,3-diones, leading to a variety of complex imidazo[1,2-α]pyridines or imidazo[1,2-α]pyrimidines, is reported. The reactions were realized under mild and metal-free conditions. PMID:26882001

  20. Kinetics and dynamics of oxidation reactions involving an adsorbed CO species on bulk and supported platinum and copper-oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Harold, M.P.

    1991-07-01

    The proposed research is an integrated experimental and modeling study of oxidation reactions involving CO as a key player -- be it a reactant, adsorbed intermediate, and/or partial oxidation product -- in the catalytic sequence and chemistry. The reaction systems of interest in the project include CO, formaldehyde, and methanol oxidation by O{sub 2} and CO oxidation by NO, on both Pt and copper oxide catalysts. These reactions are of importance in automobile exhaust catalysis. There is a paucity of rate data in the literature for these important environmental control reactions. The goal of this research is to better understand the catalytic chemistry and kinetics of oxidations reactions involving CO as an adsorbed intermediate. Successfully meeting this goal requires an integration of basic kinetic measurements, in situ catalyst surface monitoring, kinetic modeling, and nonlinear mathematical tools.

  1. Mass transfer model for two-layer TBP oxidation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1994-09-28

    To prove that two-layer, TBP-nitric acid mixtures can be safely stored in the canyon evaporators, it must be demonstrated that a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid will not occur. Previous bench-scale experiments showed that, at typical evaporator temperatures, this reaction is endothermic and therefore cannot run away, due to the loss of heat from evaporation of water in the organic layer. However, the reaction would be exothermic and could run away if the small amount of water in the organic layer evaporates before the nitric acid in this layer is consumed by the reaction. Provided that there is enough water in the aqueous layer, this would occur if the organic layer is sufficiently thick so that the rate of loss of water by evaporation exceeds the rate of replenishment due to mixing with the aqueous layer. This report presents measurements of mass transfer rates for the mixing of water and butanol in two-layer, TBP-aqueous mixtures, where the top layer is primarily TBP and the bottom layer is comprised of water or aqueous salt solution. Mass transfer coefficients are derived for use in the modeling of two-layer TBP-nitric acid oxidation experiments. Three cases were investigated: (1) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of both the aqueous and TBP layers, (2) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of just the TBP layer, and (3) transfer of butanol into the aqueous layer with sparging of both layers. The TBP layer was comprised of 99% pure TBP (spiked with butanol for the butanol transfer experiments), and the aqueous layer was comprised of either water or an aluminum nitrate solution. The liquid layers were air sparged to simulate the mixing due to the evolution of gases generated by oxidation reactions. A plastic tube and a glass frit sparger were used to provide different size bubbles. Rates of mass transfer were measured using infrared spectrophotometers provided by SRTC/Analytical Development.

  2. Chemical bonds and vibrational properties of ordered (U, Np, Pu) mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We use density functional theory +U to investigate the chemical bonding characters and vibrational properties of the ordered (U, Np, Pu) mixed oxides (MOXs), UNpO4,NpPuO4, and UPuO4. It is found that the 5f electronic states of different actinide elements keep their localized characters in all three MOXs. The occupied 5f electronic states of different actinide elements do not overlap with each other and tend to distribute over the energy band gap of the other actinide element's 5f states. As a result, the three ordered MOXs all show smaller band gaps than those of the component dioxides, with values of 0.91, 1.47, and 0.19 eV for UNpO4,NpPuO4, and UPuO4, respectively. Through careful charge density analysis, we further show that the U-O and Pu-O bonds in MOXs show more ionic character than in UO2 and PuO2, while the Np-O bonds show more covalent character than in NpO2. The change in covalencies in the chemical bonds leads to vibrational frequencies of oxygen atoms that are different in MOXs.

  3. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  4. Initial Reactions in Anaerobic Oxidation of m-Xylene by the Denitrifying Bacterium Azoarcus sp. Strain T

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Cynthia J.; Beller, Harry R.; Reinhard, Martin; Spormann, Alfred M.

    1999-01-01

    The initial enzymatic steps in anaerobic m-xylene oxidation were studied in Azoarcus sp. strain T, a denitrifying bacterium capable of mineralizing m-xylene via 3-methylbenzoate. Permeabilized cells of m-xylene-grown Azoarcus sp. strain T catalyzed the addition of m-xylene to fumarate to form (3-methylbenzyl)succinate. In the presence of succinyl coenzyme A (CoA) and nitrate, (3-methylbenzyl)succinate was oxidized to E-(3-methylphenyl)itaconate (or a closely related isomer) and 3-methylbenzoate. Kinetic studies conducted with permeabilized cells and whole-cell suspensions of m-xylene-grown Azoarcus sp. strain T demonstrated that the specific rate of in vitro (3-methylbenzyl)succinate formation accounts for at least 15% of the specific rate of in vivo m-xylene consumption. Based on these findings, we propose that Azoarcus sp. strain T anaerobically oxidizes m-xylene to 3-methylbenzoate (or its CoA thioester) via (3-methylbenzyl)succinate and E-(3-methylphenyl)itaconate (or its CoA thioester) in a series of reactions that are analogous to those recently proposed for anaerobic toluene oxidation to benzoyl-CoA. A deuterium kinetic isotope effect was observed in the (3-methylbenzyl)succinate synthase reaction (and the benzylsuccinate synthase reaction), suggesting that a rate-determining step in this novel fumarate addition reaction involves breaking a C-H bond. PMID:10515931

  5. Tuning reactivity and mechanism in oxidation reactions by mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Wonwoo; Lee, Yong-Min; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-04-15

    Mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes generate high-valent iron(IV)-oxo intermediates that effect metabolically important oxidative transformations in the catalytic cycle of dioxygen activation. In 2003, researchers first spectroscopically characterized a mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo intermediate in the reaction of taurine: ?-ketogultarate dioxygenase (TauD). This nonheme iron enzyme with an iron active center was coordinated to a 2-His-1- carboxylate facial triad motif. In the same year, researchers obtained the first crystal structure of a mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex bearing a macrocyclic supporting ligand, [(TMC)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) (TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecene), in studies that mimicked the biological enzymes. With these breakthrough results, many other studies have examined mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo intermediates trapped in enzymatic reactions or synthesized in biomimetic reactions. Over the past decade, researchers in the fields of biological, bioinorganic, and oxidation chemistry have extensively investigated the structure, spectroscopy, and reactivity of nonheme iron(IV)-oxo species, leading to a wealth of information from these enzymatic and biomimetic studies. This Account summarizes the reactivity and mechanisms of synthetic mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes in oxidation reactions and examines factors that modulate their reactivities and change their reaction mechanisms. We focus on several reactions including the oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds, electron transfer, and oxygen atom exchange with water by synthetic mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes. In addition, we recently observed that the C-H bond activation by nonheme iron(IV)-oxo and other nonheme metal(IV)-oxo complexes does not follow the H-atom abstraction/oxygen-rebound mechanism, which has been well-established in heme systems. The structural and electronic effects of supporting ligands on the oxidizing power of iron(IV)-oxo complexes are significant in these reactions. However, the difference in spin states between nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes with an octahedral geometry (with an S = 1 intermediate-spin state) or a trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) geometry (with an S = 2 high-spin state) does not lead to a significant change in reactivity in biomimetic systems. Thus, the importance of the high-spin state of iron(IV)-oxo species in nonheme iron enzymes remains unexplained. We also discuss how the axial and equatorial ligands and binding of redox-inactive metal ions and protons to the iron-oxo moiety influence the reactivities of the nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes. We emphasize how these changes can enhance the oxidizing power of nonheme metal(IV)-oxo complexes in oxygen atom transfer and electron-transfer reactions remarkably. This Account demonstrates great advancements in the understanding of the chemistry of mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo intermediates within the last 10 years. PMID:24524675

  6. Charge-dependent non-bonded interaction methods for use in quantum mechanical modeling of condensed phase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuechler, Erich R.

    Molecular modeling and computer simulation techniques can provide detailed insight into biochemical phenomena. This dissertation describes the development, implementation and parameterization of two methods for the accurate modeling of chemical reactions in aqueous environments, with a concerted scientific effort towards the inclusion of charge-dependent non-bonded non-electrostatic interactions into currently used computational frameworks. The first of these models, QXD, modifies interactions in a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular (QM/MM) mechanical framework to overcome the current limitations of 'atom typing' QM atoms; an inaccurate and non-intuitive practice for chemically active species as these static atom types are dictated by the local bonding and electrostatic environment of the atoms they represent, which will change over the course of the simulation. The efficacy QXD model is demonstrated using a specific reaction parameterization (SRP) of the Austin Model 1 (AM1) Hamiltonian by simultaneously capturing the reaction barrier for chloride ion attack on methylchloride in solution and the solvation free energies of a series of compounds including the reagents of the reaction. The second, VRSCOSMO, is an implicit solvation model for use with the DFTB3/3OB Hamiltonian for biochemical reactions; allowing for accurate modeling of ionic compound solvation properties while overcoming the discontinuous nature of conventional PCM models when chemical reaction coordinates. The VRSCOSMO model is shown to accurately model the solvation properties of over 200 chemical compounds while also providing smooth, continuous reaction surfaces for a series of biologically motivated phosphoryl transesterification reactions. Both of these methods incorporate charge-dependent behavior into the non-bonded interactions variationally, allowing the 'size' of atoms to change in meaningful ways with respect to changes in local charge state, as to provide an accurate, predictive and transferable models for the interactions between the quantum mechanical system and their solvated surroundings.

  7. Structure, bonding and redox properties of scandium oxide clusters, a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai

    1999-10-01

    A systematic survey of scandium oxide molecules and clusters was performed by means of density functional theory (DFT). Various types of scandium to oxygen bonding were characterized. Main features of the resulting menagerie of stable gas phase species are: (1) a basic Sc 2O 2 molecule with rhombic structure, (2) a highly symmetric Sc 2O 3 molecule with structure and D 3h symmetry, (3) an Sc 2O 4 dimer, which is an O?Sc-O-O-Sc?O analogue to hydrogen peroxide, and (4) the most stable cluster of Sc 2O 4 stoichiometry. The latter can be understood as two Sc atoms bridged by two oxygen atoms and a peroxy unit, i.e.? Bond breaking in the peroxy bridge, forming, can be used as a model for O 2 dissociation on an early transition metal oxide surface. The formation of ionic species was also investigated, and for all the oxide systems both cationic and anionic species were found to be stable. Ionization was also found to enhance the formation of cluster species.

  8. Facile homolytic C?S bond breaking: the reaction of 2-propene-1-thiol on Mo(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. C.; Friend, C. M.; Uvdal, P.; Napier, M. E.

    1996-06-01

    Investigations of 2-propene-1-thiol on Mo(110) show that the facility for thiol desulfurization correlates with the homolytic C?S bond strength of the thiol. A substantial amount of C?S bond scission occurs upon adsorption of 2-propene-1-thiol on Mo(110) at 120 K based on X-ray photoelectron data. 2-Propene-1-thiol has an extremely weak C?S bond because of the resonance stabilization of the allyl radical. Propene, the product of 2-propene-1-thiol hydrogenolysis, evolves into the gas phase in the range 160-250 K; the propene evolution being controlled by the rate of desorption. Vibrational (electron energy loss) spectra are consistent with formation of 2-propene-1-thiolate via S?H bond cleavage, as well as hydrocarbon fragments at low temperature. A large fraction of the thiolate desulfurizes at 120 K to afford propene. A second hydrocarbon species is formed in the range 160-200 K, characterized by a low-frequency C?H stretch mode at 2770 cm -1, which reacts further below 250 K. The C?C bond in the thiol and in the propene product leads to a greater degree of non-selective reaction than is anticipated from a comparison of saturated thiols. Only in the order of 50% of the thiol reacts to afford propene, despite the facility for C?S bond scission.

  9. Calmodulin Methionine Residues are Targets For One-Electron Oxidation by Hydroxyl Radicals: Formation of S therefore N three-electron bonded Radical Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nauser, Thomas; Jacoby, Michael E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Squier, Thomas C.; Schoneich, Christian

    2005-02-01

    The one-electron (1e) oxidation of organic sulfides and methionine (Met) constitutes an important reaction mechanism in vivo.1,2 Evidence for a Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of Met35 in the Alzheimer's disease -amyloid peptide was obtained,3 and, based on theoretical studies, Met radical cations were proposed as intermediates.4 In the structure of -amyloid peptide, the formation of Met radical cations appears to be facilitated by a preexisting close sulfur-oxygen (S-O) interaction between the Met35 sulfur and the carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond C-terminal to Ile31.5 Substitution of Ile31 with Pro31 abolishes this S-O interaction,5 significantly reducing the ability of -amyloid to reduce Cu(II), and converts the neurotoxic wild-type -amyloid into a non-toxic peptide.6 The preexisting S-O bond characterized for wild-type -amyloid suggests that electron transfer from Met35 to Cu(II) is supported through stabilization of the Met radical cation by the electron-rich carbonyl oxygen, generating an SO-bonded7 sulfide radical cation (Scheme 1, reaction 1).5

  10. Oxidation Numbers, Oxidants, and Redox Reactions: Variants of the Electrophilic Bromination of Alkenes and Variants of the Application of Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissen, Marco; Strudthoff, Merle; Backhaus, Solveig; Eismann, Carolin; Oetken, Gesa; Kaling, Soren; Lenoir, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Oxidation-state and donor-acceptor concepts are important areas in the chemical education. Student worksheets containing problems that emphasize oxidation numbers, redox reactions of organic compounds, and stoichiometric reaction equations are presented. All of the examples are incorporated under one unifying topic: the production of vicinal

  11. Oxidation Numbers, Oxidants, and Redox Reactions: Variants of the Electrophilic Bromination of Alkenes and Variants of the Application of Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissen, Marco; Strudthoff, Merle; Backhaus, Solveig; Eismann, Carolin; Oetken, Gesa; Kaling, Soren; Lenoir, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Oxidation-state and donor-acceptor concepts are important areas in the chemical education. Student worksheets containing problems that emphasize oxidation numbers, redox reactions of organic compounds, and stoichiometric reaction equations are presented. All of the examples are incorporated under one unifying topic: the production of vicinal…

  12. Aerobic oxidation reactions catalyzed by vanadium complexes of bis(phenolate) ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Scott, Brian L; Wu, Ruilian; Silks, L A Pete; Hanson, Susan K

    2012-07-01

    Vanadium(V) complexes of the tridentate bis(phenolate)pyridine ligand H(2)BPP (H(2)BPP = 2,6-(HOC(6)H(2)-2,4-(t)Bu(2))(2)NC(5)H(3)) and the bis(phenolate)amine ligand H(2)BPA (H(2)BPA = N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylbenzyl)propylamine) have been synthesized and characterized. The ability of the complexes to mediate the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of pinacol was tested. Reaction of the complex (BPP)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (4) with pinacol afforded the monomeric vanadium(IV) product (BPP)V(IV)(O)(HO(i)Pr) (6) and acetone. Vanadium(IV) complex 6 was oxidized rapidly by air at room temperature in the presence of NEt(3), yielding the vanadium(V) cis-dioxo complex [(BPP)V(V)(O)(2)]HNEt(3). Complex (BPA)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (5) reacted with pinacol at room temperature, to afford acetone and the vanadium(IV) dimer [(BPA)V(IV)(O)(HO(i)Pr)](2). Complexes 4 and 5 were evaluated as catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol and arylglycerol ?-aryl ether lignin model compounds. Although both 4 and 5 catalyzed the aerobic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, complex 4 was found to be a more active and robust catalyst for oxidation of the lignin model compounds. The catalytic activities and selectivities of the bis(phenolate) complexes are compared to previously reported catalysts. PMID:22708725

  13. Oxidation of humic substances supports denitrification reactions in agricultural soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Trump, J. I.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Humic substances (HS) are a ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and diverse class of compounds arising from degradation and condensation of plant and microbial biopolymers. Many bacteria oxidize hydroquinones within humic substances to their quinone analogs, providing electrons for respiratory processes such as nitrate reduction. Microbial hydroquinone oxidation contributes to the redox state of HS and supports denitrification, which may be of import to agricultural soils where nitrate retention is critical and HS are prevalent. Most probable number counts were performed on soils collected from a Nebraska farm, with the model humic hydroquinone 2,6- anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHDS) serving as an electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. Results indicated that AHDS oxidizing, nitrate reducing bacteria were present in soils from bluegrass fields (104 cells/g) and aspen groves (106 cells/g), as well as in plots of corn (106 cells/g), and soybean treated (106 cells/g) and un-treated (105 cells/g) with pig slurry. These results demonstrate that microorganisms participating in the proposed metabolism are prevalent within agricultural soils. Upflow glass columns were constructed, containing a support matrix of glass beads amended with 10% w/w soil from the corn plot previously mentioned. All columns were subjected to a continual flow of phosphate-buffered water amended with sodium nitrate. Above the point source for nitrate injection, phosphate-buffered water containing electron donor treatments were continually injected. The impacts of electron donor treatments (no donor, oxidized HS, reduced HS, and acetate) on denitrification and other geochemical parameters were observed. Column studies were able to resolve effects of electron donor treatment both spatially as a function of distance from the injection point source, and temporally, as a function of time of donor treatment. Four sample ports in each column were routinely analyzed for concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, Fe(II), and humic-born hydroquinones. All data were analyzed with respect to dilution factors obtained through analysis of a conservative bromide tracer present in electron donor medium. Addition of oxidized HS, reduced HS, and acetate all resulted in significant loss of nitrate from the columns. Significant nitrite accumulation was not observed. Of all the electron donor treatments, reduced HS, enriched for hydroquinone-containing functional moieties, supported the greatest degree of denitrification. The participation of excess hydroquinones in denitrification accounted for approximately 104% of the difference in nitrate reduction between reduced and oxidized HS treatments. This electron balance allowed for assignment of respiratory activity due to hydroquinone oxidation, rather than degradation of humic substances or associated electron-donating compounds. These results suggest that denitrification reactions catalyzed by microbial oxidation of reduced HS may be prevalent in agricultural soils. Likewise, these results demonstrate for the first time that respiratory behavior due to hydroquinone oxidation, as well as impact upon local geochemistry, can be analyzed in complex flow-through model systems.

  14. Oxidation of phenyl and hydride ligands of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium derivatives by nitrous oxide via selective oxygen atom transfer reactions: insights from quantum chemistry calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hujun; Liu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Ying; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Ting; Lei, Qunfang; Fang, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms for the oxidation of phenyl and hydride ligands of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium derivatives (Cp* = ?(5)-C5Me5) by nitrous oxide via selective oxygen atom transfer reactions have been systematically studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the calculations, we investigated the original mechanism proposed by Hillhouse and co-workers for the activation of N2O. The calculations showed that the complex with an initial O-coordination of N2O to the coordinatively unsaturated Hf center is not a local minimum. Then we proposed a new reaction mechanism to investigate how N2O is activated and why N2O selectively oxidize phenyl and hydride ligands of . Frontier molecular orbital theory analysis indicates that N2O is activated by nucleophilic attack by the phenyl or hydride ligand. Present calculations provide new insights into the activation of N2O involving the direct oxygen atom transfer from nitrous oxide to metal-ligand bonds instead of the generally observed oxygen abstraction reaction to generate metal-oxo species. PMID:26660046

  15. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; Mccready, David E.; Lower, Steven

    2007-07-31

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration.  A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface.  Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates.  Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface.  The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice as strong as the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC.  Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite.  The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected between an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions.  There is a strong correlation between the whole cell and pure protein force spectra suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals.  Finally, by comparing the magnitude of binding force for the whole cell vs. pure protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 x 0.5 μm) expresses ~104 cytochromes on its outer surface. 

  16. Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fudong; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Basset, Jean-Marie; Han, Yu; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2015-04-01

    Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold-gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen.

  17. Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fudong; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Basset, Jean-Marie; Han, Yu; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold–gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen. PMID:25902034

  18. Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fudong; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Basset, Jean-Marie; Han, Yu; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold-gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen. PMID:25902034

  19. Bond length and local energy density property connections for non-transition-metal oxide-bonded interactions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, G V; Spackman, M A; Jayatilaka, D; Rosso, K M; Cox, D F

    2006-11-01

    For a variety of molecules and earth materials, the theoretical local kinetic energy density, G(r(c)), increases and the local potential energy density, V(r(c)), decreases as the M-O bond lengths (M = first- and second-row metal atoms bonded to O) decrease and the electron density, rho(r(c)), accumulates at the bond critical points, r(c). Despite the claim that the local kinetic energy density per electronic charge, G(r(c))/rho(r(c)), classifies bonded interactions as shared interactions when less than unity and closed-shell when greater, the ratio was found to increase from 0.5 to 2.5 au as the local electronic energy density, H(r(c)) = G(r(c)) + V(r(c)), decreases and becomes progressively more negative. The ratio appears to be a measure of the character of a given M-O bonded interaction, the greater the ratio, the larger the value of rho(r(c)), the smaller the coordination number of the M atom and the more shared the bonded interaction. H(r(c))/rho(r(c)) versus G(r(c))/rho(r(c)) scatter diagrams categorize the M-O bonded interactions into domains with the local electronic energy density per electron charge, H(r(c))/rho(r(c)), tending to decrease as the electronegativity differences for the bonded pairs of atoms decrease. The values of G(r(c)) and V(r(c)), estimated with a gradient-corrected electron gas theory expression and the local virial theorem, are in good agreement with theoretical values, particularly for the bonded interactions involving second-row M atoms. The agreement is poorer for shared C-O and N-O bonded interactions. PMID:17078623

  20. Oxidative addition of carbon-carbon bonds with a redox-active bis(imino)pyridine iron complex.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Jonathan M; Stieber, S Chantal E; Sylvester, Kevin T; Fernández, Ignacio; Lobkovsky, Emil; Semproni, Scott P; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl; DeBeer, Serena; Chirik, Paul J

    2012-10-17

    Addition of biphenylene to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, ((iPr)PDI)Fe(N(2))(2) and [((Me)PDI)Fe(N(2))](2)(μ(2)-N(2)) ((R)PDI = 2,6-(2,6-R(2)-C(6)H(3)-N═CMe)(2)C(5)H(3)N; R = Me, (i)Pr), resulted in oxidative addition of a C-C bond at ambient temperature to yield the corresponding iron biphenyl compounds, ((R)PDI)Fe(biphenyl). The molecular structures of the resulting bis(imino)pyridine iron metallacycles were established by X-ray diffraction and revealed idealized square pyramidal geometries. The electronic structures of the compounds were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. The experimental data, in combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory calculations, established spin crossover (low to intermediate spin) ferric compounds antiferromagnetically coupled to bis(imino)pyridine radical anions. Thus, the overall oxidation reaction involves cooperative electron loss from both the iron center and the redox-active bis(imino)pyridine ligand. PMID:23043331

  1. Oxidative Addition of CarbonCarbon Bonds with a Redox-Active Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Complex

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Sylvester, Kevin T.; Fernndez, Ignacio; Lobkovsky, Emil; Semproni, Scott P.; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl; DeBeer, Serena; Chirik, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Addition of biphenylene to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, (iPrPDI)Fe(N2)2 and [(MePDI)Fe(N2)]2(?2-N2) (RPDI = 2,6-(2,6-R2C6H3 N=CMe)2C5H3N; R = Me, iPr), resulted in oxidative addition of a CC bond at ambient temperature to yield the corresponding iron biphenyl compounds, (RPDI)Fe-(biphenyl). The molecular structures of the resulting bis-(imino)pyridine iron metallacycles were established by X-ray diffraction and revealed idealized square pyramidal geometries. The electronic structures of the compounds were studied by Mssbauer spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. The experimental data, in combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory calculations, established spin crossover (low to intermediate spin) ferric compounds antiferromagnetically coupled to bis(imino)pyridine radical anions. Thus, the overall oxidation reaction involves cooperative electron loss from both the iron center and the redox-active bis(imino)pyridine ligand. PMID:23043331

  2. Reactions of CFCs with aluminum oxide surfaces at stratospheric temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.N.; Dai, Q.; Freedman, A.

    1996-10-01

    Approximately 30 wt % of the exhaust emitted by the Space Shuttle`s solid-propellant rocket motors is composed of micron and submicron sized aluminum oxide particles. In order to assess the impact of these particles on stratospheric chemistry, we have investigated the reactions of several chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) on {alpha}- and {gamma}-aluminum oxide powders at temperatures from 80-400 K. Using a combination of molecular beam dosing under UHV conditions, FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), we conclude that CFCs dissociatively chemisorb on dehydroxylated alumina surfaces at temperatures as low as 130 K. A number of temperature-dependent absorption features are observed in the infrared spectra which can be attributed to carbonate species. TPD spectra indicate that CO{sub 2} desorbs from CFC-dosed alumina at temperatures below 370 K. X-ray photoelectron spectra reveal the presence of inorganic halides at temperatures as low As 150 K. The relative reactivities of the CFCs with alumina surfaces at stratospheric temperatures ({approximately}200 K) reflect differences in the initial sticking probabilities of the molecules and in the energetics of the dissociative chemisorption process.

  3. Reactions of oxide radical ion (Orad>-) with pyrimidine nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ioele, Marcella; Mulazzani, Quinto G.

    2005-02-01

    The reaction of oxide radical ions (O rad - ) with nucleosides 1- 5 at pH 13.7 has been investigated by the pulse radiolysis technique. Rate constants for the reaction of the O rad - radical with the various nucleosides are in the range of (0.7-1.3)10 9 M -1 s -1. The intermediate derived from uridine ( 1) disappeared by second-order kinetics, whereas the initial transient species derived from 2'-deoxyribonucleosides ( 2- 5) undergo unimolecular transformations with rate constant in the range of (0.6-1.0)10 4 s -1 followed by a second slower unimolecular process with rate constant in the range of 30-50 s -1. The observed differences suggest two distinct mechanistic paths. In the uridine case, hydrogen abstraction preferentially occurs at the C2' position, whereas in the 2'-deoxynucleosides favored hydrogen abstraction occurs at the C5' position. Both attacks lead to release of the base as shown by ?-radiolysis experiments associated with product studies.

  4. Structures and Properties of the Products of the Reaction of Lanthanide Atoms with H2O: Dominance of the +II Oxidation State.

    PubMed

    Mikulas, Tanya C; Chen, Mingyang; Fang, Zongtang; Peterson, Kirk A; Andrews, Lester; Dixon, David A

    2016-02-11

    The reactions of lanthanides with H2O have been studied using density functional theory with the B3LYP functional. H2O forms an initial Lewis acid-base complex with the lanthanides exothermically with interaction energies from -2 to -20 kcal/mol. For most of the Ln, formation of HLnOH is more exothermic than formation of H2LnO, HLnO + H, and LnOH + H. The reactions to produce HLnOH are exothermic from -25 to -75 kcal/mol. The formation of LnO + H2 for La and Ce is slightly more exothermic than formation of HLnOH and is less or equally exothermic for the rest of the lanthanides. The Ln in HLnOH and LnOH are in the formal +II and +I oxidation states, respectively. The Ln in H2LnO is mostly in the +III formal oxidation state with either Ln-O(-)/Ln-H(-) or Ln-(H2)(-)/Ln?O(2-) bonding interactions. A few of the H2LnO have the Ln in the +IV or mixed +III/+IV formal oxidation states with Ln?O(2-)/Ln-H(-) bonding interactions. The Ln in HLnO are generally in the +III oxidation state with the exception of Yb in the +II state. The orbital populations calculated within the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis are consistent with the oxidation states and reaction energies. The more exothermic reactions to produce HLnOH are always associated with more backbonding from the O(H) and H characterized by more population in the 6s and 5d in Ln and the formation of a stronger Ln-O(H) bond. Overall, the calculations are consistent with the experiments in terms of reaction energies and vibrational frequencies. PMID:26741150

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of the phosphine and nitrous oxide reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The molecular structure of PO possesses several fetures which make it appear to be a viable laser candidate. The lowest excited electronic state is metastable, allowing a population to be built up in this reservoir. The metastable state may combine with a ground state PO molecular to form the excimer (PO)/sub 2/*. The excimer may radiatively decay emitting throughout the visible. The reactions of mixtures of phosphine and nitrous oxide were initiated by a fast electrical discharge. Film plates were taken of the emission spectra from 2300 to 9000 A. The high resolution spectra show a continuum emission beginning at 3250 A and extending throughout the visible spectrum. The continuum has molecular emission bands superimposed on it. Temporal emission studies indicate that the chemiluminescent intensity increases as the square of the reagent pressure. A standard lamp was used to correct the high resolution spectra for film response. It also allowed an estimate to be made of the photon yield of the reaction. The photon yield was found to increase linearly with pressure up to the highest pressure investigated, 666 torr, where it has the value 2 x 10/sup -4/. Flashlamp absorption and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy measurements could find no absorption which could be associated with an emitter of the continuum. Cavity tests carried out on the reaction showed no lasing action. Attempts to stimulate the chemiluminescent emission with a high power short pulse ruby laser were unsuccessful. The technique of intracavity dye laser spectroscopy which is sensitive to both loss or gain indicates that the media is transparent to 4 x 10/sup -5//cm in the region investigated, 5300 to 6500 A.

  6. Reaction of Laser-Ablated Uranium and Thorium Atoms with H2Se: A Rare Example of Selenium Multiple Bonding.

    PubMed

    Vent-Schmidt, Thomas; Andrews, Lester; Thanthiriwatte, K Sahan; Dixon, David A; Riedel, Sebastian

    2015-10-19

    The compounds H2ThSe and H2USe were synthesized by the reaction of laser-ablated actinide metal atoms with H2Se under cryogenic conditions following the procedures used to synthesize H2AnX (An = Th, U; X = O, S). The molecules were characterized by infrared spectra in an argon matrix with the aid of deuterium substitution and electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level. The main products, H2ThSe and H2USe, are shown to have a highly polarized actinide-selenium triple bond, as found for H2AnS on the basis of electronic structure calculations. There is an even larger back-bonding of the Se with the An than found for the corresponding sulfur compounds. These molecules are of special interest as rare examples of multiple bonding of selenium to a metal, particularly an actinide metal. PMID:26418218

  7. A study on thermal barrier coatings including thermal expansion mismatch and bond coat oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, George C.; Phucharoen, Woraphat; Miller, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation deals with a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) intended for high temperature applications to advanced gas turbine blades. Typically, this type of coating system consists of a zirconia-yttria ceramic layer with a nickel-chromium-aluminum bond coat on a superalloy substrate. The problem on hand is a complex one due to the fact that bond coat oxidation and thermal mismatch occur in the TBC. Cracking in the TBC has also been experimentally illustrated. A clearer understanding of the mechanical behavior of the TBC is investigated. The stress states in a model thermal barrier coating as it cools down in air is studied. The powerful finite element method was utilized to model a coating cylindrical specimen. Four successively refined finite element models were developed. Some results obtained using the first two models have been reported previously. The major accomplishment is the successful development of an elastic TBC finite element model known as TBCG with interface geometry between the ceramic layer and the bond coat. An equally important milestone is the near-completion of the new elastic-plastic TBC finite element model called TBCGEP which yielded initial results. Representative results are presented.

  8. Kinetics and Mechanism of Iodide Oxidation by Iron(III): A Clock Reaction Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jurica; Tomisic, Vladislav; Vrkljan, Petar B. A.

    2008-01-01

    A simple method for studying the kinetics of a chemical reaction is described and the significance of reaction orders in deducing reaction mechanisms is demonstrated. In this student laboratory experiment, oxidation of iodide by iron(III) ions in an acidic medium is transformed into a clock reaction. By means of the initial rates method, it is…

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of Iodide Oxidation by Iron(III): A Clock Reaction Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jurica; Tomisic, Vladislav; Vrkljan, Petar B. A.

    2008-01-01

    A simple method for studying the kinetics of a chemical reaction is described and the significance of reaction orders in deducing reaction mechanisms is demonstrated. In this student laboratory experiment, oxidation of iodide by iron(III) ions in an acidic medium is transformed into a clock reaction. By means of the initial rates method, it is

  10. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions were studied with the aid of a mass spectrometer. A pinhole bleed system provided continuous sampling of the gas mixture in the cell during the reaction. It was found that the homogeneous reactions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with hydrogen peroxide are too slow to be of any significance in the upper atmosphere. However, the heterogeneous reactions may be important in the conversion of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the case of polluted urban atmospheres.

  11. Oxidation reactions of 2-thiouracil: a theoretical and pulse radiolysis study.

    PubMed

    Prasanthkumar, K P; Suresh, C H; Aravindakumar, C T

    2012-11-01

    The reaction of hydroxyl radical (()OH) with the nucleic acid base analogue 2-thiouracil (1) has been studied by pulse radiolysis experiments and DFT. The generic intermediate radicals feasible for the ()OH reactions with 1, namely, one electron oxidation product (1(+)), ()OH-adducts (3(), 4(), and 5()), and H-abstracted radicals (6() and 7()), were characterized by interpreting their electronic and structural properties along with calculated energetics and UV-vis spectra. Pulse radiolysis experiments showed that the transient formed in the reaction of ()OH with 1 in water at pH 6.5 has ?(max) at 430 nm. A bimolecular rate constant, k(2) of 9.6 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), is determined for this reaction via competition kinetics with 2-propanol. The experiments suggested that the transient species could be a dimer radical cation 2(+), formed by the reaction of 1 with the radical cation 1(+). For this reaction, an equilibrium constant of 4.7 10(3) M(-1) was determined. The transient formed in the reaction of 1 with pulse radiolytically produced Br(2)(-) at pH 6.5 as well as Cl(2)(-) at pH 1 has also produced ?(max) at 430 nm and suggested the formation of 2(+). The calculated UV-vis spectra of the transient species (1(+), 3(), 4(), 5(), 6(), and 7()) showed no resemblance to the experimental spectra, while that of 2(+) (?(max) = 420 nm) agreed well with the experimental value and thus confirmed the formation of 2(+). The 420 nm peak was due to ? ? ?* electronic excitation centered on a 2-center-3-electron (2c-3e) sulfur-sulfur bond [-S?S-]. 2(+) is the first reported example of a dimer radical cation in a pyrimidine heterocyclic system. Further, 5-C and 6-C substituted (substituents are -F, -Cl, -NH(2), -N(CH(3))(2), -OCH(3), -CF(3), -CH(3), -CH(2)CH(3), n-propyl, phenyl, and benzyl) and 5,6-disubstituted 2-thiouracil systems have been characterized by DFT and found that the reaction (1 + 1(+) ? 2(+)) is exergonic (1.12-13.63 kcal/mol) for many of them. PMID:23061532

  12. Evaluating hydrogen bonding control in the diastereoselective Diels-Alder reactions of 9-(2-aminoethyl)-anthracene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bawa, R A; Gautier, F-M; Adams, H; Meijer, A J H M; Jones, S

    2015-11-14

    Several 9-(2-aminoethyl)anthracene derivatives were prepared with different nitrogen substitutents including alkyl, acetamide, trifluoroacaeamide and t-butyl carbamate. The selectivity in Diels-Alder cyclodaddition reaction with N-methyl maleimide was evaluated through single crystal X-ray analysis of the products. Models for the change in selectivity with hydrogen bond acceptor are proposed, supported by DFT level calculations. PMID:26340318

  13. Uraninite oxidation and dissolution induced by manganese oxide: A redox reaction between two insoluble minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zimeng; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kapoor, Pratyul; Tebo, Bradley M.; Giammar, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    The longevity of subsurface U(IV) produced by reduction of U(VI) during in situ bioremediation can be limited by reoxidation to more mobile U(VI) species. Coupling of the biogeochemical cycles of U and Mn may affect the fate and transport of uranium. Manganese oxides can act as a powerful oxidant that accelerates the oxidative dissolution of UO2. This study investigated the physical and chemical factors controlling the interaction between UO2 and MnO2, which are both poorly soluble minerals. A multi-chamber reactor with a permeable membrane was used to eliminate direct contact of the two minerals while still allowing transport of aqueous species. The oxidation of UO2 was not significantly enhanced by MnO2 if the two solids were physically separated. Complete mixing of MnO2 with UO2 led to a much greater extent and rate of U oxidation. When direct contact is not possible, the reaction slowly progresses through release of soluble U(IV) with its adsorption and oxidation on MnO2. Continuously-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were used to quantify the steady-state rates of UO2 dissolution induced by MnO2. MnO2 dramatically promoted UO2 dissolution, but the degree of promotion leveled off once the MnO2:UO2 ratio exceeded a critical value. Substantial amounts of U(VI) and Mn(II) were retained on MnO2 surfaces. The total production of Mn(II) was less than that of U(VI), indicating that the fate of Mn products and their impact on UO2-MnO2 reaction kinetics were complicated and may involve formation of Mn(III) phases. At higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, UO2 oxidation by MnO2 was faster and less U(VI) was adsorbed to MnO2. Such an inverse relationship suggested that U(VI) may passivate MnO2 surfaces. A conceptual model was developed to describe the oxidation rate of UO2 by MnO2. This model is potentially applicable to a broad range of water chemistry conditions and is relevant to other environmental redox processes involving two poorly soluble minerals.

  14. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Rh: Reaction With Dioxygen Without Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Praetorius, J.M.; Allen, D.P.; Wang, R.; Webb, J.D.; Grein, F.; Kennepohl, P.; Crudden, C.M.

    2009-05-21

    The reaction of oxygen with rhodium complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbenes was found to give dioxygen complexes with rare square planar geometries and unusually short O-O bond lengths. Analysis of the bonding in these complexes by Rh L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Raman spectroscopy, and DFT calculations provides evidence for a bonding model in which singlet oxygen is bound to a Rh(I) d{sup 8} metal complex, rather than the more common Rh(III) d{sup 6} peroxo species with octahedral geometry and O-O bond lengths in the 1.4-1.5 {angstrom} range.

  15. Temporary zinc oxide-eugenol cement: eugenol quantity in dentin and bond strength of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tamara; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Malinovskii, Vladimir; Flury, Simon; Hner, Robert; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of eugenol from eugenol-containing temporary materials may reduce the adhesion of subsequent resin-based restorations. This study investigated the effect of duration of exposure to zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement on the quantity of eugenol retained in dentin and on the microtensile bond strength (?TBS) of the resin composite. The ZOE cement (IRM Caps) was applied onto the dentin of human molars (21 per group) for 1, 7, or 28 d. One half of each molar was used to determine the quantity of eugenol (by spectrofluorimetry) and the other half was used for ?TBS testing. The ZOE-exposed dentin was treated with either OptiBond FL using phosphoric acid (H?PO?) or with Gluma Classic using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning. One group without conditioning (for eugenol quantity) and two groups not exposed to ZOE (for eugenol quantity and ?TBS testing) served as controls. The quantity of eugenol ranged between 0.33 and 2.9 nmol mg? of dentin (median values). No effect of the duration of exposure to ZOE was found. Conditioning with H?PO? or EDTA significantly reduced the quantity of eugenol in dentin. Nevertheless, for OptiBond FL, exposure to ZOE significantly decreased the ?TBS, regardless of the duration of exposure. For Gluma Classic, the ?TBS decreased after exposure to ZOE for 7 and 28 d. OptiBond FL yielded a significantly higher ?TBS than did Gluma Classic. Thus, ZOE should be avoided in cavities later to be restored with resin-based materials. PMID:23841789

  16. Lubricating Properties of Some Bonded Fluoride and Oxide Coatings for Temperature to 1500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1960-01-01

    The lubricating properties of some experimental ceramic coatings, diffusion-bonded fluoride coatings, and ceramic-bonded fluoride coatings were determined. The experiments were conducted in an air atmosphere at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute and at temperatures from 75 to 1500 F. Several ceramic coatings provided substantial reductions in friction coefficient and rider wear (compared with the unlubricated metals). For example, a cobaltous oxide (CoO) base coating gave friction coefficients of 0.24 to 0.36 within the temperature range of 75 to 1400 F; serious galling and welding of the metal surfaces were prevented. The friction coefficients were higher than the arbitrary maximum (0.2) usually considered for effective boundary lubrication. However, when a moderately high friction coefficient can be tolerated, this type of coating may be a useful antiwear composition. Diffusion-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) on Haynes Stellite 21 and on Inconel X gave friction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.2 at 1500 F. Endurance life was dependent on the thermal history of the coating; life improved with increased exposure time at elevated temperatures prior to running. Promising results were obtained with ceramic-bonded CaF2 on Inconel X. Effective lubrication and good adherence were obtained with a 3 to 1 ratio of CaF2 to ceramic. A very thin sintered and burnished film of CaF2 applied to the surface of this coating further improved lubrication, particularly above 1350 F. The friction coefficient was 0.2 at 500 F and decreased with increasing temperature to 0.06-at 1500 F. It was 0.25 at 75 F and 0.22 at 250 F.

  17. Phenyliodonium diacetate mediated direct synthesis of benzonitriles from styrenes through oxidative cleavage of C?C bonds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Qing; Guo, Can-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    A metal-free PhI(OAc)2 mediated nitrogenation of alkenes through C?C bond cleavage using inorganic ammonia salt as nitrogen source under mild conditions was developed, affording nitriles in moderate to good yields. The advantages of this reaction are mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity, and use of an ammonium salt as nitrogen source. Based upon experimental observations, a plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. PMID:24171555

  18. Air oxidation method employed for the disulfide bond formation of natural and synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Calce, Enrica; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Amodeo, Pietro; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-08-01

    Among the available protocols, chemically driven approaches to oxidize cysteine may not be required for molecules that, under the native-like conditions, naturally fold in conformations ensuring an effective pairing of the right disulfide bridge pattern. In this contest, we successfully prepared the distinctin, a natural heterodimeric peptide, and some synthetic cyclic peptides that are inhibitors of the CXCR4 receptor. In the first case, the air oxidation reaction allowed to connect two peptide chains via disulfide bridge, while in the second case allowed the cyclization of rationally designed peptides by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Computational approaches helped to either drive de-novo design or suggest structural modifications and optimal oxidization protocols for disulfide-containing molecules. They are able to both predict and to rationalize the propensity of molecules to spontaneously fold in suitable conformations to achieve the right disulfide bridges. PMID:25900810

  19. Thermal barrier coating life and isothermal oxidation of low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J.; Miller, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper investigates the isothermal oxidation kinetics of Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y, Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y, and Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys and examines the effect of these alloys on the thermal barrier coating (TBC) cyclic life. TBC life was examined by cycling substrates coated with the different bond coats and a ZrO2-7 wt pct Y2O3 TBC in an air-rich burner rig flame between 1150 C and room temperature. The oxidation kinetics of the three bond coat alloys was examined by isothermal oxidation of monolithic NJiCrAlY coupons at 1083 C. The Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y alloy exhibits comparatively high isothermal oxidation weight gains and provides the longest TBC life, whereas the Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y alloy had the lowest weight gains and provided the shortest TBC life. The results show that, although bond coat oxidation is known to have a strong detrimental effect on TBC life, it is not the only bond coat factor that determines TBC life.

  20. Pentavalent Uranium Oxide via Reduction of [UO2]2+ Under Hydrothermal Reaction Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Belai, Nebebech; Frisch, Mark; Ilton, Eugene S.; Ravel, Bruce; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2008-11-03

    The synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopic characterization of [UV(H2O)2(UVIO2)2O4(OH)](H2O)4 (1), a mixed-valent UV/UVI oxide material, are reported. The hydrothermal reaction of UO22+ with Zn and hydrazine at 120 C for three days yields 1 in the form of a dark red crystalline solid. Compound 1 has been characterized by a combination of single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The structure consists of an extended sheet of edge and point shared UVI pentagonal bipyramids that are further connected by edge sharing to square bipyramidal UV units. The overall topology is similar to the mineral ianthinite. The uranium L|||-edge XAS revealed features consistent with those observed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. High resolution XPS data analysis of the U4f region confirmed the oxidation states of U as originally assigned from XRD analysis and bond valence summations.

  1. Pentavalent Uranium Oxide via Reduction of [UO2]2+ Under Hydrothermal Reaction Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Balai, N.; Frisch, M; Ilton, E; Ravel, B; Cahill, C

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, and spectroscopic characterization of [UV(H2O)2(UVIO2)2O4(OH)](H2O)4 (1), a mixed-valent UV/UVI oxide material, are reported. The hydrothermal reaction of UO22+ with Zn and hydrazine at 120 degrees C for three days yields 1 in the form of a dark red crystalline solid. Compound 1 has been characterized by a combination of single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The structure consists of an extended sheet of edge and corner shared UVI pentagonal bipyramids that are further connected by edge sharing to square bipyramidal UV units. The overall topology is similar to the mineral ianthinite. The uranium L|||-edge XAS revealed features consistent with those observed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. High resolution XPS data analysis of the U4f region confirmed the oxidation states of U as originally assigned from XRD analysis and bond valence summations.

  2. Influence of a reaction medium on the oxidation of aromatic nitrogen-containing compounds by peroxyacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, V. S.; Matsyuk, N. V.; Dutka, Yu. V.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different solvents on the oxidation reaction rate of pyridine (Py), quinoline (QN), acridine (AN), ?-oxyquinoline (OQN) and ?-picolinic acid (APA) by peroxydecanoic acid (PDA) was studied. It was found that the oxidation rate grows in the series Py < QN < AN, and the rate of the oxidation reaction of compounds containing a substituent in the ? position from a reactive center is significantly lower than for unsubstituted analogues. The effective energies of activation of the oxidation reaction were found. It was shown that in the first stage, the reaction mechanism includes the rapid formation of an intermediate complex nitrogen-containing compound, peroxyacid, which forms products upon decomposing in the second stage. A kinetic equation that describes the studied process is offered. The constants of equilibrium of the intermediate complex formation ( K eq) and its decomposition constant ( k 2) in acetone and benzene were calculated. It was shown that the nature of the solvent influences the numerical values of both K p and k 2. It was established that introduction of acetic acid (which is able to form compounds with Py) into the reaction medium slows the rate of the oxidation process drastically. Correlation equations linking the polarity, polarizability, electrophilicity, and basicity of solvents with the constant of the PDA oxidation reaction rate for Py were found. It was concluded that the basicity and polarity of the solvent have a decisive influence on the oxidation reaction rate, while the polarizability and electrophilicity of the reaction medium do not influence the oxidation reaction rate.

  3. Simplified wave function models in thermochemical protocols based on bond separation reactions.

    PubMed

    Bakowies, Dirk

    2014-12-18

    The ATOMIC protocol is a quantum-chemical thermochemistry protocol designed to obtain accurate atomization energies and derived heats of formation. It reduces errors of computationally tractable composite schemes through the use of bond separation reactions, which are implemented in a consistent ab initio framework. The present work explores possible simplification of previously introduced ATOMIC models. While coupled cluster calculations with singles and doubles excitations and perturbational treatments of connected triples excitations [CCSD(T)] are still required for high accuracy, basis-set truncations are possible in the CCSD-MP2 and CCSD(T)-CCSD components. The resulting models B4, B5, and B6 show root-mean-square (RMS) errors of only 0.21 to 0.46 kcal/mol for the AE set, which is a benchmark comprising complete-basis-set CCSD(T)(full) atomization energies of 73 neutral, closed-shell molecules composed of H, C, N, O, and F atoms. The evaluation of connected triples excitations can be avoided at medium levels of accuracy if the complete-basis-set MP2 energy is augmented with an empirically calibrated fraction of the difference between MP3 (or CCSD) and MP2 energies, calculated with small basis sets. The corresponding EMP3 and ECCSD models show RMS errors of 1.01 and 0.70 kcal/mol, respectively. Spin-component scaling is an option to rely entirely on the MP2 level of theory and still cut the RMS error of 4.38 kcal/mol by roughly a factor of 2 and achieve an accuracy comparable to accurate density functionals, such as M05-2X. The proposed new models are additionally tested with the HOF benchmark, a subset of G3/99 heats of formation that includes only neutral closed-shell molecules composed of H, C, N, O, and F atoms. The assessment shows that a number of experimental reference values are in error and should be replaced with more recent data. Results obtained with the new models are compared to original HOF (G3/99) reference data, to updated reference data, and to accurate ATOMIC/A theoretical data. PMID:25426545

  4. Hydrogen bonding of isoindole-1,3-dione in reaction field: Vibrational spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safinejad, F.; Asghari-Khiavi, M.

    2009-03-01

    The origin of the geometrical and spectroscopic changes in isoindole-1,3-dione molecule due to the hydrogen bonding (local electric field) is studied using ab initio and perturbation treatment of the Onsager model. In the case of C dbnd O, bond elongates and red-shifted C dbnd O stretch (s) mode results; in the case of N-H, bond contraction and blue-shifted NH s frequency is observed and for the C-H bond, both red-shifted and blue-shifted CH s mode are found. Furthermore, using vibrational Stark effect in the Onsager model we were able to determine the difference dipole moment and the difference polarizability of several stretching bands.

  5. Redox reactions involving hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants: Mechanism for porosity enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.S.; MacGowan, D.B.

    1993-12-31

    Hydrocarbon invasion into a sandstone containing mineral oxidants and carbonate or sulphate cements may result in redox reactions that enhanced porosity. When hydrocarbons invade red sandstones, significant bleaching (i.e., iron reduction) occurs. Reactions responsible for the color distribution in the red (oxidized) and white (reduced) zones are reactions of iron oxides ({plus_minus}sulphate) with hydrocarbons. Commonly the red sandstones are tight due to carbonate and sulphate cements, whereas the white zones are more porous. Organic acids are one product of these reactions and are available to dissolve carbonate cements. Volumetric calculations show that significant porosity can be generated in any sandstone by these reactions. These redox reactions may explain why hydrocarbon accumulations appear to have created porosity in some cases and emphasize the importance of redox reactions involving kerogen/hydrocarbons and mineral oxidants as a significant source oxygenated organic compounds in diagenetic systems.

  6. Dielectric isolation of silicon by anodic bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Thomas R.

    1985-08-01

    Dielectrically isolated silicon was produced by anodically bonding together a pair of silicon wafers whose surfaces were covered with an electrically nonconductive micron layer of thermally grown oxide. Although anodic bonding normally requires a conductive oxide, anodic bonding works with nonconductive silicon oxide if the total layer of silicon oxide is less than ten microns thick. The time needed for the anodic bonding process decreases monotonically with temperature because the increase in the deformability of silicon oxide overcomes the decrease in the maximum permissible anodic bonding voltage with temperature. However, factors such as silicon degradation and electrode reactions at very high temperatures indicate that a compromise temperature range of 850-950 C is best for the anodic bonding of silicon oxide. Bonding voltages of 30-50 V for times of about an hour produced the best bonding yields at these temperatures. Anodically bonded silicon wafers were examined with infrared and ultrasonic transmission microscopy for bond quality. Small scattered nonbonded zones comprising on the average 5% of the total wafer area were found in all wafers. These nonbonded zones were the result of dust particles, entrapped gas, and dimensional mismatches between multiple bonding fronts.

  7. A Cobalt(I) Pincer Complex with an η(2) -Caryl -H Agostic Bond: Facile C-H Bond Cleavage through Deprotonation, Radical Abstraction, and Oxidative Addition.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Sathiyamoorthy; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis and reactivity of a Co(I) pincer complex [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2 ](+) featuring an η(2) - Caryl -H agostic bond is described. This complex was obtained by protonation of the Co(I) complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2 ]. The Co(III) hydride complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)2 (H)](+) was obtained upon protonation of [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)2 ]. Three ways to cleave the agostic C-H bond are presented. First, owing to the acidity of the agostic proton, treatment with pyridine results in facile deprotonation (C-H bond cleavage) and reformation of [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2 ]. Second, C-H bond cleavage is achieved upon exposure of [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2 ](+) to oxygen or TEMPO to yield the paramagnetic Co(II) PCP complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2 ](+) . Finally, replacement of one CO ligand in [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2 ](+) by CNtBu promotes the rapid oxidative addition of the agostic η(2) -Caryl -H bond to give two isomeric hydride complexes of the type [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)(CO)(H)](+) . PMID:26823229

  8. Comprehensive mechanism and structure-sensitivity of ethanol oxidation on platinum: new transition-state searching method for resolving the complex reaction network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2008-08-20

    Ethanol oxidation on Pt is a typical multistep and multiselectivity heterogeneous catalytic process. A comprehensive understanding of this fundamental reaction would greatly benefit design of catalysts for use in direct ethanol fuel cells and the degradation of biomass-derived oxygenates. In this work, the reaction network of ethanol oxidation on different Pt surfaces, including close-packed Pt{111}, stepped Pt{211}, and open Pt{100}, is explored thoroughly with an efficient reaction path searching method, which integrates our new transition-state searching technique with periodic density functional theory calculations. Our new technique enables the location of the transition state and saddle points for most surface reactions simply and efficiently by optimization of local minima. We show that the selectivity of ethanol oxidation on Pt depends markedly on the surface structure, which can be attributed to the structure-sensitivity of two key reaction steps: (i) the initial dehydrogenation of ethanol and (ii) the oxidation of acetyl (CH3CO). On open surface sites, ethanol prefers C-C bond cleavage via strongly adsorbed intermediates (CH2CO or CHCO), which leads to complete oxidation to CO2. However, only partial oxidizations to CH3CHO and CH3COOH occur on Pt{111}. Our mechanism points out that the open surface Pt{100} is the best facet to fully oxidize ethanol at low coverages, which sheds light on the origin of the remarkable catalytic performance of Pt tetrahexahedra nanocrystals found recently. The physical origin of the structure-selectivity is rationalized in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. Two fundamental quantities that dictate the selectivity of ethanol oxidation are identified: (i) the ability of surface metal atoms to bond with unsaturated C-containing fragments and (ii) the relative stability of hydroxyl at surface atop sites with respect to other sites. PMID:18642913

  9. Reversible Association of Nitro Compounds with p-Nitrothiophenol Modified on Ag Nanoparticles/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites through Plasmon Mediated Photochemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Wu; Tasi, Ting-Ti; Chang, Po-Ling; Cheng, Hsiu-Yao

    2016-03-30

    Because localized surface plasmon resonance in nanostructures of noble metals is accompanied by interesting physical effects such as optical near-field enhancement, heat release, and the generation of hot electrons, it has been employed in a wide range of applications, including plasmon-assisted chemical reactions. Here, we use a composite of silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide (Ag@GO) as the catalytic as well as the analytic platform for plasmon-assisted chemical reactions. Through time-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments, it is found that p-nitrothiophenol (pNTP) molecules on Ag@GO can be associated with nitro compounds such as nitrobenzene and 1-nitropropane to form azo compounds when aided by the plasmons. Furthermore, the reaction rate can be modulated by varying the wavelength and power of the excitation laser as well as the nitro compounds used. In addition, the aforementioned coupling reaction can be reversed. We demonstrate that the oxidation of azo compounds on Ag@GO using KMnO4 leads to the dissociation of the N═N double bond in the azo compounds and that the rate of bond dissociation can be accelerated significantly via laser irradiation. Furthermore, the pNTP molecules on Ag@GO can be recovered after the oxidation reaction. Finally, we demonstrate that the plasmon-assisted coupling reaction allows for the immobilization of nitro-group-containing fluorophores at specific locations on Ag@GO. PMID:26977529

  10. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. These results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce low-temperature reactivity during autoignition.

  11. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  12. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  15. Structure, stability and electrochromic properties of polyaniline film covalently bonded to indium tin oxide substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Ju, Wenxing; Wu, Xinming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiguan; Zhou, Hongwei; Wang, Sumin; Hu, Chenglong

    2016-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was modified with 4-aminobenzylphosphonic acid (ABPA), and then the polyaniline (PANI) film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that chemical binding was formed between PANI and ABPA-modified ITO surface, and the maximum thickness of PANI layer is about 30 nm. The adhesive strength of PANI film on ITO substrate was tested by sonication. It was found that the film formed on the modified ITO exhibited a much better stability than that on bare one. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements indicated that the oxidative potentials of PANI film on ABPA-modified ITO substrate were decreased and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities. Moreover, the optical contrast increased from 0.58 for PANI film (without ultrasound) to 1.06 for PANI film (after ultrasound for 60 min), which had an over 83% enhancement. The coloration time was 20.8 s, while the bleaching time was 19.5 s. The increase of electrochromic switching time was due to the lower ion diffusion coefficient of the large cation of (C4H9)4N+ under the positive and negative potentials as comparison with the small Li+ ion.

  16. The Mukaiyama aldol reaction of in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds: selective C-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage in one-pot for ?-amination of ketones.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Isai; Grandhi, Gowri Sankar; Sahoo, Harekrishna; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2015-09-21

    A practical protocol for the ?-amination of ketones (up to 99% yield) has been developed via the Mukaiyama aldol reaction of in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds. The reaction with silyl enol ethers having a disilane (-SiMe2TMS) backbone proceeded not only with perfect N-selectivity but concomitant N-O bond cleavage was also accomplished. Such a cascade of C-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage in a single step was heretofore unknown in the field of nitrosocarbonyl chemistry. A very high diastereoselectivity (dr = 19?:?1) was accomplished using (-)-menthol derived chiral nitrosocarbonyl compounds. PMID:26245149

  17. Synthesis of akageneite (beta-FeOOH)/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for oxidative decomposition of 2-chlorophenol by Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Li, Wentao; Fang, Liping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the composite of reduced graphene oxide and akageneite (Ak/rGO) was synthesised by co-precipitating and reduction processes. The morphological and structural features of the synthesized composites (Ak/rGO) were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, FTIR, Zeta potential and XPS. The results revealed that (1) beta-FeOOH was successfully loaded on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO); (2) the presence of strong interfacial interactions (FeOC bonds) between rGO and beta-FeOOH was observed; (3) the reduction of graphene oxide may be inhabited in the formation process of beta-FeOOH, producing rGO sheets rather than rGO sphere. In the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, the degradation rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) increased 2-5 times after the addition of rGO probably due to the FeOC bond. The increase of the content of rGO could contribute to the removal of 2-CP, due to the synergy of catalysis and 2-CP adsorption towards Ak/rGO. In this study, the Ak/rGO composite has exhibited great potential and significant prospects for environmental application. PMID:26808238

  18. A Novel Reaction of Peroxiredoxin 4 towards Substrates in Oxidative Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi’e; Wang, Xi; Wang, Chih-chen

    2014-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) is the only endoplasmic reticulum localized peroxiredoxin. It functions not only to eliminate peroxide but also to promote oxidative protein folding via oxidizing protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In Prx4-mediated oxidative protein folding we discovered a new reaction that the sulfenic acid form of Prx4 can directly react with thiols in folding substrates, resulting in non-native disulfide cross-linking and aggregation. We also found that PDI can inhibit this reaction by exerting its reductase and chaperone activities. This discovery discloses an off-pathway reaction in the Prx4-mediated oxidative protein folding and the quality control role of PDI. PMID:25137134

  19. Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings with a TiAl3 Bond Coat on γ-TiAl Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiqiang; Kong, Lingyan; Li, Tiefan; Xiong, Tianying

    2015-02-01

    The thermal barrier coatings investigated in this paper included a TiAl3 bond coat and a yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer. The TiAl3 bond coat was prepared by deposition of aluminum by cold spray, followed by a heat-treatment. The YSZ layer was prepared by air plasma spray. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests were conducted at 900 °C for 1000 h and 500 cycles to test the oxidation resistance of the thermal barrier coatings. The microstructure and composition of the γ-TiAl alloy with and without the thermal barrier coatings after oxidation were investigated. The results showed that a dense TGO layer about 5 μm had grown between the YSZ layer and the TiAl3 bond coat. The TGO had good adhesion to both the YSZ layer and the bond coat even after the TiAl3 bond coat entirely degraded into the TiAl2 phase, which decreased the inward oxygen diffusion. Thus, the thermal barrier coatings improved the oxidation resistance of γ-TiAl alloy effectively.

  20. Efficient C-C bond splitting on Pt monolayer and sub-monolayer catalysts during ethanol electro-oxidation: Pt layer strain and morphology effects.

    PubMed

    Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Yuan, Qiuyi; Petkov, Valeri; Gan, Lin; Rudi, Stefan; Yang, Ruizhi; Huang, Yunhui; Brankovic, Stanko R; Strasser, Peter

    2014-09-21

    Efficient catalytic C-C bond splitting coupled with complete 12-electron oxidation of the ethanol molecule to CO2 is reported on nanoscale electrocatalysts comprised of a Pt monolayer (ML) and sub-monolayer (sML) deposited on Au nanoparticles (Au@Pt ML/sML). The Au@Pt electrocatalysts were synthesized using surface limited redox replacement (SLRR) of an underpotentially deposited (UPD) Cu monolayer in an electrochemical cell reactor. Au@Pt ML showed improved catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) and, unlike their Pt bulk and Pt sML counterparts, was able to generate CO2 at very low electrode potentials owing to efficient C-C bond splitting. To explain this, we explore the hypothesis that competing strain effects due to the Pt layer coverage/morphology (compressive) and the Pt-Au lattice mismatch (tensile) control surface chemisorption and overall activity. Control experiments on well-defined model Pt monolayer systems are carried out involving a wide array of methods such as high-energy X-ray diffraction, pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis, in situ electrochemical FTIR spectroscopy, and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. The vibrational fingerprints of adsorbed CO provide compelling evidence on the relation between surface bond strength, layer strain and morphology, and catalytic activity. PMID:25081353

  1. Surface Reactions of Uranium Oxide Powder, Thin Films and Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Idriss, H.

    2010-01-01

    The review deals with surface reactions of the complex uranium oxide systems with relevance to catalysis and the environment. After a brief introduction on the properties of uranium oxides, the focus of the review is on surface science studies of defined structures of uranium oxides which are entirely on UO{sub 2} because of the lack of available model on other uranium oxide systems. Powder work is also included as it has given considerable information related to the dynamics between the many phases of uranium oxides. Many chemical reactions are mapped and these include water dissociative adsorption and reaction, CO oxidation and reductive coupling, as well as the reaction of oxygen containing organic compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids in addition to a few examples of sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds.

  2. On the reaction of the ethylene oxide radical cation with neutral ethylene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, C. Ed; Farrar, John; Henrickson, Charles; Wilson, Daniel S.; Hollis, Jay; Holman, R. W.; Gross, M. L.

    1997-12-01

    The gas-phase reaction between the ethylene oxide radical cation and neutral ethylene oxide, when performed in the high-pressure source of a tandem mass spectrometer, forms a C4H8O2 radical cation adduct. The adduct ion was formed with varying degrees of collisional damping within the ion source so that the ion structure, in successive experiments, could be evaluated as a function of internal energy. The adduct ion structure changes with energy. When formed with maximum damping (minimum energy), the adduct is proposed to be an acyclic distonic ion. The adduct formed in the absence of collisional damping (maximum energy) possesses a high-energy collisional-activated dissociation (CAD) mass spectrum that is nearly identical to that of the 1,4-dioxane radical cation. The most likely mechanism for the reaction is a step-wise process involving a long-chain distonic radical cation intermediate that subsequently forms a non-distonic cyclic radical ion. Computational investigations at the MP2/6-31G* level support the proposed mechanism. An enthalpic driving force of ca. 23 kcal mol-1 exists for the cyclization of the long-chain distonic radical cation.

  3. Ruthenium-catalyzed alkylation of indoles with tertiary amines by oxidation of a sp3 C-H bond and Lewis acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Zhong; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Wong, Man-Kin; Che, Chi-Ming

    2010-05-17

    Ruthenium porphyrins (particularly [Ru(2,6-Cl(2)tpp)CO]; tpp=tetraphenylporphinato) and RuCl(3) can act as oxidation and/or Lewis acid catalysts for direct C-3 alkylation of indoles, giving the desired products in high yields (up to 82% based on 60-95% substrate conversions). These ruthenium compounds catalyze oxidative coupling reactions of a wide variety of anilines and indoles bearing electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substituents with high regioselectivity when using tBuOOH as an oxidant, resulting in the alkylation of N-arylindoles to 3-{[(N-aryl-N-alkyl)amino]methyl}indoles (yield: up to 82%, conversion: up to 95%) and the alkylation of N-alkyl or N-H indoles to 3-[p-(dialkylamino)benzyl]indoles (yield: up to 73%, conversion: up to 92%). A tentative reaction mechanism involving two pathways is proposed: an iminium ion intermediate may be generated by oxidation of an sp(3) C-H bond of the alkylated aniline by an oxoruthenium species; this iminium ion could then either be trapped by an N-arylindole (pathway A) or converted to formaldehyde, allowing a subsequent three-component coupling reaction of the in situ generated formaldehyde with an N-alkylindole and an aniline in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst (pathway B). The results of deuterium-labeling experiments are consistent with the alkylation of N-alkylindoles via pathway B. The relative reaction rates of [Ru(2,6-Cl(2)tpp)CO]-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions of 4-X-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines with N-phenylindole (using tBuOOH as oxidant), determined through competition experiments, correlate linearly with the substituent constants sigma (R(2)=0.989), giving a rho value of -1.09. This rho value and the magnitudes of the intra- and intermolecular deuterium isotope effects (k(H)/k(D)) suggest that electron transfer most likely occurs during the initial stage of the oxidation of 4-X-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines. Ruthenium-catalyzed three-component reaction of N-alkyl/N-H indoles, paraformaldehyde, and anilines gave 3-[p-(dialkylamino)benzyl]indoles in up to 82% yield (conversion: up to 95%). PMID:20391566

  4. Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Yasuhiro; Sun, Yun; Kuzum, Duygu; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

    2008-10-31

    Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

  5. Infrared spectra of XC[triple bond]IrX(3) and CX(2)=IrX(2) prepared by reactions of laser-ablated iridium atoms with halomethanes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Gook; Andrews, Lester

    2010-06-21

    Small iridium high oxidation-state complexes with carbon-iridium multiple bonds are identified in the product matrix infrared spectra from reactions of laser-ablated Ir atoms with tetra-, tri- and dihalomethanes. In contrast to the previously studied Rh case, Ir carbyne complexes (XC[triple bond]IrX(3)) are generated in reactions of tetrahalomethanes, and their short Ir-C bond lengths of 1.725-1.736 A are appropriate for the carbon-metal triple bonds. DFT calculations also show that the Ir carbynes with an Ir-F bond have unusual square planar structures, similar to the recently discovered Ru planar complexes. Diminishing preference for the carbyne complexes leads to methylidene product absorptions in the tri- and dihalomethane spectra, marking a limit for generation of small metal carbynes. The insertion complexes, on the other hand, are not observed in this study, suggesting that X migration from C to Ir following initial C-X insertion is swift. PMID:20442951

  6. Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Crocker

    2005-09-30

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, together with a reversible inhibition due to competitive adsorption of SO{sub 2} with NO on the catalyst. In an effort to minimize the deactivating effect of SO{sub 2} on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, two synthetic approaches were briefly examined. These consisted of (1) the incorporation of highly dispersed Co(II) ions in silica, as a non-sulfating matrix, via the sol-gel preparation of CoO-SiO{sub 2}; and (2) the sol-gel preparation of a mixed metal oxide, CoO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2}, with the aim of exploiting the acidity of the niobium oxide to minimize SO2 adsorption. While both catalysts showed almost no activity for NO oxidation in the absence of SO{sub 2}, when SO{sub 2} was present low activity was observed, indicating that SO{sub 2} acts as a promoter for NO oxidation over these materials. The kinetics of NO oxidation over Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} were also examined. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} was found to exhibit a higher apparent activation energy for NO oxidation than the Pt catalysts, while the combined reaction order in NO and O{sub 2} for the three catalysts was very close to one. CO{sub 2} was found to have no effect on the kinetics of NO oxidation over these catalysts. The presence of H{sub 2}O caused a decrease in NO conversion for both Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, while no effect was observed for Pt/SiO{sub 2}. The inhibiting effect of water was reversible and is attributed to competitive adsorption with the reactants. In sum, this study has shown that a variety of base metal catalysts are very active for NO oxidation. However, all of the catalysts studied are strongly deactivated in the presence of 2800 ppm SO{sub 2} at typical flue gas temperatures; consequently improving catalyst resistance to SO{sub x} will be a pre-requisite if the fast SCR concept is to be applied to coal-fired flue gas conditions.

  7. Ethanol oxidation: kinetics of the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical + O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel; Bozzelli, Joseph W; Liang, Long; Farrell, John T

    2009-08-01

    Bioethanol is currently a significant gasoline additive and the major blend component of flex-fuel formulations. Ethanol is a high-octane fuel component, and vehicles designed to take advantage of higher octane fuel blends could operate at higher compression ratios than traditional gasoline engines, leading to improved performance and tank-to-wheel efficiency. There are significant uncertainties, however, regarding the mechanism for ethanol autoignition, especially at lower temperatures such as in the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime. We have studied an important chemical process in the autoignition and oxidation of ethanol, reaction of the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical with O2(3P), using first principles computational chemistry, variational transition state theory, and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM)/master equation simulations. The alpha-hydroxyethyl + O2 association reaction is found to produce an activated alpha-hydroxy-ethylperoxy adduct with ca. 37 kcal mol(-1) of excess vibrational energy. This activated adduct predominantly proceeds to acetaldehyde + HO(2), with smaller quantities of the enol vinyl alcohol (ethenol), particularly at higher temperatures. The reaction to acetaldehyde + HO2 proceeds with such a low barrier that collision stabilization of C2O3H5 isomers is unimportant, even for high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. The short lifetimes of these radicals precludes the chain-branching addition of a second O2 molecule, responsible for NTC behavior in alkane autoignition. This result helps to explain why ignition delays for ethanol are longer than those for ethane, despite ethanol having a weaker C-C bond energy. Given its relative instability, it is also unlikely that the alpha-hydroxy-ethylperoxy radical acts as a major acetaldehyde sink in the atmosphere, as has been suggested. PMID:19594149

  8. Influence of Copper Oxidation State on the Bonding and Electronic Structure of Cobalt-Copper Complexes.

    PubMed

    Eisenhart, Reed J; Carlson, Rebecca K; Clouston, Laura J; Young, Victor G; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Bill, Eckhard; Gagliardi, Laura; Lu, Connie C

    2015-12-01

    Heterobimetallic complexes that pair cobalt and copper were synthesized and characterized by a suite of physical methods, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray anomalous scattering, cyclic voltammetry, magnetometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and quantum chemical methods. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) reagents were independently added to a Co(II) metalloligand to provide (py3tren)CoCuCl (1-Cl) and (py3tren)CoCu(CH3CN) (2-CH3CN), respectively, where py3tren is the triply deprotonated form of N,N,N-tris(2-(2-pyridylamino)ethyl)amine. Complex 2-CH3CN can lose the acetonitrile ligand to generate a coordination polymer consistent with the formula "(py3tren)CoCu" (2). One-electron chemical oxidation of 2-CH3CN with AgOTf generated (py3tren)CoCuOTf (1-OTf). The Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple for 1-OTf and 2-CH3CN is reversible at -0.56 and -0.33 V vs Fc(+)/Fc, respectively. The copper oxidation state impacts the electronic structure of the heterobimetallic core, as well as the nature of the Co-Cu interaction. Quantum chemical calculations showed modest electron delocalization in the (CoCu)(+4) state via a Co-Cu ? bond that is weakened by partial population of the Co-Cu ? antibonding orbital. By contrast, no covalent Co-Cu bonding is predicted for the (CoCu)(+3) analogue, and the d-electrons are fully localized at individual metals. PMID:26551246

  9. Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, C. V.; Rubio, E. J.; Barraza, C. D.; Miranda Gallardo, A.; McPeak, Samantha; Kotru, Sushma; Grant, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were made by sputter deposition employing a Ga2O3 ceramic target for sputtering. The depositions were made over a wide range of substrate temperatures (Ts), from 25 to 600 C. The effect of Ts on the chemical bonding, surface morphological characteristics, optical constants, and electrical properties of the grown films was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and four-point probe measurements. XPS analyses indicate the binding energies (BE) of the Ga 2p doublet, i.e., the Ga 2p3/2 and Ga 2p1/2 peaks, are located at 1118.0 and 1145.0 eV, respectively, characterizing gallium in its highest chemical oxidation state (Ga3+) in the grown films. The core level XPS spectra of O 1s indicate that the peak is centered at a BE 531 eV, which is also characteristic of Ga-O bonds in the Ga2O3 phase. The granular morphology of the nanocrystalline Ga2O3 films was evident from AFM measurements, which also indicate that the surface roughness of the films increases from 0.5 nm to 3.0 nm with increasing Ts. The SE analyses indicate that the index of refraction (n) of Ga2O3 films increases with increasing Ts due to improved structural quality and packing density of the films. The n(?) of all the Ga2O3 films follows the Cauchy's dispersion relation. The room temperature electrical resistivity was high (200 ?-cm) for amorphous Ga2O3 films grown at Ts = RT-300 C and decreased to 1 ?-cm for nanocrystalline Ga2O3 films grown at Ts ? 500-600 C. A correlation between growth conditions, microstructure, optical constants, and electrical properties of Ga2O3 films is derived.

  10. Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Composition and Bonding at Perovskite Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitting Kourkoutis, L.

    2010-03-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has proven to be a powerful technique to study buried perovskite oxide heterointerfaces. With the recent addition of 3^rd order and now 5^th order aberration correction, which provides a factor of 100x increase in signal over an uncorrected system, we are now able to record 2D maps of composition and bonding of oxide interfaces at atomic resolution [1]. Here, we present studies of the microscopic structure of oxide/oxide multilayers and heterostructures by STEM in combination with EELS and its effect on the properties of the film. Using atomic-resolution spectroscopic imaging we show that the degradation of the magnetic and transport properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/SrTiO3 multilayers correlates with atomic intermixing at the interfaces and the presence of extended defects in the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 layers. When these defects are eliminated, metallic ferromagnetism at room temperature can be stabilized in 5 unit cell thick manganite layers, almost 40% thinner than the previously reported critical thickness of 3-5 nm for sustaining metallic ferromagnetism below Tc in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3.[4pt] [1] D.A. Muller, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, M. Murfitt, J.H. Song, H.Y. Hwang, J. Silcox, N. Dellby, O.L. Krivanek, Science 319, 1073-1076 (2008).

  11. NITROGEN OXIDES REACTIONS WITHIN URBAN PLUMES TRANSPORTED OVER THE OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an airborne measurements program in the downwind urban plume of Boston. The variables measured included ozone, nitric oxide, oxides of nitrogen, nitric acid, peroxyacetylnitrate, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbon, freon-11, C1-C5 hydrocarbons, condensat...

  12. Structural and functional investigation of graphene oxide-Fe3O4 nanocomposites for the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubir, Nor Aida; Yacou, Christelle; Motuzas, Julius; Zhang, Xiwang; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2014-04-01

    Graphene oxide-iron oxide (GO-Fe3O4) nanocomposites were synthesised by co-precipitating iron salts onto GO sheets in basic solution. The results showed that formation of two distinct structures was dependent upon the GO loading. The first structure corresponds to a low GO loading up to 10 wt%, associated with the beneficial intercalation of GO within Fe3O4 nanoparticles and resulting in higher surface area up to 409 m2 g-1. High GO loading beyond 10 wt% led to the aggregation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the undesirable stacking of GO sheets. The presence of strong interfacial interactions (Fe-O-C bonds) between both components at low GO loading lead to 20% higher degradation of Acid Orange 7 than the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. This behaviour was attributed to synergistic structural and functional effect of the combined GO and Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  13. Catalytic insertion of aldehydes into dihalonitroacetophenones via sequential bond scission-aldol reaction-acyl transfer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ransheng; Wolf, Christian

    2016-02-28

    A catalytic process that provides dihalogenated nitro alcohols in up to 99% yield and with 100% atom economy is described. In situ cleavage of dihalonitroacetophenones affords nitronates that undergo Lewis acid catalyzed addition to aldehydes. Final benzoylation renders the sequence irreversible and regenerates the bond scission and acyl transfer agent. PMID:26846436

  14. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions - Further evidence for interstellar N-O bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Minh, Y.; Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been newly detected toward several star-forming clouds, including Orion-KL, Sgr B2(N), W33A, W51M, and DR21(OH) via its J = 3/2-1/2 transitions near 150 GHz, using the FCRAO 14 m telescope. Both lambda-doubling components of NO were observed toward all sources. Column densities derived for nitric oxide in these clouds are 10 to the 15th-10 to the 16th/sq cm, corresponding to fractional abundances of 0.5-1.0 x 10 to the -8th, relative to H2. Toward Orion-KL, the NO line profile suggests that the species arises primarily from hot, dense gas. Nitric oxide may arise from warm material toward the other clouds as well. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions could be synthesized by high-temperature reactions, although the observed abundances do not disagree with values predicted from low-temperature, ion-molecule chemistry by more than one order of magnitude.

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of OHCH3OH: Hydrogen-Bonded Intermediate Along the Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction Path.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Federico J; Brice, Joseph T; Leavitt, Christopher M; Pino, Gustavo A; Douberly, Gary E

    2015-07-23

    Substantial non-Arrhenius behavior has been previously observed in the low temperature reaction between the hydroxyl radical and methanol. This behavior can be rationalized assuming the stabilization of an association adduct in the entrance channel of the reaction, from which barrier penetration via quantum mechanical tunneling produces the CH3O radical and H2O. Helium nanodroplet isolation and a serial pick-up technique are used to stabilize the hydrogen bonded prereactive OHCH3OH complex. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy are used to confirm its production and probe the OH stretch vibrations. Stark spectroscopy reveals the magnitude of the permanent electric dipole moment, which is compared to ab initio calculations that account for wide-amplitude motion in the complex. The vibrationally averaged structure has Cs symmetry with the OH moiety hydrogen bonded to the hydroxyl group of methanol. Nevertheless, the zero-point level of the complex exhibits a wave function significantly delocalized over a bending coordinate leading to the transition state of the CH3O producing reaction. PMID:26135615

  16. Palladium and gold nanotubes as oxygen reduction reaction and alcohol oxidation reaction catalysts in base.

    PubMed

    Alia, Shaun M; Duong, Kathlynne; Liu, Toby; Jensen, Kurt; Yan, Yushan

    2014-06-01

    Palladium (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) were synthesized by the galvanic displacement of silver nanowires. PdNTs and AuNTs have wall thicknesses of 6?nm, outer diameters of 60?nm, and lengths of 5-10 and 5-20??m, respectively. Rotating disk electrode experiments showed that the PdNTs and AuNTs have higher area normalized activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than conventional nanoparticle catalysts. The PdNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 3.4, 2.2, and 3.7?times greater than that on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C), bulk polycrystalline palladium, and carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C), respectively. The AuNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 2.3, 9.0, and 2.0?times greater than that on carbon-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/C), bulk polycrystalline gold, and Pt/C, respectively. The PdNTs also had lower onset potentials than Pd/C and Pt/C for the oxidation of methanol (0.236?V), ethanol (0.215?V), and ethylene glycol (0.251?V). In comparison to Pt/C, the PdNTs and AuNTs further demonstrated improved alcohol tolerance during the ORR. PMID:24757078

  17. Synthesis of a rhodium(i) germyl complex: a useful tool for C-H and C-F bond activation reactions.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Theresia; Ahrens, Mike; Braun, Thomas; Braun, Beatrice; Herrmann, Roy

    2016-03-21

    The dihydrido germyl complex cis,fac-[Rh(GePh3)(H)2(PEt3)3] (2) was synthesized by an oxidative addition of HGePh3 at [Rh(H)(PEt3)3] (1). Treatment of 2 with neohexene generated the rhodium(i) germyl complex [Rh(GePh3)(PEt3)3] (3). Alternatively, treatment of the methyl complex [Rh(CH3)(PEt3)3] (4) with HGePh3 furnished at room temperature also 3. Low-temperature NMR measurements revealed an initial formation of the oxidative addition product fac-[Rh(GePh3)(H)(CH3)(PEt3)3] (5), which transforms into the intermediate complex [Rh(GePh3)(H)(CH3)(PEt3)2] (6) by dissociation of a triethylphosphine ligand. The reductive elimination of methane and coordination of PEt3 afforded the germyl complex 3. Treatment of 3 with CO gave the biscarbonyl complex [Rh(GePh3)(CO)2(PEt3)2] (7). The molecular structures of the complexes 2, 3 and 7 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The germyl complex 3 reacted with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine or pentafluorobenzene to furnish the C-H activation products [Rh(4-C5NF4)(PEt3)3] (8) and [Rh(C6F5)(PEt3)3] (9), respectively. The reaction of 3 with hexafluorobenzene or perfluorotoluene gave selectively the C-F activation products 9 and [Rh(4-C6F4CF3)(PEt3)3] (10). Treatment of 3 with pentafluoropyridine resulted in the formation of the C-F activation products 8 and [Rh(2-C5NF4)(PEt3)3] (11) in a 1 : 10 ratio. The two isomeric activation compounds [Rh{(E)-CF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF(CF3)}(PEt3)3] (12) and [Rh{(Z)-CF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF(CF3)}(PEt3)3] (13) were obtained in a 3 : 1 ratio by reaction of 3 with hexafluoropropene. On exposure to oxygen the highly air sensitive complex 12 reacts to yield the peroxido-bridged dirhodium complex [Rh{(E)-CF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF(CF3)}(μ-κ(1):η(2)-O2)(PEt3)2]2 (14). The molecular structure of 14 was determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:26863494

  18. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions. PMID:25977713

  19. The oxidative half-reaction of xanthine dehydrogenase with NAD; reaction kinetics and steady-state mechanism.

    PubMed

    Harris, C M; Massey, V

    1997-11-01

    The reaction between reduced xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from bovine milk and NAD has been studied in detail. An understanding of this reaction is necessary for a complete description of XDH turnover with its presumed natural electron acceptor and to address the preference of XDH for NAD over oxygen as a substrate. The reaction between pre-reduced XDH and NAD was studied by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The reaction was found to involve two rounds of oxidation with 2 eq of NAD. The first round goes to completion, and the second round reaches a slightly disfavored equilibrium. Rapid binding of NAD with an apparent Kd of 25 +/- 2 microM is followed by NAD reduction at a rate constant of 130 +/- 13 s-1. NADH dissociation at a rate constant of 42 +/- 12 s-1 completes a round of oxidation. These steps have been successfully tested and modeled to repeat themselves in the second round of oxidation. The association rate constant for NAD binding was estimated to be much greater than any rate constant measured in the oxidation by molecular oxygen, thus explaining how NAD competes with oxygen for reducing equivalents. Rate constants for NAD reduction and NADH dissociation are respectively 21- and 7-fold greater than kcat, indicating that the reductive half-reaction of the enzyme by xanthine is mostly rate-limiting in xanthine/NAD turnover. A steady-state mechanism for XDH is discussed. PMID:9353290

  20. Competition between covalent bonding and charge transfer tendencies at complex-oxides interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salafranca, J.; Tornos, J.; Garca-Barriocanal, J.; Len, C.; Santamaria, J.; Rincn, J.; lvarez, G.; Pennycook, S. J.; Dagotto, E.; Varela, M.

    2013-03-01

    Interfaces alter the subtle balance among different degrees of freedom responsible for exotic phenomena in complex oxides, such as cuprate-manganite interfaces. We study these interfaces by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy and theoretical calculations. Microscopy and EEL spectroscopy indicate that the interfaces are sharp, and the chemical profile is symmetric with two equivalent interfaces. Spectroscopy also allows us to establish an oxidation state profile with sub-nanometer resolution. We find an anomalous charge redistribution: a non-monotonic behavior of the occupancy of d orbitals in the manganite layers as a function of distance to the interface. Relying on model calculations, we establish that this profile is a result of the competition between standard charge transfer tendencies involving materials with different chemical potentials and strong bonding effects across the interface. The competition can be tuned by different factors (temperature, doping, magnetic fields...). As examples, we report different charge distributions as a function of doping of the manganite layers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ORNL:U.S. DOE-BES, Material Sciences and Engineering Division & ORNL's ShaRE. UCM:Juan de la Cierva, Ramon y Cajal, & ERC Starting Investigator Award programs.

  1. The energy and geometric characteristics of the transition state in reactions of RO{2/} with carbonyl compound C-H bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A. F.; Denisov, E. T.; Emel'Yanova, N. S.; Denisova, T. G.

    2009-03-01

    The energy and geometry of the transition state in reactions of the ethyl peroxyl radical with ethane, ethanol (its ? and ? C-H bonds), acetone, butanone-2, and acetaldehyde were calculated by the density functional theory method. In all these reactions (except EtO2/ + ethanol ? C-H bond), the CHO reaction center has an almost linear configuration (? = 176 2); polar interaction only influences the r ? (CO) interatomic bond. In the reaction of EtO2/ with the ethanol ? C-H bond, it is the O-HO H-bond formed in the transition state that determines the configuration of the reaction center with the angle ?(CHO) = 160. The results were used to estimate the r ? (CH) and r ? (OH) interatomic bonds in the transition state by the method of intersecting parabolas and the contribution of polar interaction to the activation energy of reactions between peroxyl radicals and aldehydes and ketones.

  2. Developments and recent advancements in the field of endogenous amino acid selective bond forming reactions for bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Koniev, Oleksandr; Wagner, Alain

    2015-08-01

    Bioconjugation methodologies have proven to play a central enabling role in the recent development of biotherapeutics and chemical biology approaches. Recent endeavours in these fields shed light on unprecedented chemical challenges to attain bioselectivity, biocompatibility, and biostability required by modern applications. In this review the current developments in various techniques of selective bond forming reactions of proteins and peptides were highlighted. The utility of each endogenous amino acid-selective conjugation methodology in the fields of biology and protein science has been surveyed with emphasis on the most relevant among reported transformations; selectivity and practical use have been discussed. PMID:26000775

  3. Hydrogen-bond-mediated asymmetric cascade reaction of stable sulfur ylides with nitroolefins: scope, application and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang-Qiu; Li, Fang; An, Jing; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Jia-Rong; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2012-03-26

    A hydrogen-bond-mediated asymmetric [4+1] annulation/rearrangement cascade of stable sulfur ylides and nitroolefins was developed. This reaction provides a facile route to enantioenriched 4,5-substituted oxazolidinones in moderate to excellent isolated yields (65-96 %) with excellent stereocontrol (up to more than 95:5 d.r. and 97:3 e.r.). This methodology was successfully applied to the concise synthesis of two bioactive molecules. The stereocontrolled modes and mechanism have been proposed to explain the origin of this stereochemistry. PMID:22362633

  4. Comparison of properties of sintered and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride fabricated by microwave and conventional heating

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.; Lin, H.T.

    1995-10-01

    A comparison of microwave and conventional processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics was performed to identify any differences between the two, such as improved fabrication parameters or increased mechanical properties. Two areas of thermal processing were examined: sintered silicon nitride (SSN) and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). The SSN powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. SRBSN materials were fabricated in the microwave with a one-step process using cost-effective raw materials. The SRBSN materials had properties appropriate for structural applications. Observed increases in fracture toughness for the microwave processed SRBSN materials were attributable to enhanced elongated grain growth.

  5. Comparison of properties of sintered and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride fabricated by microwave and conventional heating

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.; Lin, H.T.; Willkens, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    A comparison of microwave and conventional processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics was performed to identify any differences between the two, such as improved fabrication parameters or increased mechanical properties. Two areas of thermal processing were examined: (1) sintered silicon nitride (SSN) and (2) sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). The SSN powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. SRBSN materials were fabricated in the microwave with a one-step process using cost-effective raw materials. The SRBSN materials had properties appropriate for structural applications. Observed increases in fracture toughness for the microwave processed SRBSN materials were attributable to enhanced elongated grain growth.

  6. Synthesis of Indolizines through Oxidative Linkage of C-C and C-N Bonds from 2-Pyridylacetates.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Darapaneni Chandra; Ravi, Chitrakar; Pappula, Venkatanarayana; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of indolizine-1-carboxylates through the Ortoleva-King reaction of 2-pyridylacetate followed by the Aldol condensation under mild reaction conditions has been described. This protocol is compatible with a broad range of functional groups, and it has been also successfully extended to unsaturated ketones, bringing about the regioselective formation of benzoyl-substituted indolizines through Michael addition followed by C-N bond formation, which are difficult to prepare by previous methods in a single step. PMID:26044904

  7. Periodate oxidation of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans: Influence of the reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Chemin, Maud; Rakotovelo, Alex; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Chollet, Guillaume; Da Silva Perez, Denilson; Petit-Conil, Michel; Cramail, Henri; Grelier, Stéphane

    2016-05-20

    This work aims at studying the sodium periodate oxidation of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans (MGX) in different experimental conditions for a control of the oxidation degree. A series of sodium periodate oxidation reactions were conducted at three NaIO4/xylose molar ratios: 0.05, 0.20 and 1.00. The effects of xylan molar mass, xylan concentration and reaction temperature on the reaction rate have been evaluated by UV/visible spectroscopy at 0.20 NaIO4/xylose ratio. No depolymerization is observed at 0.05 ratio while depolymerization occurs at 0.20 and is even complete at 1.00 NaIO4/xylose ratio. An increase of the reaction temperature - up to 80°C - leads to an increase of the oxidation rate with no effect on the depolymerization. At high xylan concentrations, the oxidation rate increases but promotes chains aggregation. PMID:26917372

  8. Stable Gold(III) Catalysts by Oxidative Addition of a Carbon-Carbon Bond

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Horibe, Takahiro; Jacobsen, Christian Borch

    2014-01-01

    Whereas low-valent late transition metal catalysis has become indispensible for chemical synthesis, homogeneous high-valent transition metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly due to the reactivity of high-valent transition metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. In this manuscript, we report a mild carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction by a Au(I) complex that generates a stable Au(III) cationic complex. Complementary to the well-established soft and carbophilic Au(I) catalyst, this Au(III) complex exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity. This is exemplified by catalytic activation of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes towards selective conjugate additions as well as activation of an unsaturated aldehyde-allene for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. The origin of the regioselectivity and catalytic activity was elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an isolated Au(III)-activated cinnamaldehyde intermediate. The concepts revealed in this study provide a strategy for accessing high-valent transition metal catalysis from readily available precursors. PMID:25612049

  9. Reaction products and mechanisms for the reaction of n-butyl vinyl ether with the oxidants OH and Cl: Atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenar, Inmaculada; Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Salgado, Sagrario; Tapia, Araceli; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    A reaction product study for the degradation of butyl vinyl ether (CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2) by reaction with chlorine atoms (Cl) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and/or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight analyzer (GC-TOFMS). The rate coefficient for the reaction of butyl vinyl ether (BVE) with chlorine atoms has also been evaluated for the first time at room temperature (298 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8) Torr. The rate coefficient obtained was (9.9 ± 1.5) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and this indicates the high reactivity of butyl vinyl ether with Cl atoms. However, this value may be affected by the dark reaction of BVE with Cl2. The results of a qualitative study of the Cl reaction show that the main oxidation products are butyl formate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)H), butyl chloroacetate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)CH2Cl and formyl chloride (HCOCl). Individual yields in the ranges ∼16-40% and 30-70% in the absence and presence of NOx, respectively, have been estimated for these products. In the OH reaction, butyl formate and formic acid were identified as the main products, with yields of around 50 and 20%, respectively. Based on the results of this work and a literature survey, the addition of OH radicals and Cl atoms at the terminal C atom of the double bond in CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2 has been proposed as the first step in the reaction mechanism for both of the studied oxidants. The tropospheric lifetime of butyl vinyl ether is very short and, as a consequence, it will be rapidly degraded and will only be involved in tropospheric chemistry at a local level. The degradation products of these reactions should be considered when evaluating the atmospheric impact.

  10. A dielectric barrier discharge terminally inactivates RNase A by oxidizing sulfur-containing amino acids and breaking structural disulfide bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackmann, J.-W.; Baldus, S.; Steinborn, E.; Edengeiser, E.; Kogelheide, F.; Langklotz, S.; Schneider, S.; Leichert, L. I. O.; Benedikt, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Bandow, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    RNases are among the most stable proteins in nature. They even refold spontaneously after heat inactivation, regaining full activity. Due to their stability and universal presence, they often pose a problem when experimenting with RNA. We investigated the capabilities of nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas to inactivate RNase A and studied the inactivation mechanism on a molecular level. While prolonged heating above 90 °C is required for heat inactivating RNase A, direct plasma treatment with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source caused permanent inactivation within minutes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that DBD-treated RNase A unfolds rapidly. Raman spectroscopy indicated methionine modifications and formation of sulfonic acid. A mass spectrometry-based analysis of the protein modifications that occur during plasma treatment over time revealed that methionine sulfoxide formation coincides with protein inactivation. Chemical reduction of methionine sulfoxides partially restored RNase A activity confirming that sulfoxidation is causal and sufficient for RNase A inactivation. Continued plasma exposure led to over-oxidation of structural disulfide bonds. Using antibodies, disulfide bond over-oxidation was shown to be a general protein inactivation mechanism of the DBD. The antibody’s heavy and light chains linked by disulfide bonds dissociated after plasma exposure. Based on their ability to inactivate proteins by oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids and over-oxidation of disulfide bonds, DBD devices present a viable option for inactivating undesired or hazardous proteins on heat or solvent-sensitive surfaces.

  11. Effect of Layer-Graded Bond Coats on Edge Stress Concentration and Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) durability is closely related to design, processing and microstructure of the coating Z, tn systems. Two important issues that must be considered during the design of a thermal barrier coating are thermal expansion and modulus mismatch between the substrate and the ceramic layer, and substrate oxidation. In many cases, both of these issues may be best addressed through the selection of an appropriate bond coat system. In this study, a low thermal expansion and layer-graded bond coat system, that consists of plasma-sprayed FeCoNiCrAl and FeCrAlY coatings, and a high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed FeCrAlY coating, is developed to minimize the thermal stresses and provide oxidation resistance. The thermal expansion and oxidation behavior of the coating system are also characterized, and the strain isolation effect of the bond coat system is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Experiments and finite element results show that the layer-graded bond coat system possesses lower interfacial stresses. better strain isolation and excellent oxidation resistance. thus significantly improving the coating performance and durability.

  12. High-temperature oxidation behavior of reaction-formed silicon carbide ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. J. T.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of reaction-formed silicon carbide (RFSC) ceramics was investigated in the temperature range of 1100 to 1400 C. The oxidation weight change was recorded by TGA; the oxidized materials were examined by light and electron microscopy, and the oxidation product by x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The materials exhibited initial weight loss, followed by passive weight gain (with enhanced parabolic rates, k(sub p)), and ending with a negative (logarithmic) deviation from the parabolic law. The weight loss arose from the oxidation of residual carbon, and the enhanced k(sub p) values from internal oxidation and the oxidation of residual silicon, while the logarithmic kinetics is thought to have resulted from crystallization of the oxide. The presence of a small amount of MoSi, in the RFSC material caused a further increase in the oxidation rate. The only solid oxidation product for all temperatures studied was silica.

  13. Novel carboncarbon bond formations for biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Verena; Schrittwieser, Joerg H; Siirola, Elina; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Carboncarbon bond formation is the key transformation in organic synthesis to set up the carbon backbone of organic molecules. However, only a limited number of enzymatic CC bond forming reactions have been applied in biocatalytic organic synthesis. Recently, further name reactions have been accomplished for the first time employing enzymes on a preparative scale, for instance the Stetter and PictetSpengler reaction or oxidative CC bond formation. Furthermore, novel enzymatic CC bond forming reactions have been identified like benzylation of aromatics, intermolecular Diels-Alder or reductive coupling of carbon monoxide. PMID:21354781

  14. Platinum-catalyzed cross-dehydrogenative coupling reaction in the absence of oxidant.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xing-Zhong; Yang, Yan-Fang; Xia, Xiao-Feng; Ji, Ke-Gong; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Liang, Yong-Min

    2010-09-21

    A third strategy for cross-dehydrogenative coupling reaction has been reported via platinum-catalyzed sp(3) C-H and sp(3) C-H coupling reaction in the absence of oxidant. Nitroalkanes as well as dialkyl malonate derivatives, beta-keto esters and malononitrile are active participants in this coupling reaction. Both cyclic and acyclic non-activated simple ketones are good reactants in this reaction. PMID:20664883

  15. Rim region growth and its composition in reaction bonded boron carbide composites with core-rim structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayun, S.; Weizmann, A.; Dilman, H.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum was detected in reaction-bonded boron carbide that had been prepared by pressureless infiltration of boron carbide preforms with molten silicon in a graphite furnace under vacuum. The presence of Al2O3 in the heated zone, even though not in contact with the boron carbide preform, stands behind the presence of aluminium in the rim region that interconnects the initial boron carbide particles. The composition of the rim corresponds to the Bx(C,Si,Al)y quaternary carbide phase. The reaction of alumina with graphite and the formation of a gaseous aluminum suboxide (Al2O) accounts for the transfer of aluminum in the melt and, subsequently in the rim regions. The presence of Al increases the solubility of boron in liquid silicon, but with increasing aluminum content the activity of boron decreases. These features dominate the structural evolution of the rim-core in the presence of aluminum in the melt.

  16. Coordination-Resolved Spectrometrics of Local Bonding and Electronic Dynamics of Au Atomic Clusters, Solid Skins, and Oxidized Foils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wang; Bo, Maolin; Huang, Yongli; Wang, Yan; Li, Can; Sun, Chang Q

    2015-07-20

    By using combination of bond-order-length-strength (BOLS) correlation, the tight-binding (TB) approach, and zone-selective photoelectron spectroscopy (ZPS), we were able to resolve local bond relaxation and the associated 4f7/2 core-level shift of Au atomic clusters, Au(100, 110, 111) skins, and Au foils exposed to ozone for different lengths of time. In addition to quantitative information, such as local bond length, bond energy, binding-energy density, and atomic cohesive energy, the results confirm our predictions that bond-order deficiency shortens and stiffens the bond between undercoordinated atoms, which results in local densification and quantum entrapment of bonding electrons. The entrapment perturbs the Hamiltonian, and hence, shifts the core-level energy accordingly. ZPS also confirms that oxidation enhances the effect of atomic undercoordination on the positive 4f7/2 energy shift, with the associated valence electron polarization contributing to the catalytic ability of undercoordinated Au atoms. PMID:25916877

  17. The reactions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with surface-bound oxides on carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sibraa, A.; Newbury, T.; Haynes, B.S.

    2000-03-01

    The stability of surface oxides formed on exposure of Spherocarb to oxygen has been investigated in various atmospheres (Ar, CO, and H{sub 2}) through gravimetry and mass spectrometry. Oxide complexes, formed in oxygen at 973 or 1,073 K, were exposed to 2.67 Pa of the bath gas in the temperature range 923 to 1,073 K. Changes in the population of surface complexes were identified through analysis of gas evolution (principally CO) profiles during temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of the oxides in an inert atmosphere. Oxides formed in this work display a distribution of activation energies for their decomposition, E{sub des}, from 300 to 420 kJ/mol. Soaking of these oxides in Ar showed the frequency factor for their thermal decomposition to be 10{sup 143{+-}0.3} s{sup {minus}1}, independent of E{sub des}. The effect of soaking in CO was essentially the same as that of Ar, and it is concluded that no significant reaction occurs under these conditions between surface oxides and CO. However, on soaking in H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O was evolved as a result of reaction between hydrogen and the surface oxide complex. The kinetics of the reaction between hydrogen and surface complexes are dependent on the reaction temperature and on the thermal stability of the reacting surface oxide. Less stable oxides react more readily than do more stable oxides.

  18. Insertion of phosphinidene complexes into the P-H bond of secondary phosphine oxides: a new version of the phospha-Wittig synthesis of P[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanwei; Wu, Di; Tian, Rongqiang; Duan, Zheng; Mathey, Franois

    2016-01-01

    Terminal phosphinidene complexes [RP-W(CO)5], as generated at 60 C in the presence of copper chloride from the appropriate 7-phosphanorbornadiene complexes, react with secondary phosphine oxides Ar2P(O)H to give the insertion products into the P-H bonds. After metalation with NaH, these products react with aldehydes to give the corresponding phosphaalkenes which are trapped by dimethylbutadiene. PMID:26661055

  19. Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J.; Wurth, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

  20. Putative hydrogen bond to tyrosine M208 in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus significantly slows primary charge separation.

    PubMed

    Saggu, Miguel; Carter, Brett; Zhou, Xiaoxue; Faries, Kaitlyn; Cegelski, Lynette; Holten, Dewey; Boxer, Steven G; Kirmaier, Christine

    2014-06-19

    Slow, ∼50 ps, P* → P(+)HA(-) electron transfer is observed in Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction centers (RCs) bearing the native Tyr residue at M208 and the single amino acid change of isoleucine at M204 to glutamic acid. The P* decay kinetics are unusually homogeneous (single exponential) at room temperature. Comparative solid-state NMR of [4'-(13)C]Tyr labeled wild-type and M204E RCs show that the chemical shift of Tyr M208 is significantly altered in the M204E mutant and in a manner consistent with formation of a hydrogen bond to the Tyr M208 hydroxyl group. Models based on RC crystal structure coordinates indicate that if such a hydrogen bond is formed between the Glu at M204 and the M208 Tyr hydroxyl group, the -OH would be oriented in a fashion expected (based on the calculations by Alden et al., J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 16761-16770) to destabilize P(+)BA(-) in free energy. Alteration of the environment of Tyr M208 and BA by Glu M204 via this putative hydrogen bond has a powerful influence on primary charge separation. PMID:24902471

  1. Putative Hydrogen Bond to Tyrosine M208 in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus Significantly Slows Primary Charge Separation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Slow, ∼50 ps, P* → P+HA– electron transfer is observed in Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction centers (RCs) bearing the native Tyr residue at M208 and the single amino acid change of isoleucine at M204 to glutamic acid. The P* decay kinetics are unusually homogeneous (single exponential) at room temperature. Comparative solid-state NMR of [4′-13C]Tyr labeled wild-type and M204E RCs show that the chemical shift of Tyr M208 is significantly altered in the M204E mutant and in a manner consistent with formation of a hydrogen bond to the Tyr M208 hydroxyl group. Models based on RC crystal structure coordinates indicate that if such a hydrogen bond is formed between the Glu at M204 and the M208 Tyr hydroxyl group, the −OH would be oriented in a fashion expected (based on the calculations by Alden et al., J. Phys. Chem.1996, 100, 16761–16770) to destabilize P+BA– in free energy. Alteration of the environment of Tyr M208 and BA by Glu M204 via this putative hydrogen bond has a powerful influence on primary charge separation. PMID:24902471

  2. Investigation of the reactions of small neutral iron oxide clusters with methanol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Dong, Feng; Heinbuch, Scott; Rocca, Jorge J; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2009-03-21

    Reactions of neutral iron oxide clusters (Fe(m)O(n), m=1-2, n=0-5) with methanol (CH(3)OH) in a fast flow reactor are investigated by time of flight mass spectrometry. Detection of the neutral iron oxide cluster distribution and reaction intermediates and products is accomplished through single photon ionization by a 118 nm (10.5 eV) VUV laser. Partially deuterated methanol (CD(3)OH) is employed to distinguish reaction products and reaction mechanisms. Three major reactions are identified experimentally: CH(3)OH association with FeO; methanol dehydrogenation on FeO(1,2) and Fe(2)O(2-5); and (CH(2)O)Fe formation. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to identify reaction products, and to explore the geometric and electronic structures of the iron oxide clusters, reaction intermediates, and transition states, and to evaluate reaction pathways. Neutral formaldehyde is calculated to be formed on FeO(1,2) and Fe(2)O(2-5) clusters. Hydrogen transfer from methanol to iron oxide clusters occurs first from the O-H moiety of methanol, and is followed by a hydrogen transfer from the C-H moiety of methanol. Computational results are in good agreement with experimental observations and reveal reaction mechanisms for neutral iron oxide clusters taking methanol to formaldehyde through various reaction intermediates. Based on the experimental results and the calculated reaction mechanisms and pathways, complete catalytic cycles are suggested for the heterogeneous reaction of CH(3)OH to CH(2)O facilitated by an iron oxide catalyst. PMID:19317538

  3. Sporicidal effects of iodine-oxide thermite reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan; Blinkova, Alexandra; Chen, Tiffany

    2012-03-01

    Iodine pentoxide-aluminum thermite reactions have been driven by impacts at 1000 m/s on steel plates 3 mm or thicker. This reaction releases iodine gas that is known to be a sporicide. To test the impact reactions for sporicidal effects, reactions took place in closed chambers containing dried Bacillus subtilis spores. The reduction in colony-forming units was dependent on the exposure time; long exposure times resulted in a 105 decrease in germination rate. This was shown to be due to the gas exposure rather than the heat or turbulence. Sporicidal effectiveness was increased by adding neodymium and saran resin.

  4. Influence of interfacial shear strength on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of fiber/matrix interface microstructure and interfacial shear strength on the mechanical properties of a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite was evaluated. The composite consisted of approximately 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 microns diameter SiC fibers (Textron SCS-6) in a reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix (SiC/RBSN). The interface microstructure was varied by controlling the composite fabrication conditions and by heat treating the composite in an oxidizing environment. Interfacial shear strength was determined by the matrix crack spacing method. The results of microstructural examination indicate that the carbon-rich coating provided with the as-produced SiC fibers was stable in composites fabricated at 1200 C in a nitrogen or in a nitrogen plus 4 percent hydrogen mixture for 40 hr. However this coating degraded in composites fabricated at 1350 C in N2 + 4 percent H2 for 40 and 72 hr and also in composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment at 600 C for 100 hr after fabrication at 1200 C in a nitrogen. It was determined that degradation occurred by carbon removal which in turn had a strong influence on interfacial shear strength and other mechanical properties. Specifically, as the carbon coating was removed, the composite interfacial shear strength, primary elastic modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate tensile strength decreased, but the first matrix cracking strain remained nearly the same.

  5. Properties of a reaction-bonded β-SiAlON ceramic doped with an FeMo alloy for application to molten aluminum environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-jun; Yu, Hai-liang; Jin, Hai-yun; Shi, Zhong-qi; Qiao, Guan-jun; Jin, Zhi-hao

    2015-05-01

    An FeMo-alloy-doped β-SiAlON (FeMo/β-SiAlON) composite was fabricated via a reaction-bonding method using raw materials of Si, Al2O3, AlN, FeMo, and Sm2O3. The effects of FeMo on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Some properties of the composite, including its bending strength at 700°C and after oxidization at 700°C for 24 h in air, thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance to molten aluminum, were also evaluated. The results show that the density, toughness, bending strength, and thermal shock resistance of the composite are obviously improved with the addition of an FeMo alloy. In addition, other properties of the composite such as its high-temperature strength and oxidized strength are also improved by the addition of FeMo alloy, and its corrosion resistance to molten aluminum is maintained. These findings indicate that the developed FeMo/β-SiAlON composite exhibits strong potential for application to molten aluminum environments.

  6. Influence of Alumina Reaction Tube Impurities on the Oxidation of Chemically-Vapor-Deposited Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Pure coupons of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were oxidized for 100 h in dry flowing oxygen at 1300 C. The oxidation kinetics were monitored using thermogravimetry (TGA). The experiments were first performed using high-purity alumina reaction tubes. The experiments were then repeated using fused quartz reaction tubes. Differences in oxidation kinetics, scale composition, and scale morphology were observed. These differences were attributed to impurities in the alumina tubes. Investigators interested in high-temperature oxidation of silica formers should be aware that high-purity alumina can have significant effects on experiment results.

  7. Fundamental kinetics and mechanistic pathways for oxidation reactions in supercritical water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webley, Paul A.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of the products of human metabolism in supercritical water has been shown to be an efficient way to accomplish the on-board water/waste recycling in future long-term space flights. Studies of the oxidation kinetics of methane to carbon dioxide in supercritical water are presented in this paper in order to enhance the fundamental understanding of the oxidation of human waste compounds in supercritical water. It is concluded that, although the elementary reaction models remain the best hope for simulating oxidation in supercritical water, several modifications to existing mechanisms need to be made to account for the role of water in the reaction mechanism.

  8. Synthesis of Biaryls via Benzylic C-C Bond Cleavage of Styrenes and Benzyl Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

    2015-11-01

    A metal-free oxidative coupling of styrenes and benzyl alcohols with arenes has been developed for the synthesis of biaryls. The reaction features a conspicuous benzylic C-C bond cleavage of styrenes and benzyl alcohols. The reaction with both substrates proceeds through a common aldehydic intermediate formed through oxidative C-C bond cleavage of alkene and oxidation of benzyl alcohols. The reaction proceeds efficiently over a broad range of substrates with excellent functional group tolerance. PMID:26479321

  9. Functional separation of oxidation-reduction reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND and conductive additive hybrid electrocatalysts during methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhui; Bian, Linyan; Lu, Rui; Zang, Jianbing

    2016-02-01

    Undoped nanodiamond (ND) supported PtRu (PtRu/ND) electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reactions (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells was prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol reduction method. Sp3-bonded ND possesses high electrochemical stability but low conductivity, while sp2-bonded carbon nanomaterials with high conductivity are prone to oxidation. Therefore, the functions of the supporting material were separated in this study. ND (sp3), as a support, and AB or CNTs (sp2), as a conductive additive, were combined to form the hybrid electrocatalysts PtRu/ND + AB and PtRu/ND + CNT for MOR. The morphology of the electrocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements were performed using an electrochemical workstation. The results indicated that the electrocatalytic activity of PtRu/ND for MOR was improved with the addition of AB or CNTs as a conductive additive. Moreover, adding CNTs to PtRu/ND as a conductive additive showed better electrocatalytic activities than adding AB, which can be ascribed to the better electron-transfer ability of CNTs.

  10. Kinetics of fatty acid oxidation in low density lipoproteins evaluated by registration of the oxidizer consumption and reaction product yield.

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Konovalova, G G; Lisitsyn, D M; Razumovskii, S D; Nezhdanova, I B; Kukharchuk, V V

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of arachidonic acid by ROS in vitro can be evaluated by the formation of reaction products (conjugated dienes); this is preceded by a lag period caused by the action of antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid). In case of ozone titration the oxidizer is consumed even during the lag period, when conjugated dienes are not yet forming. Comparison of the oxidation rate constants for antioxidants, arachidonic and oleic monoenic fatty acids suggests that during the lag period Cu(2+)-initiated forms of O(2) oxidize primarily oleic acid, whose reaction rate constant is much higher than those of antioxidants. Presumably, the duration of lag period during oxidation of arachidonic acid and formation of conjugated dienes is determined also by the content of triglycerides and oleic fatty acid in low density lipoproteins. PMID:16254615

  11. Molecular Recognition in Mn-Catalyzed C-H Oxidation. Reaction Mechanism and Origin of Selectivity from a DFT Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Balcells, David; Moles, Pamela; Blakemore, James; Raynaud, Christophe; Brudvig, Gary W.; Crabtree, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the C-H oxidation of ibuprofen and methylcyclohexane acetic acid can be carried out with high selectivies using [(terpy)Mn(OH2)(?-O)2Mn(OH2)(terpy)]3+ as catalyst, where terpy is a terpyridine ligand functionalized with a phenylene linker and a Kemps triacid serving to recognize the reactant via H-bonding. Experiments, described here, suggest that the sulfate counter anion, present in stochiometric amounts, coordinates to manganese in place of water. DFT calculations have been carried out using [(terpy)Mn(O)(?-O)2Mn(SO4)(terpy)]+ as model catalyst, to analyze the origin of selectivity and its relation to molecular recognition, as well as the mechanism of catalyst inhibition by tert-butyl benzoic acid. The calculations show that a number of spin states, all having radical oxygen character, are energetically accessible. All these spin states promote C-H oxidation via a rebound mechanism. The catalyst recognizes the substrate by a double H bond. This interaction orients the substrate inducing highly selective C-H oxidation. The double hydrogen bond stabilizes the reactant, the transition state and the product to the same extent. Consequently, the reaction occurs at lower energy than without molecular recognition. The association of the catalyst with tert-butyl benzoic acid is shown to shield the access of unbound substrate to the reactive oxo site, hence preventing non-selective hydroxylation. It is shown that the two recognition sites of the catalyst can be used in a cooperative manner to control the access to the reactive centre. PMID:19623399

  12. Comparative temporal analysis of multiwalled carbon nanotube oxidation reactions: Evaluating chemical modifications on true nanotube surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Flávia G.; Cotta, Alexandre A. C.; Gorgulho, Honória F.; Santos, Adelina P.; Macedo, Waldemar A. A.; Furtado, Clascídia A.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of extensive purification on oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube surface composition was studied through the characterization and differentiation of the actual surface submitted to three oxidation methods: microwave-assisted acid oxidation, hydrogen peroxide reflux, and Fenton reaction. The oxidized samples were purified by a multi-step procedure including the sequential use of basic reflux and dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF). The results showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidation debris with hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reaction times longer than 8 h and strong surface characteristic modification. With regard to sample purification, basic reflux led to a reduction in oxygenated group concentration of only 10% in the samples treated by acid oxidation. On the other hand, the subsequent use of DMF led to a further decrease in concentration of 39%, proving to be a more efficient method for the removal of oxidation debris.

  13. Investigations of Isoprene Oxidation Chemistry using Proton-Transfer Reaction Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, F.; Pratt, K. A.; McAvey, K.; Rindelaub, J. D.; Mielke, L. H.; Prentice, B. M.; Hilger, R. T.; McLuckey, S. A.; Oglesbee, R. A.; Shepson, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    Isoprene, emitted primarily from forest ecosystems, comprises approximately one-third of all non-methane volatile organic compound emissions globally. However, uncertainties remain in our understanding of the atmospheric oxidation chemistry of isoprene, particularly with respect low-NOx conditions and the fate of oxidation products. Smog chamber studies allow oxidation products to be studied in detail in a controlled setting. The proton-transfer reaction linear ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-LIT-MS) was developed to allow the differentiation and quantification of isomeric/isobaric compounds via MS/MS analysis. The PTR-LIT is used herein to examine changes in isoprene oxidation products with high temporal resolution during the photochemical reaction of isoprene and OH. In addition, using synthesized standards, the PTR-LIT is utilized to examine the OH-oxidation chemistry of first generation oxidation products, such as the primary isoprene nitrates. These measurements provide insights into the fates of isoprene oxidation products in the atmosphere.

  14. Rhenium-catalyzed synthesis of 2H-1,2-oxaphosphorin 2-oxides via the regio- and stereoselective addition reaction of ?-keto phosphonates with alkynes.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masahito; Nakamura, Masahiro; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of ?-keto phosphonates (Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reagents) with terminal alkynes in the presence of a rhenium catalyst gave 2H-1,2-oxaphosphorin 2-oxides with various substitution patterns. The reaction proceeds via two consecutive processes: cleavage of a carbon-carbon ?-bond of the ?-keto phosphonate with insertion of the alkyne in a regio- and stereoselective manner, followed by cyclization of the resulting ?-phosphonyl ?,?-unsaturated ketone yielding the 2H-1,2-oxaphosphorin 2-oxide. Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reagents were found to add to nonpolar unsaturated compounds under neutral conditions. PMID:25341380

  15. Reactions of isocyanides with rhodium porphyrins. Formation of formimidoyl and carbamoyl complexes and CN-R bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Poszmik, G.; Carroll, P.J.; Wayland, B.B. )

    1993-09-01

    Reactions of alkyl and aryl isocyanides with (octaethylporphyrinato)rhodium hydride, (OEP)Rh-H, (octaethylporphyrinato)rhodium(II) dimer, [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] and (tetramesitylporphyrinato)rhodium(II), (TMP)Rh, have been investigated for comparison with CO reactivity. Alkyl and aryl isocyanides interact with (OEP)Rh-H to form 1:1 adducts, (OEP)Rh(H)(CNR), which react further to produce formimidoyl complexes, (OEP)Rh-CH=NR, in analog with the reaction of (OEP)Rh-H with CO that produces a formyl complex, (OEP)Rh-CHO. [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] forms 1:1 complexes with isocyanides where the 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide derivative persists at equilibrium, but alkyl isocyanides undergo CN- alkyl bond cleavage to form alkyl, (OEP)Rh-R and cyanide, (OEP)Rh(CN)(CNR), complexes. No evidence was obtained for bridging isocyanide species analogous to the dimetal ketone RhC(O)Rh and dimetal diketone RhC(O)C(O)Rh complexes observed in reactions of [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] with CO. Carbamoyl complexes, (OEP)Rh-C(O)NHR, are formed in reactions of [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] with CNR and H[sub 2]O or CO and RNH[sub 2]. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, C. V. Rubio, E. J.; Barraza, C. D.; Miranda Gallardo, A.; McPeak, Samantha; Kotru, Sushma; Grant, J. T.

    2014-01-28

    Gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were made by sputter deposition employing a Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic target for sputtering. The depositions were made over a wide range of substrate temperatures (T{sub s}), from 25 to 600 °C. The effect of T{sub s} on the chemical bonding, surface morphological characteristics, optical constants, and electrical properties of the grown films was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and four-point probe measurements. XPS analyses indicate the binding energies (BE) of the Ga 2p doublet, i.e., the Ga 2p{sub 3/2} and Ga 2p{sub 1/2} peaks, are located at 1118.0 and 1145.0 eV, respectively, characterizing gallium in its highest chemical oxidation state (Ga{sup 3+}) in the grown films. The core level XPS spectra of O 1s indicate that the peak is centered at a BE ∼ 531 eV, which is also characteristic of Ga-O bonds in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. The granular morphology of the nanocrystalline Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was evident from AFM measurements, which also indicate that the surface roughness of the films increases from 0.5 nm to 3.0 nm with increasing T{sub s}. The SE analyses indicate that the index of refraction (n) of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films increases with increasing T{sub s} due to improved structural quality and packing density of the films. The n(λ) of all the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films follows the Cauchy's dispersion relation. The room temperature electrical resistivity was high (∼200 Ω-cm) for amorphous Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown at T{sub s} = RT-300 °C and decreased to ∼1 Ω-cm for nanocrystalline Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown at T{sub s} ≥ 500–600 °C. A correlation between growth conditions, microstructure, optical constants, and electrical properties of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is derived.

  17. Sporicidal Effects of Iodine-oxide Thermite Reaction Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan; Blinkova, Alexandra; Chen, Tiffany; InstituteAdvanced Tehnology Collaboration; Dept of Molecular Genetics; Microbiology-UT Austin Collaboration; Chemistry; Biochemistry-UT Austin Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    Iodine pentoxide-aluminum thermite reactions have been driven by impacts at 1000 m/s on steel plates 3 mm or thicker. The activation energy of this material reaction is 197 J/g. The reactivity is increased by reducing grain size. This reaction releases iodine gas that is known to be a sporicide. In order to test the impact reactions for sporicidal effects, reactions took place in closed chambers containing dried Bacillus subtilis spores. The reduction in colony-forming units was dependent on the exposure time; long exposure times resulted in a 105 decrease in germination rate. This was shown to be due to the gas exposure and not the heat or turbulence. Sporicidal effectiveness was increased by adding neodymium and saran resin. The sporicidal effect is very dependent on exposure time, ranging from about 90% kill for times on the order of a second to 99.99% for one-hour times.

  18. Coordinate contribution of lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction to the nonenzymatic food browning.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and the Maillard reaction are probably the two most important reactions in Food Science. Both include a whole network of different reactions in which an extraordinary complex mixture of compounds are obtained in very different amounts and produce important changes in food flavor, color, texture, and nutritional value, with positive and negative consequences. This article analyzes the interactions between both reactions, with special emphasis in nonenzymatic browning development, by discussing the influence of lipid oxidation products in the Maillard pathway and vice versa, as well as the existence of common intermediates and polymerization mechanisms in both reactions. The existing data suggest that both reactions are so interrelated that they should be considered simultaneously to understand the products of the Maillard reaction in the presence of lipids and vice versa, and should be included in one general pathway that can be initiated by both lipids and carbohydrates. PMID:15730188

  19. Oxidative dimerization in metallothionein is a result of intermolecular disulphide bonds between cysteines in the alpha-domain.

    PubMed Central

    Zangger, K; Shen, G; Oz, G; Otvos, J D; Armitage, I M

    2001-01-01

    Upon storage under aerobic conditions metallothioneins (MTs) form a new species, which is characterized by a molecular mass approximately twice the size of monomeric MT and shifted (113/111)Cd- and (1)H-NMR resonances. The investigation of this oxidative dimerization process by NMR spectroscopy allowed us to structurally characterize this MT species that has been described to occur in vivo and might be synthesized under conditions of oxidative stress. The oxidative dimer was characterized by the formation of an intermolecular cysteine disulphide bond involving the alpha-domain, and a detailed analysis of chemical shift changes and intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects points towards a disulphide bond involving Cys(36). In contrast to the metal-bridged (non-oxidative) dimerization, the metal-cysteine cluster structures in both MT domains remain intact and no conformational exchange or metal-metal exchange was observed. Also in contrast to the many recently reported oxidative processes which involve the beta-domain cysteine groups and result in the increased dynamics of the bound metal ions in this N-terminal domain, we found no evidence for any increased dynamics in the alpha-domain metals following this oxidation. Therefore these findings provide additional corroboration that metal binding in the C-terminal alpha-domain is rather tight, even under conditions of a changing cellular oxidation potential, compared with the more labile/dynamic nature of the metals in the N-terminal beta-domain cluster under similar conditions. PMID:11583581

  20. A New Niobium Tungsten Oxide as a Result of an in Situ Reaction in a Gas Reaction Cell Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayagus, M. J.; Hutchison, J. L.; Krumeich, F.

    1999-02-01

    Nb 7W 10O 47was heated by an electron beam in a gas atmosphere (O 2, He, or H 2) of the gas reaction cell installed in a JEOL 4000 EX high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). This treatment generated a new niobium tungsten oxide (Nb, W) 12O 32, crystallizing in 2 a 2 asuperstructure of the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) type. While the TTB substructure remains unaltered by this reaction, the proportion of pentagonal tunnels occupied with metal-oxygen strings has increased. The simultaneous occupation of all four pentagonal tunnels around a central square of octahedra is the characteristic structural feature of (Nb,W) 12O 32. This arrangement is observed here for the first time in the ternary system Nb/W/O. During the reaction, a part of the tungsten oxide is etched away and condenses as small particles near the irradiated crystallite.

  1. C-N and N-H Bond Metathesis Reactions Mediated by Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yehong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Chaofeng; Zhang, Zhixin; Xu, Jie; Xu, Shutao; Wang, Fangjun; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-22

    Herein, we report CO2 -mediated metathesis reactions between amines and DMF to synthesize formamides. More than 20 amines, including primary, secondary, aromatic, and heterocyclic amines, diamines, and amino acids, are converted to the corresponding formamides with good-to-excellent conversions and selectivities under mild conditions. This strategy employs CO2 as a mediator to activate the amine under metal-free conditions. The experimental data and in situ NMR and attenuated total reflectance IR spectroscopy measurements support the formation of the N-carbamic acid as an intermediate through the weak acid-base interaction between CO2 and the amine. The metathesis reaction is driven by the formation of a stable carbamate, and a reaction mechanism is proposed. PMID:26043443

  2. Identification of nitriding mechanisms in high purity reaction bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The rapid, low-temperature nitriding results from surface effects on the Si particles beginning with loss of chemisorbed H and sequential formation of thin amorphous Si nitride layers. Rapid complete conversion to Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] during the fast reaction can be inhibited when either too few or too many nuclei form on Si particels. Optimally, [approximately] 10 Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] nuclei form per Si particles under rapid, complete nitridation conditions. Nitridation during the slow reaction period appears to progress by both continued reaction of nonpreferred Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] growth interfaces and direct nitridation of the remaining Si/vapor interfaces.

  3. Identification of nitriding mechanisms in high purity reaction bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The rapid, low-temperature nitriding results from surface effects on the Si particles beginning with loss of chemisorbed H and sequential formation of thin amorphous Si nitride layers. Rapid complete conversion to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} during the fast reaction can be inhibited when either too few or too many nuclei form on Si particels. Optimally, {approximately} 10 Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nuclei form per Si particles under rapid, complete nitridation conditions. Nitridation during the slow reaction period appears to progress by both continued reaction of nonpreferred Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} growth interfaces and direct nitridation of the remaining Si/vapor interfaces.

  4. Aerosol synthesis and electrochemical analysis of niobium mixed-metal oxides for the ethanol oxidation reaction in acid and alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Daniel A.

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are especially important among emerging electrochemical power systems with the potential to offset a great deal of the energy demand currently met through the use of fossil fuels. Ethanol can be refined from petroleum sources or attained from renewable biomass, and is more easily and safely stored and transported than hydrogen, methanol or gasoline. The full energy potential of ethanol in fuel cells can only be realized if the reaction follows a total oxidation pathway to produce CO2. This must be achieved by the development of advanced catalysts that are electrically conductive, stable in corrosive environments, contain a high surface area on which the reaction can occur, and exhibit a bi-functional effect for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The latter criterion is achievable in mixed-metal systems. Platinum is an effective metal for catalyzing surface reactions of many adsorbates and is usually implemented in the form of Pt nanoparticles supported on inexpensive carbon. This carbon is believed to be neutral in the catalysis of Pt. Instead, carbon can be replaced with carefully designed metals and metal oxides as co-catalysis or support structures that favorably alter the electronic structure of Pt slightly through a strong metal support interaction, while also acting as an oxygen source near adsorbates to facilitate the total oxidation pathway. Niobium mixed-metal-oxides were explored in this study as bi-functional catalyst supports to Pt nanoparticles. We developed a thermal aerosol synthesis process by which mesoporous powders of mixed-metal-oxides decorated with Pt nanoparticles could be obtained from liquid precursors within 5 seconds or less, followed by carefully refined chemical and thermal post-treatments. Exceptionally high surface areas of 170--180m2/g were achieved via a surfactant-templated 3D wormhole-type porosity, comparable on a per volume basis to commercial carbon blacks and high surface area silica supports. For the first time, in situ FTIR measurements in acid electrolyte showed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles (2--5nm) on NbRuyO z (at% 8Nb:1Ru) catalyze the formation of CO2 from ethanol in greater yield, and 0.35--0.4V lower, than Pt(111). Compared to conventional Pt/carbon, this indicates that, (1) Pt supported on NbRuyO z can be more effective at splitting the C---C bond in ethanol and, (2) the scission occurs at potentials more ideal for a higher efficiency fuel cell anode. Ex situ-microscopy revealed the polarization-induced two- and three-dimensional formation of Pt-NbOx interfacial adsorption sites responsible for the facilitation of the total oxidation pathway of ethanol. The results show that synthesis and post-treatment of niobia supports can bias the utility of Pt/niobia systems towards the ethanol oxidation reaction at the anode or the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode. Experimental and computational-theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of interfacial site formation is dependent upon the local oxygen concentration, as well as the availability of multiple, energetically accessible oxidation states like those inherent to niobia. Future directions for the development of highly active, niobium-based materials tailored for efficient catalysis of the total oxidation pathway of ethanol are discussed.

  5. Observation of oscillating reaction rates during the isothermal oxidation of ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hurdus, M.H.; Tomlinson, L.; Titchmarsh, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    Oscillating reaction rates have been observed in the steam oxidation of 2 1/4Cr-1MoNb and 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steels at 500-550C. Changes in reaction rate are associated with the formation of a laminated, inner-oxide layer, made up of bands of fine and coarse-grain spinel oxide. The lowest reaction rates occur during growth of the fine-grain oxide. Coarse-grain oxide generally contains the same levels of Cr, Mo, and Si as the steel (after allowing for loss of Fe to the outer layer), while the fine-grain material contains three times these levels. Ni builds up in the metal and is present in the oxide as metallic particles (mostly associated with fine-grain oxide). A mechanism is proposed in which the highest reaction rates are controlled by diffusion of Fe ions through the oxide layer (as in normal parabolic oxidation) and the lowest rates by diffusion of Fe through the Ni-rich layer in the metal.

  6. Effect of oxidation heat treatment on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled cobalt-chromium alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieyin; Ye, Xiuhua; Li, Bohua; Liao, Juankun; Zhuang, Peilin; Ye, Jiantao

    2015-08-01

    There is a dearth of dental scientific literature on the effect of different oxidation heat treatments (OHTs) (as surface pretreatments) on the bonding performance of cast and milled cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different OHTs on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled CoCr alloys. Cobalt-chromium metallic specimens were prepared using either a cast or a milled method. Specimens were subjected to four different OHT methods: without OHT; OHT under normal atmospheric pressure; OHT under vacuum; and OHT under vacuum followed by sandblasting. The metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated using a three-point bending test according to ISO9693. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the specimens' microstructure and elemental composition. The bond strength was not affected by the CoCr manufacturing method. Oxidation heat treatment performed under normal atmospheric pressure resulted in the highest bond strength. The concentration of oxygen on the alloy surfaces varied with the different pretreatment methods in the following order: OHT under normal atmospheric pressure > OHT under vacuum > without OHT ? OHT under vacuum followed by sandblasting. PMID:26104804

  7. Oxidized cellulose (Surgicel) based reaction post thyroidectomy mimicking an abscess: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Royds, J.; Kieran, S.; Timon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Surgicel (oxidized cellulose) is used for intra-operative haemostasis and adhesion prevention. Previously local tissue reactions to oxidized cellulose have been reported at many surgical sites, but not in the head and neck. Presentation of case A 56 year old lady presented 30 days following total thyroidectomy with wound swelling and erythema. Multiple sinuses were noted within the wound, through which oxidized cellulose partially extruded. Following removal of the un-absorbed material the symptoms resolved over 3 days. Discussion The absence of any systemic symptoms confirm that this was most likely a type four hypersensitivity reaction. The removal of the unabsorbed material was a further unique part of this case. Conclusion We present the first head and neck reaction to oxidized cellulose. This report serves to remind head and neck surgeons of the potential for local tissue reactions to this material. PMID:22572542

  8. Carbon-coated magnetic palladium: applications in partial oxidation of alcohols and coupling reactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic carbon supported Pd catalyst has been synthesized via in situ generation of nanoferrites and incorporation of carbon from renewable cellulose via calcination; catalyst can be used for oxidation of alcohols, amination reaction and arylation of aryl halides (cross coupli...

  9. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  10. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  11. Process of forming catalytic surfaces for wet oxidation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A wet oxidation process was developed for oxidizing waste materials, comprising dissolved ruthenium salt in a reactant feed stream containing the waste materials. The feed stream is introduced into a reactor, and the reactor contents are then raised to an elevated temperature to effect deposition of a catalytic surface of ruthenium black on the interior walls of the reactor. The feed stream is then maintained in the reactor for a period of time sufficient to effect at least partial oxidation of the waste materials.

  12. The catalytic activation of primary alcohols on niobium oxide surfaces unraveled: the gas phase reactions of Nb xO y- clusters with methanol and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Phillip; Fisher, Keith J.; Willett, Gary D.

    2000-12-01

    The reactions of oligomeric niobium oxide anions (up to Nb 6O 15-), generated by laser ablation and studied using a Fourier transform ICR mass spectrometer, have been used to deduce the roles of (i) Nb(III,IV,V) centers, (ii) Nb/O double bonds and (iii) proximal Nb centers, in the catalytic activation of methanol and ethanol. The most important recurring mechanism involves initial alcohol condensation at a cluster metal-oxygen double bond to yield Nb(OH)(OCH 3). There is no change in the oxidation state of the cluster during this step. The so-formed niobium-hydroxyl bond is the new reactive site in the cluster, and undergoes ligand switching in a follow-up collision to yield a bis-methoxy cluster and neutral water. Dehydrogenation is only observed to occur with clusters possessing two Nb/O double bonds at a single metal center, and involves reduction of the participating Nb(V) center to Nb(III). An ion ejection/selection step was used to monitor the activity of a number of the ionic reaction products towards the alcohols, and in most instances spontaneous or kinetically-activated decomposition resulted in regeneration of the parent cluster from the substituted species.

  13. Intramolecular Cooperative C-C Bond Cleavage Reaction of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds with 2-Iodoanilines to Give o-(N-Acylamino)aryl Ketones and Multisubstituted Indoles.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qi; Lv, Hui; Xia, Chungu; Li, Fuwei

    2015-06-01

    A copper-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with 2-iodoanilines was developed. In this process, the ortho effect played an important role in the reactivity and a new reaction pathway that involved a (2-aminophenyl)-bis-(1,3-dicarbonyl) copper species was clearly observed by a time-course HRMS analysis of the reaction mixture. Unlike the previous reports, both the nucleophilic and electrophilic parts of the 1,3-dicarbonyl compound were coupled with 2-iodoaniline by C-C bond cleavage to form o-(N-acylamino)aryl ketones, which could be efficiently converted into multisubstituted indoles. PMID:25940404

  14. An intrinsically disordered photosystem II subunit, PsbO, provides a structural template and a sensor of the hydrogen-bonding network in photosynthetic water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, Adam R; Polander, Brandon C; Barry, Bridgette A

    2013-10-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a membrane-bound enzyme that utilizes solar energy to catalyze the photooxidation of water. Molecular oxygen is evolved after four sequential light-driven oxidation reactions at the Mn4CaO5 oxygen-evolving complex, producing five sequentially oxidized states, Sn. PSII is composed of 17 membrane-spanning subunits and three extrinsic subunits, PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbO. PsbO is intrinsically disordered and plays a role in facilitation of the water oxidizing cycle. Native PsbO can be removed and substituted with recombinant PsbO, thereby restoring steady-state activity. In this report, we used reaction-induced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to obtain information concerning the role of PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbO during the S state cycle. Light-minus-dark difference spectra were acquired, monitoring structural changes associated with each accessible flash-induced S state transition in a highly purified plant PSII preparation (Triton X-100, octylthioglucoside). A comparison of S2 minus S1 spectra revealed that removal of PsbP and PsbQ had no significant effect on the data, whereas amide frequency and intensity changes were associated with PsbO removal. These data suggest that PsbO acts as an organizational template for the PSII reaction center. To identify any coupled conformational changes arising directly from PsbO, global (13)C-PsbO isotope editing was employed. The reaction-induced Fourier transform infrared spectra of accessible S states provide evidence that PsbO spectral contributions are temperature (263 and 277 K) and S state dependent. These experiments show that PsbO undergoes catalytically relevant structural dynamics, which are coupled over long distance to hydrogen-bonding changes at the Mn4CaO5 cluster. PMID:23940038

  15. Design and Synthesis of Chiral Zn2+ Complexes Mimicking Natural Aldolases for Catalytic CC Bond Forming Reactions in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Susumu; Sonoike, Shotaro; Kitamura, Masanori; Aoki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Extending carbon frameworks via a series of CC bond forming reactions is essential for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutically active compounds, active agrochemical ingredients, and a variety of functional materials. The application of stereoselective CC bond forming reactions to the one-pot synthesis of biorelevant compounds is now emerging as a challenging and powerful strategy for improving the efficiency of a chemical reaction, in which some of the reactants are subjected to successive chemical reactions in just one reactor. However, organic reactions are generally conducted in organic solvents, as many organic molecules, reagents, and intermediates are not stable or soluble in water. In contrast, enzymatic reactions in living systems proceed in aqueous solvents, as most of enzymes generally function only within a narrow range of temperature and pH and are not so stable in less polar organic environments, which makes it difficult to conduct chemoenzymatic reactions in organic solvents. In this review, we describe the design and synthesis of chiral metal complexes with Zn2+ ions as a catalytic factor that mimic aldolases in stereoselective CC bond forming reactions, especially for enantioselective aldol reactions. Their application to chemoenzymatic reactions in aqueous solution is also presented. PMID:24481060

  16. On the lithiation reaction of niobium oxide: structural and electronic properties of Li(1.714)Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Catti, Michele; Ghaani, Mohammad R

    2014-01-28

    Monoclinic α-Nb2O5 was chemically lithiated by reaction with n-butyllithium, mimicking the product of electrochemical discharge of a niobium oxide cathode vs. a Li anode. The compound was investigated by neutron powder diffraction (D2B equipment at ILL, France) and its structure was Rietveld refined in space group P2 to wRp = 0.045, locating the Li atoms inserted in the α-Nb2O5 framework. The ensuing chemical formula is Li12/7Nb2O5. Some Li atoms are more strongly bonded (five coordinated O atoms), some are less strongly bonded (coordination number = 4). Starting from the experimental structure, first-principles periodic DFT calculations based on the hybrid B3LYP functional were performed. The electrochemical voltage of Li insertion was computed to be 1.67 V, fully consistent with the experimental 1.60 V plateau vs. capacity. The analysis of the electron band structure shows that lithiation changes the insulating oxide into a semi-metal; some of the extra electrons inserted with lithium become spin-polarized and give the material weak ferromagnetic properties. PMID:24297157

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF SURFACE REDOX REACTIONS WITH MANGANESE OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Redox reactions involving soil minerals and materials are important processes in environmental chemistry, but unfortunately they only have been characterized in the solution phase. he lack of a suitable method has prevented investigations of the mineral surface component of redox...

  18. Synthesis of Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Bonded to Thiodiazole-Pd and Applications to Biosensor.

    PubMed

    You, Jung-Min; Han, Hyoung Soon; Jeon, Seungwon

    2015-08-01

    A novel biosensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose was developed based on EGN-TDZ-Pd, as an electrocatalyst. The preparation of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was functionalized by combining it with 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (TDZ) and by covalently bonding it to palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (GO-TDZ-Pd). In the electrochemical investigation, EGN-TDZ-Pd was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to characterize the performance of EGN-TDZ-Pd. The proposed H2O2 biosensor exhibited a wide linear range from 10 M to 6.5 mM. Also, a glucose biosensor was prepared using glucose oxidase and EGN-TDZ-Pd placed onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The GOx/EGN-TDZ-Pd/GCE was easily prepared using a rapid and simple procedure, and it was utilized for highly sensitive glucose determination. PMID:26369140

  19. Biomimetic oxidation with molecular oxygen. Selective carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-diols by molecular oxygen and dihydropyridine in the presence of iron-porphyrin catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, T.; Sasaki, K.; Oka, S.

    1988-02-17

    The selective carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-diols in the presence of an iron-porphyrin complex, molecular oxygen, and 1-benzyl-3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridine is reported. The C-C bonds of aryl-substituted ethane-1,2-diols were cleaved exclusively to aldehydes or ketones as the oxidation products at room temperature. The reaction rates were influenced by the steric hindrance of the substituents both in the catalysts and diols, but no differences in the reactivities were observed between the two stereo isomers (meso and dl) of diols. A kinetic analysis of this bond cleavage reaction is consistent with the reaction mechanism consisting of the initial binding of diol on the active catalyst forming an intermediate complex and its subsequent breakdown in the rate-determining step of the catalytic cycle. The initial binding step is favorable for electron-deficient diols and is influenced by steric hindrance, whereas the rate-determining bond cleavage step is accelerated by electron-rich diols and unaffected by the steric effect. The mechanism of this diol cleavage reaction is discussed on the basis of these observations.

  20. Intermediate in the O?O Bond Cleavage Reaction of an Extradiol Dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kovaleva, Elena G.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2009-02-16

    The reactive oxy intermediate of the catalytic cycle of extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases is formed by binding the catecholic substrate and O{sub 2} in adjacent ligand positions of the active site metal [usually Fe(II)]. This intermediate and the following Fe(II)-alkylperoxo intermediate resulting from oxygen attack on the substrate have been previously characterized in a crystal of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD). Here a subsequent intermediate in which the O-O bond is broken to yield a gem diol species is structurally characterized. This new intermediate is stabilized in the crystal by using the alternative substrate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and the Glu323Leu variant of HPCD, which alters the crystal packing.

  1. Stable gold(III) catalysts by oxidative addition of a carbon-carbon bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Horibe, Takahiro; Jacobsen, Christian Borch; Toste, F. Dean

    2015-01-01

    Low-valent late transition-metal catalysis has become indispensable to chemical synthesis, but homogeneous high-valent transition-metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly owing to the reactivity of high-valent transition-metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. Here we report a carbon-carbon bond cleavage at ambient conditions by a Au(I) complex that generates a stable Au(III) cationic complex. In contrast to the well-established soft and carbophilic Au(I) catalyst, this Au(III) complex exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity. For example, we observed catalytic activation of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes towards selective conjugate additions as well as activation of an unsaturated aldehyde-allene for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. The origin of the regioselectivity and catalytic activity was elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an isolated Au(III)-activated cinnamaldehyde intermediate. The concepts revealed suggest a strategy for accessing high-valent transition-metal catalysis from readily available precursors.

  2. Stable gold(III) catalysts by oxidative addition of a carbon-carbon bond.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Horibe, Takahiro; Jacobsen, Christian Borch; Toste, F Dean

    2015-01-22

    Low-valent late transition-metal catalysis has become indispensable to chemical synthesis, but homogeneous high-valent transition-metal catalysis is underdeveloped, mainly owing to the reactivity of high-valent transition-metal complexes and the challenges associated with synthesizing them. Here we report a carbon-carbon bond cleavage at ambient conditions by a Au(i) complex that generates a stable Au(iii) cationic complex. In contrast to the well-established soft and carbophilic Au(i) catalyst, this Au(iii) complex exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity. For example, we observed catalytic activation of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes towards selective conjugate additions as well as activation of an unsaturated aldehyde-allene for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. The origin of the regioselectivity and catalytic activity was elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an isolated Au(iii)-activated cinnamaldehyde intermediate. The concepts revealed suggest a strategy for accessing high-valent transition-metal catalysis from readily available precursors. PMID:25612049

  3. Mechanism of the quenching of the tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) emission by persulfate: implications for photoinduced oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska-Andralojc, A; Polyansky, D E

    2013-10-10

    A revised mechanism for the oxidation of the excited state of Ru(bpy)3(2+) with the persulfate anion is described in this work. The formation of the precursor complex in the electron transfer reaction involves ion pairing between the metal complex in ground and excited states and S2O8(2-). The equilibrium constant for the ion-pair formation (K(IP) = 2.7 M(-1)) was determined from electrochemical measurements and analysis of thermal reaction between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and persulfate. It was found to be consistent with the calculated value estimated from the Debye-Hückel model. The analysis of rate constants for reactions between persulfate and various metal complexes indicates that thermal and photochemical reactions most likely proceed through a common pathway. Extremely high reorganization energy (ca. 3.54 eV) for the electron transfer obtained from fitting experimental data with the Marcus equation is indicative of significant nuclear reorganization during the electron transfer step. In view of these results the electron transfer can be described as dissociative probably involving substantial elongation or complete scission of the O-O bond. The proposed model accurately describes experimental results for the quenching of *Ru(bpy)3(2+) over a wide range of persulfate concentrations and resolves some discrepancies between the values of K(IP) and k(et) previously reported. The implications of various factors such as the ionic strength and dielectric constant of the medium are discussed in relation to measurements of the quantum yields in photodriven oxidation reactions employing the Ru(bpy)3(2+)/persulfate couple. PMID:24040757

  4. Oxidative condensation reactions of (diethylenetriamine)cobalt(III) complexes with substituted bis(pyridin-2-yl)methane ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangting; Hockless, David C. R.; Willis, Anthony C.; Jackson, W. Gregory

    2005-04-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of Co(III) complexes derived from a condensation reaction with a central or terminal nitrogen of a dien ligand and the ?-carbon of a range of substituted bis(pyridin-2-yl)methane ligands are described. Aerial oxidation of bpm {bis(pyridin-2-yl)methane with Co(II)/dien or direct reaction with Co(dien)Cl 3 provided in low yield a single C-N condensation product 1 (at the primary terminal NH 2) after the pyridyl -CH 2- is formally oxidised to -CH +-. The methyl substituted ligand bpe {1,1-bis(pyridin-2-yl)ethane} behaves likewise, except both terminal (prim) and central (sec) amines condense to yield isomeric products 2 and 3. Two of these three materials have been characterised by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The corresponding reactions for the bis(pyridyl) ligand bpk {bis(pyridin-2-yl)ketone} provided C-N condensation products without the requirement for oxidation at the ?-C center; two carbinolamine complexes in different geometrical configurations resulted, mer-anti-[Co(dienbpc)Cl]ZnCl 4, 5, and unsym- fac-[Co(dienbpc)Cl]ZnCl 4, 6, {dienbpc=[2-(2-aminoethylamino)-ethylamino]-di-pyridin-2-yl-methanol}. In addition, a novel complex, [Co(bpk)(bpd-OH)Cl]ZnCl 4, 4, in which one bidentate N, N-bonded bpk ligand and one tridentate N, O, N-bonded bpd (the diol from bpk+OH -) were coordinated, was obtained via the Co(II)/O 2 synthetic route. When the bpc ligand (bpc=bis(pyridin-2-yl)methanol) was employed directly as a reagent along with dien, no condensation reactions were observed, but rather a single isomeric complex [Co(dien)(bpc)]Cl.ZnCl 4, 7, in which the ligand bpc acted as a N,N,O-bonded tridentate ligand rather than as a N,N-bidentate ligand was isolated. 13C, 1D and 2D 1H NMR studies are reported for all the complexes; they establish the structures unambiguously.

  5. Effect of Oxidation and SiO2 Coating on the Bonding Strength of Ti-Porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Litong; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhu, Yabo; Xu, Cheng; Gao, Jiqiang; Guo, Tianwen

    2010-11-01

    Investigations on the effect of oxidation on titanium-ceramic adhesion were performed. Cast pure titanium was subjected to surface modification by preoxidation and introduction of an intermediate layer of SiO2 by sol-gel process. Specimens were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, and SEM/EDS. The adhesion between the titanium and porcelain was evaluated by three-point flexure bond test. Failure of the titanium-porcelain with preoxidation treatment predominantly occurred at the titanium-oxide interface. Preoxidation treatment did not affect the fracture mode of the titanium-ceramic system and did not increase the bonding strength of Ti-porcelain. The SEM results revealed the existence of microcracks on the SiO2 coating surface oxidized at 800 C in an air furnace. During the porcelain fusion, minute amounts of oxygen were able to penetrate the cracks and caused localized oxidation of the Ti-substrate. Failure of the titanium-porcelain with SiO2 coating predominantly occurred at the SiO2 layer. The SiO2 coating served as an effective oxygen diffusion barrier and improved the mechanical and chemical bonding between porcelain and titanium.

  6. The structure, bond strength and apatite-inducing ability of micro-arc oxidized tantalum and their response to annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Feng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the tantalum oxide coatings were formed on pure tantalum (Ta) by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solutions of calcium acetate and β-glycerophosphate disodium, and the effect of the applied voltage on the microstructure and bond strength of the MAO coatings was systematically investigated. The effect of annealing treatment on the microstructure, bond strength and apatite-inducing ability of the MAO coatings formed at 350 and 450 V was also studied. The study revealed that during the preparation of tantalum oxide coatings on Ta substrate by MAO, the applied voltage considerably affected the phase components, morphologies and bond strength of the coatings, but had little effect on surface chemical species. After annealing treatment, newly formed CaTa4O11 phase mainly contributed to the much more stronger apatite-inducing ability of the annealed tantalum oxide coatings than those that were not annealed. The better apatite-inducing ability of the MAO coatings formed at 450 V compared to those formed at 350 V was attributed to the less amorphous phase and more crystalline phase as well as more Ca and P contained in the MAO coatings with increasing the applied voltage.

  7. Rapid and effective oxidative pretreatment of woody biomass at mild reaction conditions and low oxidant loadings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One route for producing cellulosic biofuels is by the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars generated from a pretreatment that can be effectively coupled with an enzymatic hydrolysis of the plant cell wall. While woody biomass exhibits a number of positive agronomic and logistical attributes, these feedstocks are significantly more recalcitrant to chemical pretreatments than herbaceous feedstocks, requiring higher chemical and energy inputs to achieve high sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis. We previously discovered that alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment catalyzed by copper(II) 2,2΄-bipyridine complexes significantly improves subsequent enzymatic glucose and xylose release from hybrid poplar heartwood and sapwood relative to uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment at modest reaction conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure). In the present work, the reaction conditions for this catalyzed AHP pretreatment were investigated in more detail with the aim of better characterizing the relationship between pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic sugar release. Results We found that for a wide range of pretreatment conditions, the catalyzed pretreatment resulted in significantly higher glucose and xylose enzymatic hydrolysis yields (as high as 80% for both glucose and xylose) relative to uncatalyzed pretreatment (up to 40% for glucose and 50% for xylose). We identified that the extent of improvement in glucan and xylan yield using this catalyzed pretreatment approach was a function of pretreatment conditions that included H2O2 loading on biomass, catalyst concentration, solids concentration, and pretreatment duration. Based on these results, several important improvements in pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions were identified that may have a positive economic impact for a process employing a catalyzed oxidative pretreatment. These improvements include identifying that: (1) substantially lower H2O2 loadings can be used that may result in up to a 50-65% decrease in H2O2 application (from 100 mg H2O2/g biomass to 35–50 mg/g) with only minor losses in glucose and xylose yield, (2) a 60% decrease in the catalyst concentration from 5.0 mM to 2.0 mM (corresponding to a catalyst loading of 25 μmol/g biomass to 10 μmol/g biomass) can be achieved without a subsequent loss in glucose yield, (3) an order of magnitude improvement in the time required for pretreatment (minutes versus hours or days) can be realized using the catalyzed pretreatment approach, and (4) enzyme dosage can be reduced to less than 30 mg protein/g glucan and potentially further with only minor losses in glucose and xylose yields. In addition, we established that the reaction rate is improved in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment by increased solids concentrations. Conclusions This work explored the relationship between reaction conditions impacting a catalyzed oxidative pretreatment of woody biomass and identified that significant decreases in the H2O2, catalyst, and enzyme loading on the biomass as well as decreases in the pretreatment time could be realized with only minor losses in the subsequent sugar released enzymatically. Together these changes would have positive implications for the economics of a process based on this pretreatment approach. PMID:23971902

  8. Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K. D.; Viste, M.; Sibener, S. J.

    2006-10-01

    Supersonic molecular beams have been used to determine the yield of CO from the partial oxidation of CH4 on a Rh(111) catalytic substrate, CH4+(1/2)O2?CO +2H2, as a function of beam kinetic energy. These experiments were done under ultrahigh vacuum conditions with concurrent molecular beams of O2 and CH4, ensuring that there was only a single collision for the CH4 to react with the surface. The fraction of CH4 converted is strongly dependent on the normal component of the incident beam's translational energy, and approaches unity for energies greater than 1.3eV. Comparison with a simplified model of the methane-Rh(111) reactive potential gives insight into the barrier for methane dissociation. These results demonstrate the efficient conversion of methane to synthesis gas, CO +2H2, are of interest in hydrogen generation, and have the optimal stoichiometry for subsequent utilization in synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis). Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i.e., the reaction proceeded with the production of very little, if any, unwanted greenhouse gas by-products. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of overcoming the limitations of purely thermal reaction mechanisms by coupling nonthermal mechanistic steps, leading to efficient C-H bond activation with subsequent thermal heterogeneous reactions.

  9. Visible Light Driven Nanosecond Bromide Oxidation by a Ru Complex with Subsequent Br-Br Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guocan; Ward, William M; Meyer, Gerald J

    2015-07-01

    Visible light excitation of [Ru(deeb)(bpz)2](2+) (deeb = 4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine; bpz = 2,2'-bipyrazine), in Br(-) acetone solutions, led to the formation of Br-Br bonds in the form of dibromide, Br2(-). This light reactivity stores ?1.65 eV of free energy for milliseconds. Combined (1)H NMR, UV-vis and photoluminescence measurements revealed two distinct mechanisms. The first involves diffusional quenching of the excited state by Br(-) with a rate constant of (8.1 0.1) 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). At high Br(-) concentrations, an inner-sphere pathway is dominant that involves the association of Br(-), most likely with the 3,3'-H atoms of a bpz ligand, before electron transfer from Br(-) to the excited state, ket = (2.5 0.3) 10(7) s(-1). In both mechanisms, the direct photoproduct Br() subsequently reacts with Br(-) to yield dibromide, Br() + Br(-) ? Br2(-). Under pseudo-first-order conditions, this occurs with a rate constant of (1.1 0.4) 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) that was, within experimental error, the same as that measured when Br() were generated with ultraviolet light. Application of Marcus theory to the sensitized reaction provided an estimate of the Br() formal reduction potential E(Br()/Br(-)) = 1.22 V vs SCE in acetone, which is about 460 mV less positive than the accepted value in H2O. The results demonstrate that Br(-) oxidation by molecular excited states can be rapid and useful for solar energy conversion. PMID:26085129

  10. Nickel cobalt oxide hollow nanosponges as advanced electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Wen, Dan; Leubner, Susanne; Oschatz, Martin; Liu, Wei; Holzschuh, Matthias; Simon, Frank; Kaskel, Stefan; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    A class of novel nickel cobalt oxide hollow nanosponges were synthesized through a sodium borohydride reduction strategy. Due to their porous and hollow nanostructures, and synergetic effects between their components, the optimized nickel cobalt oxide nanosponges exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction. PMID:25855058

  11. Ceramic oxide reactions with V2O5 and SO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Williams, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Ceramic oxides are not inert in combustion environments, but can react with, inter alia, SO3, and Na2SO4 to yield low melting mixed sulfate eutectics, and with vanadium compounds to produce vanadates. Assuming ceramic degradation to become severe only when molten phases are generated in the surface salt (as found for metallic hot corrosion), the reactivity of ceramic oxides can be quantified by determining the SO3 partial pressure necessary for molten mixed sulfate formation with Na2SO3. Vanadium pentoxide is an acidic oxide that reacts with Na2O, SO3, and the different ceramic oxides in a series of Lux-Flood type of acid-base displacement reactions. To elucidate the various possible vanadium compound-ceramic oxide interactions, a study was made of the reactions of a matrix involving, on the one axis, ceramix oxides of increasing acidity, and on the other axis, vanadium compounds of increasing acidity. Resistance to vanadium compound reaction increased as the oxide acidity increased. Oxides more acidic than ZrO2 displaced V2O5. Examination of Y2O3- and CeO2-stabilized ZrO2 sintered ceramics which were degraded in 700 C NaVO3 has shown good agreement with the reactions predicted above, except that the CeO2-ZrO2 ceramic appears to be inexplicably degraded by NaVO3.

  12. EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MANGANESE OXIDE REACTIONS WITH SELECTED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sunlight on aqueous redox reactions between manganese oxides (MnOx) and selected organic substances are reported. o sunlight-induced rate enhancement was observed for the MnOx oxidation of substituted phenols, anisole, o-dichlorobenzene, or p-chloroaniline. n the o...

  13. Preparation of fluoro-functionalized graphene oxide via the Hunsdiecker reaction.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ruiguang; Li, Yanan; Yu, Huitao

    2016-01-01

    We report our effort in the development of a new synthetic method for fluoro-functionalized graphene oxide, which was prepared via the Hunsdiecker reaction, and the treatment of carboxylated graphene oxide with selectfluor at 90 C for 10 h under an atmosphere of nitrogen, using silver nitrate as a catalyst. PMID:26524464

  14. Copper N-Heterocyclic Carbene: A Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation or Reduction Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Le-Wu; Han, Lei; Xing, Ping; Jiang, Biao

    2015-12-18

    Copper N-heterocyclic carbene complexes can be readily used as catalysts for both aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and reduction of imines to amines. Our methodology is universal for aromatic substrates and shows versatile tolerance to potential cascade reactions. A one-pot tandem synthetic strategy could afford useful imines and secondary amines via an oxidation-reduction strategy. PMID:26633757

  15. AQUEOUS-PHASE OXIDATION OF SLUDGE USING THE VERTICAL REACTION VESSEL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to provide plant-scale operating data on the wet-oxidation of municipal wastewater sludge utilizing the Vertical Reaction Vessel System and the effect of the return flow from the wet-oxidation process on the operation of the wastewater treat...

  16. Theoretical study of the oxidation mechanisms of naphthalene initiated by hydroxyl radicals: the O2 addition reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Shiroudi, A; Deleuze, M S; Canneaux, S

    2015-05-28

    Atmospheric oxidation of the naphthalene-OH adduct [C10H8OH]? (R1) by molecular oxygen in its triplet electronic ground state has been studied using density functional theory along with the B3LYP, ?B97XD, UM05-2x and UM06-2x exchange-correlation functionals. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the most favourable process is O2 addition at the C2 position in syn mode, followed by O2 addition at the C2 position in anti mode, O2 addition at the C4 position in syn mode, and O2 addition at the C4 position in anti mode, as the second, third and fourth most favourable processes. The syn modes of addition at these positions are thermodynamically favoured over the anti ones by the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl and peroxy substituents. Analysis of the computed structures, bond orders and free energy profiles demonstrate that the reaction steps involved in the oxidation of the naphthalene-OH adduct by O2 satisfy Hammond's principle. Kinetic rate constants and branching ratios under atmospheric pressure and in the fall-off regime have been supplied, using transition state and RRKM theories. By comparison with experiment, these data confirm the relevance of a two-step reaction mechanism. Whatever the addition mode, O2 addition in C4 position is kinetically favoured over O2 addition in C2 position, in contrast with the expectations drawn from thermodynamics and reaction energies. Under a kinetic control of the reaction, and in line with the computed reaction energy barriers, the most efficient process is O2 addition at the C4 position in syn mode, followed by O2 addition at the C2 position in syn mode, O2 addition at the C4 position in anti mode, and O2 addition at the C2 position in anti mode as the second, third and fourth most rapid processes. The computed branching ratios also indicate that the regioselectivity of the reaction decreases with increasing temperatures and decreasing pressures. PMID:25942699

  17. Selective Covalent Bond Formation in Polypeptide Ions via Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reaction Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongling; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary amines present in protonated polypeptides can be covalently modified via gas-phase ion/ion reactions using bifunctional reagent ions. The use of reagent anions with a charge bearing site that leads to strong interactions with the polypeptide, such as sulfonic acid, gives rise to the formation of a long-lived adduct. A distinct reactive functional group, an aldehyde in the present case, can then undergo a reaction with the peptide. Collisional activation of the adduct ion formed from a reagent with an aldehyde group and a peptide ion with a primary amine gives rise to water loss in conjunction with imine (Schiff base) formation. The covalently-bound modification is retained upon subsequent collisional activation. This work demonstrates the ability to selectively modify polypeptide ions in the gas-phase within the context of a multi-stage mass spectrometry experiment. PMID:19702304

  18. Access to aryl mellitic acid esters through a surprising oxidative esterification reaction.

    PubMed

    Geraskina, Margarita R; Juetten, Mark J; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-06-01

    A serendipitously discovered oxidative esterification reaction of cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid with phosphorus pentachloride and phenols provides one-pot access to previously unknown aryl mellitic acid esters. The reaction features a solvent-free digestion and chromatography-free purifications and demonstrates the possibility of cyclohexane-to-benzene conversions under relatively mild, metal-free conditions. PMID:24815576

  19. Mutagenicity screening of reaction products from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of phenolic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, I.J.; Aitken, M.D.; Ball, L.M.; Heck, P.E. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    Phenol-oxidizing enzymes such as peroxidases, laccases, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase are capable of catalyzing the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic pollutants. Although the use of these enzymes in waste-treatment applications has been proposed by a number of investigators, little information exists on the toxicological characteristics of the oxidation products. The enzymes chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase were used in this study to catalyze the oxidation of phenol, several mono-substituted phenols, and pentachlorophenol. Seventeen reaction mixtures representing selected combinations of enzyme and parent phenol were subjected to mutagenicity screening using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay; five selected mixtures were also incubated with the S9 microsomal preparation to detect the possible presence of promutagens. The majority of reaction mixtures tested were not directly mutagenic, and none of those tested with S9 gave a positive response. Such lack of mutagenicity of enzymatic oxidation products provides encouragement for establishing the feasibility of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation as a waste-treatment process. The only positive responses were obtained with reaction products from the lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol. Clear positive responses were observed when strain TA100 was incubated with 2-nitrophenol reaction-product mixtures, and when strain TA98 was incubated with the 4-nitrophenol reaction mixture. Additionally, 2,4-dinitrophenol was identified as a reaction product from 4-nitrophenol, and preliminary evidence indicates that both 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrophenol are produced from the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol. Possible mechanism by which these nitration reactions occur are discussed.

  20. Fluorine-Doped and Partially Oxidized Tantalum Carbides as Nonprecious Metal Electrocatalysts for Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Acidic Media.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xin; He, Chunyong; Zhong, Chengyong; Chen, Yuanping; Jiang, San Ping; Shen, Pei Kang

    2016-03-01

    A nonprecious metal electrocatalyst based on fluorine-doped tantalum carbide with an oxidative surface on graphitized carbon (TaCx Fy Oz /(g) C) is developed by using a simple one-pot in situ ion exchange and adsorption method, and the TaCx Fy Oz /(g) C shows superior performance and durability for methanol oxidation reaction and extreme tolerance to CO poisoning in acidic media. PMID:26779940

  1. Determination of carbon by the oxidation reduction reaction with chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashkovich, L.; Kuteynikov, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    Free carbon was determined in silicon and boron carbides in ash, oxides, and other materials by oxidation to carbon dioxide with a mixture of K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4. The determination was made from the amount of CR(6) consumed, by adding excess Mohr's salt and titrating with a standard solution of KMnO4. The amount of Cr(6) self reduced was determined in a blank test. Optimum oxidation and conditions were achieved when the volumes of 5% k2Cr2Oz and H2SO4 were equal. The mixture was boiled for 1-2 hours using a reflex condenser. The volume should not be reduced, in order to avoid an increase in the sulfuric acid concentration. The relative error was 4-7% for 0.005-0.04 g C and less than or equal to 3.5% for 0.1 g C.

  2. Aromatic C-H Bond Functionalization Induced by Electrochemically in Situ Generated Tris(p-bromophenyl)aminium Radical Cation: Cationic Chain Reactions of Electron-Rich Aromatics with Enamides.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Ji; Jiang, Yang-Ye; Lam, Chiu Marco; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Hu, Li-Ming; Little, R Daniel

    2015-11-01

    An effective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of electron-rich aromatics with N-vinylamides, induced by electrochemically in situ-generated TBPA radical cation, has been developed; the resulting adducts are produced in good to excellent yields. In the "ex-cell" type electrolysis, TBPA is transformed to its oxidized form in situ and subsequently employed as an electron transfer reagent to initiate a cationic chain reaction. An easily recoverable and reusable polymeric ionic liquid-carbon black (PIL-CB) composite was also utilized as a supporting electrolyte for the electrochemical generation of TBPA cation radical, without sacrificing efficiency or stability after four electrolyses. Cyclic voltammetry analysis and the results of control experiments demonstrate that the reaction of electron-rich aromatics and N-vinylamides occurs via a cationic chain reaction, which takes place though an oxidative activation of a C-H bond of electron-rich aromatics instead of oxidation of the N-vinylamide as previously assumed. PMID:26444498

  3. Irrelevance of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Methanol Oxidation Reaction on a PtRu Electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, De-Jun; Tong, YuYe J

    2015-08-01

    Based on detailed in?situ attenuated total-reflection-surface-enhanced IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS) studies of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) on Ru/Pt thin film and commercial Johnson-Matthey PtRu/C, a revised MOR enhancement mechanism is proposed in which CO on Pt sites is irrelevant but instead Pt-Ru boundary sites catalyze the oxygen insertion reaction that leads to the formation of formate and enhances the direct reaction pathway. PMID:26148459

  4. Method for catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions of simple molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bicker, D.; Bonaventura, J.

    1988-06-14

    A method for oxidizing carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide is described comprising: (1) contacting, together, carbon monoxide, a nitrogen-containing chelating agent and water; wherein the chelating agent is at least one member selected from the group consisting of methmeoglobin bound to a support, ferric hemoglobin bound to a support, iron-containing porphyrins bound to a support, and sperm whale myoglobin bound to a support, wherein the support is glass, a natural fiber, a synthetic fiber, a gel, charcoal, carbon ceramic material, a metal oxide, a synthetic polymer, a zeolite, a silica compound of an alumina compound; and (2) obtaining carbon dioxide.

  5. Oxidation pathways in the reaction of diacetylene with OH radicals.

    SciTech Connect

    Senosiain, J. P.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Miller, J. A.; Chemistry; SNL

    2007-01-01

    We present a portion of the potential energy surface of the reaction of diacetylene with OH radicals, calculated using RQCISD(T) and two basis set extrapolation schemes. Based on this surface, we performed calculations of the rate coefficients using an RRKM/master-equation formalism. After a small (1 kcal/mol) adjustment to the energy barrier of the association reaction, our calculated rate coefficients of the high-pressure limit agree very well with previous direct measurements. However, our calculations at high temperatures are considerably smaller than the values inferred in previous studies. The non-Arrhenius behavior and significant pressure dependence of the rate coefficients above 800 K is due to the competition between stabilization, abstraction and addition - elimination channels. At low temperatures, the reaction proceeds mostly to the addition products, as well as to CO and propargyl. Above 1200 K, direct hydrogen abstraction and production of H atoms become important.

  6. The relationship between the amount of oxidation and activation energy on the steam oxidation reaction of Zircaloy-4 cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Masaki; Nagase, Fumihisa

    2013-09-01

    Zirconium-based alloys are widely used as cladding material for light-water reactors, and in the case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), oxidation of the cladding by high temperature steam plays important roles in fuel rod failure and hydrogen generation during the accident. In this study, considering that the oxidation rate is related to the activation energy of the oxidation reaction, the relationship between the amount of oxidation and the activation energy of cladding oxidation by steam was investigated by thermogravimetry. The oxidation rate of the specimen decreased with increasing heating rate. The activation energy of oxidation was evaluated based on a non-isothermal kinetics theory. It was found that the activation energy of oxidation depends on the specimen weight gain. The activation energies showed constant values of 300 and 180 kJ/mol in the oxidation range between 30 and 120 g/m2 and above 120 g/m2, respectively. A master curve which expresses the amount of steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4 cladding was formulated based on the activation energies obtained.

  7. The aniline-to-azobenzene oxidation reaction on monolayer graphene or graphene oxide surfaces fabricated by benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of aniline to azobenzene was conducted in the presence of either monolayer graphene (EG) or graphene-oxide-like surface, such as GOx, under ultra-high vacuum conditions maintaining a 365-nm UV light exposure to enhance the oxidation reaction. The surface-bound products were investigated using micro Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy, and work function measurements. The oxygen carriers present on the GOx surfaces, but not on the EG surfaces, acted as reaction reagents to facilitate the oxidation reaction from aniline to azobenzene. Increasing the aniline concentration at 300 K confirmed that the exchange ratio from the aniline to the azobenzene was enhanced, as determined by the intensity ratio between the aniline- and azobenzene-induced N 1 s core-level spectra. The work function changed dramatically as the aniline concentration increased, indicating that the aniline on the GOx surface conveyed n-type doping characteristics at a low coverage level. A higher aniline concentration increased the p-type doping character by increasing the azobenzene concentration on the GOx surface. A comparison of the oxidation reactivity of aniline molecules on the EG or GOx surfaces revealed the role of the oxygen carriers on the GOx surfaces in the context of catalytic oxidation. PMID:24229051

  8. In?situ observation of surface species on iridium oxide nanoparticles during the oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Casalongue, Hernan G; Ng, May Ling; Kaya, Sarp; Friebel, Daniel; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nilsson, Anders

    2014-07-01

    An iridium oxide nanoparticle electrocatalyst under oxygen evolution reaction conditions was probed in?situ by ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under OER conditions, iridium undergoes a change in oxidation state from Ir(IV) to Ir(V) that takes place predominantly at the surface of the catalyst. The chemical change in iridium is coupled to a decrease in surface hydroxide, providing experimental evidence which strongly suggests that the oxygen evolution reaction on iridium oxide occurs through an OOH-mediated deprotonation mechanism. PMID:24889896

  9. Thermal effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fibre reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The elevated temperature four-point flexural strength and the room temperature tensile and flexural strength properties after thermal shock were measured for ceramic composites consisting of 30 vol pct uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The elevated temperature strengths were measured after 15 min of exposure in air at temperatures to 1400 C. Thermal shock treatment was accomplished by heating the composite in air for 15 min at temperatures to 1200 C and then quenching in water at 25 C. The results indicate no significant loss in strength properties either at temperature or after thermal shock when compared with the strength data for composites in the as-fabricated condition.

  10. Mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1986-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical and physical properties of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) have been evaluated. The composites contained 23 and 40 volume fraction of aligned 140 micro m diameter chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Preliminary results for composite tensile and bend strengths and fracture strain indicate that the composites displayed excellent properties when compared with unreinforced RBSN of comparable porosity. Fiber volume fraction showed little influence on matrix first cracking strain but did influence the stressed required for matrix first cracking and for ultimate composite fracture strength. It is suggested that by reducing matrix porosity and by increasing the volume fraction of the large diameter SiC fiber, it should be possible to further improve the composite stress at which the matrix first cracks.

  11. Mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN ceramic matrix composites - Theory and experiment. [Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN (Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride) composites with various fiber contents is evaluated. Both catastrophic and noncatastrophic failures are observed in tensile specimens. Damage and failure mechanisms are identified via in-situ monitoring using NDE (nondestructive evaluation) techniques throughout the loading history. Effects of fiber/matrix interface debonding (splitting) parallel to fibers are discussed. Statistical failure behavior of fibers is also observed, especially when the interface is weak. Micromechanical models incorproating residual stresses to calculate the critical matrix cracking strength, ultimate strength, and work of pull-out are reviewed and used to predict composite response. For selected test problems, experimental measurements are compared to analytical predictions.

  12. Mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical and physical properties of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) have been evaluated. The composites contained 23 and 40 volume fraction of aligned 140 micro m diameter chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Preliminary results for composite tensile and bend strengths and fracture strain indicate that the composites displayed excellent properties when compared with unreinforced RBSN of comparable porosity. Fiber volume fraction showed little influence on matrix first cracking strain but did influence the stressed required for matrix first cracking and for ultimate composite fracture strength. It is suggested that by reducing matrix porosity and by increasing the volume fraction of the large diameter SiC fiber, it should be possible to further improve the composite stress at which the matrix first cracks.

  13. Push-out tests on a new silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, W.A. ); Eldridge, J.I. ); Srinivasan, G.V. )

    1993-09-01

    Fiber push-out tests have been performed on a ceramic matrix composite consisting of Carborundum sintered SiC fibers, with a BN coating, embedded in a reaction-bonded SiC matrix. Analysis of the push-out data, utilizing the most complete theory presently available, shows that one of the fiber/coating/matrix interfaces has a low fracture energy (one-tenth that of the fiber) and a moderate sliding resistance [tau] [approximately] 8 MPa. The debonded sliding interface shows some continuous but minor abrasion, which appears to increase the sliding resistance, but overall the system exhibits very clean smooth sliding. The tensile response of a full-scale composite is then modeled, using data obtained here and known fiber strengths, to demonstrate the good composite behavior predicted for this material.

  14. Bond cleavage reactions in the tripeptide trialanine upon free electron capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschnigg, Benjamin; Huber, Stefan E.; Scheier, Paul; Probst, Michael; Denifl, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    In the present study we performed dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with the tripeptide trialanine, C9H17N3O4, utilizing a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment with high electron energy resolution (~100 meV). Anion efficiency yields as a function of the incident electron energy are obtained for the most abundant anions up to electron energies of ~4 eV. Quantum chemical calculations are performed to determine the thermochemical thresholds for the anions observed in the measurements. There is no evidence of a molecular anion with lifetime of mass spectrometric timescales. The dehydrogenated closed shell anion (M-H)- is one of the fragment anions observed for which the calculations show that H-loss is energetically possible from carboxyl, as well as amide groups. In contrast to the dipeptide dialanine and monomer alanine the cleavage of the N-C? bond in the peptide chain is already possible by attachment of electrons at ~0 eV. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Nano-scale Insights into Ion-beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey V. Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Paulo Limo-Vieira and Malgorzata Smialek-Telega.

  15. THE USE OF ISOTOPE CROSSOVER EXPERIMENTS IN INVESTIGATING CARBON-CARBON BOND FORMING REACTIONS OF BINUCLEAR DIALKYL COBALT COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    Our present understanding of the mechanisms of organometallic reactions stems almost completely from investigation of complexes containing only one metal. Recently interest has been increasing in the synthesis, structure elucidation and reaction mechanisms of polynuclear clusters, complexes containing more than one metal. This attention derives partially from the possibility that polynuclear catalysts and reagents might be designed in such a way that the metals could interact, generating cooperative systems which might be much more selective than their mononuclear analogs. Another stimulant to this work has been the relationship of cluster complexes to larger multi-metal systems, such as heterogeneous catalysts. Many polynuclear clusters have been prepared and characterized, and some of these have been found to function as unique catalysts or catalyst precursors. However, very little is yet known about how chemical transformations take place at multinuclear reaction centers. Given this paucity of information, they decided a few years ago to initiate mechanistic study of simple cluster systems containing two metal centers, in which each of the metals has a {sigma}-bound organic ligand attached to it. They also choose to focus on reactions of these complexes in which new carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds are formed. This Account describes the work on such a system: a binuclear alkyl cobalt complex capable of transferring both alkyl groups to a molecule of carbon monoxide. In this work they have adopted as one of our highest priorities the determination of whether the cluster 'holds together' during its reactions, a question that is in our opinion too often ignored in such studies. They have found that isotope crossover experiments provide a powerful tool for investigating this structural integrity questions, and in this Account they outline a number of examples in which such crossover experiments have provided important, and occasionally surprising, informationa bout the mechanisms involved in the reactions of binuclear cluster complexes. Also summarized are studies of the reactions of related mononuclear complexes which have provided information critical to understanding the chemistry of these binuclear system.

  16. REACTION OF BENZENE OXIDE WITH THIOLS INCLUDING GLUTATHIONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study accounts for the observations that the metabolism of benzene is dominated by the formation of phenol. As demonstrated here, the pathway leading to S-phenylmercapturic acid is necessarily minor on account of the low efficiency of benzene oxide capture by glutathione at ...

  17. Reaction Sites of CO on Size-Selected Silicon Oxide Cluster Anions: A Model Study of Chemistry in the Interstellar Environment.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Masashi; Yamane, Ryo; Terasaki, Akira

    2016-01-14

    We present reactions of size-selected free silicon oxide cluster anions, SinOm(-) (n = 3-7, 2n - 1 ? m ? 2n + 2), with a CO gas. Adsorption of CO on SinOm(-) is observed as a major reaction channel. The rate constant of the adsorption reaction is high for the oxygen-rich clusters with m ? 2n + 1, whereas almost no reaction product is observed for m ? 2n. DFT calculations revealed that a pair of dangling O atoms on 4-fold-coordinated Si atoms plays a key role, which is the adsorption site of CO on SinOm(-). Bond formation between CO and one of the dangling O atoms is associated with electron transfer from the CO molecule to the other dangling O atom. The present findings give molecular-level insights into adsorption of CO molecules on silicates in the interstellar environment. PMID:26650618

  18. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  19. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  20. The reactions of imidogen with nitric oxide and molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.; Melius, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Using potential energy surface information from BAC-MP4 calculations and statistical-dynamical methods, we have calculated the branching fraction for the NH + NO reaction, NH + NO {r arrow} N{sub 2} + H (1) NH + NO {r arrow} N{sub 2}O + H (2). We find that reaction (2) dominates over the entire temperature range considered, 300 K < T < 3500 K, with f=k{sub 1}/(k{sub 1} + K{sub 2}) varying from about 0.07 at room temperature to about 0.20 at 3500 K. In addition, we have calculated rate coefficients for the two-channel process, NH + O{sub 2} {r arrow} HNO + O (3) NH + O{sub 2} {r arrow} NO + OH (4). In this case we find that reaction (4) dominates at low temperature, reaction (3) at high temperature. All these results are discussed in terms of the experimental results available and compared with previous theoretical investigations where appropriate. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.