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Sample records for bond strength test

  1. Validity of bond strength tests: A critical review: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Sirisha, Kantheti; Rambabu, Tankonda; Shankar, Yalavarthi Ravi; Ravikumar, Pabbati

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive systems are selected based on their bond strengths achieved while testing in laboratories. These bond strengths can predict the longevity of a restoration to some extent. There were several discrepancies in the reported bond strengths. To critically review the reliability of macro-bond strength tests used to evaluate resin-tooth interface. Relevant literature published between January 1983 and May 2013 was collected from PubMed database, Google scholar, and hand-searched journals of Conservative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental materials. Variables that influence the test outcome are categorized into substrate-related factors, factors related to specimen properties, preparation of specimens, and test methodology. Impact of these variables on the test outcome is critically analyzed. There is lack of a standard format for reporting the bond strength tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the data and bonding abilities of adhesives. PMID:25125840

  2. Evaluation of bond strength of different adhesive systems: Shear and Microtensile Bond Strength Test

    PubMed Central

    GALLUSI, G.; GALEANO, P.; LIBONATI, A.; GIUCA, M.R.; CAMPANELLA, V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Aim of this work is the in vitro bond strength evaluation of three bonding agents comparing the results of two kinds of test, Microtensile Bond Strength Test and a Shear Bond Strength Test. Bond strength tests have been used to test both direct and indirect restorative techniques to investigate if methods could give different results. Methods 72 human third molars have been collected and stored in physiological solution. Three kinds of test were conducted: 1- SB, 2- “Slice” preparation μTBS1, 3- “Stick” preparation μTBS2. We tested three different adhesive systems (Groups 1-2-3 n=24), two restorative techniques (subgroup A–B n=12). The tested adhesives were: Optibond FL (OFL) (Group 1), Optibond Solo Plus (OSP) (Group 2), Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OSSE) (Group 3). For all tests was used a universal load machine Instron Machine. Results. Best values were found for Optibond FL with mean values of 45–50 MPa. Optibond Solo Plus resulted in values very similar and in some cases almost identical to FL. Optibond Solo Self Etch showed poorer adhesion in both direct and indirect restorative techniques. The parametric and non parametric statistical variance analysis pointed out the absence of significant differences between OFL and OSP, and demonstrated a significant difference for OSSE adhesive. Significance. The results confirm that a total etch two-step adhesive is the best compromise between easiness and effectiveness. PMID:23285371

  3. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    PubMed Central

    de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91) and significant (p=0.01) correlation between the tests. Conclusions The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions. PMID:21308290

  4. Validity of bond strength tests: A critical review-Part II

    PubMed Central

    Sirisha, Kantheti; Rambabu, Tankonda; Ravishankar, Yalavarthi; Ravikumar, Pabbati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Macro-bond strength tests resulted in cohesive failures and overestimation of bond strengths. To reduce the flaws, micro-bond strength tests were introduced. They are the most commonly used bond-strength tests. Objective: Thus the objective of this review is to critically review the reliability of micro-bond strength tests used to evaluate resin-tooth interface. Data Collection: Relevant articles published between January 1994 and July 2013 were collected from Pubmed database, Google scholar and hand searched journals of Conservative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental materials. Data Synthesis: Variables that influence the test outcome are categorized into substrate related factors, factors related to specimen properties, specimen preparation and test methodology. Impact of these variables on the test outcome is critically analyzed. Conclusion: Micro-bond tests are more reliable than macro-bond tests. However, no standard format exists for reporting the bond strength tests which could lead to misinterpretation of the data and bonding abilities of adhesives. PMID:25298640

  5. Effect of two microshear test devices on bond strength and fracture pattern in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Garcia, Eugenio Jose; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the influence of two devices for application of shear load in microshear tests on bond strength and fracture pattern of primary enamel and dentin. Eighty primary molars were selected and flat enamel (40 teeth sectioned mesio-distally) and dentin (40 teeth sectioned transversally) surfaces were obtained. Both surfaces were polished to standardize the smear layer. Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond and XP Bond) were used. Polyethylene tubes was placed over the bonded surfaces and filled with composite resin. The microshear testing was performed after storage in water (24 h/37 °C) using two devices for application of microshear loads: a notched rod (Bisco Shear Bond Tester) or a knife edge (Kratos Industrial Equipment). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Bond strength data were subjected to ANOVA and chi-square test to compare the failure mode distributions (α=0.05). No significant differences were observed between the groups for dentin and enamel bond strength or fracture patterns (p>0.05). The predominant failure mode was adhesive/mixed. In conclusion, the devices for application of shear loads did not influence the bond strength values, regardless of adhesive system and substrate. PMID:24474357

  6. Microtensile and tensile bond strength of single-bottle adhesives: a new test method.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, A I

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the tensile and microtensile bond strength of five single-bottle adhesives to dentine, extracted human molar teeth were used. For each tooth dentine was exposed on the occlusal surface by cutting with an isomet saw and the remaining part was mounted in a plastic ring using dental stone. The tested adhesive materials were: Scotchbond 1, Syntac SC, One-Step, Prime & Bond 2.1 and Clearfil SE Bond. The adhesive was applied to either 1 mm(2) of dentine or a circular area with a diameter of 3.9 mm. Composite resin Clearfil AP-X was placed to the adhesives using a Teflon split mould 3.9 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm in height. Tensile and microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). Under tensile mode, the bond strengths were 16.7 +/- 3.5, 15.2 +/- 2.5, 11.5 +/- 3.2, 13.7 +/- 2.6, 20.9 +/- 4.2 MPa for each material. Under microtensile mode, the bond strengths were 52.5 +/- 9.5, 55.3 +/- 8.3, 40.5 +/- 5.2, 37.5 +/- 8.7, 60 +/- 6.21 MPa. Fracture pattern of bonded specimens showed 66% cohesive dentine failure in samples tested for tensile bond strength. For the microtensile test, failures were mainly adhesive at the interface between adhesive and dentine (94%). PMID:15089946

  7. Clinical relevance of tests on bond strength, microleakage and marginal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D

    2013-01-01

    Dental adhesive systems should provide a variety of capabilities, such as bonding of artificial materials to dentin and enamel, sealing of dentinal tubules, reduction of post-operative sensitivity and marginal sealing to reduce marginal staining and caries. In the laboratory, numerous surrogate parameters that should predict the performance of different materials, material combinations and operative techniques are assessed. These surrogate parameters include bond strength tests of various kinds, evaluation of microleakage with tracer penetration between restorative and tooth, two-dimensional analysis of marginal quality with microscopes and mapping of the micromorphology of the bonding interface. Many of these tests are not systematically validated and show therefore different results between different research institutes. The correlation with clinical phenomena has only partly been established to date. There is some evidence, that macrotensile and microtensile bond strength tests correlate better with clinical retention of cervical restorations than macroshear and microshear bond tests but only if data from different test institutes are pooled. Also there is some evidence that marginal adaptation has a moderate correlation in cervical restorations with clinical retention and in Class II restorations (proximal enamel) with clinical marginal staining. There is moderate evidence that microleakage tests with dye penetration does not correlate with any of the clinical parameters (post-operative hypersensitivity, retention, marginal staining). A rationale which helps the researcher to select and apply clinically relevant test methods in the laboratory is presented in the paper. PMID:22920539

  8. Orthodontic brackets removal under shear and tensile bond strength resistance tests - a comparative test between light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. C. G.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated if a new LEDs system has enough efficient energy to promote efficient shear and tensile bonding strength resistance under standardized tests. LEDs 470 ± 10 nm can be used to photocure composite during bracket fixation. Advantages considering resistance to tensile and shear bonding strength when these systems were used are necessary to justify their clinical use. Forty eight human extracted premolars teeth and two light sources were selected, one halogen lamp and a LEDs system. Brackets for premolar were bonded through composite resin. Samples were submitted to standardized tests. A comparison between used sources under shear bonding strength test, obtained similar results; however, tensile bonding test showed distinct results: a statistical difference at a level of 1% between exposure times (40 and 60 seconds) and even to an interaction between light source and exposure time. The best result was obtained with halogen lamp use by 60 seconds, even during re-bonding; however LEDs system can be used for bonding and re-bonding brackets if power density could be increased.

  9. A comparison of finite element analysis with in vitro bond strength tests of the bracket-cement-enamel system.

    PubMed

    Algera, T J; Feilzer, A J; Prahl-Andersen, B; Kleverlaan, C J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) and tensile bond strength (TBS) of 45 metal brackets bonded with Transbond XT to bovine enamel. The SBS was determined by loading the short and the long sides of the bracket base. Testing took place after storage of the specimens for 72 hours in water at 37°C. Fractures were analysed with the adhesive remnant index (ARI) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stresses in the system were analysed with finite element (FE) analysis models of the experimental set-up to identify the initial fracture point and the stress distribution at fracture. Statistical analysis of bond strengths was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.05). The ARI scores were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA on ranks. ANOVA showed significant differences between the three experiments. Loading the short side of the bracket resulted in the highest average bond strength. Tensile loading gave the lowest results. FE models supported the bond strength findings and SEM. FE analysis revealed peak stresses in the cement during loading, confirming that shear testing is sensitive to loading angles. The stress distribution over the bracket-cement-enamel system is not homogeneous during loading. Fractures are initiated at peak stress locations. As a consequence, the size of the bonding area is not predictive of bond strength. The bracket design and the mode of loading may be of greater relevance. PMID:21131391

  10. Evaluating Resin-Dentin Bond by Microtensile Bond Strength Test: Effects of Various Resin Composites and Placement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Maleknejad, Fatemeh; Forghani, Maryam; Afshari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of a methacrylate-based compared to a silorane-based resin composite in Class I cavity using different placement techniques. Materials and Methods: Class I cavities with dimension of (4 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm deep) were prepared in extracted sound human molars. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups. The first three groups were filled with Filtek P90 using three methods of insertion; bulk, incremental and snow-plow, and the remaining three groups were filled with Clearfil AP-X using the same three placement techniques. After 24 hours of storage in water at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled to 1000 cycles. Specimens were prepared for MTBS testing by creating bonded beams obtained from the pulpal floor. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analyses of data were performed by two-way ANOVA/Tukey (α=.05). Results: The experiment showed significant differences between the two resin composites with regard to filling techniques (P<0.05). The MTBS was significantly higher in each of Filtek P90 subgroup compared to Clearfil AP-X ones (P<0.05). With respect to filling technique in both resin composites, bulk insertion showed the significantly lowest MTBS (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found between the outcome of incremental and snow-plow techniques (P>0.05). Conclusion: Silorane-based resin composite as opposed to methacrylate based resin composite and layering placements in contrast to bulk filling method had higher microtensile bond strength. PMID:26966466

  11. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  12. Effect of root canal rinsing protocol on dentin bond strength of two resin cements using three different method of test

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Sheikhi, Mohammadreza; Soleimani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Background Different studies have used different tests to evaluate bond strength of resin cements to root dentin. In this in vitrostudy, three different tests were used to evaluate the bond strength of two resin cements to root dentin using two root dentin irrigation protocols. Material and Methods Ninety-six intact single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. Forty-eight teeth, with a root length of 15mm, were randomly divided into two groups and irrigated with normal saline or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions during root canal preparation, respectively. For each 12 specimens from each group, fiber post #1 was bonded using an etch-and-rinse (Duo-Link) and a self-adhesive (BisCem) resin cement, respectively. After incubation, two specimens were prepared for the push-out test from the middle thirds of the roots. In another 24 teeth, after two 1.5-mm sections were prepared from the middle thirds of the prepared roots, sections of the post were bonded in two subgroups with each of the cements mentioned above and the samples were prepared for the pull-out test. For shear test, the crowns of 48 teeth were cut away, the dentin surfaces were prepared, the two irrigation solutions were used, and the resin cements were bonded. Data collected from the three tests were evaluated by ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey and Weibull tests (α=0.05). Results There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values between the three bond strength tests (P<0.001). Rinsing protocol and cement type resulted in similar variations in the mean bond strength in all tests (P>0.05). Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, the method of the test used had an effect on the recorded bond strength between the resin cement and root dentin. Cement type and irrigation protocol resulted in similar variations with all the tests. Push-out and shear tests exhibited more coherent results. Key words:Bond strength, endodontically treated tooth, fiber post, resin cement, sodium

  13. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  14. Nondestructive testing techniques used in analysis of honeycomb structure bond strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, D. C.; Martin, G.; Moore, J. F.; Thomas, G.; Varney, H. S.

    1967-01-01

    DOT /Driver-Displacement Oriented Transducer/, applicable to both lap shear type application and honeycomb sandwich structures, measures the displacement of the honeycomb composite face sheet. It incorporates an electromagnetic driver and a displacement measuring system into a single unit to provide noncontact bond strength measurements.

  15. Analysis of Bond Strength by Pull Out Test on Fiber Glass Posts Cemented in Different Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Mariana Benedetti Ferreira; Michida, Silvia Masae de Araújo; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; de Oliveira, Giovani Corrêa; Silva, Cleverson de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of pull-out test, the bond strength of fiberglass posts when cemented with different lengths in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted bovine roots were cut in the cementoenamel junction with 21 mm length. They were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20). Group 1 - Preparation of 2/3 of the remaining roots; Group 2 - Preparation of ½ of the remaining roots and Group 3 - Preparation of ¼ of remaining roots. For all groups it were used posts n = 3 (Exacto, Angelus, Brazil), and cemented with self-etching resin cement (RelyXU200). After cementing posts, the samples were thermocycled (10.000 cycles/5°C and 55°C). The pull-out test was performed on a universal testing machine (EMIC - DL500) and the values obtained were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (one-factor ANOVA) and multiple comparison test of Tukey, with level of significance of 5%. Results: The mean values ± standard deviation in Newtons (N) were: Group 1 = 120.5 (±42.8) A, Group 2 = 103.1 (±31.2) AB, Group 3 = 41.2 (±22.4) C, P < 0.005. Conclusion: The preparation of ½ of remaining root appears to be a viable alternative when 2/3 of the preparation of the remaining root is not possible, but more results are needed for clinical validation. PMID:25954063

  16. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not

  17. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  18. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  19. Cryogenic evaluation of epoxy bond strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, N.; Young, W.

    The purpose of the work presented here was to determine methods of optimizing the adhesion of a particular epoxy (CTD-101K, Composite Technology Development Inc.) to a particular nickel-based alloy substrate (Incoloy ® 908, Inco Alloys International) for cryogenic applications. Initial efforts were focused on surface preparation of the substrate material via various mechanical and chemical cleaning techniques. Test samples, fabricated to simulate the conduit-to-insulation interface, were put through a mock heat treat and vacuum/pressure impregnation process. Samples were compression/shear load tested to compare the bond strengths at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. The resulting data indicate that acid etching creates a higher bond strength than the other tested techniques and that the bond formed is stronger at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. A description of the experiment along with the resulting data is presented here.

  20. Bond strength of thermally recycled metal brackets.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J J; Ackerman, R J

    1983-03-01

    Bracket recycling has emerged concurrently with the practice of direct bonding. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of recycling on the retention of mesh-backed stainless steel brackets. Mesh strand diameter was measured on forty new brackets. These brackets were bonded to recently extracted human premolar teeth, and the tensile force required to fracture each bond was recorded. The brackets were then reconditioned by a thermal process. The mesh strand size was remeasured and the tensile test was repeated. It was found that (1) mesh strand diameter decreased 7 percent during the reconditioning process (93.89 microns +/- 3.17 S.D. compared to 87.07 microns +/- 4.76 S.D., z = 17.62, P less than 1 X 10(-5) ), (2) new bracket bonds were 6 percent stronger than recycled bracket bonds (43.88 pounds +/- 7.98 S.D. bond strength), and (3) reduction in mesh strand diameter during the reconditioning process did not correlate with changes in bond strength between initial and recycled bonding (Pearson r = 0.038). PMID:6338725

  1. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Newer Bonding Systems on Superficial and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Siddaraju, Kishore; Nagaraj, Hema; Poluri, Ramya Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to superficial dentin and deep dentin using two different dentin bonding systems. Materials and Methods: All teeth were sectioned at various levels (superficial dentin: Dentin within 0.5-1 mm of dentinoenamel junction; deep dentin: Dentin within 0.5 mm of the highest pulp horn) using a Carborundum Disc and embedded in acrylic block of specific size. Selected specimens (60 premolar teeth) were grouped randomly into three groups, the groups were differentiated into superficial dentin, deep dentin, and control group which were further divided into sub Group A and Subgroup B containing 10 teeth each, depending on the bonding agents used. In Subgroup A, Tetric N Bond, and in Subgroup B Single Bond Universal were used. In the control group no bonding agent was used. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5°C and 55°C water bath for 40 s. Finally, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength study under INSTRON machine (Universal Testing Machine). The maximum shear bond strengths were noted at the time of fracture (de-bonding) of the restorative material. Results were analyzed using ANOVA test, Bonferroni test, and paired t-test. Results: Bond strength values of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) showed higher mean shear bond strength compared to seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). There was a significant fall in bond strength values as one reaches deeper levels of dentin from superficial to deep dentin. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) and seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). Decrease in the bond strength values is seen for the deeper level of dentin as compared to superficial dentin. PMID:26435613

  2. Cryogenic insulation strength and bond tester

    SciTech Connect

    Schuerer, P. H.; Ehl, J. H.; Prasthofer, W. P.

    1985-10-22

    A method and apparatus for testing the tensile strength and bonding strength of sprayed-on foam insulation attached to metal cryogenic fuel tanks. A circular cutter is used to cut the insulation down to the surface of the metal tank to form plugs of the insulation for testing ''in situ'' on the tank. The apparatus comprises an electro-mechanical pulling device powered by a belt battery pack. The pulling device comprises a motor driving a mechanical pulling structure comprising a horizontal shaft connected to two bell cranks which are connected to a central member. When the lower end of member is attached to fitting, which in turn is bonded to plug, a pulling force is exerted on plug sufficient to rupture it. The force necessary to rupture the plug or pull it loose is displayed as a digital read-out on screen.

  3. Cryogenic insulation strength and bond tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerer, P. H.; Ehl, J. H.; Prasthofer, W. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing the tensile strength and bonding strength of sprayed-on foam insulation attached to metal cryogenic fuel tanks is described. A circular cutter is used to cut the insulation down to the surface of the metal tank to form plugs of the insulation for testing in situ on the tank. The apparatus comprises an electromechanical pulling device powered by a belt battery pack. The pulling device comprises a motor driving a mechanical pulling structure comprising a horizontal shaft connected to two bell cracks which are connected to a central member. When the lower end of member is attached to a fitting, which in turn is bonded to a plug, a pulling force is exerted on the plug sufficient to rupture it. The force necessary to rupture the plug or pull it loose is displayed as a digital read-out.

  4. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential. PMID:26325656

  5. Shear bond strength of partial coverage restorations to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Alonso-Pérez-Barquero, Jorge; Fons-Font, Antonio; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background When partial coverage restorations (veneers, inlays, onlays…) must be cemented to dentin, bond strength may not reach the same predictable values as to enamel. The purpose of this study was: 1. To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesive requiring acid etching, and Clearfil SE Bond® (Kuraray), two-bottle self-etching adhesive. The vestibular, lingual, distal and mesial surfaces of ten molars (n=10) were ground to remove all enamel and 40 ceramic samples were cemented with Variolink II® (Ivoclar Vivadent). Half the molar surfaces were treated to create round microretention (pits) to determine whether these could influence bond strength to dentin. The 40 molar surfaces were divided into four groups (n=10): Optibond FL (O); Clearfil SE (C); Optibond FL + microretention (OM); Clearfil SE + micro retention (CM). A shear bond test was performed and the bond failures provoked examined under an optical microscope. Results O=35.27±8.02 MPa; C=36.23±11.23 MPa; OM=28.61±6.27 MPa; CM=27.01±7.57 MPa. No statistically significant differences were found between the adhesives. Optibond FL showed less statistical dispersion than Clearfil SE. The presence of microretentions reduced bond strength values regardless of the adhesive used. Conclusions 1. Clearfil SE self-etching adhesive and Optibond FL acid-etch showed adequate bond strengths and can be recommended for bonding ceramic restorations to dentin. 2. The creation of round microretention pits compromises these adhesives’ bond strength to dentin. Key words:Adhesion to dentin, bonding agent, Optibond FL, Clearfil SE, microretention, shear bond test. PMID:26330937

  6. Bond strength to root dentin and fluid filtration test of AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems

    PubMed Central

    MAHDI, Alaa Abdul; BOLAÑOS-CARMONA, Victoria; GONZALEZ-LOPEZ, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the bond strength and seal ability produced by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems to root canal dentin. Material and Methods Sixty extracted single-root human teeth, instrumented manually to size 40, were divided into three groups (n=20) according to the sealer used; G1: AH Plus, G2: EndoREZ, and G3: RealSeal sealers. After filling using the lateral condensation technique, each sealer group was randomly divided into two subgroups according to the tests applied (n=10 for µPush-out test and n=10 for fluid filtration test). A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of apical leakage. Four 1-mm-thick slices (cervical and medium level) were obtained from each root sample and a µPush-out test was performed. Failure modes were examined under microscopy at 40x, and a one-way ANOVA was applied to analyze the permeability. Non-parametrical statistics for related (Friedman's and Wilcoxon's rank tests) or unrelated samples (Kruskal-Wallis' and Mann-Whitney's tests) allowed for comparisons of µPush-out strength values among materials at the different levels. Statistical significance was accepted for p values <.05. Results There are no significant differences among fluid filtration of the three sealers. The sealer/core material does not significantly influence the µPush-out bond strength values (F=2.49; p=0.10), although statistically significant differences were detected with regard to root level (Chi2=23.93; p<0.001). AH Plus and RealSeal obtained higher bond strength to intraradicular dentin in the medium root slices. Conclusions There are no significant differences between the permeability and global µPush-out bond strength to root canal dentin achieved by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems. PMID:24037078

  7. On a model of calculating bond strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yang, T. T.; Lin, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    Diffusion bonding is a fabricating process to join the fibers and a matrix together forming a composite. The efficiency of the bonding process depends on temperature, time, and pressure. Based on a simplified pair potential model, an expression for the bond-energy at the fiber-matrix interface is formulated in terms of the above-mentioned three parameters. From this expression and the mean atomic distance, the bond-strength between the fibers and the matrix can be calculated.

  8. Effect of Bonding Application Time on Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ghassemi, Amir; Mahdian, Mina; Akbarzadeh Bagheban, Alireza; Moayyedi, Seddigheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This experimental study evaluated the effect of bonding application time on the microshear bond strength of composite resin to different types of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Materials and Methods: One-hundred and sixty specimens (two conventional and two resin-modified GICs) were prepared and divided into 16 groups. The surface of all specimens was prepared using two different bonding systems (Frog and Stea) at three different times. After setting, the composite resin (Z100) was placed over the GICs. The specimens were then stored in distilled water for 24 hours (37°C) and exposed to microshear stresses at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The results were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: In conventional GICs, bond strength was affected by the type of bonding system at different times, and bond strength was significantly higher in the Fuji II group compared to Riva Self Cure group. In the Riva Self Cure group, bond strength was significantly affected by time; whereas, the type of bonding system failed to exert a significant effect on bond strength. There was no significant correlation between the type of bonding system and the two brands of resin-modified GICs. Bond strength was not affected by the type of bonding agent; however, among the two brands of resin-modified GICs, Fuji II LC yielded a significantly stronger bond. Conclusion: It appears that the type of bonding agent does not affect the microshear bond strength, and the bonding application time affects the microshear bond strength in Riva Self Cure GICs. PMID:27507998

  9. Fatigue strength of adhesive bonded section beams under torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tomioka, Noboru; Kakiage, Masashi; Niisawa, Junetsu; Kitagawa, Hideo

    1995-11-01

    Fatigue strength of adhesive bonded box beams was investigated. From results of the fatigue tests, it was seen that the fatigue strength of bonded beams was higher than that of spot welded beams. Fatigue strength of bonded beams was independent of plate thickness and partition. The flexural rigidity of the box beams in the plane of partition can increase without decrease of torsional rigidity and torsional fatigue strength, if the partition is jointed by adhesive bonding instead of spot welding. Since the fatigue strength and rigidity of adhesive bonded joints can be higher than the spot welded joints in the weight saving structures, it is expected that the structural adhesive joints will be employed more in the automobile body structure. For assuring the introduction of this joint more into the automobile body structures, it is necessary that the fatigue tests on the model members of the actual members used in the automobile body structure are conducted, in addition to those of the simple joints such as tension shear and T-type tension, and the property of the fatigue strength on the adhesive bonded members is known. But, the authors now have little data on fatigue tests of the adhesive bonded members. In the present research to be reported, the fatigue tests on adhesive bonded box beams under torsion, which are typical members in automobile body structure, were carried out and the effects of the presence of longitudinal partition and plate thickness on fatigue strength were investigated. Comparing the results of fatigue tests on adhesive bonded box beams with those on spot welded box beams, the property of fatigue strength on these adhesive bonded box beams was cleared.

  10. Testing Bonds Between Brittle And Ductile Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Simple uniaxial strain test devised to measure intrinsic shear strength. Brittle film deposited on ductile stubstrate film, and combination stretched until brittle film cracks, then separates from substrate. Dimensions of cracked segments related in known way to tensile strength of brittle film and shear strength of bond between two films. Despite approximations and limitations of technique, tests show it yields semiquantitative measures of bond strengths, independent of mechanical properties of substrates, with results reproducible with plus or minus 6 percent.

  11. Strength of Multiple Parallel Biological Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Noy, A

    2005-12-07

    Multivalent interactions play a critical role in a variety of biological processes on both molecular and cellular levels. We have used molecular force spectroscopy to investigate the strength of multiple parallel peptide-antibody bonds using a system that allowed us to determine the rupture forces and the number of ruptured bonds independently. In our experiments the interacting molecules were attached to the surfaces of the probe and sample of the atomic force microscope with flexible polymer tethers, and unique mechanical signature of the tethers determined the number of ruptured bonds. We show that the rupture forces increase with the number of interacting molecules and that the measured forces obey the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple parallel bonds. We also discuss the implications of our results to the interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements in multiple bond systems.

  12. Resin-modified glass ionomers: dentin bond strength versus time.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Iwasaki, K; Soyamura, T; Onose, H; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    Most dentin bond strength tests of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements have been conducted after at least 24 hours' storage in water. In a clinical situation, debonding might occur soon after the restoration was placed if subjected to stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of development of shear bond strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, two Type IIs of which, Fuji II LC and Vitremer, were used. A conventional glass-ionomer cement, Fuji II, and a resin composite, Herculite XRV/OptiBond system, were also employed as controls. Bovine incisors were mounted in self-curing resin, and the facial surfaces wet ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose dentin. Materials were condensed into a vinyl mold and bonded following the manufacturers' instructions. The shear bond strengths of 10 specimens per group were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute after 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes' and 2, 5, and 24 hours' storage in water at 37 degrees C. One-way ANOVAs followed by the Dunnet test (P < 0.05) were used to test for significant differences between the mean bond strength at 1 minute and each of the other test periods. The test period when there was a significant increase in bond strength was defined as the "initial increasing time." The dentin bond strengths of all the materials tested increased with prolonged storage time. The initial increasing times were 10 minutes for Fuji II LC and OptiBond, 20 minutes for Fuji II, and 60 minutes for Vitremer. The differences in the initial increasing time might have clinical implications if the restoration is subjected to significant stress immediately after placement. PMID:9656926

  13. Modulating the strength of tetrel bonding through beryllium bonding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxiu; Yang, Li; Li, Qingzhong; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo; Xiao, Bo; Yu, Xuefang

    2016-08-01

    Quantum chemical calculations were performed to investigate the stability of the ternary complexes BeH2···XMH3···NH3 (X = F, Cl, and Br; M = C, Si, and Ge) and the corresponding binary complexes at the atomic level. Our results reveal that the stability of the XMH3···BeH2 complexes is mainly due to both a strong beryllium bond and a weak tetrel-hydride interaction, while the XMH3···NH3 complexes are stabilized by a tetrel bond. The beryllium bond with a halogen atom as the electron donor has many features in common with a beryllium bond with an O or N atom as the electron donor, although they do exhibit some different characteristics. The stability of the XMH3···NH3 complex is dominated by the electrostatic interaction, while the orbital interaction also makes an important contribution. Interestingly, as the identities of the X and M atoms are varied, the strength of the tetrel bond fluctuates in an irregular manner, which can explained by changes in electrostatic potentials and orbital interactions. In the ternary systems, both the beryllium bond and the tetrel bond are enhanced, which is mainly ascribed to increased electrostatic potentials on the corresponding atoms and charge transfer. In particular, when compared to the strengths of the tetrel and beryllium bonds in the binary systems, in the ternary systems the tetrel bond is enhanced to a greater degree than the beryllium bond. Graphical Abstract A tetrel bond can be strengthened greatly by a beryllium bond. PMID:27464738

  14. Influence of Water Storage and Bonding Material on Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Consani, Simonides; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of water storage (24 h and 6 months), and Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC bonding materials on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Four cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Each cylinder received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT or Fuji Ortho LC. Light-activation was carried out with 40 s total exposure time using Bluephase G2. Half the specimens for each bonding materials (n=20) were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and the other half for 6 months. Shear bond strength testing was performed after storage times at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Transbond XT showed significantly higher bond strength (p<0.05) than Fuji Ortho LC. Significant differences in bond strength (p<0.05) were found when 24 h and 6 months storage times were compared between materials. ARI showed a predominance of score 0 for all groups, and higher scores at 1, 2 and 3 for 24 h storage time. In conclusion, storage time and bonding materials showed significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic. PMID:26647936

  15. Tensile bond strength of ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kocadereli, I; Canay, S; Akça, K

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare various surface treatment methods to define the procedure that produces adequate bond strength between ceramic brackets and porcelain. The specimens used in this study, 60 porcelain tabs, were produced by duplication of the labial surface of a maxillary first premolar. The 6 different preparation procedures tested were: (1) sandblasting with 50 microm aluminum oxide in a sandblasting device, (2) application of silane to the porcelain and the bracket base, (3) sandblasting followed by application of silane, (4) acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, (5) acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid followed by application of silane, and (6) sandblasting followed by application of 4-Meta adhesive. The ceramic brackets were bonded with no-mix orthodontic bonding material. A bonding force testing machine was used to determine tensile bond strengths at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per second. The results of the study showed that porcelain surface preparation with acid etching followed by silane application resulted in a statistically significant higher tensile bond strength (P < .05). Sandblasting the porcelain surface before silane treatment provided similar bond strengths, but sandblasting or acid etching alone were less effective. Silane application was recommended to bond a ceramic bracket to the porcelain surface to achieve bond strengths that are clinically acceptable. PMID:11395705

  16. SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF METALLIC BRACKETS: INFLUENCE OF SALIVA CONTAMINATION

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Ferreira, Eduardo Silveira; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. Material and Methods: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000) running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. Results: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91) was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73) and XS (10.39±4.06) groups (p<0.05). Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI) used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. Conclusion: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. PMID:19466249

  17. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2014-01-18

    A power law regression equation, = 1.46(<ρ(rc)>/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, <ρ(rc)>, between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(ρ(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ρ(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Pauling’s simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, σ, power law expression σ = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, <ρ(rc)> = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M

  18. Bond strength of binary titanium alloys to porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yoda, M; Konno, T; Takada, Y; Iijima, K; Griggs, J; Okuno, O; Kimura, K; Okabe, T

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bond strength between porcelain and experimental cast titanium alloys. Eleven binary titanium alloys were examined: Ti-Cr (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Pd (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Ag (10, 15, 20 wt%), and Ti-Cu (5, 10 wt%). As controls, the bond strengths for commercially pure titanium (KS-50, Kobelco, Japan) and a high noble gold alloy (KIK, Ishifuku, Japan) were also examined. Castings were made using a centrifugal casting unit (Ticast Super R, Selec Co., Japan). Commercial porcelain for titanium (TITAN, Noritake, Japan) was applied to cast specimens. The bond strengths were evaluated using a three-point bend test according to ISO 9693. Since the elastic modulus value is needed to evaluate the bond strength, the modulus was measured for each alloy using a three-point bend test. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/S-N-K test (alpha = 0.05). Although the elastic moduli of the Ti-Pd alloys were significantly lower than those of other alloys (p = 0.0001), there was a significant difference in bond strength only between the Ti-25Pd and Ti-15Ag alloys (p = 0.009). The strengths determined for all the experimental alloys ranged from 29.4 to 37.2MPa, which are above the minimum value required by the ISO specification (25 MPa). PMID:11379602

  19. Bond strength of a new generation of universal bonding systems to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Passia, Nicole; Mitsias, Miltiadis; Lehmann, Frank; Kern, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of a new generation of universal bonding systems to zirconia ceramic and to compare the results with the bond strength of a clinically-established bonding system. Eighty zirconia ceramic test specimens (e.max ZirCAD) were air-abraded and bonded to Plexiglas tubes, filled with an aliphatic dimethacrylate filling material (Clearfil F II), using three so called universal bonding systems of a new generation with different compositions (Monobond Plus/MultilinkAutomix, NX3, Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate). The latter was used also without the phosphate monomer containing primer Scotchbond Universal. A clinically established phosphate monomer containing adhesive cement served as control group (Panavia F2.0). The specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 3 or 150 days and the long-term storage series were additionally thermal cycled between 5 and 55°C for 37,500 times to simulate oral conditions. All specimens underwent tensile bond strength testing. The statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon-Test with a Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing. After 150 days the median bond strength of RelyX Ultimate, with and without Scotchbond Universal, and Panavia F2.0 did not differ statistically (range: 21.7-28.8MPa), while the bond strength of Monobond Plus/Multilink Automix was significantly lower (15.4MPa), and that of NX3 the lowest (6.6MPa). After 150 days of water storage with thermal cycling, all adhesive system showed significantly reduced tensile bond strengths compared to that after 3 days. Only RelyX Ultimate was comparable to the established bonding system Panavia F2.0. The additional use of Scotchbond Universal did not result in a significant effect. PMID:27232829

  20. Evaluation of shear bond strength of porcelain bonded to laser welded titanium surface and determination of mode of bond failure.

    PubMed

    Patil, Narendra P; Dandekar, Minal; Nadiger, Ramesh K; Guttal, Satyabodh S

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain to laser welded titanium surface and to determine the mode of bond failure through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Forty five cast rectangular titanium specimens with the dimension of 10 mm x 8 mm x 1 mm were tested. Thirty specimens had a perforation of 2 mm diameter in the centre. These were randomly divided into Group A and B. The perforations in the Group B specimens were repaired by laser welding using Cp Grade II titanium wire. The remaining 15 specimens were taken as control group. All the test specimens were layered with low fusing porcelain and tested for shear bond strength. The debonded specimens were subjected to SEM and EDS. Data were analysed with 1-way analysis of variance and Student's t-test for comparison among the different groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no statistically significant difference in shear bond strength values at a 5% level of confidence. The mean shear bond strength values for control group, Group A and B was 8.4 +/- 0.5 Mpa, 8.1 +/- 0.4 Mpa and 8.3 +/- 0.3 Mpa respectively. SEM/EDS analysis of the specimens showed mixed and cohesive type of bond failure. Within the limitations of the study laser welding did not have any effect on the shear bond strength of porcelain bonded to titanium. PMID:21077419

  1. Evaluation of bond strength of orthodontic brackets without enamel etching

    PubMed Central

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Motaghi, Shiva; Moghaddas, Mohmmadjavad

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the shear bond strength of brackets with and without enamel etching. Material and Methods In this study, 60 sound premolars were randomly divided into four different groups: 1- TXE group: Enamel etching+Transbond XT adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 2- TXS group: Transbond plus self-etch adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 3- PQ1E group: Enamel etching+ PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 4- PQ1 group: PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. The shear bond strengths of brackets were evaluated using universal testing machine at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also measured. One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Witney U test were used for data analysis. Results There was a significant difference between etched and unetched groups respect to SBS and ARI (p<0.05), however; no significant difference was observed between unetched group and self-etch adhesive group (p>> 0.05). The shear bond strength of PQ1 group was the least but in acceptable range and its ARI was less than other groups. Conclusions PQ1 adhesive can be used for bracket bonding without enamel etching with adequate bond strength and minimal ARI. Key words:Bracket, shear bond strength, filled-adhesive, self-etch adhesive. PMID:26535100

  2. A novel bonding method for fabrication of PET planar nanofluidic chip with low dimension loss and high bonding strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shenbo

    2015-08-01

    Plastic planar nanofluidic chips are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical applications. However, the majority of the present bonding methods for planar nanofluidic chips suffer from high dimension loss and low bonding strength. In this work, a novel thermal bonding technique based on O2 plasma and ethanol treatment was proposed. With the assistance of O2 plasma and ethanol, the PET (polyethylene terephthalate) planar nanofluidic chip can be bonded at a low bonding temperature of 50 °C. To increase the bonding rate and bonding strength, the O2 plasma parameters and thermal bonding parameters were optimized during the bonding process. The tensile test indicates that the bonding strength of the PET planar nanofluidic chip can reach 0.954 MPa, while the auto-fluorescence test demonstrates that there is no leakage or blockage in any of the bonded micro- or nanochannels.

  3. Bond strength with various etching times on young permanent teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.N.; Lu, T.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Tensile bond strengths of an orthodontic resin cement were compared for 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, or 120-second etching times, with a 37% phosphoric acid solution on the enamel surfaces of young permanent teeth. Fifty extracted premolars from 9- to 16-year-old children were used for testing. An orthodontic composite resin was used to bond the bracket directly onto the buccal surface of the enamel. The tensile bond strengths were tested with an Instron machine. Bond failure interfaces between bracket bases and teeth surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and calculated with mapping of energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The results of tensile bond strength for 15-, 30-, 60-, or 90-second etching times were not statistically different. For the 120-second etching time, the decrease was significant. Of the bond failures, 43%-49% occurred between bracket and resin interface, 12% to 24% within the resin itself, 32%-40% between resin and tooth interface, and 0% to 4% contained enamel fragments. There was no statistical difference in percentage of bond failure interface distribution between bracket base and resin, resin and enamel, or the enamel detachment. Cohesive failure within the resin itself at the 120-second etching time was less than at other etching times, with a statistical significance. To achieve good retention, to decrease enamel loss, and to reduce moisture contamination in the clinic, as well as to save chairside time, a 15-second etching time is suggested for teenage orthodontic patients.

  4. Probing the Hydrogen Bond Strength at Single Bond Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Lü, Jing-Tao; Chen, Ji; Peng, Jinbo; Meng, Xiangzhi; Wang, Zhichang; Li, Xin-Zheng; Wang, Enge; Jiang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Many extraordinary physical, chemical and biological properties of water are determined by hydrogen-bonding interaction between the water molecules. So far, the routine way to determine the hydrogen-bonding strength of water is probing the frequency shift of O-H stretching mode using various spectroscopic techniques, which all suffer from the difficulty of spectral assignment and the broadening of vibrational signals due to the lack of spatial resolution. In this talk, we show the ability to probe the hydrogen-bonding strength of interfacial water at single bond limit using resonantly enhanced inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The conventional IET signals of water molecules are extremely weak and far beyond the experimental detection limit due to the negligible molecular density of states (DOS) around the Fermi level. This difficulty can be surmounted by turning on the tip-water coupling, which shifts and broadens the frontier molecular orbitals of water to the proximity of Fermi level, resulting in a resonantly enhanced IET process. International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL PROPERTIES AND BOND STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    D E Burkes; D D Keiser; D M Wachs; J S Larson; M D Chapple

    2007-03-01

    Understanding fuel foil mechanical properties, and fuel / cladding bond quality and strength in monolithic plates is an important area of investigation and quantification. Specifically, what constitutes an acceptable monolithic fuel – cladding bond, how are the properties of the bond measured and determined, and what is the impact of fabrication process or change in parameters on the level of bonding? Currently, non-bond areas are quantified employing ultrasonic determinations that are challenging to interpret and understand in terms of irradiation impact. Thus, determining mechanical properties of the fuel foil and what constitutes fuel / cladding non-bonds is essential to successful qualification of monolithic fuel plates. Capabilities and tests related to determination of these properties have been implemented at the INL and are discussed, along with preliminary results.

  6. Insulation bonding test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.; Johnston, G. D.; Coleman, A. D.; Portwood, J. N.; Saunders, J. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Porter, A. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and a system for testing the bonding of foam insulation attached to metal is described. The system involves the use of an impacter which has a calibrated load cell mounted on a plunger and a hammer head mounted on the end of the plunger. When the impacter strikes the insulation at a point to be tested, the load cell measures the force of the impact and the precise time interval during which the hammer head is in contact with the insulation. This information is transmitted as an electrical signal to a load cell amplifier where the signal is conditioned and then transmitted to a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. The FFT analyzer produces energy spectral density curves which are displayed on a video screen. The termination frequency of the energy spectral density curve may be compared with a predetermined empirical scale to determine whether a igh quality bond, good bond, or debond is present at the point of impact.

  7. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to GIC using three different adhesives.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, V; Abarajithan, M; Krithikadatta, J; Kandaswamy, D

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the bonding ability of composite to glass ionomer cement (GIC) using three different bonding systems. One hundred samples of composites bonded to GIC were prepared and divided into five groups. In Group A, the composite was bonded to GIC after the initial setting of the GIC being employed as a total-etch adhesive. In Group B, the self-etch primer was employed to bond composite to GIC before the initial setting of the GIC. In Group C, the self-etch primer was employed to bond composite to the GIC after the initial setting of the GIC. In Group D, the GIC-based adhesive was employed to bond composite to the GIC before the initial setting of the GIC. In Group E, the GIC-based adhesive was employed to bond composite to the GIC after the initial setting of the GIC. Shear bond strength analysis was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were tabulated and the statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA; the Tukey's test showed that the bond strength of composite to GIC was significantly higher for the self-etch primer group employed on unset GIC and the GIC-based adhesive group employed on the set GIC for bonding composite to GIC. PMID:19678453

  8. Effects of cleaning agents on bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Celso; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Netto, Narciso Garone; Luz, Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of cavity walls aims to improve adhesive restorative procedures and longevity of restorations. This study has compared the effect of three cleaning agents--sodium bicarbonate jet (Profi II, Dabi Atlante, São Paulo, Brazil); pumice paste plus a biologic detergent (Tergestesim, Probem, São Paulo, Brazil); air water spray--on the bond strength between dentin and two different adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (3M-ESPE, São Paulo, Brazil). Six groups (n: 10) of dental fragments obtained from young adult extracted teeth were prepared, and each one received one of the listed surface cleaning techniques. After the adhesive application, a cone-shaped test body was built with AP-X (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan) or Z100 (3M-ESPE, São Paulo, Brazil) composite resins, using a Teflon matrix. The specimens were tested for tensile bond strength after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Two pairs of fractured specimens of each group were randomly chosen and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. ANOVA test of the bond strength values showed no statistical differences among the cleaning agents and neither between their interactions with the bonding systems. Upon SEM analysis, most surfaces showed mixed fractures of adhesive and cohesive failures in bonding resin to dentin. Based on statistical and SEM analysis, it was concluded that the cleaning agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of the adhesive systems used to dentin. PMID:16292446

  9. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    HADDAD, Marcela Filié; GOIATO, Marcelo Coelho; dos SANTOS, Daniela Micheline; CREPALDI, Nádia de Marchi; PESQUEIRA, Aldiéris Alves; BANNWART, Lisiane Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an adhesive system on the bond strength between acrylic resin and facial silicone. Material and Methods A total of 120 samples were fabricated with auto-polymerized acrylic resin and MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. Both materials were bonded through mechanical retentions and/or application of primers (DC 1205 primer and Sofreliner primer S) and adhesive (Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A) or not (control group). Samples were divided into 12 groups according to the method used to attach the silicone to the acrylic resin. All samples were subjected to a T-peel test in a universal testing machine. Failures were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. The data were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's HSD test (α=.05). Results The highest bond strength values (5.95 N/mm; 3.07 N/mm; 4.75 N/mm) were recorded for the samples that received a Sofreliner primer application. These values were significantly higher when the samples had no scratches and did not receive the application of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A. Conclusions The most common type of failure was adhesive. The use of Sofreliner primer increased the bond strength between the auto-polymerized acrylic resin and the Silastic MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. PMID:23329247

  10. Shear bond strength of new and recycled brackets to enamel.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Stenyo Wanderley; Consani, Simonides; Nouer, Darcy Flávio; Magnani, Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo; Nouer, Paulo Roberto Aranha; Martins, Laura Moura

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of recycled orthodontic brackets. S2C-03Z brackets (Dental Morelli, Brazil) were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 50 extracted human premolars using Concise Orthodontic chemically cured composite resin (3M, USA). The teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10), as follows. In group I (control), the bonded brackets remained attached until shear testing (i.e., no debonding/rebonding). In groups II, III and IV, the bonded brackets were detached and rebonded after recycling by 90-microm particle aluminum oxide blasting, silicon carbide stone grinding or an industrial process at a specialized contractor company (Abzil-Lancer, Brazil), respectively. In group V, the bonded brackets were removed and new brackets were bonded to the enamel surface. Shear bond strength was tested in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm2), brackets recycled by aluminum oxide blasting (0.34 kgf/mm2) and new brackets attached to previously bonded teeth (0.43 kgf/mm2). Brackets recycled by the specialized company (0.28 kgf/mm2) and those recycled by silicon carbide stone grinding (0.14 kgf/mm2) showed the lowest shear strength means and differed statistically from control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm2) (p<0.05). In conclusion, the outcomes of this study showed that bracket recycling using 90-microm aluminum oxide particle air-abrasion was efficient and technically simple, and might provide cost reduction for orthodontists and patients alike. PMID:16721464

  11. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  12. Self-etching bonding systems: in-vitro shear bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, P D; de Wet, F A; du Preez, I C

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dentine shear bond strength of five self-etching bonding agents with that of a total-etch dentine bonding agent (used as control). Sixty recently extracted third molar teeth were mounted in acrylic resin and the occlusal surfaces ground to expose superficial dentine. A standardised smear layer was created by polishing with wet 600-grit SiC paper. Products evaluated were Xeno III (XIII), Clearfil SE Bond (SE), ABF (ABF), Optibond Solo Self-etch (OS), Adper Prompt-L-Pop (PLP) and the control, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP). Resin stubs were bonded to the dentine using the bonding agents according to manufacturer's instructions. Composite stubs were manufactured using an Ultradent jig and two increments of Z100, A1 shade composite. The bonds were subsequently stressed to failure with an Instron testing machine, operating at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data was statistically analysed using ANOVA (alpha < or = 0.05). The mean SBS (MPa) were: SBMP (Control) = 24.1 +/- 7.6; XIII = 17.3 +/- 4.1; SE = 26.2 +/- 7.8; ABF = 25.9 +/- 4.3; OS = 21.9 +/- 3.9 and PLP = 15.4 +/- 3.1. The shear bond strengths of both XIII and PLP to dentine were significantly lower than the control SBMP (p < 0.05). The remaining three products (SE, ABF and OS) displayed bond strengths comparable to the control (p > 0.05). Further research into cut (ground) and un-cut (un-ground) enamel shear bond strength and micro-leakage using these bonding agents are needed. PMID:16562613

  13. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Mathias; Keuser, Manfred; Solomos, George; Peroni, Marco; Larcher, Martin; Esteban, Beatriz

    2015-09-01

    The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  14. Strength of adhesive-bonded hybrid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschke, L.; Prinz, R.; Schnell, H.

    1979-01-01

    Structures prepared from materials with different thermal and mechanical properties by means of fiber-strengthened binders can fail in a number of ways. The present lecture is focused on failures through debonding at the metal or at the fiber-reinforced plastic. A method for calculating the stress distribution in adhesive layers as a function of the load is outlined, and its usefulness in providing insight into the behavior of bonds in hybrid structures is noted. Means of eliminating the unfavorable effects of temperature, humidity, creep and relaxation on the bonds in the manufacture of hybrid structures are examined, along with test methods developed for such structures.

  15. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products. PMID:22313979

  16. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Paper Strength Properties.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Piotr; Dubowik, Marcin; Kucner, Marta Anna; Przybysz, Kazimierz; Przybysz Buzała, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds between fibres on static and dynamic strength properties of paper. A commercial bleached pinewood kraft pulp was soaked in water, refined in a PFI, and used to form paper webs in different solvents, such as water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol, to determine the effect of their dipole moment on static and dynamic strength properties of resulting paper sheets. Paper which was formed in water, being the solvent of the highest dipole moment among the tested ones, showed the highest breaking length and tear resistance. When paper webs were formed in n-butanol, which was the least polar among the solvents, these parameters were reduced by around 75%. These results provide evidence of the importance of water in paper web formation and strong impact of hydrogen bonds between fibres on strength properties of paper. PMID:27228172

  17. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Paper Strength Properties

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz, Piotr; Dubowik, Marcin; Kucner, Marta Anna; Przybysz, Kazimierz; Przybysz Buzała, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds between fibres on static and dynamic strength properties of paper. A commercial bleached pinewood kraft pulp was soaked in water, refined in a PFI, and used to form paper webs in different solvents, such as water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol, to determine the effect of their dipole moment on static and dynamic strength properties of resulting paper sheets. Paper which was formed in water, being the solvent of the highest dipole moment among the tested ones, showed the highest breaking length and tear resistance. When paper webs were formed in n-butanol, which was the least polar among the solvents, these parameters were reduced by around 75%. These results provide evidence of the importance of water in paper web formation and strong impact of hydrogen bonds between fibres on strength properties of paper. PMID:27228172

  18. Bond Strength of 5th, 6th and 7th Generation Bonding Agents to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Baradaran Nakhjavani, Yahya; Rahro Taban, Sedighe; Baniameri, Zahra; Nahvi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study sought to assess the push-out bond strength of a total etch and 2 self-etch bonding systems to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth (PAT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5th generation (Single Bond 2), 6th generation (Clearfil SE) and 7th generation (Single Bond Universal) bonding agents. The canal orifice was restored with composite resin and the push-out test was carried out to assess the bond strength. After applying the push-out load, specimens were evaluated under a light microscope at 40X magnification. One-way ANOVA and log-rank test on Kaplan-Meier curves were applied for the comparison of bond strength among the 3 groups. Results: The mean± standard deviation (SD) bond strength was 13.6±5.33 MPa for Single Bond 2, 13.85±5.86 MPa for Clearfil SE and 12.28±5.24 MPa for Single Bond Universal. The differences in bond strength among the 3 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: All three bonding agents are recommended for use with composite posts in PAT. However, due to high technical sensitivity of the Total Etch system, single or two-step self etch systems may be preferred for uncooperative children. PMID:26056518

  19. Development of an Explosive Bonding Process for Producing High Strength Bonds between Niobium and 6061-T651 Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Brasher, D; Butler, D; Riddle, R

    2005-09-23

    An explosive bonding procedure for joining 9.5 mm thick niobium plate to 203 mm thick 6061-T651 Al plate has been developed in order to maximize the bond tensile and impact strengths and the amount of bonded material across the surface of the plate. This procedure improves upon previous efforts, in which the 9.5 mm thick niobium plate is bonded directly to 6061-T4 Al plate. In this improved procedure, thin Nb and Al interlayers are explosively clad between the thicker niobium and aluminum plates. Bonds produced using these optimized parameters display a tensile strength of approximately 255 MPa and an impact strength per unit area of approximately 0.148 J/mm{sup 2}. Specialized mechanical testing geometries and procedures are required to measure these bond properties because of the unique bond geometry. In order to ensure that differences in the thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and niobium do not adversely affect the bond strength, the effects of thermal cycling at temperatures between -22 C and 45 C on the mechanical properties of these bonds have also been investigated by testing samples in both the as-received and thermal cycled conditions. Based on the results obtained from this series of mechanical tests, thermal cycling is shown to have no adverse effect on the resulting tensile and impact strengths of the bonds produced using the optimized bonding parameters.

  20. The Effect of Temperature on Shear Bond Strength of Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Single Bond Adhesive Systems to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Nouri, Hossein; Koohpeima, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Monomer viscosity and solvent evaporation can be affected by the adhesive system temperature. Higher temperature can elevate the vapor pressure in solution and penetration of adhesive in smear layer. Bonding mechanism may be influenced by the adhesive temperature. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heating on shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives to ground bovine dentin surfaces, at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 60 maxillary bovine incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). The central part of labial dentin surfaces was exposed with a diamond bur and standardized smear layer was created by using silicon carbide paper (600 grit) under water-coolant while the specimens were mounted in acrylic resin. Two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse (Adper single bond) and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond) were stored at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C for 30 minutes and were then applied on the prepared labial surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The composite resin (Z350) was packed in Teflon mold (5 mm in diameter) on this surface and was cured. The shear bond strength (MPa) was evaluated by universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany) at cross head speed of 1mm/min. The results were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond adhesive in different temperature and single Bond adhesive system at 25 ˚C and 40 ˚C. However, there were significant differences between 4 ˚C of Adper single bond in comparison with 25˚C and 40˚C (p= 0.0001). Conclusion Pre-heating did not affect the shear bond strength of SE Bond, but could promote the shear bond strength of Adper Single Bond. PMID:25759852

  1. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel: Assessment of Two Ethanol Wet-Bonding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Rafizadeh, Mojgan; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB) technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength. Materials and Methods: Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL) adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control);Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73). However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel. PMID:24910690

  2. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups). Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray), with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups), or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE) (Three-step/Methacrylate group) (n = 6). The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm), and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min) to perform microtensile testing. Results Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p < 0.05). However, it was not significantly different from Preetching/Silorane and Methacrylate groups. Conclusions Pre-etching increased bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. PMID:25671209

  3. Tensile bond strength of repaired amalgam.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, F; Hey, J H; Czech, D; Ambrose, E R

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluated the tensile strength of repaired high-copper amalgams and analyzed the different treatments of the amalgam interface prior to repair. One hundred specimens were divided into 10 groups: group 1 was left intact and was considered as the control group. In groups 2 through 8, the specimens were sectioned into halves after 10 days and were reconstructed with new amalgam. Groups 9 and 10 were condensed with time intervals of 15 minutes and all specimens were subjected to tensile loads in a Universal Testing Machine. The tensile strengths at the junction between old and new amalgam ranged between 50% to 79% of those of the control group and verified that the same type of amalgam and uncontaminated interfaces had higher strengths. The results also suggested that if an amalgam repair is anticipated, additional retention is critical to the longevity of the restoration. PMID:1507091

  4. Effect of dentin surface roughness on the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations

    PubMed Central

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Poursoltan, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate whether dentin surface preparation with diamond rotary instruments of different grit sizes affects the shear bond strength of resin-bonded restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS The buccal enamel of 60 maxillary central incisors was removed with a low speed diamond saw and wet ground with silicon carbide papers. The polished surfaces of the teeth were prepared with four groups of rotary diamond burs with super-coarse (SC), coarse (C), medium (M), and fine (F) grit sizes. Following surface preparation, 60 restorations were casted with nickel-chromium alloy and bonded with Panavia cement. To assess the shear bond strength, the samples were mounted on a universal testing machine and an axial load was applied along the cement-restoration interface at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The acquired data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS The mean ± SD shear bond strengths (in MPa) of the study groups were 17.75 ± 1.41 for SC, 13.82 ± 1.13 for C, 10.40 ± 1.45 for M, and 7.13 ± 1.18 for F. Statistical analysis revealed the significant difference among the study groups such that the value for group SC was significantly higher than that for group F (P<.001). CONCLUSION Dentin surface roughness created by diamond burs of different grit sizes considerably influences the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations. PMID:27350858

  5. An investigation of the interfacial bond strength of polymeric laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.K. )

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of an investigation of the bond strength of paper - polypropylene - paper (PPP) laminates. The strength has been measured with a peel test for the as--received laminates of different manufacturers, after thermal aging in air and nitrogen, after static thermal age in oil at room temperature and 90{degrees}C as well as after cyclic thermal aging in oil. Differential swelling of the paper and polypropylene at 90{degrees}C leads to a strong decrease in peel strength. Differential thermal expansion at 90{degrees}C is not as important. Cyclic thermal aging in oil leads to the greatest decrease in peel strength. The results further our knowledge of information that should be considered in preparing a PPP specification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 200 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. Four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values were tested both on enamel and on dentin: Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (pH = 0.8-1), Futurabond NR (pH=2), G-aenial Bond (pH = 1.5), Clearfil S3 Bond (pH = 2.7). After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the bonded surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The shear bond strength was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the sample rupture. The shear bond strength values (MPa) of the different groups were compared with analysis of variance after that Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests were applied to assess normality of distributions. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In enamel shear bond strength, the highest shear bond strength values were reported with Futurabond NR (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found with Clearfil S3 Bond. The others adhesive systems showed lower shear bond strength values with significant differences between them (P < 0.05). When comparing the dentin shear bond strength, the lowest shear bond strength values were reported with Clearfil S3 Bond (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other three products (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The pH values of adhesive systems did not influence significantly their shear bond strength to enamel or dentin. PMID:26005459

  7. The effects of three different desensitizing agents on the shear bond strength of composite resin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Erdemir, Ali; Ercan, Ertugrul; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Kalaycioglu, Baris; Ulker, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three desensitizing agents on the shear bond strengths of four different bonding agents used to bond composite resin to dentin. A total of 160 extracted human molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal plane under water cooling, polished and randomly divided into 4 groups of 40. Each group was treated with a different desensitizing agent (Tooth Mousse, Ultra-EZ, Cervitec Plus), except for an untreated control group. Each group was then randomly subdivided into 4 groups of 10, and a different dentin bonding agent (XP Bond, AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-pop, GBond) was applied to each group in order to bond the specimens to a resin composite (Gradia Direct) built up using a plastic apparatus. A Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the shear bond strength of each specimen. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. With the exception of the Control/AdheSE and Ultra-EZ/XP Bond groups, no statistically significant differences were found in the shear bond strength values of the groups tested. These findings suggest that the use of different desensitizing agents does not affect the shear bond strength of various adhesive systems used to bond resin composite to dentin. PMID:20416554

  8. Inlays made from a hybrid material: adaptation and bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Bottino, M A; Campos, F; Ramos, N C; Rippe, M P; Valandro, L F; Melo, R M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal fit, marginal adaptation, and bond strengths of inlays made of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic. Twenty molars were randomly selected and prepared to receive inlays that were milled from both materials. Before cementation, internal fit was achieved using the replica technique by molding the internal surface with addition silicone and measuring the cement thicknesses of the pulpal and axial walls. Marginal adaptation was measured on the occlusal and proximal margins of the replica. The inlays were then cemented using resin cement (Panavia F2.0) and subjected to two million thermomechanical cycles in water (200 N load and 3.8-Hz frequency). The restored teeth were then cut into beams, using a lathe, for microtensile testing. The contact angles, marginal integrity, and surface patterns after etching were also observed. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05), the Tukey test for internal fit and marginal adaptation, and the Student t-test for bond strength. The failure types (adhesive or cohesive) were classified on each fractured beam. The results showed that the misfit of the pulpal walls (p=0.0002) and the marginal adaptation (p=0.0001) of the feldspathic ceramic were significantly higher when compared to those of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic, while the bond strength values of the former were higher when compared to those of the latter. The contact angle of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic was also higher. In the present study, the hybrid ceramic presented improved internal and marginal adaptation, but the bond strengths were higher for the feldspathic ceramic. PMID:25405903

  9. Evaluation of micro-shear bond strength of resin modified glass-ionomer to composite resins using various bonding systems

    PubMed Central

    Kasraie, Shahin; Shokripour, Mohadese; Safari, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare the micro-shear bond strength between composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) by different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 discs of RMGI with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4). Four cylinders of composite resin (z250) were bonded to the RMGI discs with Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond in Groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group was the control. Samples were tested by a mechanical testing machine with a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed under a stereo-microscope. Results: The means of micro-shear bond strength values for Groups 1-4 were 14.45, 23.49, 16.23 and 5.46 MPa, respectively. Using a bonding agent significantly increased micro-shear bond strength (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Micro-shear bond strength of RMGI to composite increased significantly with the use of adhesive resin. The bond strength of RMGI to composite resin could vary depending upon the type of adhesive system used. PMID:24347892

  10. Characterization of Fuel-Cladding Bond Strength Using Laser Shock

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes new laser-based capabilities for characterization of fuel-cladding bond strength in nuclear fuels, and presents preliminary results obtained from studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Two complementary experimental methods are employed, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging. Measurements are spatially localized, non-contacting and require minimum specimen preparation, and are therefore ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterization of nuclear fuel plates are described. The ability to measure layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of laser-shock induced debonds is demonstrated, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed.

  11. A technique to measure the interfacial bond strength

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, T.A.; Pagano, N.J.; Kerans, R.J.

    1989-08-01

    A technique to measure the bond strength of interfaces that simulate those in brittle matrix/brittle fiber composites is proposed. The technique uses a simple planar geometry for the interface. The Pyrex/SiC system was investigated and it was found that the average interfacial shear stress at failure could be rationalized using data from the fiber pull-out tests. Since the technique does not require composite fabrication before the test, it is suggested as a screening test for prospective composite systems. 11 refs.

  12. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Noble and Base Metal Alloys with Different Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Raeisosadat, Farkhondeh; Ghavam, Maryam; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh; Arami, Sakineh; Sedaghati, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen. Materials and Method: Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to “Degubond 4” (Au Pd) and “Verabond” (Ni Cr) alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021) and Verabond (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291) and Verabond (P=0.899). Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003). The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011). The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59). RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035). Conclusion: The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2. PMID:25628687

  13. Temperature rise and shear bond strength of bondable buccal tubes bonded by various light sources.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Cagri; Irmak, Ozgür; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan; Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke Atasoy

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine the intrapulpal temperature changes and to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of bondable buccal tubes bonded by high-intensity light sources. Ninety caries-free human first molar teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were used. For the temperature measurement test, 30 teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) whereas 60 teeth were used in three groups (n = 20) for SBS testing. Three light sources, high-intensity halogen, blue light-emitting diode (LED), and xenon plasma arc (PAC), were used for polymerization of Transbond XT. Temperature variations (Delta T) were recorded by a K-type thermocouple wire connected to a data logger. For SBS testing, a universal testing machine was used at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until buccal tube bonding failure occurred. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The high-intensity halogen light resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher intrapulpal temperature changes than the LED or PAC. The results of the shear bond test revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences only between the halogen and LED groups. The findings of the present investigation showed that high-intensity curing devices can safely be used in bonding buccal tubes to molar teeth without causing a deleterious effect on the dental pulp. PMID:18632840

  14. Effect of enamel etching time on roughness and bond strength.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Kimmes, Nicole S; Latta, Mark A; Wilwerding, Terry M

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of different enamel conditioning times on surface roughness and bond strength using an etch-and-rinse system and four self-etch adhesives. Surface roughness (Ra) and composite to enamel shear bond strengths (SBS) were determined following the treatment of flat ground human enamel (4000 grit) with five adhesive systems: (1) Adper Single Bond Plus (SBP), (2) Adper Prompt L-Pop (PLP), (3) Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), (4) Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3) and (5) Xeno IV (X4), using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Control groups were also included for Ra (4000 grit surface) and SBS (no enamel treatment and Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive). For surface roughness measurements, the phosphoric acid conditioner of the SBP etch-and-rinse system was rinsed from the surface with an air-water spray, and the other four self-etch adhesive agents were removed with alternating rinses of water and acetone. A Proscan 2000 non-contact profilometer was used to determine Ra values. Composite (Z100) to enamel bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and they were debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's LSD post-hoc test. The etch-and- rinse system (SBP) produced the highest Ra (microm) and SBS (MPa) using both the recommended treatment time (0.352 +/- 0.028 microm and 40.5 +/- 6.1 MPa) and the extended treatment time (0.733 +/- 0.122 microm and 44.2 +/- 8.2 MPa). The Ra and SBS of the etch-and-rinse system were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than all the self-etch systems and controls. Increasing the treatment time with phosphoric acid (SBP) and PLP produced greater surface roughness (p < 0.05) but did not result in significantly higher bond strengths (p > 0.05). PMID:19363978

  15. Reconciling bond strength of a slip bond at low loading rates with rebinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua; Chen, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Conventional theory predicts that molecular bond strength becomes trivial at very low loading rates, which, however, failed in some experiments probably due to hidden rebinding. Here we propose average bond strength as an alternative physical quantity to be measured in dynamic force spectroscopy experiments. Our analysis indicates that there exists an asymptotic value of average bond strength at low loading rates, which, nevertheless, increases with the spring constant of the loading system. This finding is subsequently confirmed with the Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed average bond strength can be informative in the understanding of the intriguing behaviors of molecular bonds at low loading rates.

  16. Shear bond strength of composite resin to amalgam: an experiment in vitro using different bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, F; Hey, J H; Ambrose, E R

    1991-01-01

    The shear bond strength between amalgam and composite resin with and without the use of adhesive systems was evaluated. It was found that the application of Cover-Up II or Prisma Universal Bond prior to placement of composite resin enhanced the shear bond strength between amalgam and composite resin more than five times; and a shear strength of 4.34 and 4.30 MPa was measured respectively. Acid-etching of the roughened amalgam surface prior to application of Prisma Universal Bond decreased the bond strength by nearly 45%. PMID:1784535

  17. Failure strength prediction for adhesively bonded single lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Niat Mahmud

    For adhesively bonded joint, failure strength depends on many factors such as material properties (both adhesive and adherend), specimen geometries, test environments, surface preparation procedures, etc. Failure occurs inside constitutive materials or along joint interfaces. Based on location, adhesively bonded failure mode can be classified as adhesive failure mode, cohesive failure mode and adherend failure mode. Failure mode directly affects the failure strength of joint. For last eight decades, researchers have developed analytical, empirical or semi-empirical methods capable of predicting failure strength for adhesively bonded joints generating either cohesive failure or adherend failure. Applicability of most of the methods is limited to particular cases. In this research, different failure modes for single lap joints (SLJs) were generated experimentally using epoxy based paste adhesive. Based on experimental data and analytical study, simplified failure prediction methods were developed for each failure mode. For adhesive failure mode, it is observed that peel stress distributions concur along interface near crack initiation points. All SLJs for this test endured consistent surface treatments. Geometric parameters of the joints were varied to study their effect on failure strength. Peel stress distributions were calculated using finite analysis (FEA). Based on peel stress distribution near crack initiation point, a failure model is proposed. Numerous analytical, empirical and semi-empirical models are available for predicting failure strengths of SLJs generating cohesive failures. However, most of the methods in the literature failed to capture failure behavior of SLJs having thickness of adhesive layer as variable. Cohesive failure mode was generated experimentally using aluminum as adherend and epoxy adhesive considering thickness of adhesive layers as variable within SLJs. Comparative study was performed among various methods. It was observed that

  18. Effects of aging on repair bond strengths of a polyacid-modified composite resin.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Sau, C W; Lye, K W

    1999-01-01

    The effect of age of a poly-acid-modified composite resin on repair bond strength after different methods of surface conditioning was studied. Surface conditioning methods included the following: maleic acid with resin application; polyacrylic acid with resin application; sand-blasting with resin application. Shear bond testing between the aged and new material was carried out with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Although repair bonds strengths after all surface conditioning methods were significantly higher than the control group at 1 week, no statistically significant differences in bond strengths were noted after aging the material for 6 months. After all aging periods, surface conditioning with sand-blasting and resin application resulted in the highest repair bond for poly-acid-modified composite resins. Specimens with cohesive failure in the material gave significantly higher repair bond strengths than specimens with adhesive failure at the repaired interface. PMID:10823087

  19. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Influence of cariogenic challenge on bond strength stability of dentin.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cariogenic challenge on the microtensile bond strength values (μTBS) of dentin pre-treated with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Thirty-six sound molars were selected and randomly assigned to 3 dentin pre-treatments (distilled water - control, 2% CHX and 10% NaOCl) and 4 aging protocols (24h control, biofilm without cariogenic challenge, biofilm with cariogenic challenge, and 18-month water storage). The same etch-and-rinse adhesive system and composite resin were used for all groups (n=30 beams). For the biofilm groups, dental microcosm biofilms originated from saliva of a healthy donor were grown on the samples with a defined medium enriched with mucin, with or without 10% sucrose, according to the group. After the experimental period, the microtensile test was performed. Data were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). The pre-treatment did not influence μTBS for all aging conditions (p=0.188), but the type of aging affected the bond strength (p<0.001). Cariogenic challenge and water storage aging affected the bond stability resulting in a decrease of the μTBS, but the pre-treatments did not influence the μTBS. PMID:25831102

  1. The effect of crystal orientation on the cryogenic strength of hydroxide catalysis bonded sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haughian, K.; Douglas, R.; van Veggel, A. A.; Hough, J.; Khalaidovski, A.; Rowan, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding has been used in gravitational wave detectors to precisely and securely join components of quasi-monolithic silica suspensions. Plans to operate future detectors at cryogenic temperatures has created the need for a change in the test mass and suspension material. Mono-crystalline sapphire is one candidate material for use at cryogenic temperatures and is being investigated for use in the KAGRA detector. The crystalline structure of sapphire may influence the properties of the hydroxide catalysis bond formed. Here, results are presented of studies of the potential influence of the crystal orientation of sapphire on the shear strength of the hydroxide catalysis bonds formed between sapphire samples. The strength was tested at approximately 8 K; this is the first measurement of the strength of such bonds between sapphire at such reduced temperatures. Our results suggest that all orientation combinations investigated produce bonds of sufficient strength for use in typical mirror suspension designs, with average strengths >23 MPa.

  2. Proanthocyanidins Alter Adhesive/Dentin Bonding Strengths when Included in a Bonding System

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, Benjamin; Yao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of proanthocyanidins (PA) incorporation into a bonding system on dentin/adhesive bond stability following long-term storage in buffer and collagenase. Methods Human dentin surfaces were bonded with no PA (0-PA), PA incorporated in the primer (PA-primer), or PA incorporated in the adhesive (PA-adhesive), and composite build-ups were created. Following sectioning into beams, bonded specimens were stored in buffer or collagenase for 0, 1, 4, 26, or 52 weeks before being tested for microtensile bond strength (μTBS). ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc were performed. Fractured surfaces were viewed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Both bonding system and storage time but not storage medium significantly affected μTBS. Initially, 0-PA and PA-primer were superior to PA-adhesive, and after 1 week both PA groups were inferior to 0-PA. However, after 4 weeks PA-adhesive had significantly increased and 0-PA significantly decreased such that all three groups were equal. Thereafter, both PA-primer/adhesive groups trended with an increase (the 0-PA group remaing consistent) such that at 52 weeks PA-primer samples were significantly stronger (p < 0.001) or nearly so (p = 0.08) when compared to 0-PA samples. SEM revealed that initial fractures tended to occur at the middle/bottom of the hybrid layer for 0-PA and PA-primer groups but at the top of the hybrid layer/in the adhesive for PA-adhesive. After 4 weeks, however, all groups fractured similarly at the middle/bottom of the hybrid layer. Clinical Significance PA incorporation into a bonding system significantly alters interfacial bonding strengths, and its incorporation may stabilize the interface and protect degradation over time under clinical conditions. PMID:23243975

  3. Microshear bond strength evaluation of surface pretreated zirconia ceramics bonded to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shenbagakuttalam; Ebenezar, Ambrose Vedamanickam Rajesh; Anand, Nirupa; Rajkumar, Kothandaraman; Mahalaxmi, Sekar; Srinivasan, Narasimhan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To comparatively assess the micro shear bond strength (MSBS) of dentin bonded surface pre-treated zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods: Zirconia blocks were sectioned into 50 cubical blocks. The blocks were further categorized into five groups (n = 10 each). Group I: No treatment was performed on zirconia samples; Group II: The zirconia samples were sand-blasted; Group III: Group II + etched with 9.8% of hydrofluoric (HF) acid for 60 s; Group IV: The sandblasted zirconia samples were selectively infiltrated with low fusing porcelain; and Group V: Group IV + etched using 9.8% HF acid gel. The zirconia specimens were then bonded to dentin samples, and the samples were tested for MSBS evaluation using universal testing machine. Results: The MSBS of all the four experimental groups shows greater value than group I. Among the experimental groups, group V and group IV do not show any statistical significant difference, whereas the mean MSBS of groups IV and V were statistically greater than group III and group II. However, groups I, II, and III do not show any statistical significant difference in mean MSBS values between them. Conclusion: Selective infiltration etching of zirconia ceramics provides the highest bond strength with resin cement. PMID:26038654

  4. Effects of two adhesion boosters on the shear bond strength of new and rebonded orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Chung, C H; Fadem, B W; Levitt, H L; Mante, F K

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 adhesion boosters, Enhance LC (Reliance, Itasca, Ill) and All-Bond 2 (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill), on the shear bond strength of new and rebonded (previously debonded) brackets. Sixty new and 60 sandblasted rebonded brackets were bonded to 120 extracted human premolars with composite resin and divided equally into 6 groups based on the 2 adhesion boosters used: (1) new brackets/no booster (2) rebonded brackets/no booster (3) new brackets/Enhance (4) rebonded brackets/Enhance (5) new brackets/All-Bond (6) rebonded brackets/All-Bond. Shear bond strength of each sample was tested with an Instron machine (Instron Corp, Canton, Mass). Results show that the new brackets/All-Bond group yielded the highest strength (20.8 +/- 7.5 MPa), followed by the new brackets/Enhance group (18.6 +/- 6.5 MPa), rebond brackets/All-Bond group (17.3 +/- 7.2 MPa), new brackets/no booster group (16.8 +/- 6.3 MPa), rebonded brackets/no booster group (14.2 +/- 7.2 MPa), and rebonded brackets/Enhance group (13.6 +/- 6.7 MPa). No statistically significant difference was found among the 3 groups utilizing new brackets. For groups of rebonded brackets/no booster and rebonded brackets/Enhance, bond strength was significantly lower than groups of 3 new brackets and rebonded brackets/All-Bond. Rebonded brackets/All-Bond group had comparable bond strength to all 3 new brackets groups. It was concluded that in the process of replacing a failed bracket, (1) when new brackets are used, neither All-Bond 2 or Enhance LC improves bond strength significantly, (2) without the use of any adhesion booster, sandblasted rebonded brackets yield significantly less bond strength than new brackets, (3) Enhance LC fails to increase bond strength of sandblasted rebonded brackets, (4) All-Bond 2 significantly increases bond strength of sandblasted rebonded brackets, (5) sandblasted rebonded brackets with All-Bond 2 yield comparable bond strength to new brackets

  5. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Mohammadipour, Hamideh Sadat; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Alizadeh, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. PMID:26839550

  6. A novel in vivo method for quantifying the interfacial biochemical bond strength of bone implants

    PubMed Central

    Sul, Young-Taeg; Johansson, Carina; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the in vivo interfacial biochemical bond strength of bone implants is a biological challenge. We have developed a new and novel in vivo method to identify an interfacial biochemical bond in bone implants and to measure its bonding strength. This method, named biochemical bond measurement (BBM), involves a combination of the implant devices to measure true interfacial bond strength and surface property controls, and thus enables the contributions of mechanical interlocking and biochemical bonding to be distinguished from the measured strength values. We applied the BBM method to a rabbit model, and observed great differences in bone integration between the oxygen (control group) and magnesium (test group) plasma immersion ion-implanted titanium implants (0.046 versus 0.086 MPa, n=10, p=0.005). The biochemical bond in the test implants resulted in superior interfacial behaviour of the implants to bone: (i) close contact to approximately 2 μm thin amorphous interfacial tissue, (ii) pronounced mineralization of the interfacial tissue, (iii) rapid bone healing in contact, and (iv) strong integration to bone. The BBM method can be applied to in vivo experimental models not only to validate the presence of a biochemical bond at the bone–implant interface but also to measure the relative quantity of biochemical bond strength. The present study may provide new avenues for better understanding the role of a biochemical bond involved in the integration of bone implants. PMID:19369221

  7. Improvement of external lead bond and flexure strengths by comparing lead base materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, R.J.; Piper, W.A.

    1980-04-01

    Four types of copper alloys used as external leads for hybrid microcircuits were tested and evaluated to determine which base material properties produced the most improved bond and flexure strengths as compared with a standard lead material. (LCL)

  8. Push-Out Bond Strength of Bioceramic Materials in a Synthetic Tissue Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Razmi, Hasan; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Sajadi, Sepideh; Dummer, Paul MH.; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the push-out bond strength of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM) and Bioaggregate (BA), new bioceramic materials, to that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a synthetic tissue fluid, for either 1 week or 2 months. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and twenty root sections were filled with ProRoot MTA, BA, or ERRM. Each tested material was then randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 20): root sections were immersed in PBS for 1 week or 2 months. The bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. After that, the failure modes were examined with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The push-out data and failure mode categories were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and chi-square tests, respectively. Results: The bond strength of ERRM was significantly higher than that of BA and MTA at both incubation periods. No significant difference was found between the bond strength of MTA and BA at either 1 week or 2 months. Increasing the incubation time to 2 months resulted in a significant increase in bond strength of all the materials. The failure mode was mainly mixed for MTA and BA, but cohesive for ERRM at both incubation periods. Conclusion: ERRM had significantly higher bond strength to root canal walls compared to MTA and BA. Increasing the incubation time significantly improved the bond strength and bioactive reaction products of all materials. PMID:24910665

  9. An in vitro comparison of bond strengths of Gutta-percha/AH Plus, Resilon/Epiphany self-etch and EndoREZ obturation system to intraradicular dentin using a push-out test design

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanjana A; Dodwad, Preeti K; Patil, Avinash A

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the push-out bond strengths of three obturation materials; Gutta-percha/AH Plus, Resilon/Epiphany self-etch (SE) and EndoREZ obturation system to intraradicular dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-canal anterior teeth were prepared and assigned to experimental groups (n = 20), designated as Group I: Gutta-percha/AH Plus, Group II: Resilon/Epiphany SE and Group III: EndoREZ sealer/EndoREZ points. After obturation, each tooth was prepared for push-out assessment with root slices of 2 mm thickness using universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis: Two way analysis of variance and Scheffe's test. Results: Gutta-percha/AH Plus root fillings showed significantly highest bond strength. Also, root segment location did not have a significant influence on bond strength. Conclusion: The adhesiveness quality to root dentin promoted by newer methacrylate resin-based obturation systems like Resilon/Epihany SE and EndoREZ is compromised even when teeth with simple anatomic features were obturated under well-monitored laboratory conditions. PMID:23833458

  10. The effect of dentine location and tubule orientation on the bond strengths between resin and dentine.

    PubMed

    Phrukkanon, S; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J

    1999-05-01

    This study determined the influence of dentine structure on the micro-tensile bond strengths between resin and dentine of two different dentine adhesive systems (Single Bond, 3M Dental Products, St Paul, MN; MF-102 (experimental self-etching primer), GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The study was separated into two main parts: bond strength measurement and investigation of the bonding interface. Twenty-two human premolars were used for the bond strength measurement. Each tooth was cut vertically, separating the tooth into mesio-distal halves. One half of the tooth was used to bond to a surface perpendicular to the dentinal tubules and other half to bond to a surface parallel to the tubules. For each half, six locations of dentine were bonded. Each material was used in accordance to the manufacturer's directions. Cylindrical hourglass-shaped specimens of 1.2 mm diameter at the bonded interface were manufactured. The bonds were stressed in tension at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Mean bond strengths were compared using LSD, one-way ANOVA, and Student's t-test. The fractured surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope, and the frequency of fracture modes was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. For the investigation of the bonded interface, four teeth were prepared by the same procedure used for the bond test specimens. The bonded interfaces were observed after an acid-base treatment or fracturing across the bonded interface, prior to investigation with a field-emission scanning electron microscope. For Single Bond, the bond strengths for mid-root dentine were significantly lower than for other locations (p < 0.05). For MF-102, there was no significant difference for all locations (p > 0.05). MF-102 bonded well to all locations of dentine while Single Bond showed a porous zone at the base of the hybrid layer. The bonds were not influenced by tubule orientation. The results indicate that the bond for Single Bond may be affected by

  11. Microleakage and shear bond strength of orthodontc brackets bonded to hypomineralized enamel following different surface preparations

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Mostafa; Mohamadipour, Hamideh; Moosavi, Horieh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effects of several conditioning methods on shear bond strength (SBS) and microleakage of orthodontic brackets bonded to demineralized enamel. Study Design: One hundred premolars were selected and immersed in a cariogenic solution for 12 weeks. The teeth were randomly assigned into 5 groups. In groups 1 and 2, the teeth underwent acid etching for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. In group 3, a combination of laser and acid etching was employed. A self-etch primer (SEP) was applied in group 4 and in group 5, the teeth were exposed to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 minutes before etching. After bracket bonding, the teeth were immersed in methylen blue for 12 hours and then were mounted in acrylic resin. SBS was determined with an Instron Universal Testing Machine and the amount of microleakage under the brackets was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Results: The lowest SBS was related to the SEP group and the highest one was observed in the specimens prepared by APF+acid etching. There was a significant difference in SBS (p=0.009), but not in microleakage (p=0.971) of the study groups. The SBS of the specimens treated with SEP was significantly Lower than the other groups, which were not significantly different from each other. The SEP group displayed a higher frequency of bond failure at the enamel-adhesive interface. Conclusions: Enamel preparation with SEP provided the lowest SBS among the groups. All groups showed some degree of microleakage. There was no significant correlation between SBS and microleakage. Key words:Bond strength, microleakage, bonding, self-etch primer, Er:YAG laser. PMID:24790708

  12. Effects of applying antioxidants on bond strength of bleached bovine dentin

    PubMed Central

    Whang, Hyo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Some antioxidants are believed to restore dentin bond strength after dental bleaching. This study was done to evaluate the influence of antioxidants on the bond strength of bleached bovine dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty incisors were randomly assigned to 10 groups (two unbleached control and eight bleached groups: immediate bonding IB, 4 wk delayed bonding DB, 10% sodium ascorbate treated SA, 10% α-tocopherol treated TP groups). Teeth in half of groups were subjected to thermal stress, whereas the remaining groups were not. Resin-dentin rods with a cross-sectional area of 2.25 mm2 were obtained and microtensile bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Fifteen specimens were prepared for SEM to compare the surface characteristics of each group. The change in dentin bond strength from thermal stress and antioxidant treatment was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Sheffe's post hoc test at a significance level of 95%. Results The control group exhibited the highest bond strength values, whereas IB group showed the lowest value before and after thermocycling. The DB group recovered its bond strength similar to that of the control group. The SA and TP groups exhibited similar bond strength values with those of the control and DB groups before thermocycling. However, The TP group did not maintain bond strength with thermal stress, whereas the SA group did. Conclusions Applying a 10% sodium ascorbate solution rather than 10% α-tocopherol solution for 60 sec is recommended to maintain dentin bond strength when restoring non-vitally bleached teeth. PMID:25671211

  13. Incremental layer shear bond strength of low-shrinkage resin composites under different bonding conditions.

    PubMed

    Al Musa, A H; Al Nahedh, H N A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane) repaired with silorane or a methacrylate-based composite (Filtek Z250) under various aging conditions. Also, the incremental bond strength of the silorane-based composite was compared with that of another low-shrinkage methacrylate-based composite (Aelite LS Posterior) under fresh and aged conditions, with and without the use of an adhesive resin between successive layers. The two brands of low-shrinkage composites were compared with a microhybrid, Filtek Z250, which served as the control. Substrate discs were fabricated and second layers were adhered to them immediately, after two weeks of aging, or after four weeks of aging and with and without an adhesive resin. Shear bond strengths were measured and failure modes were evaluated. The incremental bond strength of silorane to the silorane-based composite was not significantly different from that of the methacrylate-based composite. However, repairing a silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite significantly reduced the bond strength. Aelite showed a lower incremental bond strength than Z250 and silorane, but the use of an adhesive significantly improved the bond strength. The absence of an oxygen-inhibited layer did not affect the bond strength of the consecutive layers of the silorane-based composite. PMID:24807812

  14. The effect of dentin primer on the shear bond strength between composite resin and enamel.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, F; Hey, J H; Ambrose, E R; Louie, P W; Shinkewski, D J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of accidental dentin primer contact with etched enamel on shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel. Four dentin bonding systems were included in this study: GLUMA Dentin Bond, Scotchbond, and Prisma Universal Bond 2 and 3. Eighty extracted human permanent anterior teeth were used and divided in eight test groups. The vestibular surfaces were ground and acid etched. For each dentin bonding system 10 samples were treated with dentin primer prior to placement of resin. Shear bond testing showed that enamel contact with dentin primer in the above two systems decreased the shear bond strength between composite and enamel by 31 to 44%. PMID:8337183

  15. Dentin bond strength and degree of conversion evaluation of experimental self-etch adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Fatemeh-Maleknejad; Atai, Mohammad; Zeynali, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) monomer in one-step self-etch experimental adhesives on dentinal microshear bond strength (µSBS), their degree of conversion and bonded micro structure. Material and Methods Composite resin cylinders (Clearfil AP-X) were bonded on human sound molar dentinal surfaces by using five experimental one-step self-etching adhesives (1-SEAs) containing 0% (E0), 5% (E5), 10% (E10), 15% (E15), 20% (E20) (by weight) 10-MDP monomer and Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3) as a control. After 24 hours, microshear bond strength was tested. The degree of conversion was also measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interfacial ultrastructure was observed under a scanning electron microscope in all the groups. Results A higher microshear bond strength was observed with adhesives containing 10% and 15% 10-MDP in comparison to study groups (P<.05). Clearfil S3 Bond and 10% MDP had a significantly greater degree of conversion than other groups (P<.05). Conclusions The amount of functional monomer in 1-SEAs influences both the bonding performance and degree of conversion; 10% 10-MDP showed the best combination of bond strength and degree of conversion. Key words:Self-etch adhesives, 10-MDP, bond strength, degree of conversion. PMID:26155340

  16. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  17. Bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive to dentin surfaces treated with saliva, blood, and different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Nimet; Cebe, Fatma; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cetin, Ali Riza; Cobanoglu, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive to dentin surfaces after treatment with 4 different hemostatic agents in the presence of saliva and blood. After testing, no significant differences were found between the mean bond strength of Clearfil SE (CSE) Bond resin adhesive to normal dentin and those of CSE to dentin treated with the hemostatic agents ViscoStat Clear, Astringedent, or Astringedent X (P > 0.05). However, the mean bond strength of CSE Bond to dentin treated with Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) was significantly greater than those of the other groups (P < 0.05). Thus, while 3 of the tested hemostatic agents did not have significant effects on the bond strength of composite resin to dentin, ABS increased the bond strength of CSE Bond to dentin. PMID:26147164

  18. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement. PMID:21597207

  19. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets and Disinclusion Buttons: Effect of Water and Saliva Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Results. Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Conclusions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons. PMID:23762825

  20. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  1. Effect of Pedestal Temperature on Bonding Strength and Deformation Characteristics for 5N Copper Wire Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurbinder; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, copper has increasingly been used to replace gold to create wire-bonded interconnections in microelectronics. While engineers and researchers in the semiconductor packaging field are continuously working on this transition from gold to copper wires to reduce costs, the challenge remains in producing robust and reliable joints for semiconductor devices. This research paper investigates the effect of pedestal temperature on bonding strength and deformation for 99.999% purity (5N) copper wire bonding on nickel-palladium-gold (NiPdAu) bond pads. With increasing pedestal temperature, significant thinning of the copper ball bond can be achieved, resulting in higher as-bonded ball shear strengths while producing no pad damage. This can be helpful for low-k devices with thin structures, so as to prevent the use of excessive bond force and ultrasonic energy during copper wire bonding.

  2. Intrinsic bond strength of metal films on polymer substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Osaki, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    A semiquantitative method for the measurement of the intrinsic bond strength between elastic substrates and elastic films that fail by brittle fracture is described. Measurements on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-Ni couple were used to verify the essential features of the analysis. It was found that the interfacial shear strength of Ni on PET doubled after ion etching.

  3. Evaluation of the bond strength between aged composite cores and luting agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength between aged composite-resin core and luting agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy-five resin composites and also seventy-five zirconia ceramic discs were prepared. 60 composite samples were exposed to thermal aging (10,000 cycles, 5 to 55℃) and different surface treatment. All specimens were separated into 5 groups (n=15): 1) Intact specimens 2) Thermal aging-air polishing 3) Thermal aging- Er:YAG laser irradiation 4) Thermal aging- acid etching 5) Thermal-aging. All specimens were bonded to the zirconia discs with resin cement and fixed to universal testing machine and bond strength testing loaded to failure with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fractured surface was classified as adhesive failure, cohesive failure and adhesive-cohesive failure. The bond strength data was statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis method complemented by the Bonferroni correction Mann-Whitney U test. The probability level for statistical significance was set at α=.05. RESULTS Thermal aging and different surface treatment methods have significant effect on the bond strength between composite-resin cores and luting-agent (P<.05). The mean baseline bond strength values ranged between 7.07 ± 2.11 and 26.05 ± 6.53 N. The highest bond strength of 26.05 ± 6.53 N was obtained with Group 3. Group 5 showed the lowest value of bond strength. CONCLUSION Appropriate surface treatment method should be applied to aged composite resin cores or aged-composites restorations should be replaced for the optimal bond strength and the clinical success. PMID:25932308

  4. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    SciTech Connect

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-04

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints.The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  5. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen profiles on the bond strength of repaired composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Hossam; ElKhatat, Essam; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Baroudi, Kusai; Beshr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of repaired three types of composite resins under various hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) profiles with various session numbers. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of three types of composite resin (nanofilled composite, nanohybrid composite and microfilled composite) each type of composite was divided into four group according to various profiles of HBO treatment (control, 2bar, 3 bar and 5 bar). Then, the specimens were repaired; thermocycled, the tensile bond strength were measured. Then the data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for the repaired nanofilled composite resin specimens while; the lowest bond strength was obtained for the repaired microfilled composite resin specimens. The highest tensile bond strength was recorded for the specimens who treated with the highest pressure of HBO. Conclusion: The bond strength of repaired nanofilled composite resins is better than the other types of composite resin. The highest pressure of HBO, the highest bond strength of repaired composite resins. PMID:27195232

  6. In vitro bond strengths of amalgam added to existing amalgams.

    PubMed

    Roggenkamp, Clyde L; Berry, Frederick A; Lu, Huan

    2010-01-01

    This study determined if a standardized condensation force and dwell time per condensation pressure point could reliably bond new amalgam to older amalgam without applying extrinsic Hg. A stabilization jig was created to hold 15 friction-fit 1-inch diameter (25 mm) cylindrical resin specimen blocks face up with cavities drilled to contain the condensed primary amalgam (Valiant PhD-XT). Freshly mixed secondary amalgam (Valiant PhD-XT) was condensed against the primary amalgam surfaces through the 3.5-mm-diameter central holes of specially fabricated split-ring molds. The 15 disks fit snugly within the holes of the stabilization jig tray. Condensation was with a consistent, calibrated force of 22.5 MPa (4 lbs/0.79 mm2) applied with a spring-loaded amalgam carrier custom adapted with a 1-mm-diameter stainless steel condenser tip. Secondary amalgam additions were built up in three 1-mm thick increments with a pattern of eight 22.5 MPa two-second condenser strokes per incremental layer. Shear-bond testing with a 1-mm/minute crosshead speed occurred 24-hours post-condensation. One-way analysis of variance statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the results. The mean shear-bond forces (MPa, N = 15) found were: Control 28.1 +/- 5, 15 minutes 31 +/-5, one hour 10.7 +/-4 (N = 30), one day 25.5 +/- 4, one week 25.2 +/- 4, two months 25.1 +/- 5 and seven years 24.7 +/- 4. Under the condensation pressures used in the current study, the addition of new amalgam to smooth previously set amalgam surfaces, not including the one-hour group, up to seven years old, resulted in shear-bond forces not statistically different (p = 0.05) from the intact control. Virtually all (94%) of the bonds tested, except for the one-hour sample, resulted in cohesive rather than adhesive failures except those of the one-hour sample. Forty percent bond strengths of the controls were achieved when only 5.6 MPa (1 lb/0.79 mm2) and 14 MPa (2.5 lb/0.79 mm2) condensation pressures were used. PMID

  7. Bond strength of resin composite to differently conditioned amalgam.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Vallittu, P K; Huysmans, M-C; Kalk, W; Vahlberg, T

    2006-01-01

    Bulk fracture of teeth, where a part of the amalgam restoration and/or the cusp is fractured, is a common clinical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of a hybrid resin composite to fresh amalgam. Amalgams (N=84) were condensed into acrylic and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments (N=6): (1) Alloy primer + opaquer, (2) Air-particle abrasion (50 micro m Al(2)O(3)) + alloy primer + opaquer, (3) Silica coating (30 micro m SiO(x)) + silanization + opaquer, (4) Opaquer + pre-impregnated continuous bidirectional E-glass fibre sheets, (5) Silica coating + silanization + fibre sheets, (6) Silica coating + silanization + opaquer + fibre sheet application. Non-conditioned amalgam surfaces were considered as control group (7). The mean surface roughness depth (R(Z)) was measured from the control group and air-abraded amalgam surfaces. The resin composite was bonded to the conditioned amalgam specimens using polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested under dry and thermocycled (6.000, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s) conditions. The shear bond strength of resin composite to amalgam substrates was measured in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Surface roughness values for the non-conditioned control group (R(Z) approximately 0.14 micro m) and for air-particle abraded surfaces with either Al(2)O(3) or SiO(x) (R(Z) approximately 0.19 micro m and R(Z) approximately 0.16 micro m, respectively) did not show significant differences (p=0.23) (One-way ANOVA). In dry conditions, silica coating and silanization followed by fibre sheet application exhibited significantly higher results (14.8+/-5.6 MPa) than those of the groups conditioned with alloy primer (2.2+/-0.7 MPa) (p<0.001), air-particle abrasion+alloy primer (4.4+/-2.0 MPa, p<0.001), silica coating+silanization alone (6.2+/-0.8 MPa, p=0.009) or non-conditioned group (1.4+/-0.6, p<0.001). Silica coating and silanization followed

  8. The effect of washing water temperature on resin-dentin micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Shirani, Farzaneh; Ebrahimi, Mehrnoush

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of washing water temperature on the micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) of composite resin to dentin using a two-step etch-and-rinse system and a two-step self-etching system. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the intact dentins of buccal and lingual surfaces of healthy third molars were exposed. Dentin surfaces were rinsed with different temperatures of distilled water (20 s) before applying Single Bond (SB) or Clearfil SE Bond(SE). After applying the adhesive, composite cylinders (0.8 mm diameter and 1 mm length) were bonded to the teeth surfaces. After storing the specimens in 37°C distilled water for 48 h and thermocycling, μSBS test was done. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey tests, paired samples t-test, and Fisher exact test (α = 0.05). Results: Temperature and interaction of temperature and type of bonding agent affected the bond strength. The bond strength of SB groups was significantly higher at 50°C washing than 5°C (P = 0.003) and 22°C (P = 0.019), but no significant difference was observed between SE groups. The bond strength of SE was significantly higher at 22°C than that of SB (P = 0.031), whereas the bond strength of SB was significantly higher at 50°C than that of SE (P = 0.007). Conclusion: The use of high-temperature washing water is an appropriate method to enhance bond strength in etch-and-rinse systems. PMID:27076833

  9. Effect of Artificial Saliva Contamination on Bond Strength to Pulp Chamber Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Arı, Hale; Dönmez, Nazmiye; Belli, Sema

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of artificial saliva contamination on microtensile bond strength to pulp chamber dentin. Methods Clearfil SE Bond (SEB) (Kuraray, JAPAN) adhesive system and Clearfil Photo Posterior (CPP) (Kuraray, JAPAN) composite resin were used. Twenty extracted caries-free human molar teeth were randomly distributed into four groups. Apart from a control group without contamination (Group 1), primed dentin surfaces were contaminated with artificial saliva (10 s), rinsed, dried, re-primed and bonded (Group 2), coated with adhesive, contaminated with artificial saliva, rinsed, dried, bonding procedures were repeated (Group 3), coated with adhesive, light cured, contaminated with saliva, rinsed, dried, treated with SE primer (SEP) and SEB (Group 4). After 24 hrs, the teeth were prepared for microtensile bond testing and tensile bond strength was measured (1mm/min). The data was calculated as MPa and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test (P<.05). Results The results indicated that Group 2 showed lowest bond strength when compared to the others (P<.05). No statistically significant difference was found between Groups 3 and 4 (P>.05). Conclusions It was concluded that contamination during priming procedure has a negative effect on bond strength (P<.05). Although contamination of the uncured adhesive was not critical in this study (P>.05) any kind of contamination of the bonding area should, in principle, be avoided. PMID:19212516

  10. Tensile Bond Strength of Self Adhesive Resin Cement After Various Surface Treatment of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Sahil; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In self adhesive resin cements adhesion is achieved to dental surface without surface pre-treatment, and requires only single step application. This makes the luting procedure less technique-sensitive and decreases postoperative sensitivity. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of self adhesive resin after surface treatment of enamel for bonding base metal alloy. Materials and Methods On the labial surface of 64 central incisor rectangular base metal block of dimension 6 mm length, 5mm width and 1 mm height was cemented with RelyX U200 and Maxcem Elite self adhesive cements with and without surface treatment of enamel. Surface treatment of enamel was application of etchant, one step bonding agent and both. Tensile bond strength of specimen was measured with universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Results Least tensile bond strength (MPa) was in control group i.e. 1.33 (0.32) & 1.59 (0.299), Highest bond strength observed when enamel treated with both etchant and bonding agent i.e. 2.72 (0.43) & 2.97 (0.19) for Relyx U200 and Elite cement. When alone etchant and bonding agent were applied alone bond strength is 2.19 (0.18) & 2.24 (0.47) for Relyx U200, and 2.38 (0.27) 2.49 (0.16) for Max-cem elite. Mean bond strength was higher in case of Max-cem Elite as compared to RelyX U200 resin cement, although differences were non–significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Surface treatment of enamel increases the bond strength of self adhesive resin cement. PMID:26894165

  11. Innovative use of adhesive interface characteristics to nondestructively quantify the strength of bonded joints.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2010-05-01

    Advances in structural adhesives have permitted engineers to contemplate the use of bonded joints in areas that have long been dominated by mechanical fasteners and welds. Although strength, modulus, and toughness have been improved in modern adhesives, the typical concerns with using these polymers still exist. These include concerns over long-term durability and an inability to quantify bond strength (i.e., identify weak bonds) in adhesive joints. Bond deterioration in aging structures and bond strength in original construction are now critical issues that require more than simple flaw detection. Whether the structure involves metallic or composite materials, it is necessary to extend inspections beyond the detection of disbond flaws to include an assessment of the strength of the bond. Use of advanced nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods to measure the mechanical properties of a bonded joint and associated correlations with post-inspection failure tests have provided some clues regarding the key parameters involved in assessing bond strength. Recent advances in ultrasonic- and thermographic-based inspection methods have shown promise for measuring such properties. Specialized noise reduction and signal enhancement schemes have allowed thermographic interrogations to image the subtle differences between bond lines of various strengths. Similarly, specialized ultrasonic (UT) inspection techniques, including laser UT, guided waves, UT spectroscopy, and resonance methods, can be coupled with unique signal analysis algorithms to accurately characterize the properties of weak interfacial bonds. The generation of sufficient energy input levels to derive bond strength variations, the production of sufficient technique sensitivity to measure such minor response variations, and the difficulty in manufacturing repeatable weak bond specimens are all issues that exacerbate these investigations. The key to evaluating the bond strength lies in the ability to exploit the

  12. Effect of Chlorhexidine on Dentin Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Systems after Storage in Different Media.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Enio Marcos; Glir, Daniel Hatschbach; Gill, Allana Walesca Martins Castanho; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) application during the bonding protocol on microshear bond strength of two adhesive systems, after storage in different media. Seventy-two human molars had their crowns cut in half and embedded in PVC cylinders with acrylic resin. The specimens were randomly divided into experimental groups (n=12) according to the adhesive system (Ambar and Single Bond 2), use of CHX in the bonding protocol, and time interval (24 h and 15 days) in the storage media (distilled water, mineral oil and 1% sodium hypochlorite - NaOCl). Adhesive systems were applied in accordance to manufacturers' recommendations, with or without the use of CHX, and resin composite (Z350 XT) cylinders were placed on the hybridized dentin. After photoactivation, the specimens were stored in distilled water, mineral oil and 1% NaOCl for 24 h and 15 days. Microshear bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The bond strength data were analyzed statistically by 4-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Use of CHX in the bonding protocol did not cause loss of bond strength in any of the evaluated situations, irrespective of time and storage medium. The storage medium had no influence on bond strength values after 15 days when the bond protocol without CHX application was used. However, the use of CHX in the protocol influenced negatively the bond strength values for Single Bond 2 after 15 days storage in distilled water and 1% NaOCl. PMID:26963210

  13. Role of enamel deminerlization and remineralization on microtensile bond strength of resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Abbas; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Al-Wasifi, Yasser; Fareed, Wamiq; Khurshid, Zohaib

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed to establish the microtensile bond strength of enamel following exposure to an aerated drink at various time intervals with/without application of remineralization agent. In addition, degree of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel has been assessed using polarized light microscopy. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human incisors split into two halves were immersed in aerated beverage (cola drink) for 5 min and stored in saliva until the time of microtensile bond testing. Prepared specimens were divided randomly into two study groups; remineralizing group (n = 70): specimens were treated for remineralization using casein phosphopeptides and amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) remineralization agent (Recaldent™; GC Europe) and control group (n = 70): no remineralization treatment; specimens were kept in artificial saliva. All specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength at regular intervals (1 h, 1 days, 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks) using a universal testing machine. The results statistically analyzed (P = 0.05) using two-way ANOVA test. Results: Results showed statistically significant increase in bond strength in CPP-ACP tested group (P < 0.05) at all-time intervals. The bond strength of remineralizing group samples at 2 days (~13.64 megapascals [MPa]) is comparable to that of control group after 1 week (~12.44 MPa). Conclusions: CPP-ACP treatment of teeth exposed to an aerated drink provided significant increase in bond strength at a shorter interval compared to teeth exposed to saliva alone. PMID:27403057

  14. Shear bond strength of resin composite bonded with two adhesives: Influence of Er: YAG laser irradiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Farzaneh; Birang, Reza; Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Hourmehr, Zahra; Kazemi, Shantia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental surfaces prepared with different Er:YAG laser distance may have different characteristics compared with those prepared with conventional instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance from enamel and dentin surfaces on the shear bond strength of composite with self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems compared with conventional preparation method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred caries-free human third molars were randomly divided into twenty groups (n = 10). Ten groups were designated for enamel surface (E1-E10) and ten for dentin surface (D1-D10). Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was used on the E1-E8 (240 mJ, 25 Hz) and D1-D8 (140 mJ, 30 Hz) groups at four different distances of 0.5 (standard), 2, 4 and 11 mm. Control groups (E9, E10, D9 and D10) were ground with medium grit diamond bur. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into two subgroups that were bonded with either Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond. Resin composite (Z100) was dispensed on prepared dentin and enamel. The shear bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by SPSS12 statistical software using three way analysis of variance, Tukey and independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between enamel and dentin substrates (P < 0.001) and between lased and un-lased groups; the un-lased group had significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.001). Shear bond strength increased significantly with an increase in the laser irradiation distance (P < 0.05) on enamel surfaces (in both bonding agent subgroups) and on dentin surfaces (in the Single Bond subgroup). Conclusion: Laser irradiation decreases shear bond strength. Irradiation distance affects shear bond strength and increasing the distance would decrease the negative effects of laser irradiation. PMID:25540665

  15. Microtensile and Microshear Bond Strength of an Antibacterial Self-Etching System to Primary Tooth Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Sibel; Tosun, Gül; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin; Şener, Yaḡmur; Şengün, Abdulkadir; Özer, Füsun; Imazato, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the bonding ability of antibacterial bonding system to primary dentin was not different from the parental material which did not contain any antibacterial component. Methods Extracted human non-carious primary molars were ground to expose the coronal dentin, and then randomly divided into two experimental groups: treatment with Clearfil Protect Bond or with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical Inc.). Composite-dentin sticks with a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.90 mm2 were prepared and subsequently subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and microshear bond strength (μSBS) tests. For the μTBS tests, specimens were attached to an Instron testing machine with a cyanoacrylate adhesive. For μSBS testing, the sticks were mechanically fixed to the μSBS testing apparatus. The bonds were stressed in shear or tension at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until failure occurred. Resin-dentin interfaces produced by each system were examined using SEM. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney’s U test. Results The μTBS and μSBS of Clearfil Protect Bond were 30.69±9.71 and 9.94±3.78 MPa, respectively. Clearfil SE Bond showed significantly greater values of 37.31±9.57 and 12.83±3.15 MPa, respectively. SEM analysis demonstrated similar micro-morphological features including the thickness of the hybrid layer for both materials. Conclusions It was showed that antibacterial self-etching system Clearfil Protect Bond showed lower bond strength values compared to primary dentin than that of to Clearfil SE Bond on primary dentin. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:11–17) PMID:19212503

  16. Effect of flexural strength of orthodontic resin cement on bond strength of metal brackets to enamel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Three types of experimental resin cements with different curing systems, dual, light, and chemical, were designed. The relationship between the flexural strengths of the three experimental and five commercial (Beauty Ortho Bond, Transbond™ XT, Light Cure Bond, Kurasper® F, and Super Bond) orthodontic resin cements on the tensile bond strength (TBS) and shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets to enamel was determined. Seven specimen bars of each resin were prepared for measuring the flexural strengths of the resins. Bonded specimens of each resin were prepared, seven for measuring TBS and seven SBS for after bonding of a metal bracket to a maxillary central human labial anterior tooth using experimental and commercial resin cements. The results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and Scheffé's multiple comparison tests. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Increases in the flexural strength of the resin cements were related to increases in the TBS and SBS of the metal bracket. While the light-curing cements exhibited a strong linear correlation between flexural strengths and TBS or SBS, the dual- and chemical-curing cements exhibited a different flexural strength effect on both TBS and SBS. This was a result of the adhesive layer under the metal bracket, which could be chemically cured, in contrast to the light-curing cement. To control setting time and to obtain higher initial TBS and SBS by polymerizing the resin cement under the bracket, a dual-curing system, that combines both light- and chemical-curing systems, is essential. PMID:20937669

  17. Effect of additional etching and ethanol-wet bonding on the dentin bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Joonghee; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the effects of additional acid etching on the dentin bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives with different compositions and pH. The effect of ethanol wetting on etched dentin bond strength of self-etch adhesives was also evaluated. Materials and Methods Forty-two human permanent molars were classified into 21 groups according to the adhesive types (Clearfil SE Bond [SE, control]; G-aenial Bond [GB]; Xeno V [XV]; Beauti Bond [BB]; Adper Easy Bond [AE]; Single Bond Universal [SU]; All Bond Universal [AU]), and the dentin conditioning methods. Composite resins were placed on the dentin surfaces, and the teeth were sectioned. The microtensile bond strength was measured, and the failure mode of the fractured specimens was examined. The data were analyzed statistically using two-way ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test. Results In GB, XV and SE (pH ≤ 2), the bond strength was decreased significantly when the dentin was etched (p < 0.05). In BB, AE and SU (pH 2.4 - 2.7), additional etching did not affect the bond strength (p > 0.05). In AU (pH = 3.2), additional etching increased the bond strength significantly (p < 0.05). When adhesives were applied to the acid etched dentin with ethanol-wet bonding, the bond strength was significantly higher than that of the no ethanol-wet bonding groups, and the incidence of cohesive failure was increased. Conclusions The effect of additional acid etching on the dentin bond strength was influenced by the pH of one-step self-etch adhesives. Ethanol wetting on etched dentin could create a stronger bonding performance of one-step self-etch adhesives for acid etched dentin. PMID:25671215

  18. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Chlorhexidine Pretreatment on Immediate and Aged Dentin Bond Strengths.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Z; Yazici, A R; Cehreli, Z C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) pretreatment of dentin on the immediate and aged microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of different adhesives to dentin in vivo and in vitro. Class I cavities were prepared in 80 caries-free human third molars of 40 patients in a split-mouth fashion. In each tooth pair, one tooth received 2% CHX pretreatment after which both teeth were randomly assigned to one of the following groups with respect to the type of adhesive system applied: Adper Single Bond 2 (etch-and-rinse), Clearfil SE Bond (two-step self-etch), Clearfil S(3) Bond (one-step self-etch), and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (all-in-one self-etch). The teeth were restored with resin composite and extracted for μTBS testing either immediately or after six months in function. In vitro specimen pairs were prepared as with the clinical protocol in intact, freshly extracted human molars, and thereafter, subjected to testing immediately or after 5000× thermocycling. Data were analyzed with four-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bonferroni test was utilized for pair-wise comparisons. The immediate bond strength values were significantly higher than "aged" ones for all tested adhesives (p=0.00). The in vitro immediate bond strength values were statistically higher than in vivo bond strength values (p<0.05). While the bond strength of in vitro aged, CHX-treated samples were higher than their in vivo counterparts (p<0.05), no difference was observed in non-CHX treated groups (p>0.05). In the absence of CHX pretreatment, all adhesives showed significantly higher immediate bond strength values than CHX-treated groups, while all "aged", non-pretreated adhesives exhibited significantly lower bond strength values (both p<0.05). By contrast, chlorhexidine pretreatment resulted in significantly higher aged bond strengths, regardless of the adhesive system and testing condition. Aging-associated decline in dentin bond strength of etch-and rinse and self-etch adhesives can be

  19. Effect of preoxidation on the bond strength of titanium and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mahale, K M; Nagda, S J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of preoxidation on porcelain titanium- bond strength and the effect of paste bonder (adhesive) on the titanium porcelain bond strength. 11 specimens of commercially pure titanium (26 x 7 x 3 mm) were prepared by different heat treatments in programmable dental furnace. Identification of the oxides formed on the metal surface was conducted with an X-Ray diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation. Vickers hardness numbers were determine. Additional 50 specimens of commercially pure titanium were used to bond with low fusing porcelain. The bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of the surface of pure titanium revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha -Ti decreased and that of TiO2 increased with increasing firing temperature. The Vickers hardness number decreased initially as the temperature increased but it increased remarkably above 900 degrees C & was harder in air than vacuum. The tensile shear bond strength was highest in the green stage i.e. without preoxidation of metal, and decreased above 900 degrees C, and was the lowest in the group without paste bonder application. The difference in bond strengths was statistically highly significant for all groups. Preoxidation under vacuum before porcelain firing can effectively improve bonding. The adhesive provided with the low fusing porcelain helps in the bond between titanium & porcelain. PMID:25134366

  20. Dentin bond strength of light-cured glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Hinoura, K; Miyazaki, M; Onose, H

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of surface treatments and irradiation conditions on the bond strength of light-cured glass-ionomer cements to dentin. The light-cured glass-ionomer cements used in this study were Vitrabond, XR Ionomer, and Fuji Lining LC. Three experiments were designed to study the influence of the following factors on bond strength to dentin: (1) effect of the surface treatment of the dentin, (2) effect of the irradiation time, (3) effect of an increase in the interval between mixing of the cement and irradiation. Samples were stored in water for 24 hours, after which shear bond testing was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. For Vitrabond, the Scotchprep and Gluma 2 treatments gave the greatest shear bond strengths. For XR Ionomer and Fuji Lining LC, the Scotchprep treatment gave the greatest shear bond strengths. The bond strengths for all cements increased with prolonged irradiation time. Bond strengths decreased with a longer elapsed time between mixing and light-curing. This means that light-curing should be done soon after the cement is placed. The failure mode was found to be cohesive in the ionomer. PMID:1774385

  1. Effect of silane primers and unfilled resin bonding agents on repair bond strength of a prosthodontic microfilled composite.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, N; Atsuta, M; Matsumura, H

    2002-07-01

    This study examined the effect of silane primers and bonding agents on bonding between layers of a light-activated composite material when repaired in the laboratory process. Disk specimens were prepared with the dentin portion of a composite material (Dentacolor DA-30) and abraded with a silicon carbide rotary cutting instrument. The specimens were conditioned with either one of the two silane primers (Porcelain Liner M and Silicer) or one of the two unfilled resin bonding agents (Dentacolor Opaker liquid and New Metacolor Photo Opaque liquid), or one of four combinations of two primers and two bonding agents. An intact surface with a thin air-inhibited unpolymerized layer, and an unprimed surface with only silicone carbide abrasion were also used for references. After placement of the enamel portion of the same brand of composite material (Dentacolor SA-30) on each surface of the dentin material, the specimens were light-exposed, and stored for 24 h in either dry or wet condition. Shear bond strengths were then determined with a mechanical testing device. The results showed that combined use of a silane primer and a bonding agent generally showed the greatest magnitude of bond strength regardless of material variation. The use of an unfilled resin bonding agent after application of a silane primer (Porcelain Liner M) is recommended to ensure adequate repair bonding between layers of the composite material. PMID:12153453

  2. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Al-Wahadni, Ahed M S

    2007-08-01

    This study was undertaken to measure the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces, to compare the SBS of the different ceramics with each other and with conventional ceramo-metal porcelains, and to determine the mode of failure for each group following debonding. A total of 60 ceramic crowns were constructed on extracted teeth and divided into three equal groups as follows: In-Ceram ceramic crowns, IPS-Impress ceramic crowns, and conventional ceramo-metal porcelain. Standard edgewise metal premolar brackets were bonded to the prepared porcelain surfaces. After bonding, all samples were tested in shear mode on an Instron universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was undertaken using analysis of variance, LSD, and chi-squared tests. The results showed that the SBS for the ceramo-metal and the In-Ceram groups were comparable, with mean values of 80.54 +/- 13.44 N and 78.87 +/- 13.47 N, respectively. The IPS-Impress group showed the weakest SBS which averaged 67.40 +/- 8.99 N. This was significantly lower than that of the conventional ceramo-metal porcelain (P < 0.001) and the In-Ceram surface (P < 0.01). The mode of failure in the ceramo-metal group was between the porcelain surface and adhesive and in the other two ceramic groups, between the brackets and adhesive (P < 0.001). The SBS of orthodontic brackets to the three tested ceramic surfaces were adequate for orthodontic use. PMID:17702799

  3. Ionizing irradiation affects the microtensile resin dentin bond strength under simulated clinical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suman; Yadav, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiations on resin–dentin interface in terms of marginal adaptation and micro-tensile bond strength under thermocycling and mechanical loading. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human mandibular third molars were divided into four groups. GR I: No Irradiation and Class II MO cavities were prepared that were restored with composite restorations; GR II: Teeth were irradiated and restored; GR III: Teeth were restored and irradiated; GR IV: Teeth were restored during irradiation dosage fractions. All samples were thermal and mechanical loaded with 5000 cycles, 5 ± 2-55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 s and 150,000 cycles at 60N. Resin–dentin slabs were trimmed into dumbbell-shaped slabs and microtensile bond strength was measured. The bond strength data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. Results and Conclusions: Irradiation before tooth preparation deteriorated the microtensile bond strength. PMID:23716968

  4. Effect of Fluoride and Simplified Adhesive Systems on the Bond Strength of Primary Molars and Incisors.

    PubMed

    Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Noleto, Lawanne Ellen Carvalho; Gomes, Isabella Azevedo; Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate in vitro the influence of simplified adhesive systems (etch-and-rinse and self-etching) and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) on the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins on primary molars and incisors. Forty primary molars and forty incisors vestibular enamel was treated with either the self-etching Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Kuraray) or etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2, 3M/ESPE) adhesive system. Each group was subdivided based on the prior treatment of the enamel with or without the topical application of 1.23% APF. Thereafter, matrices were positioned and filled with composite resin and light cured. After storage in distilled water at 37 ± 1°C for 24 h, the specimens were submitted to μ-SBS in a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.05) showed that the prior application of 1.23% APF led to a significant reduction in bond strength. The type of adhesive exerted no significant influence bond strength. In the inter-group analysis, however, significantly bond strength reduction was found for the incisors when CSE was employed with APF. Adhesive failure was the most common type of fracture. The bond strength was affected by the prior application of 1.23% APF and type of tooth. PMID:26312974

  5. Bond strengths evaluation of laser ceramic bracket debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalová, T.; Jelinková, H.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Fibrich, M.; Jelínek, M.; Michalík, P.; Bučková, M.

    2012-09-01

    Ceramic brackets often used for an orthodontic treatment can lead to problems such as enamel tear outs because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths. Therefore the aim of our study was to investigate the positive laser radiation effect on bracket debonding. Moreover, the influence of the enamel shape surface under the bracket and laser radiation power on the debonding strength was investigated. The source of the radiation was the longitudinally diode-pumped Tm:YAP laser operating at 1997 nm. To eliminate the tooth surface roughness the flat enamel surface was prepared artificially and the bracket was bonded on it. The debonding was accomplished by Tm:YAP laser radiation with different the power value while recording the temperature rise in the pulp. To simulate the debonding process in vivo the actual bond strength was measured by the digital force gauge. The results were analyzed by scanning electron microscope.

  6. Shear Strength of Partially Bonded Concrete-Rock Interfaces for Application in Dam Stability Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krounis, Alexandra; Johansson, Fredrik; Larsson, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The shear strength of the concrete-rock interface has a substantial influence on the sliding stability of concrete gravity dams founded on rock. While several studies have been done on concrete-rock contacts, there remains uncertainty regarding the peak shear strength of partially bonded interfaces. There exists, in particular, an uncertainty regarding the contribution from surface roughness of the unbonded parts to the peak shear strength of the interface due to the dependency of mobilized strength on shear displacement. In this study, a series of 24 direct shear tests are performed under CNL conditions on concrete-rock samples with different bonding conditions. Tests on samples with fully bonded and unbonded interfaces are conducted to study the strain compatibility of the different contacts, while the results of samples with partially bonded interfaces are evaluated in the context of linking the joint roughness of the unbonded parts to the peak shear strength of the interface. The results indicate that a significant part of the surface roughness of the unbonded parts is mobilized prior to degradation of bond strength, in particular for interfaces with low bonding percentages. It is recommended that further research should be conducted to understand how the contribution from roughness change with an increase in scale and degree of matedness.

  7. Effect of laser welding on the titanium composite tensile bond strength.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Pagnano, Valéria de Oliveira; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the shear bond strength between commercially pure titanium, with and without laser welding, after airbone-particle abrasion (Al(2)O(3)) and 2 indirect composites. Sixty-four specimens were cast and divided into 2 groups with and without laser welding. Each group was divided in 4 subgroups, related to Al(2)O(3) grain size: A - 250 microm; B - 180 microm; C- 110 microm; and D - 50 microm. Composite rings were formed around the rods and light polymerized using UniXS unit. Specimens were invested and their shear bond strength at failure was measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The highest bond strength means were recorded in 250 microm group without laser welding. The lowest shear bond strength means were recorded in 50 microm group with laser welding. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between all groups. In conclusion, airborne particle abrasion yielded significantly lower bond strength as the Al(2)O(3) particle size decreased. Shear bond strength decreased in the laser welded specimens. PMID:20126909

  8. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Daryadar, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC) (Filtek P90) with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC)(Z250), flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus) and different adhesive/composite combinations. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G). In the control group (G7), SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1) Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB)/SC; G2) Preheated SC; G3) SAB/MC; G4) Adper Single Bond (SB)/MC; G5) Flowable MC/MC; G6) Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04) and SB/MC (P<0.001). Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05), except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC. Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. PMID:27148378

  9. Comparative evaluation of the enamel bond strength of ‘etch-and-rinse’ and ‘all-in-one’ bonding agents on cut and uncut enamel surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Deepu; Singbal, Kiran Prabhakar; Kamat, Sharad

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To compare tensile bond strength of an ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent (Single bond,3M ESPE, MN, USA) with an ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent (iBond, Heraeus Kulzer, NY, USA) on cut and uncut enamel surfaces. The null hypothesis tested is that the ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent matches the ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent in terms of tensile bond strength to enamel. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human mandibular teeth were used for the study. Twenty teeth with intact enamel surfaces were divided into two groups of 10 teeth each. The enamel surfaces of the 20 teeth were prepared and assigned to two more groups of 10 teeth each. One group each of intact and prepared enamel surfaces were used to bond with the ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent [Single bond (SB), 3M ESPE, MN, USA] and the other two groups one each of intact and prepared enamel surfaces were used to bond with the ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent [ iBond (IB), Heraeus Kulzer, NY, USA]. The tensile bond strength was measured on the universal testing machine (Unitek, 9450 PC, FIE, INDIA) at a cross head speed of 1 mm / minute. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and student ‘t’ test. The values for the ‘etch-and-rinse’ bonding agent SB were significantly higher for both the cut and uncut surfaces, compared to the ‘all-in-one’ bonding agent IB (P < 0.05). The all-in-one bonding agent resulted in a higher bond strength on the cut enamel surfaces. Conclusions: Based on the results, it is advisable to use the ‘etch-and-rinse system’ in a clinical situation requiring bonding on enamel alone. PMID:21814355

  10. Shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems to Er:YAG-laser-prepared dentin.

    PubMed

    Brulat, Nathalie; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Leforestier, Eric; Fiorucci, Gilbert; Nammour, Samir; Bertrand, Marie-France

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the shear bond strengths of composite resin bonded to Er:YAG laser or bur-prepared dentin surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems. The occlusal surfaces of 120 human third molars were ground flat to expose dentin. The dentin was prepared using either a carbide bur or an Er:YAG laser at 350 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (fluence, 44.5 J/cm(2)). Three different self-etching adhesive systems were applied: iBond, Xeno III and Clearfil SE Bond. Rods of composite resin were bonded to dentin surfaces and shear bond tests were carried out. Both dentin surfaces after debonding and resin rods were observed using a scanning electron microscope. When the Xeno III was used, no difference was observed on shear bond strength values when bur and Er:YAG laser were compared. When using iBond and Clearfil SE Bond, bond strength values measured on Er:YAG-laser-prepared surfaces were lower than those observed on bur-prepared surfaces. The absence of smear layer formation during the preparation of the dentin by the Er:YAG laser did not improve the adhesion values of self-etching adhesive systems. PMID:18034284

  11. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change. PMID:20166418

  12. Effect of various intraoral repair systems on the shear bond strength of composite resin to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Han, In-Hae; Kang, Dong-Wan; Chung, Chae-Heon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study compared the effect of three intraoral repair systems on the bond strength between composite resin and zirconia core. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty zirconia specimens were divided into three groups according to the repair method: Group I- CoJet™ Repair System (3M ESPE) [chairside silica coating with 30 µm SiO2 + silanization + adhesive]; Group II- Ceramic Repair System (Ivoclar Vivadent) [etching with 37% phosphoric acid + Zirconia primer + adhesive]; Group III- Signum Zirconia Bond (Heraus) [Signum Zirconia Bond I + Signum Zirconia Bond II]. Composite resin was polymerized on each conditioned specimen. The shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine, and fracture sites were examined with FE-SEM. Surface morphology and wettability after surface treatments were examined additionally. The data of bond strengths were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tamhane post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS Increased surface roughness and the highest wettability value were observed in the CoJet sand treated specimens. The specimens treated with 37% phosphoric acid and Signum Zirconia Bond I did not show any improvement of surface irregularity, and the lowest wettability value were found in 37% phosphoric acid treated specimens. There was no significant difference in the bond strengths between Group I (7.80 ± 0.76 MPa) and III (8.98 ± 1.39 MPa). Group II (3.21 ± 0.78 MPa) showed a significant difference from other groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION The use of Intraoral silica coating system and the application of Signum Zirconia Bond are effective for increasing the bond strength of composite resin to zirconia. PMID:24049565

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Recycled Brackets using Different Methods: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Maheshwari, Amit; Lall, Rajeev; Navit, Pragati; Singh, Rajeshwar; Navit, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Debonding of brackets commonly occurs during orthodontic treatment. Due to increase in costs replacement of a damaged bracket is not liked by the dentist. This study is done to assess the shear bond strength of recycled brackets using different methods. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using five groups of orthodontic brackets (0.022” × 0.028”, MBT prescription) bonded on the premolars mounted in cubes. Other materials required were cubical trays, bonding material, light cure unit, universal testing machine, digital camera and sandblasting unit. Results: From the result of ANOVA test we observed the test is significant (F = 20.79, P < 0.01) and the test is rejected. When the Tukey’s t-test result was applied it was seen that the mean shear bond strength of all groups of brackets is as follows: Group I (5.31 Megapascals [Mpa]) < Group II (7.37 Mpa) < Group III (8.96 Mpa) < Group IV (5.56 Mpa) < Control group (9.24 Mpa). Alternatively we can say that shear bond strength of following bracket groups can be arranged as Group I < Group IV < Group II < Group III. Conclusion: From this study we conclude that Group III, which was recycled with an ultrasonic cleaner with electropolisher and silane coupling agent in place of primer, showed the highest shear bond strength. PMID:25395785

  14. Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1 ± 0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180 ± 30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n = 20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect. PMID:24610793

  15. Effect of cleaning methods on bond strength of self-etching adhesive to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bronzato, Juliana Delatorre; Cecchin, Doglas; Miyagaki, Daniela Cristina; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cleaning methods to remove zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer (Endomethasone) on the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods: Twenty crowns of bovine incisors were cut to expose the pulp chamber. A zinc oxide- and eugenol-based sealer was placed for 10 min in contact with the pulp chamber dentin. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the cleaning method of dentin used: G1, no root canal sealer (control); G2, 0.9% sodium chlorite (NaCl); G3, ethanol; and G4, followed by diamond drill. After cleaning, the teeth were restored with composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond. All specimens were sectioned to produce rectangular sticks and dentin/resin interface was submitted to microtensile bond testing. The mean bond strengths were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey (α = 0.05). Results: G3 and G4 showed bond strengths similar to the G1 (P > 0.05). A significant decrease in the bond strength in the G2 was observed (P < 0.05). G1, G3, and G4, the predominant failure mode was the mixed type. The prevalence of adhesive failure mode was verified in the G2. Conclusion: The cleaning methods affected the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin differently. PMID:26957789

  16. Bond strength: a comparison between chemical coated and mechanical interlock bases of ceramic and metal brackets.

    PubMed

    Wang, W N; Meng, C L; Tarng, T H

    1997-04-01

    Two types of chemically coated bases, two types of mechanical interlock base polycrystalline ceramic brackets, as well as one type of mechanical interlock base metal bracket were selected for bonding with Concise orthodontic resin on 60 extracted premolars. Bond strength was measured with an Instron testing machine and the debonded interface and enamel detachment were examined with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. The results showed the greater bond strength with a chemically coated base of ceramic brackets had a greater debonded interface between enamel and resin, and the weaker bond strength of mechanical interlock base of ceramic and metal brackets had a greater debonded interfaces between bracket and resin. There was no significant statistical difference in bond strengths with mechanically interlock bases between ceramic and metal brackets. The enamel detachment was found on only the stronger bond strength in which there was a chemically coated base on the ceramic bracket. Ceramic bracket fractures were not found during debonding in this specially designed specimen with 1 mm/min speed of crosshead. The mechanical interlock base of the ceramic bracket combines the strength, durability and retention of a metal bracket along with an aesthetic advantage and no enamel detachment after debonding. PMID:9109582

  17. Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Akansha; Sekhar, Anand; Ginjupalli, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent. Material and Methods The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Results There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid. PMID:26330930

  18. The effect of two configuration factors, time, and thermal cycling on resin to dentin bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Price, Richard B; Dérand, Tore; Andreou, Pantelis; Murphy, Darcy

    2003-03-01

    Most in vitro testing of bonding systems is performed using specimens made in a mold with a low configuration (C) factor (ratio of bonded/unbonded surfaces) whereas clinically the C-factor is usually much greater. This study compared the effect of thermal cycling on the measured shear bond strength of 3M Single Bond dental adhesive bonded to dentin using molds with two different C-factors. The hypothesis was that neither C-factor nor thermal cycling would affect measured bond strengths. Resin composite was bonded to human dentin in cylindrical molds with an internal diameter of 3.2mm and either 1mm or 2.5mm deep. The 1mm deep molds had a C-factor of 2.2 and the 2.5mm deep molds had a C-factor of 4.1. Specimens were debonded either 10min after they had been bonded to dentin, or after they had been stored for 7 days in water at 37+/-1 degrees C, or after thermal cycling 5000 times for 7 days. Two-way ANOVA showed that overall both the C-factor and the storage condition had a significant effect on bond strength (p<0.001). There was a significant interaction (p<0.001) between the C-factor and how the specimens had been stored. The GLM/LSMEANS procedure with Sidak's adjustment for multiple comparisons showed that overall the specimens made in the mold with a high C-factor (4.1) had a lower bond strength than those that had been made in the mold with a lower (2.2) C-factor (p<0.001). Thermal cycling had a negative effect on the bond strength only for specimens made in molds with a C-factor of 4.1 (p<0.001). PMID:12504523

  19. Evaluation of Bond Strength of Pressed and Layered Veneering Ceramics to Nickel-Chromium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, Mitra; Khaledi, Amir Alireza; Malekpour, Behnam; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The success of metal- ceramic- restorations (MCR) depends on the presence of strong bond between porcelain and metal substructure. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot pressing technique on the bond strength of a metal-porcelain composite in comparison to layering technique. Materials and Method Thirty Nickel-Chromium specimens were produced by two methods; conventional porcelain layering on metal and hot pressing (n=15). Bond strengths of all specimens were assessed by the means of three–point bending test according to ISO 9693: 1999 (E) instructions. The data were analyzed using Students t-test (p< 0.001). Results The mean ± SD bond strength of conventional and hot pressing technique was 48.29 ± 6.02 and 56.52 ± 4.97, respectively. Therefore, the conventional layering technique yielded significantly lower mean bond strength values than hot pressing technique (p< 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that it is possible to improve metal–porcelain bond strength significantly by applying an overpressure during porcelain firing. PMID:26535402

  20. Effect of thermal cycling on the bond strength of self-adhesive cements to fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Claudia; Monticelli, Francesca; Toledano, Manuel; Ferrari, Marco; Osorio, Raquel

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the push-out bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements to epoxy resin-based fiber posts after challenging by thermocycling. Thirty-six single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were drilled to receive RelyX Fiber posts #1. Three self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, and Breeze) were used for luting fiber posts. The bonded specimens were either stored for 1 month in a moist field (37°C) or submitted to thermocycling (5,000 times) prior to push-out test. The maximum force required to dislodge the post via an apical-coronal direction was recorded (megapascal). The data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The factors "luting cement" and "thermocycling" significantly influenced bond strengths. The initial push-out values of RelyX Unicem and Breeze were higher than those of G-Cem. After thermocycling, the bond strength of G-Cem increased and no differences were found between groups. RelyX Unicem and Breeze bond strengths were not affected by the thermal challenge. Thermal cycling and cement type differently influence the bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements. Self-adhesive cements can represent an option for luting fiber posts into root canal. PMID:21670983

  1. Effects of coloring procedures on zirconia/veneer ceramics bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Özat, Pelin; Eroğlu, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The most common failure seen in restorations with a zirconia core is total or layered delamination of the ceramic veneer. In the present study, the shear bond strengths between veneering ceramics and colored zirconia oxide core materials were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia discs (15 × 12 × 1.6 mm) were divided into 11 groups of 12 discs each. Groups were colored according to the Vita Classic scale: A3, B1, C4, D2, and D4. Each group was treated with the recommended shading time for 3 s, or with prolonged shading for 60 s, except for the control group. Samples were veneered with 3 mm thick and 3.5 mm in diameter translucent ceramic and subjected to shear test in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD tests were used for comparisons of the groups having the same shading times. A paired t-test was used for groups of the same color (3 s/60 s). RESULTS Among the 11 groups investigated C4 (3 s) had the highest bond strength with a value of 36.40 MPa, while A3 (3 s) showed the lowest bond strength with a value of 29.47 MPa. CONCLUSION Coloring procedures can affect zirconia/ceramic bond strength. However, the results also showed that bond strengths of all the investigated groups were clinically acceptable. PMID:25551004

  2. The use of collagen cross-linking agents to enhance dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ammar, Aiman; Drummond, James L; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina B.

    2009-01-01

    Type I collagen is a major component of the hybrid layer, and improvement of its mechanical properties may be advantageous during bonding procedures. Objective To investigate the effect of three different cross-linking agents (Glutaraldehyde [GD], Grape seed extract [GSE], and Genipin [GE]) on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of resin-dentin bonds. Materials and Methods Sixty-four sound human molars were collected and their occlusal surfaces were ground flat to expose dentin. Dentin surfaces were etched using a phosphoric acid and then teeth were randomly divided according to the dentin treatment: Control group (no treatment), 5% GD, 6.5% GSE or 0.5% GE. Teeth were restored either with One Step Plus or Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive systems and resin composite. After 24 hours, teeth were sectioned to produce a cross-sectional surface area of 1.0 mm2 and tested for tensile bond strength. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (p< 0.05). There was a statistically significant interaction between factors (treatment and adhesive p<0.001). Treatment affected TBS (p< 0.0001), while no differences were observed between the adhesive systems (p = 0.6961). Conclusion Chemical modification to the dentin matrix promoted by GD and GSE, but not GE, resulted in increased bond strength. The application of selective collagen cross-linkers during adhesive restorative procedures may be a new approach to improve dentin bond strength properties. PMID:19507140

  3. Effect of mucoprotein on the bond strength of resin composite to human dentin

    PubMed Central

    Powers, John M.; O’Keefe, Kathy L.; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the bond strength and analyze the morphology of the dentin-adhesive interface of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesive systems with two kinds of artificial saliva (with and without 450 mg/L mucin) contamination under different conditions of decontaminating the interface. Bonded specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded surface in 1-mm thick slabs. These 1-mm thick slabs were remounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned in sticks perpendicular to the bonding interfaces with a 1-mm2 area. Nine specimens from each condition were tested after 24 h on a testing machine (Instron) at a speed of 0.5 mm/min for a total of 360 specimens. Mean and standard deviations of bond strength (MPa) were calculated. ANOVA showed significant differences as well as Fisher’s PLSD intervals (p < 0.05). The following values are the results for different groups: Control group 34–60 MPa, saliva without mucin 0–52 MPa, and saliva with mucin 0–57 MPa. Failure sites were mixed and adhesive failure was common for the low bond strength results. P&BNT with ideal conditions and following the manufacturer’s instructions (control) had the highest bond strengths and the dentin-adhesive interface exhibited an ideal morphology of etch-and-rinse system. SEM gave complementary visual evidence of the effect in the dentin/adhesive interface structure with some contaminated conditions compared with their respective control groups. This in vitro artificial saliva model with and without mucin showed that an organic component of saliva could increase or decrease the bond strength depending on the specific bonding agent and decontamination procedure. PMID:21516294

  4. Effect of mucoprotein on the bond strength of resin composite to human dentin.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Lilliam Marie; Powers, John M; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Marshall, Grayson W

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the bond strength and analyze the morphology of the dentin-adhesive interface of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesive systems with two kinds of artificial saliva (with and without 450 mg/L mucin) contamination under different conditions of decontaminating the interface. Bonded specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded surface in 1-mm thick slabs. These 1-mm thick slabs were remounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned in sticks perpendicular to the bonding interfaces with a 1-mm(2) area. Nine specimens from each condition were tested after 24 h on a testing machine (Instron) at a speed of 0.5 mm/min for a total of 360 specimens. Mean and standard deviations of bond strength (MPa) were calculated. ANOVA showed significant differences as well as Fisher's PLSD intervals (p < 0.05). The following values are the results for different groups: Control group 34-60 MPa, saliva without mucin 0-52 MPa, and saliva with mucin 0-57 MPa. Failure sites were mixed and adhesive failure was common for the low bond strength results. P&BNT with ideal conditions and following the manufacturer's instructions (control) had the highest bond strengths and the dentin-adhesive interface exhibited an ideal morphology of etch-and-rinse system. SEM gave complementary visual evidence of the effect in the dentin/adhesive interface structure with some contaminated conditions compared with their respective control groups. This in vitro artificial saliva model with and without mucin showed that an organic component of saliva could increase or decrease the bond strength depending on the specific bonding agent and decontamination procedure. PMID:21516294

  5. Bond strength to high-crystalline content zirconia after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Grace M Dias; Silva, Nelson R F A; Paulillo, Luis A M S; De Goes, Mario F; Rekow, E Dianne; Thompson, Van P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of primers, luting systems and aging on bond strength to zirconium oxide substrates. Eighteen zirconia discs (19.5 x 4 mm) were polished and treated (n = 3) either with a MDP primer (Md) or with a MDP and VBATDT primer (MV). In the control group (n = 3) no surface chemical treatment was performed. Zirconia specimens were cemented to prepolymerized composite discs utilizing resin cements - RelyX Unicem or Panavia 21 (RU and Pa, respectively). After 24 h, samples were sectioned for microtensile testing and returned to water at 37 degrees C for two different periods before being tested: 72 h or 60 days + thermocycling (5-55 degrees C/5000 cycles). Bond strength testing was performed at 1 mm/min. Values in MPa were analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) (p > 0.05). The application of MV primer resulted in the highest bond strength (22.77 MPa), statistically superior to Md primer (12.78 MPa), and control groups presented the lowest values (9.17 MPa). When luting systems were compared, RU promoted the highest bond strength (16.07 MPa) in comparison with Pa (13.75 MPa). The average bond strength decrease after aging (9.35 MPa) when compared with initial values (20.46 MPa). The results presented by this in vitro study suggest that a chemical surface treatment based on the MDP and VBATDT combination may improve bond strength between zirconia and luting system, without any previous mechanical treatment, depending on the luting system used. This chemical treatment may result in a reliable alternative to achieve adequate and durable bond strength. PMID:20336733

  6. Bond strength of three dental porcelains to Ni-Cr and Co-Cr-Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Julio; Panzeri, Heitor; Neves, Flavio Domingues; Prado, Ricardo Alves do; Mendonça, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Ceramometal bond strength has played an important role for the replacement of gold alloys by nickel-chromium alloys in dentistry. This study evaluated the metal/porcelain bond strength of three ceramic systems (Vita VMK 88, Williams and Duceram) associated with three nickel-chromium alloys (Durabond, Lite Cast B and Resistal P) and one experimental cobalt-chromium-titanium alloy. Thirty cast cylinder specimens (15 mm in height; 6 mm in diameter) were obtained for each alloy, in away that 10 specimens of each alloy were tested with each porcelain. Bond strength was measured with an Emic screw-driven mechanical testing machine by applying parallel shear forces to the specimens until fracture. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis of the alloy/ceramic combinations (p<0.05). Resistal P/Duceram had significantly higher bond strength (44.38+/-9.12 MPa) (p<0.05) than the other combinations, except for Co-Cr-Ti alloy/Vita VMK 88 (38.41+/-12.64 MPa). The association of the experimental Co-Cr-Ti alloy with Williams porcelain had significantly higher bond strength (28.20+/-3.86 MPa) than the combination of other alloys with the same porcelain (p<0.05). Based of these results and within the limitations of an in vitro study, it may be concluded that the bond strength of the three ceramic systems to the Ni-Cr and Co-Cr-Ti alloys varied significantly, indicating that metal/ceramic compatibility was very important to the bond strength. PMID:16721460

  7. Shear bond strength of dental porcelains to nickel-chromium alloys.

    PubMed

    do Prado, Ricardo Alves; Panzeri, Heitor; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Julio; das Neves, Flávio Domingues; da Silva, Marlete Ribeiro; Mendonça, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The continuous technological advance and increasing availability of new base metal alloys and ceramic systems in the market, coupled to the demands of daily clinical practice, have made the constant evaluation of the bond strength of metal/porcelain combinations necessary. This study evaluated the metal/porcelain shear bond strength of three ceramic systems (Duceram, Williams and Noritake) in combination with three nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys (Durabond, Verabond and Viron). Thirty cast cylinder specimens (15 mm high; 6 mm in diameter) were obtained for each alloy, in a way that 10 specimens of each alloy were tested with each porcelain. Bond strength was measured with an Emic screw-driven mechanical testing machine by applying parallel shear forces to the specimens until fracture. Shear strength was calculated using the ratio of the force applied to a demarcated area of the opaque layer. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis of the alloy/ceramic combinations (p<0.05). Viron/Noritake had the highest shear bond sregnth means (32.93 MPa), while Verabond/Duceram (16.31 MPa) presented the lowest means. Viron/Noritake differed statistically from other combinations (p<0.05). Viron/Duceram had statistically significant higher bond strengths than Verabond/Duceram, Verabond/Williams and Durabond/Noritake (p<0.05). It was also found significant difference (p<0.05) between Verabond/Noritake, Verabond/Duceram and Durabond/Noritake. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) were observed among the other combinations. In conclusion, the Noritake ceramic system used together with Viron alloy presented the highest resistance to shear forces, while Duceram bonded to Verabond presented the lowest bond strength. Viron/Duceram and Verabond/Noritake provided intermediate results. The combinations between the Williams ceramic system and Ni-Cr alloys had similar shear strengths among each other. PMID:16429185

  8. Carbon Nanotube Bonding Strength Enhancement Using Metal "Wicking" Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes grown from a surface typically have poor bonding strength at the interface. A process has been developed for adding a metal coat to the surface of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) through a wicking process, which could lead to an enhanced bonding strength at the interface. This process involves merging CNTs with indium as a bump-bonding enhancement. Classical capillary theory would not normally allow materials that do not wet carbon or graphite to be drawn into the spacings by capillary action because the contact angle is greater than 90 degrees. However, capillary action can be induced through JPL's ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and through the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. A reflow and plasma cleaning process has also been developed and demonstrated to remove indium oxide, and to obtain smooth coatings on the CNT bundles.

  9. Effect of 10% Sodium Ascorbate on Shear Bond Strength of Bleached Teeth - An in-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappa, K C; Nitin, Mirdha; Ramesh, Sachhi; Sharanappa, Kambale; Nishant, Ajgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient often requires some additional interventions such as replacement of old restorations, laminates and veneers after bleaching, for aesthetic purposes. The residual oxygen inhibits polymerization of resin based materials which results in reduced bond strength of the restorations. Some techniques are available to solve the clinical problems related to the post bleach compromised bond strength. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate, the role of 10% sodium ascorbate on reversing the compromised bond strength and compare enamel shear bond strength of 5th and 6th generation dentine bonding agents on bleached and unbleached teeth. Materials and Methods Eighty freshly extracted human anterior teeth were assigned in to Group A and Group B of 40 teeth each. Samples in both groups were subdivided in to 4 subgroups of 10 teeth each. In Group A composite resins was bonded using 5th generation dentine bonding agent (3M Single Bond) and Group B was bonded using 6th generation (3M ESPE Adper SE Plus). Subgroups were subjected to the procedure as, A1;B1 etching and bonding (control), A2; B2 bleaching, etching and immediate bonding, A3; B3 bleaching,10% ascorbic acid treatment for 10 minutes after that etching and bonding immediately, A4; B4 bleaching, storage in artificial saliva for 4 days and then etching and bonding. Pola office, in office bleach (SDI (082216) was used for bleaching. The specimens were subjected to shear load in a Universal testing machine to evaluate bond strength. Results A decrease in bond strength was seen with 6th generation adhesive system compared to 5th generation bonding system, which is statistically significant, p<0.001. Conclusion Treating the bleached enamel surfaces when treated with 10% sodium ascorbate, which reverses the compromised bond strength and is a good alternative to delayed bonding. PMID:26393201

  10. Dentin bond strengths of three adhesive/composite core systems using different curing units.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Meu; Nikaido, Toru; Okada, Ayako; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the tensile bond strengths of three adhesive/composite core materials to bovine dentin using three different curing units. Bovine dentin surfaces were ground with 600-grit SiC paper. Bonding area was demarcated with a vinyl tape (4-mm-diameter hole). Three adhesive/composite core systems--S6054 (experimental), UniFil Core, and Clearfil DC Core Automix--were used with three curing units--Curing Light XL3000 (quartz-tungsten-halogen), Hyper Lightel (high-power quartz-tungsten-halogen), and LEDemetronl (blue light-emitting diode)--according to manufacturers' instructions. After 24 hours of storage in water at 37 degrees C, tensile bond strengths were measured at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. Results were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (p < 0.05). Highest tensile bond strength was obtained using Clearfil DC Core Automix with Hyper Lightel. PMID:18540391

  11. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM Ceramic with Dentin using 2 Bonding Agents and 2 Surface Treatments- An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Chidambaranathan, Ahila Singaravel; Srinivasan, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Background All ceramics are the material of choice for aesthetic tooth replacements. The success of all ceramic restoration depends on the bond between the ceramic and the tooth surface hence this study was done to evaluate the shear bond strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramic with <5% hydrofluoric acid and hydrofluoric acid combined with silane coupling agent. Aim To evaluate the shear bond strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramic with Dentin using bonding agents Prime & Bond NT, XenoIII and surface treatments <5% hydrofluric acid, hydrofluric acid combined with silane coupling agent. Materials and Methods Forty cylinders with 6mm diameter and 5mm height were milled from CEREC Blocs through CAD/CAM technology. Cerec blocks were bonded to etch freshly extracted tooth surface using a self etch and total etch bonding agent. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group A1-Ceramic cylinders were treated with < 5% HF and bonded using Prime & Bond NT and Variolink II. Group A2- treated with < 5% HF and silane coupling agent and bonded same as group A1. Group B1- treated with < 5% HF and bonded using Xeno III and Variolink II. Group B2- treated with < 5% HF and silane coupling agent, and bonded same as Group A3. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 hours by Storing in distilled water in Instron 3385 universal testing machine with 10-KN force. Results Statistical analysis was done using student’s t-test and Lavene’s test. The p-value <0.05 shows significant difference in bond strength between A1 and A2 & B1and B2. Conclusion The application of a silane coupling agent to the ceramic surface after etching with hydrofluoric acid increased the adhesion strength with both bonding agents. Student’s t-test revealed a significant effect of silanization. PMID:26674522

  12. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  13. Bond and fracture strength of metal-ceramic restorations formed by selective laser sintering

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strength of the metal and the bond strength in metal-ceramic restorations produced by selective laser sintering (SLS) and by conventional casting (CAST). MATERIALS AND METHODS Non-precious alloy (StarLoy C, DeguDent, Hanau, Germany) was used in CAST group and metal powder (SP2, EOS GmbH, Munich, Germany) in SLS group. Metal specimens in the form of sheets (25.0 × 3.0 × 0.5 mm) were produced in accordance with ISO 9693:1999 standards (n=30). To measure the bond strength, ceramic was fired on a metal specimen and then three-point bending test was performed. In addition, the metal fracture strength was measured by continuing the application of the load. The values were statistically analyzed by performing independent t-tests (α=.05). RESULTS The mean bond strength of the SLS group (50.60 MPa) was higher than that of the CAST group (46.29 MPa), but there was no statistically significant difference. The metal fracture strength of the SLS group (1087.2 MPa) was lower than that of the CAST group (2399.1 MPa), and this difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION In conclusion the balling phenomenon and the gap formation of the SLS process may increase the metal-ceramic bond strength. PMID:25177469

  14. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Tooth Enamel After Treatment With Different Tooth Bleaching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Khaloo, Negar; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azarsina, Mohadese

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard. Objectives: This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test. Results: Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P < 0.001); and also between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the other groups. Conclusions: The bleaching procedures using 20% carbamide peroxide and 45% carbamide peroxide and diode laser significantly decreased shear bond strength of brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups. PMID:26734481

  15. The effect of different adhesive system applications on push-out bond strengths of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Deniz Arısu, Hacer; Üçtaşlı, Mine Betül; Okay, Tufan Can

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Over the past years, the adhesion of fiber posts luted with simplified adhesive systems has been a matter of great interest. The aim of this study was to assess the post retentive potential of a self-adhesive resin cement using different adhesive systems to compare the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS The post spaces of 56 mandibular premolar roots were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups and further divided into 2 subgroups according to testing time (n=7). The fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and one of the following adhesive systems: no adhesive, a total-etch adhesive resin (Single Bond), a two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond) and a one-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil S3 Bond). Each root was cut horizontally, and 1.5 mm thick six root segments were prepared. Push-out tests were performed after one week or three months (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis were performed with three-way ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS Cervical root segments showed higher bond strength values than middle segments. Adhesive application increased the bond strength. For one week group, the total-etch adhesive resin Single Bond showed higher bond strength than the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem applied without adhesive resin at middle region. For 3 months group, the two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond showed the highest bond strength for both regions. Regarding the time considered, Clearfil SE Bond 3 months group showed higher bond strength values than one week group. CONCLUSION Using the adhesive resins in combination with the self-adhesive resin cement improves the bond strengths. The bond strength values of two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond improved as time passes. PMID:24049572

  16. Method and device for determining bond separation strength using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes an induction heating gun which includes a housing, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart opposite ends defining a gap there between, the U-shaped pole piece being mounted in one end of the housing, and a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil. A power source is connected to the tank circuit. A pull test machine is provided having a stationary chuck and a movable chuck, the two chucks holding two test pieces bonded together at a bond region. The heating gun is mounted on the pull test machine in close proximity to the bond region of the two test pieces, whereby when the tank circuit is energized, the two test pieces are heated by induction heating while a tension load is applied to the two test pieces by the pull test machine to determine separation strength of the bond region.

  17. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. RESULTS Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. CONCLUSION An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required. PMID:27555896

  18. Effect of silver diamine fluoride on microtensile bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    Quock, R L; Barros, J A; Yang, S W; Patel, S A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of the cariostatic and preventive agent silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on the microtensile bond strength of resin composite to dentin. Forty-two caries-free, extracted molars were flattened occlusally and apically using a diamond saw, and the exposed occlusal dentin was polished with a series of silicon carbide papers, all under water irrigation. The teeth were then randomly divided into six groups of seven teeth each that were treated as follows: 1) Peak SE self-etch bonding agent; 2) 12% SDF + Peak SE; 3) 38% SDF + Peak SE; 4) Peak LC etch-and-rinse bonding agent; 5) 12% SDF + Peak LC; and 6) 38% SDF + Peak LC. Four-millimeter buildups of Amelogen Plus were incrementally placed on all teeth; after a 24-hour storage period in distilled water, the specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce beams of cross-sectional surface area measuring approximately 1 mm(2). The beams were placed on a microtensile testing machine, which utilized a single-speed pump motor and force gauge at 20 kgf × 0.01 second to record maximum tensile force before failure occurred. Two-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were performed to compare the effects of the SDF on microtensile bond strength, with statistical significance set at α = 0.05. None of the experimental groups treated with different concentrations of SDF showed a significant difference in bond strength compared to the control groups, and there was no significant difference in bond strength between self-etch and etch-and-rinse groups. However, the effect of SDF on self-etch bonded teeth compared to etch-and-rinse bonded teeth was statistically significant (p=0.0363), specifically at the 12% concentration. SDF does not adversely affect the bond strength of resin composite to noncarious dentin. PMID:22621162

  19. Bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Usumez, Aslıhan; Hamdemirci, Nermin; Koroglu, Bilge Yuksel; Simsek, Irfan; Parlar, Ozge; Sari, Tugrul

    2013-01-01

    Zirconia-based ceramics offer strong restorations in dentistry, but the adhesive bond strength of resin cements to such ceramics is not optimal. This study evaluated the influence of surface treatments on the bond strength of resin cement to yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic. Seventy-five plates of Y-TZP ceramic were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 15) according to the surface treatments [airborne particle abrasion, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation (Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona; 2 W, 200 mJ, 10 Hz, with two different pulse durations 180 or 320 μs), glaze applied, and then 9.5 % hydrofluoric acid gel conditioned, control]. One specimen from each group was randomly selected, and specimens were evaluated with x-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The resin cement (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray) was adhered onto the zirconia surfaces with its corresponding adhesive components. Shear bond strength of each sample was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Bond strengths were analyzed through one-way ANOVA/Tukey tests. Surface treatments significantly modified the topography of the Y-TZP ceramic. The Nd:YAG laser-irradiated specimens resulted in both increased surface roughness and bond strength of the resin cement. The highest surface roughness and bond strength values were achieved with short pulse duration. Nd:YAG laser irradiation increased both surface roughness of Y-TZP surfaces and bond strength of resin cement to the zirconia surface. PMID:22718473

  20. Effect of surface treatment on bond strength between an indirect composite material and a zirconia framework.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Kamio, Shingo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of various surface treatments for zirconia ceramics on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia ceramics. In addition, we investigated the durability of shear bond strength by using artificial aging (20,000 thermocycles). A total of 176 Katana zirconia disks were randomly divided into eight groups according to surface treatment, as follows: group CON (as-milled); group GRD (wet-ground with 600-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper); groups 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa (airborne-particle abrasion at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa, respectively); and group HF (9.5% hydrofluoric acid etching). Shear bond strength was measured at 0 thermocycles in half the specimens after 24-h immersion. The remaining specimens were subjected to 20,000 thermocycles before shear bond strength testing. Among the eight groups, the 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa airborne-particle abraded groups had significantly higher bond strengths before and after thermocycling. The Mann-Whitney U-test revealed no significant difference in shear bond strength between 0 and 20,000 thermocycles, except in the 0.2 MPa group (P = 0.013). From the results of this study, use of airborne-particle abrasion at a pressure of 0.1 MPa or higher increases initial and durable bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia ceramics. PMID:22466885

  1. The effects of chlorhexidine and ethanol on push-out bond strength of fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Victorino, Keli Regina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Irrigation of root canals with chlorhexidine (CHX) and ethanol is common practice to prevent root canal infection during postplacement. However, pretreatment with these solvents may interfere with the bond strength of posts. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate if root dentin pretreatment using CHX and/or ethanol influences the push-out bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) posts. Materials and Methods: Fifty space posts prepared in endodontically treated extracted human canine roots were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10) according to the dentin pretreatment: Distilled water (W); 1% CHX diacetate solution (1C); CHX diacetate + 99% ethanol (1CE); 99% ethanol (E); and 2% CHX digluconate solution (2C). After pretreatment, the adhesive system (Peak Universal Bond; Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA) was applied in the root dentin and the FRCR was cemented with resin cement. Then, horizontal slices of 2 mm were obtained from each root third and the push-out bond strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests (P = 0.05). Results: At all thirds, 1CE and E groups presented similar push-out bond strength values (P > 0.05), which were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05). W, 1C, and 2C groups were similar (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The root dentin pretreatment with ethanol, alone or mixed with CHX diacetate increased the bond strength of FRCR luted with resin cement. PMID:26957803

  2. Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coating with 110 µm Al2O3 particles which modified with silica; and, Group 3, tribochemical treatment - silica coating + silanization. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours before testing shear bond strength. Results Silica coating and tribochemical treatment significantly increased the bond strength of the MA, UN, BR, BI, SE and CL to zirconia compared to #600 polishing. For both #600 polished and silica coating treatments, MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement CL had the highest bond strengths to zirconia. Conclusion Applying silica coating and tribochemical treatment improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia, especially for CL. PMID:20690416

  3. Bond strengths of transition metal diatomics: VNi and V2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spain, Eileen M.; Morse, Michael D.

    1990-12-01

    The abrupt onset of predissociation in an extremely congested electronic spectrum has been used to measure the bond strengths of jet-cooled VNi and V2. The resulting values are D0(VNi) = 2.100 ± 0.002 eV and D0(V2) = 2.752 ± 0.002 eV. A discussion of the requirements needed to determine bond strengths accurately by the onset of predissociation presented, resulting in two criteria: (1) the molecule must possess a sufficient destiny of electronic states, so that non-adiabatic couplings can induce predissciation readily, and (2) the lowest separated atom limit must generate repulsive curves, so that the potential curves are not nested (and as a result, poorly coupled). Finally, comparisons of the bond strengths of V2, VNi, Ni2, NiPt, and Pt2 with the corresponding coinage metal analogues are made, and the magnitude of d-orbital contributions to the chemical bonding in these species is assessed.

  4. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength between resin cements and zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Erdem, A; Akar, G C; Erdem, A; Kose, T

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the bond strength of resin cement and yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic with different surface conditioning methods. Two hundred presintered Y-TZP ceramic specimens were prepared, sintered (4 × 4 × 4 mm), and randomly assigned to four equal groups as control (C, no conditioning); airborne particle abraded (APA, air abrasion with 11 μm Al2O3); tribochemical silica coating/silane coupling system (TSC, Rocatec, air abrasion with 110 μm Al2O3, 30 μm silica-coated Al2O3 and silane); and laser (L, Er:YAG laser irradiation treated at a power setting of 200 mJ). After specimen preparation, composite resin cylinders were prepared and cemented with resin cements (Clearfil Esthetic, Panavia F 2.0, Rely X-U100, Super Bond C&B, and Multilink Automix) on the ceramic surfaces and kept in an incubator at 37°C for 60 days. All specimens were tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine, and fractured surfaces were evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). The bond strengths for C and L groups were not significantly different according to adhesive resin cement. APA and TSC resulted in increased bond strength for Panavia F 2.0 and Rely X-U100 resin cements. Additionally, TSC presented higher bond strength with Multilink Automix. Adhesive fracture between the ceramic and resin cement was the most common failure. Complete cohesive fracture at the ceramic or composite cylinders was not observed. Regardless of the adhesive resin cement used, laser treatment did not improve resin bond strength. PMID:24299447

  5. Bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin core: influence of temperature on silane coupling agents.

    PubMed

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Simamotos Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Rontani, Regina Maria Puppin; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air drying temperature and different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between glass fiber posts and composite resin core. The post surface was cleaned with alcohol and treated with different silane coupling agents, being three prehydrolyzed silanes [Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE)] and one two-component silane [Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply)]. Two post-silanization air drying temperatures, 23ºC and 60ºC, were applied. A cylindrical plastic matrix was placed around the silanized post and filled with composite resin. Each bonded post provided 7 slices for push-out testing. Each slice was loaded to failure under compression at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott tests (α=0.05). Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean of the control group with that of each experimental group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured slices. For the 23ºC air drying temperature, the use of RelyX Ceramic Primer resulted in significantly lower bond strength than the other silane coupling agents, while the bond strength with Silane Coupling Agent was the highest of all groups. Only with Silane Coupling Agent, the bond strength for the 23ºC air drying temperature was significantly higher than that for 60ºC air drying. In conclusion, the use of warm air drying after silane application produced no increase in the bond strength between the fiber-reinforced composite post and the composite core. The two-component silane produced higher bond strength than all prehydrolyzed silanes when it was used with air drying at room temperature. PMID:22460308

  6. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words:Bond

  7. Effects of thermocycling and light source on the bond strength of metallic brackets to bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Vedovello Filho, Mário

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of thermocycling and different light sources on the bond strength of metallic brackets to bovine tooth enamel using an adhesive resin. Bovine teeth were etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel for 20 s. After application of primer, metallic brackets were bonded to the buccal surface using Transbond XT, forming 8 groups (n = 20), depending on the light source used for photoactivation (AccuCure 3000 argon laser--20 s, Apollo 95E plasma arc--12 s, UltraLume 5 LED--40 s and XL2500 halogen light--40 s) and experimental conditions without (Groups 1 to 4) or with thermocycling (Groups 5 to 8). Shear bond testing was carried out after 24 h of distilled water storage (Groups 1 to 4) or storage and thermocycling in distilled water (groups 5 to 8; 1,500 cycles--5°/55 °C). Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was evaluated at ×8 magnification. No significant differences (p>0.05) in bond strength were found when the conditions without and with thermocycling were compared for any of the light sources. No significant differences (p>0.05) in bond strength were found among the light sources, irrespective of performing or not thermocycling. There was a predominance of ARI scores 1 in all groups. In conclusion, light sources and thermocycling had no influence on the bond strength of brackets to bovine enamel. PMID:22189644

  8. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Cécile; Abouelleil, Hazem; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL) and a two-steps/self-etch adhesive system (Optibond XTR) were used. Composite buildups were performed with a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XTR). All specimens were submitted to thermocycling ageing (10000 cycles). The specimens were sectioned in 1 mm2 sticks. Microtensile bond strength tests were measured. Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed due to nonnormality of data. Optibond XTR on irradiated and nonirradiated teeth did not show any significant differences. However, Optibond FL bond strength was more effective on nonirradiated teeth than on irradiated teeth. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy had a significant detrimental effect on bond strength to human dentin. However, it seems that adhesive choice could be adapted to the substrata. According to the present study, the two-steps/self-etch (Optibond XTR) adhesive system tested could be more effective on irradiated dentin compared to three-steps/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL). PMID:26783528

  9. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Cécile; Villat, Cyril; Abouelleil, Hazem; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL) and a two-steps/self-etch adhesive system (Optibond XTR) were used. Composite buildups were performed with a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XTR). All specimens were submitted to thermocycling ageing (10000 cycles). The specimens were sectioned in 1 mm(2) sticks. Microtensile bond strength tests were measured. Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed due to nonnormality of data. Optibond XTR on irradiated and nonirradiated teeth did not show any significant differences. However, Optibond FL bond strength was more effective on nonirradiated teeth than on irradiated teeth. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy had a significant detrimental effect on bond strength to human dentin. However, it seems that adhesive choice could be adapted to the substrata. According to the present study, the two-steps/self-etch (Optibond XTR) adhesive system tested could be more effective on irradiated dentin compared to three-steps/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL). PMID:26783528

  10. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    PubMed Central

    Hattar, Susan; Hatamleh, Muhanad M.; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Rabab’ah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistically significant differences were defined at the α = 0.05 level. Bond failures were categorized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results The SBS values ranged from 3.76 to 6.81 MPa for cements bonded to enamel and from 4.48 to 5.94 MPa for cements bonded to dentin (p > 0.05 between surfaces). There were no statistically significant differences between the SBS values to enamel versus dentin for any given cement type. All cements exhibited adhesive failure at the resin/tooth interface. Conclusions Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution. PMID:26082572

  11. Bond strength and stability of 3 luting systems on a zirconia-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Turker, Sebnem Begum; Ozcan, Mutlu; Mandali, Gamze; Damla, Isil; Bugurman, Burcu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength and stability of 3 different luting systems to a zirconia ceramic crown. Sixty cylinders of zirconia ceramic were cemented to flat dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth, using 3 different luting agents (n = 20): a glass ionomer (GI) cement, a resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) cement, and a resin cement containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP). The specimens from each cement group were then divided into 2 subgroups (n = 10). Three subgroups (1 from each cement) were selected to test shear bond strength (SBS) immediately before an aging process of thermocycling and water storage, the remaining 3 subgroups were tested for SBS after the aging process. The aging process affected the bond strength of the MDP and RMGI cements. The MDP cement demonstrated superior bond strength compared to the GI and RMGI cements; the GI cement consistently had the lowest bond strength. The RMGI cement had higher cohesive failures at cement (70%), while the GI and the MDP cements had higher percentages of adhesive failure at the ceramic-cement interface (70% and 100%, respectively). The MDP cement promoted better adhesion between dentin and the zirconia ceramic. PMID:24192740

  12. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  13. Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Composites Using Surface Treatments and Repair Materials: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, M; Saritha, G; Rajasekhar, V; Pachlag, K Amit; Purushotham, R; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhancement of bond strength between new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness of old composite to promote mechanical interlocking and subsequent coating with bonding agents to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding. So this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and repair materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite repairs The mode of failure of repaired composites whether cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The substrates for 60 composite specimens were fabricated and aged with water treatment and subjected to various surface treatments. The surface treatment regimens used in the study were: No surface treatment, abraded with diamond bur, air abraded (sandblasted) with 50 µ aluminum oxide particles. Specimens were then repaired with fresh composite using either Clearfil™ repair or all-bond two adhesive systems. Specimens were water stored, thermocycled and tested for SBS using universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. Results: It was clearly showed that surface roughening of the aged composite substrate with air abrasion, followed by the application of Clearfil™ repair adhesive system (Group IIIa) yielded the highest repair bond strength (32.3 ± 2.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatment with air abrasion followed by bonding with Clearfil™ repair adhesive system can be attempted clinically for the repair of composite restorations. PMID:25628478

  14. Comparison of the push-out shear bond strength of four types of glass ionomers when used to bond amalgam: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vinod Babu; Ramachandran, S; Indira, R; Shankar, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dental amalgam is the primary direct posterior restorative material used worldwide, but it have certain shortcomings due to the lack of adhesiveness to the cavity. The introduction of the concept of bonded amalgam helped improve the use of amalgam as a restorative material. Aim: Evaluation of the comparative push-out shear bond strength of four types of conventional glass ionomers used to bond amalgam to tooth in simulated class I situations. Materials and Methods: Four chemical cure glass ionomers are used: GC Fuji I, GC Fuji II, GC Fuji III and GC Fuji VII, and are compared with unbonded amalgam. The push-out bond strength was tested using the Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that the use of glass ionomer to bond amalgam resulted in an increase in the bond strength of amalgam. The Type VII glass ionomer showed the highest bond strength in comparison with the other glass ionomers. Conclusions: Conventional glass ionomer bonds to amalgam and shows a beneficial increase in the bond strength of the restoration in comparison with unbonded amalgam. PMID:22144798

  15. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. To meet the aggressive Advanced Turbine Systems goals for efficiency, durability and the environment, it will be necessary to employ thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils and other hot section components. For The successful application of TBCs to ATS engines with 2600{degrees}F turbine inlet temperatures and required component lives 10 times greater than those for aircraft gas turbine engines, it is necessary to develop quantitative assessment techniques for TBC coating integrity with time and cycles in ATS engines. Thermal barrier coatings in production today consist of a metallic bond coat, such as an MCrAlY overlay coating or a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) diffusion coating. During heat treatment, both these coatings form a thin, tightly adherent alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film. Failure of TBC coatings in engine service occurs by spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the bond coat to alumina or the alumina to zirconia bonds. Thus, it is the initial strength of these bonds and the stresses at the bond plane, and their changes with engine exposure, that determines coating durability. The purpose of this program is to provide, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of TBC bond strength and bond plane stresses as a function of engine time and cycles.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Bond Strength of Dual-Cured Resin Cements: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Poluri, Ramya Krishna; Nagaraj, Hema; Siddaruju, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the microtensile bond strength of resin cements to enamel and dentin and to determine the type of bond failure using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study 40 teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and divided into two main groups i.e., Group A for enamel and Group B for dentin. Each group is again subdivided into four subgroups, which are as follows; Subgroup 1 for Calibra resin cement, Subgroup 2 for Paracem, Subgroup 3 for Variolink II and Subgroup 4 for Rely X ARC. These resin cements were applied on enamel and dentin according to manufacturer’s instructions followed by incremental build-up of composite resin on the top of resin cements. Each tooth was sectioned perpendicular to the resin-substrate interface with a slow speed diamond saw under water cooling yielding sections of approximately 1 mm2. On an average, three sections from each tooth were used for testing. The beams obtained after sectioning were stressed to failure under tension in a custom made stainless steel forceps held in a universal testing machine (Lloyd) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, independent t-test, and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test. Results: Cements bonded to enamel substrates showed higher mean bond strength compared to dentin, which is statistically significant. Rely X ARC showed highest mean bond strength to both the substrates. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength to enamel and dentin and, Rely X ARC resin cement showed higher bond strength compared with the other groups. PMID:26225104

  17. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Farokh Gisovar, Elham; Hedayati, Nassim; Shadman, Niloofar; Shafiee, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel of primary teeth molars. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted on 180 extracted primary molars. They were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was divided into 2 subgroups (treated with CPP-ACP and untreated). In subgroups with CPP-ACP, enamel was treated with CPP-ACP paste 1 h/d for 5 days. Types of adhesives that were evaluated in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, AdheSE One F, single Bond 2, SE Bond, and Adper Prompt L-Pop. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine and mode of failure was evaluated under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by T test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Fisher exact test using SPSS18. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level. Results: Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to enamel of primary teeth treated and untreated with CPP-ACP showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mode of failure in all groups regardless of CPP-ACP administration was mainly adhesive type. Our results indicated that CPP-ACP did not affect shear bond strength of studied adhesives to primary teeth enamel. Conclusions: To have a successful and durable composite restoration, having a high strength bonding is essential. Considering the wide use of CPP-ACP in preventing tooth decay and the role of adhesive shear bond strength (SBS) in success of composite restoration, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the SBS of adhesives to primary teeth

  18. Comparing the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays in relation to different surface conditioning and curing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayındır, Yusuf Ziya; Demirbuga, Sezer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that different surface conditioning (etch and rinse and self-etch) and curing techniques (light cure/dual cure) had no effect on the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 extracted human molar teeth were horizontally sectioned and randomly divided into two groups according to restoration technique (direct and indirect restorations). Each group was further subdivided into seven subgroups (n = 8) according to bonding agent (etch and rinse adhesives Scotchbond multi-purpose plus, All-Bond 3, Adper Single Bond and Prime Bond NT; and self-etch adhesives Clearfil Liner Bond, Futurabond DC and G bond). Indirect composites were cemented to dentin surfaces using dual-curing luting cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested using a Universal Testing Machine. Two samples from each subgroup were evaluated under Scanning electron microscopy to see the failing modes. Data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests and Tukey's tests. Results: Surface conditioning and curing of bonding agents were all found to have significant effects on shear bond strength (P < 0.05) of both direct and indirect composite inlays. With direct restoration, etch and rinse systems and dual-cured bonding agents yielded higher bond strengths than indirect restoration, self-etch systems and light-cured bonding agents. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that direct restoration to be a more reliable method than indirect restoration. Although etch and rinse bonding systems showed higher shear bond strength to dentin than self-etch systems, both systems can be safely used for the adhesion of direct as well as indirect restorations. PMID:24932118

  19. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Anish

    decrease of bond shear strength in single lap shear test samples. Through-transmission ultrasonics (TTU) Acoustography at 3.8 MHz showed promising results on the detectability of bondline defects in adhesively bonded CFRP-Al lap shear test samples. A correlation between Acoustography ultrasonic attenuation and average bond shear strength in CFRP-Al lap shear panels demonstrated that differential attenuation increased with the reduction of the bond shear strength. Similarly, optical DIC tests were conducted to identify and quantify kissing bond defects in CFRP-Al single lap shear joints. DIC results demonstrated changes in the normal strain (epsilonyy) contour map of the contaminated specimens at relatively lower load levels (15% ~ 30% of failure loads). Kissing bond regions were characterized by negative strains, and these were attributed to high compressive bending strains and the localized disbonding taking placed at the bondline interface as a result of the load application. It was also observed that contaminated samples suffered from more compressive strains (epsilonyy) compared to the baseline sample along the loading direction and they suffered from less compressive strains (epsilonxx) compared to the baseline sample perpendicular to the loading direction. This demonstrated the adverse effect of the kissing bond on the adhesive joint integrity. This was a very significant finding for the reason that hybrid ultrasonic DIC is being developed as a faster, more efficient, and more reliable NDE technique for determining bond quality and predicting bond shear strength in adhesively bonded structures.

  20. A novel dentin bond strength measurement technique using a composite disk in diametral compression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Lian-Shan; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Rob; Aparicio, Conrado; Lin, Chun-Pin; Fok, Alex

    2012-04-01

    New methods are needed that can predict the clinical failure of dental restorations that primarily rely on dentin bonding. Existing methods have shortcomings, e.g. severe deviation in the actual stress distribution from theory and a large standard deviation in the measured bond strength. We introduce here a novel test specimen by examining an endodontic model for dentin bonding. Specifically, we evaluated the feasibility of using the modified Brazilian disk test to measure the post-dentin interfacial bond strength. Four groups of resin composite disks which contained a slice of dentin with or without an intracanal post in the center were tested under diametral compression until fracture. Advanced nondestructive examination and imaging techniques in the form of acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used innovatively to capture the fracture process in real time. DIC showed strain concentration first appearing at one of the lateral sides of the post-dentin interface. The appearance of the interfacial strain concentration also coincided with the first AE signal detected. Utilizing both the experimental data and finite-element analysis, the bond/tensile strengths were calculated to be: 11.2 MPa (fiber posts), 12.9 MPa (metal posts), 8.9 MPa (direct resin fillings) and 82.6 MPa for dentin. We have thus established the feasibility of using the composite disk in diametral compression to measure the bond strength between intracanal posts and dentin. The new method has the advantages of simpler specimen preparation, no premature failure, more consistent failure mode and smaller variations in the calculated bond strength. PMID:22266033

  1. Analysis of interfacial structure and bond strength of self-etch adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Watanabe, Larry G; Reis, Andre F; Powers, John M; Marshall, Sally J; Marshall, Grayson W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the bond strength, nanoleakage and interfacial morphology of four self-etch adhesives bonded to superficial dentin. Methods Micro-tensile (MT, n=15) and single plane shear (SP, n=8) bond tests were performed using human dentin polished through 320-grit SiC paper. Clearfil Protect Bond (PB), Clearfil S3 Bond (S3), Prompt L-Pop (PLP) and G-BOND (GB) were used according to manufacturers’ instructions. Composite was applied as cylinders with a thickness of 4 mm with a 1-mm diameter and stored in water at 37° C for 24 hours. Specimens were debonded with a testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Means and standard deviations of bond strength were calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Fisher’s PLSD intervals were calculated at the 0.05 level of significance. Failure modes were determined at 100X. The hybrid layer was revealed by treatment with 5N HCl/5% NaOCl or fractured perpendicular to the interface and sputter coated with gold. Specimens were viewed at 1000X, 2500X, and 5000X in a field emission SEM at 15 kV. Teeth (n=2) sectioned into 0.9-mm thick slabs were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 24 hours, rinsed and immersed in photo-developing solution for 8h. Specimens were sectioned (90-nm thick) and observed under TEM. Results Means ranged from 25.0 to 73.1 MPa for MT and from 15.5 to 56.4 MPa for SP. MT values were greater than SP, but were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, p= 0.003) and provided the same order for the systems studied. Fisher’s PLSD intervals (p<0.05) for bond strength techniques and adhesives results were 1.7 and 2.3 MPa, respectively. Failures sites were mixed. TEM showed that hybrid layers were ~0.5 µm for PB, GB and S3 and ~5 µm for PLP. SEM showed morphologic differences among adhesives. Silver nitrate deposits were observed within interfaces for all adhesive systems. Clinical significance Simplification of application procedures appears to induce loss of adhesion capabilities. In this

  2. The effect of post surface treatments on the bond strength of fiber posts to root surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tuncdemir, Ali Riza; Yildirim, Cihan; Güller, Fatma; Ozcan, Erhan; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of post surface treatment methods on the push-out bond strength of adhesively luted quartz fiber posts. Thirty freshly extracted and endodontically treated human incisor teeth were prepared for quartz fiber posts. The posts were submitted to three different surface treatments (n = 10), including no treatment, 50-µm aluminum-oxide (Al(2)O(3)) airborne-particle abrasion and Er:YAG laser (10 Hz, 150 mJ) irradiation. The posts were luted with resin cement. Each root was sectioned perpendicularly to its long axis to create specimens of 1-mm thickness. After the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, their push-out bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (α = .05). The two-way ANOVA indicated that push-out test values did not vary significantly according to surface treatments applied (control, airborne particle abrasion, Er:YAG laser irradiation) (p > 0.05), however, values varied according to the root segments (cervical, middle, and apical) (p < 0.01). The push-out bond strength values of the coronal root sections were the highest (p < 0.05) and there were no significant differences between the middle and apical root sections in push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p > 0.05). Air-borne particle abrasion or Er:YAG laser irradiation applied on the quartz fiber posts did not affect the push-out bond strengths relative to the root surfaces. The highest bond strength was observed in the cervical third of the roots in all groups. PMID:22274875

  3. Effect of endodontic chelating solutions on the bond strength of endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Behram; Nagas, Emre; Cehreli, Zafer; Uyanik, Ozgur; Vallittu, Pekka; Lassila, Lippo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various chelating solutions on the radicular push-out bond strength of calcium silicate-based and resin-based root canal sealers. Root canals of freshly-extracted single-rooted teeth (n = 80) were instrumented by using rotary instruments. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the chelating solutions being tested: (1) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); (2) 9% etidronic acid; (3) 1% peracetic acid (PAA); and (4) distilled water (control). In each group, the roots were further assigned into 2 subgroups according to the sealer used: (1) an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and (2) a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP). Four 1 mm-thick sections were obtained from the coronal aspect of each root (n = 40 slices/group). Push-out bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min., and the bond strength data were analyzed statistically with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni's post hoc test (p < 0.05). Failure modes were assessed quantitatively under a stereomicroscope. Irrespective of the irrigation regimens, iRoot SP exhibited significantly higher push-out bond strength values than AH Plus (p < 0.05). For both the sealers, the use of chelating solutions increased the bond strength, but to levels that were not significantly greater than their respective controls (p > 0.05). iRoot SP showed higher resistance to dislocation than AH Plus. Final irrigation with 17% EDTA, 9% Etidronic acid, and 1% PAA did not improve the bond strength of AH Plus and iRoot SP to radicular dentin. PMID:25992788

  4. Modulating the Bond Strength of DNA-Nanoparticle Superlattices.

    PubMed

    Seo, Soyoung E; Wang, Mary X; Shade, Chad M; Rouge, Jessica L; Brown, Keith A; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-02-23

    A method is introduced for modulating the bond strength in DNA-programmable nanoparticle (NP) superlattice crystals. This method utilizes noncovalent interactions between a family of [Ru(dipyrido[2,3-a:3',2'-c]phenazine)(N-N)2](2+)-based small molecule intercalators and DNA duplexes to postsynthetically modify DNA-NP superlattices. This dramatically increases the strength of the DNA bonds that hold the nanoparticles together, thereby making the superlattices more resistant to thermal degradation. In this work, we systematically investigate the relationship between the structure of the intercalator and its binding affinity for DNA duplexes and determine how this translates to the increased thermal stability of the intercalated superlattices. We find that intercalator charge and steric profile serve as handles that give us a wide range of tunability and control over DNA-NP bond strength, with the resulting crystal lattices retaining their structure at temperatures more than 50 °C above what nonintercalated structures can withstand. This allows us to subject DNA-NP superlattice crystals to conditions under which they would normally melt, enabling the construction of a core-shell (gold NP-quantum dot NP) superlattice crystal. PMID:26699102

  5. Evaluation on Shear Bond Strength of Different Glass Ionomer and Hydroxy Apatite Cements Used in Ossiculoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kalcıoğlu, M. Tayyar; Uzun, İsmail Hakkı; Yalçın, Muhammet; Malkoç, Meral Arslan; Öğreten, Ayşe Tuba; Hanege, Fatih Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glass ionomer cements (GIC) have been widely used in dentistry for many years. In recent years, GIC have also been used for ossiculoplasty. The bond strength of GIC used in ossiculoplasty and the way they may change over the years in the cementation area are being questioned. The bonding strength of the substance may be of importance for long-term outcomes. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the bond strength of different GIC on ossicles. Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Twenty ossicles were obtained from patients who had undergone ear surgery. All specimens were randomly divided into four subgroups. All specimens were inserted into a specially designed apparatus for shear bond strength (SBS) testing. The tested materials [Aqua Meron (AM), Aqua Cem (AC), Ketac Cem (KC), and Otomimix CPB (OH)] were prepared and applied according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The SBS was tested using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: The mean SBSs were found to be 13.28 MPa, 23.43 MPa, 8.51MPa, and 1.78 MPa for AM, AC, KC, and OH, respectively. AC had the highest SBS, which was statistically significantly different from that of KC and OH (p<0.05). Both AM and KC had higher SBS than OH (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results obtained in this study by investigating the bone-bonding strength of cements widely used in ossiculoplasty demonstrate that some of these substances have a greater ability to bond to ossicles compared to others. Further clinical investigations are needed to test different parameters. PMID:25759768

  6. Effect of acid etching on bond strength of nanoionomer as an orthodontic bonding adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saba; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Maheshwari, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A new Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement known as nanoionomer containing nanofillers of fluoroaluminosilicate glass and nanofiller 'clusters' has been introduced. An in-vitro study aimed at evaluating shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of nanoionomer under etching/unetched condition for use as an orthodontic bonding agent. Material and Methods: A total of 75 extracted premolars were used, which were divided into three equal groups of 25 each: 1-Conventional adhesive (Enlight Light Cure, SDS, Ormco, CA, USA) was used after and etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by Ortho Solo application 2-nanoionomer (Ketac™ N100, 3M, ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was used after etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s 3-nanoionomer was used without etching. The SBS testing was performed using a digital universal testing machine (UTM-G-410B, Shanta Engineering). Evaluation of ARI was done using scanning electron microscopy. The SBS were compared using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons and ARI scores were compared with Chi-square test. Results: ANOVA (SBS, F = 104.75) and Chi-square (ARI, Chi-square = 30.71) tests revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.01). The mean (SD) SBS achieved with conventional light cure adhesive was significantly higher (P < 0.05) (10.59 ± 2.03 Mpa, 95% CI, 9.74-11.41) than the nanoionomer groups (unetched 4.13 ± 0.88 Mpa, 95% CI, 3.79-4.47 and etched 9.32 ± 1.87 Mpa, 95% CI, 8.58-10.06). However, nanoionomer with etching, registered SBS in the clinically acceptable range of 5.9–7.8 MPa, as suggested by Reynolds (1975). The nanoionomer groups gave significantly lower ARI values than the conventional adhesive group. Conclusion: Based on this in-vitro study, nanoionomer with etching can be successfully used as an orthodontic bonding agent leaving less adhesive remnant on enamel surface, making cleaning easier. However, in-vivo studies are needed to confirm the validity

  7. Effect of filling technique on the bond strength of methacrylate and silorane-based composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Weingartner; Borges, Fernanda Blos; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Boscato, Noéli

    2016-01-01

    The bond strength of methacrylate (Z350, 3M ESPE) and silorane (P90, 3M ESPE) restorations, using different cavity filling techniques, was investigated. Cavities (6 × 3 × 3) in bovine teeth were filled using bulk, oblique, or horizontal increments. A push-out test was carried out after 24 h. Data were statistically analyzed (α = 5%). Methacrylate-based composites and the horizontal filling technique showed the highest bond strength values (10.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.05). Silorane-based composites showed no statistically significant differences regarding the filling techniques (p > 0.05). PMID:27050940

  8. A novel dentin bond strength measurement technique using the composite disk in diametral compression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Lian-Shan; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Rob; Aparicio, Conrado; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using the modified Brazilian disk test to measure the post-dentin interfacial bond strength. Advanced nondestructive examination and imaging techniques in the form of acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used innovatively to capture the fracture process in real time. DIC showed strain concentration first appearing at one of the lateral sides of the post-dentin interface. The appearance of the interfacial strain concentration also coincided with the first AE signal detected. The new method has the advantages of simpler specimen preparation, no premature failure, more consistent failure mode and smaller variations in the calculated bond strength. PMID:22266033

  9. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  10. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins

    PubMed Central

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P < 0.05 was selected as the level of statistical significance in this study. Results: The results showed that for enamel (24 h), the μ-SBS of the Wave MV and Wave HV groups were significantly lower than the Margin Bond group. Tukey test indicated the absence of a significant difference between the μ-SBS of the Wave group and the Margin Bond group. However, the μ-SBS of the Grandioflow group was significantly higher than the one for the Margin Bond as a bonding agent. In enamel (9 months), there was a significant difference between the Grandioflow and Margin Bond groups. Regarding bonding to the porcelain the one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant difference among the groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that flowable composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite

  11. Effect of refrigeration on bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Spohr, Ana Maria; de Oliveira, Wildomar José; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Borges, Luis Henrique

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tensile bond strength to dentin of three self-etching adhesive systems at refrigerated and room temperatures. Seventy-eight bovine incisors were embedded in self-cured acrylic resin, abraded on a water-cooled lathe and polished with 400- and 600-grit sandpapers to obtain standard dentin surfaces. The specimens were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=13). Clearfil SE Bond, AdheSE and One-Up Bond F adhesive systems at refrigerated (4 degrees C) and room temperatures (23 degrees C) were applied to dentin according to the manufacturers' instructions. A truncated composite resin (Herculite XRV) cone was bonded to dentin surface. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and submitted to tensile bond strength testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Means in MPa were analyzed statistically by Student's t-test at 5% significance level. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the adhesive systems applied at refrigerated and room temperatures. In conclusion, no adverse effects on tensile bond strength were observed when self-etching adhesive systems were used after being taken directly from the refrigerated storage. PMID:17262122

  12. Influence of bleaching and desensitizing gel on bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Fernanda Alves Rodrigues; Lucato, Adriana Simoni; Valdrighi, Heloisa Cristina; Vedovello, Sílvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess, in vitro, the influence of bleaching gel and the use of desensitizing agent over bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to bovine enamel. METHODS: One hundred bovine incisors were selected and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20): Group 1, control group (without bleaching); Group 2, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; Group 3, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three applications, 15 minutes each) and desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes; Group 4, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes; Group 5, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes with desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes. Brackets were bonded 7 days after bleaching and submitted to shear bond strength test after 24 hours at a compression rate of 1 mm/minute. After fracture, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was assessed under stereoscopic at 40 x magnification. Shear strength data (MPa) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: Group 5 (29.33 MPa) showed significantly higher bond strength than Group 1 (19.19 MPa), Group 2 (20.59 MPa) and Group 4 (23.25 MPa), but with no difference in comparison to Group 3. There was no significant difference among the other groups. The adhesive remnant index showed predominance of score 3, that is, all resin remained adhered to enamel for all groups. CONCLUSION: Bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with calcium associated with desensitizing agent application produced higher bond strength values of brackets bonded to bovine enamel. PMID:25992987

  13. Push-Out Bond Strength of Restorations with Bulk-Fill, Flow, and Conventional Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Rodrigo Vieira; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Kaneshima, Edmilson Nobumitu; Barbosa, Aline Silvestre; Picolotto, Cassiana Pedrotti; Lima, Ana Eliza de Souza; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strengths of composite restorations made with different filler amounts and resin composites that were photoactivated using a light-emitting diode (LED). Thirty bovine incisors were selected, and a conical cavity was prepared in the facial surface of each tooth. All preparations were etched with Scotchbond Etching Gel, the Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus adhesive system was applied followed by photoactivation, and the cavities were filled with a single increment of Filtek Z350 XT, Filtek Z350 XT Flow, or bulk-fill X-tra fil resin composite (n = 10) followed by photoactivation. A push-out test to determine bond strength was conducted using a universal testing machine. Data (MPa) were submitted to Student's t-test at a 5% significance level. After the test, the fractured specimens were examined using an optical microscope under magnification (10x). Although all three composites demonstrated a high prevalence of adhesive failures, the bond strength values of the different resin composites photoactivated by LED showed that the X-tra fil resin composite had a lower bond strength than the Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z350 XT Flow resin composites. PMID:26457322

  14. Shear Bond Strength of the Repair Composite Resin to Zirconia Ceramic by Different Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Arami, Sakineh; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoumeh; Namdar, Fatemeh; Safavi, Nassimeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the amount of surface roughness (Ra) of Zirconia Ceramic following different surface treatments as well as the assessment of its shear bond strength to composite resin. Methods: 40 sintered zirconia ceramic block samples were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 and underwent the following surface treatments: a) Control group without treatment b) Air abrasion with Al2O3 particles (50um) c) Er:YAG laser with 2W power for 10s d) Nd:YAG laser with 1.5W power for 2min Then the mean surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated by profilometer. In the next step, Alloy primer was used on a section of 9mm2 on the samples following the manufacturer’s instructions. After that Clearfil AP-X composite resin in cylinder shape with an internal diameter and height of 3mm were cured on the sections mentioned. At the end, all samples were tested to assess the shear bond strength by the Universal Testing Machine at a speed of 0.5mm/min until fracture occurred. The mean shear bond strengths were calculated and statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that roughness (Ra) was significantly different between the groups (P≤0.05). Ra was higher in the Nd:YAG group compared to the other groups (P≤0.05). The lower Ra was related to the control group. Air abrasion group showed highest amounts of shear bond strength and Nd:YAG laser group demonstrated lower amounts of shear bond strength (P≤0.05). Conclusion: Various surface treatments are differently effective on bond strength. Air abrasion is the most effective method to condition zirconia ceramic surfaces. PMID:25653817

  15. Repair bond strength of composite resin to sandblasted and laser irradiated Y-TZP ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kirmali, Omer; Barutcigil, Çağatay; Ozarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Harorlı, Osman Tolga

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different surface treatments on the repair bond strength of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramic (Y-TZP) zirconia to a composite resin. Sixty Y-TZP zirconia specimens were prepared and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) as follows: Group 1, surface grinding with Cimara grinding bur (control); Group 2, sandblasted with 30 µm silica-coated alumina particles; Group 3, Nd:YAG laser irradiation; Group 4, Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation; Group 5, sandblasted + Nd:YAG laser irradiation; and Group 6, sandblasted + Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. After surface treatments, the Cimara(®) System was selected for the repair method and applied to all specimens. A composite resin was built-up on each zirconia surface using a cylindrical mold (5 × 3 mm) and incrementally filled. The repair bond strength was measured with a universal test machine. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). Surface topography after treatments were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Shear bond strength mean values ranged from 15.896 to 18.875 MPa. There was a statistically significant difference between group 3 and the control group (p < 0.05). Also, a significant increase in bond strength values was noted in group 6 (p < 0.05). All surface treatment methods enhanced the repair bond strength of the composite to zirconia; however, there were no significant differences between treatment methods. The results revealed that Nd:YAG laser irradiation along with the combination of sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation provided a significant increase in bond strength between the zirconia and composite resin. PMID:25715193

  16. Effect of intracanal medicaments on push-out bond strength of Smart-Seal system

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of calcium hydroxide (CH), triple and double antibiotic pastes (DAPs) on the bond strength of Smart-Seal obturation, C-points with Endosequence Bio-ceramic (BC) sealer to the root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were de-coronated and prepared using rotary Pro-taper system with full sequence till F3. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (without intracanal dressing) and 3 experimental groups that received an intracanal dressing with either CH, DAP, or triple antibiotic paste (TAP) (n = 16). The intracanal dressing was removed after 3 weeks by rinsing with 10 mL 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, followed by 10 mL 3% sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then obturated with C-points and Endosequence BC sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and the obturating system. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The push-out bond strength values were significantly affected by the intracanal medicaments (P < 0.001), but not by the root canal thirds (P > 0.05). In the middle and apical third, the bond strength of the TAP group was higher than those of the CH and DAP groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The DAP and CH did not affect the bond strength of the novel hydrophilic obutrating system. TAP improved the bond strength of Smart-Seal system in the middle and apical thirds. PMID:26430308

  17. Effect of root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers.

    PubMed

    Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza, Angélica Moreira; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Silva, Bruno Marques; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted canines were prepared using ProTaper (F5) and divided into the following groups based on the root filling technique: Lateral Compaction (LC), Single Cone (SC), and Tagger Hybrid Technique (THT). The following subgroups (n = 10) were also created based on sealer material used: AH Plus and Sealer 26. Two-millimeter-thick slices were cut from all the root thirds and subjected to push-out test. Data (MPa) was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The push-out values were significantly affected by the sealer, filling technique, and root third (p < 0.05). AH Plus (1.37 ± 1.04) exhibited higher values than Sealer 26 (0.92 ± 0.51), while LC (1.80 ± 0.98) showed greater bond strength than THT (1.16 ± 0.50) and SC (0.92 ± 0.25). The cervical (1.45 ± 1.14) third exhibited higher bond strength, followed by the middle (1.20 ± 0.72) and apical (0.78 ± 0.33) thirds. AH Plus/LC (2.26 ± 1.15) exhibited the highest bond strength values, followed by AH Plus/THT (1.32 ± 0.61), Sealer 26/LC (1.34 ± 0.42), and Sealer 26/THT (1.00 ± 0.27). The lowest values were obtained with AH Plus/SC and Sealer 26/SC. Thus, it can be concluded that the filling technique affects the bond strength of sealers. LC was associated with higher bond strength between the material and intra-radicular dentine than THT and SC techniques. PMID:26910020

  18. Effect of ultraviolet light irradiation and sandblasting treatment on bond strengths between polyamide and chemical-cured resin.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yuya; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation and sandblasting treatment on the shear bond strength between polyamide and chemical-cured resin. Three types of commercial polyamides were treated using UV irradiation, sandblasting treatment, and a combining sandblasting and UV irradiation. The shear bond strength was measured and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Comparing shear bond strengths without surface treatment, from 4.1 to 5.7 MPa, the UV irradiation significantly increased the shear bond strengths except for Valplast, whose shear bond strengths ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 MPa. The sandblasting treatment also significantly increased the shear bond strengths (8.0 to 11.4 MPa). The combining sandblasting and UV irradiation significantly increased the shear bond strengths (15.2 to 18.3 MPa) comparing without surface treatment. This combined treatment was considered the most effective at improving the shear bond strength between polyamide and chemical-cured resin. PMID:25087663

  19. Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface

    PubMed Central

    Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

  20. Post-bleaching application of an antioxidant on dentin bond strength of three dental adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Saneie, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Antioxidizing agents have recently been suggested to compensate decreased bond strength of resin materials to bleached tooth tissues. This study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three different adhesives on bleached dentin immediately after bleaching, bleached/delayed for 1 week, and bleached/applied antioxidizing agent. Materials and Methods: The dentinal surfaces of 132 intact extracted molars were prepared and divided into 12 groups. The following adhesives were investigated: Optibond FL (OFL) (three-step etch-and-rinse), Optibond Solo Plus (two-step etch-and-rinse), and Optibond all-in-one (OA) (one-step self-etch) (Kerr, Orange, USA). Unbleached dentin groups (groups 1-3) were prepared as negative controls (NC). The remainder surfaces (groups 4-12) were bleached with 20% Opalescent PF (Ultradent, USA). Specimens were bonded immediately after bleaching (groups 4-6), after 1 week (groups 7-9), or after using 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) gel (groups 10-12). Subsequent to bonding of composite resin, the samples were tested for SBS and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: Regarding control groups, OA showed the highest SBS among the studied adhesives (P<0.05). The SBS decreased for the adhesives after bleaching except for OFL. No statistically significant difference in SBS were noted when the SA and delayed bonding groups were compared with their similar NC groups (P>0.05) except the of delay bonding with OA. Conclusions: The findings suggest that bond strength of resin to bleached dentin may be affected with the adhesive system. Reduced SBS to bleached dentin can be amended by the use of SA as an antioxidizing agent. However, the amount of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant might be related to the kind of dental adhesive. PMID:22363363

  1. The Effect of Primer on Bond Strength of Silicone Prosthetic Elastomer to Polymethylmethacrylate: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    C.M., Ravi Kumar; A.A., Ponnanna; Bithu, Arvind Singh; Shah, Kelvin; Prajapati, Soham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to evaluate interfacial bond strength between silicone prosthetic elastomers and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Materials and Methods: Silicone elastomers were attached to PMMA and a total 120 specimens were fabricated which were then subdivided into 12 sub-groups. Each sample was then subjected to laboratory test to determine the bond strength. The specimen of silicone elastomer bonded to acrylic of different surfaces was placed into universal testing machine (HOUNSFIELD HT-400) for “PEEL TEST”. All the values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: The bond strength of silicone elastomer to acrylic resin (TRAVELON) noticed highest (Mean 4.826 ± 0.008 n/mm) when only primer was used as a surface treatment. When silicone elastomer bonded to acrylic resin (DPI) showed the bond strength of (4.351 ± 0.0089) when only primer was used as a surface treatment. Whereas the least bond strength values were found when the silicone bonded to acrylic surface treated by 120 grit sand paper that is (0.076 ± 0.00 n/mm) and (0.082 ± 0.01 n/mm) for DPI and TRAVELON respectively. Conclusion: The bond strength of silicone elastomer to acrylic resin was higher when primer was used on the acrylic surface. The bond strength of silicone elastomer to acrylic resin was more with travelon resin when compared to DPI resin. But when silicone was bonded to acrylic surface with sand papering, showed less bond strength. PMID:25954703

  2. Invitro Study of the Effect of Different Samples of Water Used for Washing the Etchant on Bracket Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Ganiger, Chanamallappa; Ahammed, Yusuf; Mane, Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Background Bonding is a very important step in the orthodontic treatment planning. Effective bonding enhances the treatment by reducing the bond failure and thereby reducing the treatment duration and also increases efficiency in orthodontic mechanics. The success of the bonded brackets is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hardness of water used in removing the etchant on the bracket bond strength. Materials and Methods Seventy five extracted premolars were divided in three groups of 25 each. The teeth in all the three groups were etched with 35% phosphoric acid. The etchant in each of the group I, II and III was removed using distilled water (soft), corporation water (moderately hard) and hard water respectively. Stainless steel brackets were attached using light cure bonding agent (transbond XT, 3M UNITEK) and cured for 10sec with a light cure unit. The shear bond strength was evaluated by mechanical testing machine. Statistically significant differences were defined for p < 0.05. Result The results showed significant increase in bond strength in samples where in soft water was used for cleaning the etchant on the bonding surface. Conclusion Hardness of water used for washing the etchant affects the bracket bond strength. Shear bond strength of soft water is significantly increased compared to moderately hard and very hard water. PMID:26557617

  3. Influence of preheating the bonding agent of a conventional three-step adhesive system and the light activated resin cement on dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Holanda, Daniel Brandão Vilela; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    Aims: to evaluate the influence of preheating the bonding agent (Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive/3M ESPE) and the light-activated resin cement (RelyX Venner/3M ESPE) on dentin microtensile bond strength. Materials and Methods: The exposed flat dentin surface of 40 human third molars were randomly distributed into four groups for cementation (SR Adoro/Ivoclar Vivadent) (n = 10): G1-bond and resin cement, both at room temperature (22°C), G2-bond preheated to 58°C and cement at room temperature (22°C), G3-bond at room temperature (22°C) and the cement preheated to 58°C, G4-bond preheated to 58°C and cement preheated to 58°C. Sticks of dentin/block set measuring approximately 1 mm2 were obtained and used for the microtensile bond strength test. All sticks had their failure mode classified. Statistical analysis used: Factorial analysis of variance was applied, 2 × 2 (bond × cement) (P < 0.05). Results: Preheating the bonding agent (P = 0.8411) or the cement (P = 0.7155), yielded no significant difference. The interaction bond × cement was not significant (P = 0.9389). Conclusions: Preheating the bond and/or the light-activated resin cement did not influence dentin bond strength or fracture failure mode. PMID:24347889

  4. Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; Lima, Felipe Coelho; Saboia, Vicente de Paula Aragão; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M) to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Materials and Methods Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8) according to the filling material, (1) AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH)/Gutta-Percha cone; (2) Epiphany SE (Pentron)/Resilon cone; (3) RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Results Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in bond strength between AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p > 0.05). Conclusions Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials. PMID:25383347

  5. Bond strength and SEM observation of CO2 laser irradiated dentin, bonded with simplified-step adhesives.

    PubMed

    Koshiro, K; Inoue, S; Niimi, K; Koase, K; Sano, H

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated, mechanically and morphologically, whether the dentin surface irradiated by CO2 laser could be a possible adherent when bonded with simplified-step adhesives. Buccal enamel and cementum of extracted human premolars were removed to expose a flat dentin surface. The dentin surfaces were irradiated continuously with CO2 laser at 1.0 W. Before bonding with either a single-bottle adhesive (Single Bond) or a self-etching priming system (Mega Bond), the irradiated dentin surface was treated as follows: no treatment, NaHCO3 powder abrasion and wet-grinding with 600-grit SiC paper. The treated dentin surfaces were bonded to resin composite with either of the two adhesives. Non-irradiated dentin surfaces were also used as control. Resin bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and subjected to microtensile bond test. Additionally, to observe the resin/irradiated dentin interface, resin-bonded specimens were similarly prepared, sectioned into slabs, embedded in epoxy resin, polished with diamond pastes, sputter coated Au-Pd and examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After SEM observation, the specimens were further polished with diamond paste to remove the Au-Pd sputter-coat, immersed in HCL and NaOCl and finally observed by SEM again. In the presence of carbonized dentin, microtensile bond strength drastically decreased but recovered to the control value by removing the carbonized dentin layer visually with SiC paper for both adhesive systems. However, the laser-affected dentin that remained on the bonded interface was easily dissolved with NaOCl and HCl. PMID:15853101

  6. Development of FRP composite structural biomaterials: ultimate strength of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond in in vivo simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Latour, R A; Black, J

    1992-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being developed as alternatives to metals for structural orthopedic implant applications. FRP composite fracture behavior and environmental interactions are distinctly different from those which occur in metals. These differences must be accounted for in the design and evaluation of implant performance. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength in a FRP composite is known to strongly influence fracture behavior. The interfacial bond strength of four candidate fiber/matrix combinations (carbon fiber/polycarbonate, carbon fiber/polysulfone, polyaramid fiber/polycarbonate, polyaramid fiber/polysulfone) were investigated at 37 degrees C in dry and in vivo simulated (saline, exudate) environments. Ultimate bond strength was measured by a single fiber-microdroplet pull-out test. Dry bond strengths were significantly decreased following exposure to either saline or exudate with bond strength loss being approximately equal in both the saline and exudate. Bond strength loss is attributed to the diffusion of water and/or salt ions into the sample and their interaction with interfacial bonding. Because bond degradation is dependent upon diffusion, diffusional equilibrium must be obtained in composite test samples before the full effect of the test environment upon composite mechanical behavior can be determined. PMID:1512281

  7. Effect of various surface treatments on the bond strength of porcelain repair.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Duygu; Saraç, Yakup Sinasi; Külünk, Safak; Erkoçak, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of surface treatments on the repair strength of composite resin on a feldspathic ceramic. Ninety ceramic specimens were divided into six groups. In the experimental groups, 4% hydrofluoric acid etching, Er:YAG laser irradiation, CO2 laser irradiation, airborne-particle abrasion, and silica coating were used as surface treatments. After the application of a porcelain repair kit, composite resin was placed on the treated surfaces. After a shear bond strength test, data were statistically analyzed (α = .05). Surface treatments increased the repair bond strength values (P < .05). Airborne particle abrasion and silica coating were found to be the most effective. CO2 laser showed higher repair strength values than Er:YAG laser. PMID:23820715

  8. Push-out Bond Strength of Root-end Filling Materials.

    PubMed

    Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Costa, Bernardo Cesar; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of root-end filling materials. Forty 2-mm-thick slices were obtained from human single-rooted teeth. After root canal preparation using a 1.5 mm diameter cylindrical drill, the dentinal walls were prepared by diamond ultrasonic tip (CVD T0F-2). The specimens were divided according the material (n=10): MTA Angelus (MTAA), MTA Sealer (MTAS, experimental), Sealer 26 (S26) and zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE). The push-out test was performed in a mechanical test machine (EMIC DL 2000) at 1 mm/min speed. The failure type was evaluated by stereomicroscopy. The results were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test, at 5% significance level. MTAA (19.18 MPa), MTAS (19.13 MPa) and S26 (15.91 MPa) showed higher bond strength (p<0.05). ZOE (9.50 MPa) showed the least bond strength values (p<0.05). Adhesive failure was prevalent in all groups, except for ZOE, which showed mixed failures. It was concluded that root-end filling materials MTA Angelus, MTA Sealer and Sealer 26 showed higher bond strength to dentinal walls than zinc oxide and eugenol cement after retrograde preparation. PMID:27224569

  9. Shear bond strength of novel calcium aluminate-based cement (EndoBinder) to root dentine

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Rossetto, Hebert Luis; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the shear bond strength of a novel calcium aluminate-based cement, EndoBinder (EB), to dentine in comparison with Grey and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: Root canal hemi-sections obtained from 30 extracted molar teeth were embedded in self-polymerized acrylic resin and were grounded wet in order to obtain a flat dentine surface. Next, the roots were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10), according to the cement used, as follows: EB: EndoBinder; WMTA: White MTA and GMTA: Grey MTA. The shear bond strength test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm/min) and the data were submitted to statistical analysis (1-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, P < 0.05). Results: EB presented the highest shear bond strength values; however, there was no statistically significant difference in comparison with GMTA (P > 0.05). WMTA presented the lowest mean values, which were significant in comparison with EB (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The novel calcium aluminate-based cement presented higher shear bond strength than WMTA, and should be considered as a promising alternative in endodontic therapy. PMID:25512731

  10. Effect of Pre-heating on Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Daneshkazemi, Alireza; Behniafar, Behnaz; Sheshmani, Mahsan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Direct composite resin restorations are widely used and the impact of different storage temperatures on composites is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin after different pre-curing temperatures. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 44 human molars were ground with diamond burs under water coolant and polished with 600 grit silicon carbide papers to obtain flat dentin surfaces. The dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups (n=22) according to the composite resin applied: FiltekP60 and Filtek Z250. Each group included three subgroups of composite resin pre-curing temperatures (4°C, 23°C and 37°C). Composite resins were applied to the dentin surfaces in a plastic mold (8mm in diameter and 4mm in length) incrementally and cured. Twenty-two composite-to-dentin hour-glass sticks with one mm2 cross-sectional area per group were prepared. Microtensile bond strength measurements were made using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of one mm/min. For statistical analysis, t-test, one-way and two-way ANOVA were used. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Filtek P60 pre-heated at 37ºC had significantly higher microtensile bond strength than Filtek Z250 under the same condition. The microtensile bond strengths were not significantly different at 4ºC, 23ºC and 37ºC subgroups of each composite resin group. Conclusion: Filtek P60 and Filtek Z250 did not have significantly different microtensile bond strengths at 4ºC and 23ºC but Filtek P60 had significantly higher microtensile bond strength at 37 ºC. Composite and temperature interactions had significant effects on the bond strength. PMID:25628684

  11. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to composite submitted to different surface pretreatments

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Victor Hugo; Griza, Sandro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extensively destroyed teeth are commonly restored with composite resin before cavity preparation for indirect restorations. The longevity of the restoration can be related to the proper bonding of the resin cement to the composite. This study aimed to evaluate the microshear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements to composite resin. Materials and Methods Composite discs were subject to one of six different surface pretreatments: none (control), 35% phosphoric acid etching for 30 seconds (PA), application of silane (silane), PA + silane, PA + adhesive, or PA + silane + adhesive (n = 6). A silicone mold containing a cylindrical orifice (1 mm2 diameter) was placed over the composite resin. RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) or BisCem (Bisco Inc.) self-adhesive resin cement was inserted into the orifices and light-cured. Self-adhesive cement cylinders were submitted to shear loading. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results Independent of the cement used, the PA + Silane + Adhesive group showed higher microshear bond strength than those of the PA and PA + Silane groups. There was no difference among the other treatments. Unicem presented higher bond strength than BisCem for all experimental conditions. Conclusions Pretreatments of the composite resin surface might have an effect on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to this substrate. PMID:24516824

  12. Comparative evaluation of compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength of GIC type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated GIC and triclosan-incorporated GIC: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jaidka, Shipra; Somani, Rani; Singh, Deepti J.; Shafat, Shazia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated glass ionomer cement, and triclosan-incorporated glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: In this study, glass ionomer cement type IX was used as a control. Chlorhexidine diacetate, and triclosan were added to glass ionomer cement type IX powder, respectively, in order to obtain 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5% concentrations of the respective experimental groups. Compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength were evaluated after 24 h using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, Dunnett test, and Tukey test. Results: There was no statistical difference in the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX (control), 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement, and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement were similar to those of the glass ionomer cement type IX, discernibly signifying that these can be considered as viable options for use in pediatric dentistry with the additional value of antimicrobial property along with physical properties within the higher acceptable range. PMID:27195231

  13. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate and Delayed Bonding on the Bond Strength of Silorane and Two-step Self-etch Adhesive Systems in Bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Abed Kahnemooyi, Mehdi; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Mhammadi Torkani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Studies have shown decreased bond strength of composite resin to human and bovine bleached enamel. This study evaluated the effect of sodium ascorbate and delayed bonding on the bond strength of two adhesive systems to bleached enamel. Materials and methods. The labial surfaces of 150 sound bovine incisor teeth were abraded with abrasive paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups: A: control; B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; C: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + sodium ascorbate gel; and D: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + delayed bonding. In groups A‒D, silorane adhesive system and Filtek silorane composite resin were used. In groups E‒H, the same preparation methods of groups A-D were used. Two-step self-etch Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems and AP-X composite resin were administered. Shear bond strength of each group was measured. Two samples were prepared for each surface preparation for ultra-structural evaluation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for data analysis at P<0.05. Results. The interaction between the adhesive system type and surface preparation protocol was significant (P=0.014), withsignificant differences in shear bond strengths in terms of the adhesive systems (P<0.01). There were significant differences in shear bond strength in terms of surface preparation techniques irrespective of the adhesive system (P<0.01). Conclusion. The results showed that bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide decreased the shear bond strength values with both adhesive systems, and a one-week delay in bonding and 10% sodium ascorbate for10 minutes restored the bond strength in both adhesive systems. PMID:25587382

  14. Comparison of bond strength of three adhesives: composite resin, hybrid GIC, and glass-filled GIC.

    PubMed

    Rix, D; Foley, T F; Mamandras, A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 3 orthodontic adhesives in the areas of shear-peel bond strength, location of adhesive failure, and extent of enamel cracking before bonding and after debonding of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives included a composite resin control (Transbond XT; 3M/Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America Corp, Alsip, Ill), and a polyacid-modified composite resin under dry and saliva-contaminated conditions (Assure; Reliance Orthodontic Products Inc, Itasca, Ill). Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 160 (4 groups of 40) human premolars. The bonded teeth were stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 30 days and thermocycled for 24 hours before debonding with a Universal Instron (Instron Corp, Canton, Mass) testing machine. The extent of cracking in the buccal surfaces was evaluated under 16x magnification before bonding and after debonding. Although the bond strength of the composite resin control (20.19 MPa) was significantly greater (P <.05) than that of the adhesives in the other groups, clinically acceptable shear-peel bond strengths were found for all adhesives (Fuji Ortho LC = 13.57 MPa, Assure-dry = 10.74 MPa, Assure-wet = 10.99 MPa). The bond strength for the Assure adhesive was not significantly affected by saliva contamination. The sample of extracted premolars used in this study displayed a greater frequency of buccal surface enamel cracking (46.7%) than that reported in the literature for in vivo premolars (7.8%-10.2%), which was possibly due to the extraction process. The frequency of enamel cracking in a subset of this sample (n = 34) increased from 46.4% at prebonding to 62.4% at postdebonding as a result of the forces of debonding. PMID:11174538

  15. Shear bond strength, failure modes, and confocal microscopy of bonded amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Cianconi, Luigi; Conte, Gabriele; Mancini, Manuele

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength, failure modes, and confocal microscopy of two different amalgam alloy restorations lined with five adhesive systems. Two regular-set high-copper dental amalgam alloys, Amalcap Plus and Valiant Ph.D, and five commercially available adhesive systems were selected. One hundred and twenty freshly-extracted human third molars were used for the study. The results were statistically evaluated using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The shear bond strength (SBS) of amalgam to dentin was significantly affected by both the adhesive (p<0.0001) and amalgam alloy (p<0.0002). Regarding mode of failure (MF), among samples restored with Valiant Ph.D, 31 of 50 exhibited adhesive failure, and 19 displayed mixed failure. Laser optical microscopy (OM) of the bonded interface revealed the presence of a good hybrid layer was evident in all experimental groups. Higher bond strengths were measured for four of the five adhesives when used in combination with the spherical alloy. PMID:21383518

  16. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

  17. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  18. Four chemical methods of porcelain conditioning and their influence over bond strength and surface integrity

    PubMed Central

    Stella, João Paulo Fragomeni; Oliveira, Andrea Becker; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding. METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13) were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek). Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%). RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively), followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa) and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa). As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2) produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2) resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface. PMID:26352845

  19. Effect of eugenol-containing temporary cements on bond strength of composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Ganss, C; Jung, M

    1998-01-01

    The effect of temporary materials on shear bond strength of composite to dentin was investigated. Sixty previously impacted (caries-free) human third molars were embedded and sectioned horizontally at the pulp chamber and at the half of the crown. The samples were covered with ZOE, Temp Bond (eugenol-containing), Fermit, (temporary resin material, used without cementing) and Provicol, (eugenol-free, calcium hydroxide-containing). All specimens were stored in saline for 10 days. After mechanical cleaning the dentin was pretreated with a dentin bonding agent (Syntac), and the composite columns were applied. Debonding was performed using a Zwick Universal Testing Machine (cross-head speed 1.5 mm/min). The mode of failure was noted using a light microscope, and the thickness of the dentin at the composite/dentin interface was measured. The median shear bond strength values for the treated and control samples were: ZOE 7.46 MPa, Temp Bond 10.22 MPa, Fermit 6.49 MPa, Provicol 8.43 MPa, and control 10.06 MPa. No two groups were significantly different at the 0.05 level (one-way ANOVA and Scheffé test). In all groups the predominant mode of failure was adhesive and there was a slight tendency towards lower shear bond strength values at lower values for the thickness of the dentin. Under the conditions described the use of eugenol-containing temporary cements had no adverse effect on shear bond strength of a dual-curing composite luting cement to dentin. PMID:9573789

  20. Intramolecular Charge-Assisted Hydrogen Bond Strength in Pseudochair Carboxyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carboxyphosphate, a suspected intermediate in ATP-dependent carboxylases, has not been isolated nor observed directly by experiment. Consequently, little is known concerning its structure, stability, and ionization state. Recently, carboxyphosphate as either a monoanion or dianion has been shown computationally to adopt a novel pseudochair conformation featuring an intramolecular charge-assisted hydrogen bond (CAHB). In this work, additive and subtractive correction schemes to the commonly employed open–closed method are used to estimate the strength of the CAHB. Truhlar’s Minnesota M06-2X functional with Dunning’s aug-cc-pVTZ basis set has been used for geometry optimization, energy evaluation, and frequency analysis. The CHARMM force field has been used to approximate the Pauli repulsive terms in the closed and open forms of carboxyphosphate. From our additive correction scheme, differential Pauli repulsion contributions between the pseudochair (closed) and open conformations of carboxyphosphate are found to be significant in determining the CAHB strength. The additive correction modifies the CAHB prediction (ΔEclosed–open) of −14 kcal/mol for the monoanion and −12 kcal/mol for the dianion to −22.9 and −18.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Results from the subtractive technique reinforce those from our additive procedure, where the predicted CAHB strength ranges from −17.8 to −25.4 kcal/mol for the monoanion and from −15.7 to −20.9 kcal/mol for the dianion. Ultimately, we find that the CAHB in carboxyphosphate meets the criteria for short-strong hydrogen bonds. However, carboxyphosphate has a unique energy profile that does not result in the symmetric double-well behavior of low-barrier hydrogen bonds. These findings provide deeper insight into the pseudochair conformation of carboxyphosphate, and lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of this intermediate in ATP-dependent carboxylases. PMID:25405523

  1. Effects of Thermal and Mechanical Load Cycling on the Dentin Microtensile Bond Strength of Single Bond-2

    PubMed Central

    Daneshkazemi, Alireza; Davari, Abdolrahim; Akbari, Mohammad Javad; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different studies have shown the uncertain effects of thermal cycling (TC) and mechanical load cycling (MC) on the dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of composites. This study designed to investigate the effects of TC and MC on the dentin µTBS of single bond-2. Materials and Methods: Flat dentinal surface was prepared on 48 sound extracted human third molar teeth, and were bonded by single bond-2 adhesive and Z250 resin composite. The teeth were randomly divided into eight equal groups, according to the thermal/mechanical protocol. TC and MC were proceeded at 5-55°C and 90 N with 0.5 Hz. Then restorations were sectioned to shape the hour-glass form and subjected to µTBS testing at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. To evaluate the bonding failure, the specimens were observed under the scanning electron microscope. The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance, t-test, Tukey HSD and post-hoc by using SPSS software version 17 at a significant level of 0.05. Results: µTBS of all groups were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.001). Adhesive failure was predominant in all groups and increased with TC and MC. Conclusions: TC and MC had an adverse effect on µTBS of the tested adhesive resin to dentin. PMID:26464532

  2. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  3. DESENSITIZING BIOACTIVE AGENTS IMPROVES BOND STRENGTH OF INDIRECT RESIN-CEMENTED RESTORATIONS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Pires-De-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; de Marco, Fabíola Fiorezi; Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Panzeri, Heitor

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of indirect composite restorations cemented with a resin-based cement associated with etch-and-rinse and self-etching primer adhesive systems to dentin treated or not with a bioactive material. Materials and Method: Twenty bovine incisor crowns had the buccal enamel removed and the dentin ground flat. The teeth were assigned to 4 groups (n=5): Group I: acid etching + Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply); Group II: application of a bioactive glass (Biosilicato®)+ acid etching + Prime & Bond NT; Group III: One-up Bond F (J Morita); Group IV: Biosilicato® + One-up Bond F. Indirect composite resin (Artglass, Kulzer) cylinders (6x10mm) were fabricated and cemented to the teeth with a dualcure resin-based cement (Enforce, Dentsply). After cementation, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37oC for 30 days and thereafter tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine (EMIC) with 50 kgf load cell at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure modes were assessed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (95% level of confidence). Results: Groups I, II and III had statistically similar results (p>0.05). Group IV had statistically significant higher bond strength means (p<0.05) than the other groups. The analysis of the debonded surfaces showed a predominance of adhesive failure mode for Group III and mixed failure mode for the other groups. Conclusion: The use of desensitizing agent did not affect negatively the bonding of the indirect composite restorations to dentin, independently of the tested adhesive systems. PMID:19089114

  4. An effect of immediate dentin sealing on the shear bond strength of resin cement to porcelain restoration

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Ho

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine differences in shear bond strength to human dentin using immediate dentin sealing (IDS) technique compared to delayed dentin sealing (DDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups with 10 teeth each. The control group was light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) and cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. IDS/SE (immediate dentin sealing, Clearfil™ SE Bond) and IDS/SB (immediate dentin sealing, AdapterTM Single Bond 2) were light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Clearfil™ SE Bond and Adapter™ Sing Bond 2, respectively), whereas DDS specimens were not treated with any dentin bonding agent. Specimens were cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. Dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) was left unpolymerized until the application of porcelain restoration. Shear strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a speed of 5 mm/min and evaluated of fracture using an optical microscope. RESULTS The mean shear bond strengths of control group and IDS/SE group were not statistically different from another at 14.86 and 11.18 MPa. Bond strength of IDS/SE group had a significantly higher mean than DDS group (3.14 MPa) (P < .05). There were no significance in the mean shear bond strength between IDS/SB (4.11 MPa) and DDS group. Evaluation of failure patterns indicates that most failures in the control group and IDS/SE groups were mixed, whereas failures in the DDS were interfacial. CONCLUSION When preparing teeth for indirect ceramic restoration, IDS with Clearfil™ SE Bond results in improved shear bond strength compared with DDS. PMID:21165186

  5. Comparative evaluation of bond strength of three contemporary self-etch adhesives: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Singh, Vijay; Chaudhry, Suruchi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of 2-hydroxymethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and the type of solvent on the tensile bond strength of the following three self-etch adhesives: Adper easy one (HEMA-rich adhesive) which contained ethanol, G-Bond (HEMA-free adhesive) which contained acetone, and Xeno V (HEMA-free adhesive) which contained butanol as a solvent. Material and Methods: Intact mandibular molars were mounted in self-cured resin and the occlusal surfaces were ground with # 600 SiC paper. Adhesives were applied on the prepared dentinal surfaces and the resin composite was condensed in the split brass mold (5 × 3 mm) placed over the adhesive surface. The specimens were stored in normal saline and placed in incubator at 37°C. After 24 hours, the specimens were tested in tensile mode at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was done using One way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Results: The mean bond strengths of Adper easy one, G-Bond, and Xeno V were 12.41 MPa, 10.09 MPa, and 8.67 MPa, respectively. Conclusions: Comparison of contemporary adhesives in this ex vivo study revealed that the ethanol-based HEMA-rich self-etch adhesive is better than HEMA-free self-etch adhesive that contained acetone and butanol as the solvents, when compared in terms of bond strength. PMID:21957383

  6. In-vitro comparison of the effect of different bonding strategies on the micro-shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite resin to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pouran; Alizadeh, Vahid; Fathpour, Kamyar; Mazaheri, Hamid; Mortazavi, Vajihosadat

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the micro-shear bond strengths of a new low-shrinkage composite resin to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 70 extracted premolars were assigned to one of seven groups (n = 10): Group 1: OptiBond Solo Plus (Opt; Kerr); Group 2: SE Bond (SE; Kuraray); Group 3: Silorane System Adhesive (SSA; 3M ESPE); Group 4: OptiBond Solo Plus + LS Bond (Opt LS); Group 5: SE Bond + LS Bond (SE LS); Group 6: OptiBond Solo Plus (Opt Po); and Group 7: SE Bond (SE Po). Occlusal dentin was exposed and restored with Filtek LS (3M ESPE) in groups 1 to 5 and Point 4 (Kerr) in groups 6 and 7. After thermocycling (1000 cycles at 5/55΀C), micro-shear bond test was carried out to measure the bond strengths. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and post hoc Tukeytests (P < 0.05). Results: Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the two types of composite resin (P = 0.187), between bonding agents (P = 0.06) and between composite resin and bonding agents (P = 0.894). Because P value of bonding agents was near the significance level, one-way ANOVA was used separately between the two composite groups. This analysis showed significant differences between silorane composite resin groups (P = 0.045) and Tukey test showed a significant difference between Groups 4 and 5 (P = 0.03). Conclusion: The application of total-etch and self-etch methacrylate-based adhesives with and without use of a hydrophobic resin coating resulted in acceptable bond strengths. PMID:27076826

  7. An Experimental Investigation of Silicone-to-Metal Bond Strength in Composite Space Docking System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a new universal docking mechanism for future space exploration missions called the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). A candidate LIDS main interface seal design is a composite assembly of silicone elastomer seals vacuum molded into grooves in an electroless nickel plated aluminum retainer. The strength of the silicone-tometal bond is a critical consideration for the new system, especially due to the presence of small areas of disbond created during the molding process. In the work presented herein, seal-to-retainer bonds of subscale seal specimens with different sizes of intentional disbond were destructively tensile tested. Nominal specimens without intentional disbonds were also tested. Tension was applied either uniformly on the entire seal circumference or locally in one short circumferential length. Bond failure due to uniform tension produced a wide scatter of observable failure modes and measured load-displacement behaviors. Although the preferable failure mode for the seal-to-retainer bond is cohesive failure of the elastomer material, the dominant observed failure mode under the uniform loading condition was found to be the less desirable adhesive failure of the bond in question. The uniform tension case results did not show a correlation between disbond size and bond strength. Localized tension was found to produce failure either as immediate tearing of the elastomer material outside the bond region or as complete peel-out of the seal in one piece. The obtained results represent a valuable benchmark for comparison in the future between adhesion loads under various separation conditions and composite seal bond strength.

  8. Promotion of adhesive penetration and resin bond strength to dentin using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Chang-Keun; Oh, Kyu-Hwan; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NT-APPs) have been shown to improve the bond strength of resin composites to demineralized dentin surfaces. Based on a wet-bonding philosophy, it is believed that a rewetting procedure is necessary after treatment with NT-APP because of its air-drying effect. This study investigated the effect of 'plasma-drying' on the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to dentin by comparison with the wet-bonding technique. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were acid-etched and divided into four groups according to the adhesion procedure: wet bonding, plasma-drying, plasma-drying/rewetting, and dry bonding. In plasma treatment groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a plasma plume generated using a pencil-type low-power plasma torch. After the adhesion procedures, resin composite/dentin-bonded specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond-strength test. The hybrid layer formation was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The plasma-drying group presented significantly higher bond strength than the wet-bonding and dry-bonding groups. Micro-Raman spectral analysis indicated that plasma-drying improved the penetration and polymerization efficacy of the adhesive. Plasma-drying could be a promising method to control the moisture of demineralized dentin surfaces and improve the penetration of adhesive and the mechanical property of the adhesive/dentin interface. PMID:26714586

  9. Bond strength of disinfected metal and ceramic brackets: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Speer, Cornelia; Zimny, Dorothee; Hopfenmueller, Werner; Holtgrave, Eva Andrea

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to test whether disinfecting with Chlorhexamed fluid had an influence on the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. Metal and ceramic brackets were fixed by the composite adhesives Transbond XT (light curing) and Concise (chemical curing) to 224 bovine permanent mandibular incisors. Bovine teeth were divided into eight groups of 28 each as group 1: metal bracket/Transbond XT, group 2: disinfected metal bracket/Transbond XT, group 3: metal bracket/Concise, group 4: disinfected metal bracket/Concise, group 5: ceramic bracket/Transbond XT, group 6: disinfected ceramic bracket/Transbond XT, group 7: ceramic bracket/Concise, and group 8: disinfected ceramic bracket/Concise. Adhesive bonding was done according to the manufacturers' instructions. As shown by group comparison (Kruskal-Wallis test, univariate analysis of variance, P < .001), the disinfection of metal brackets had no statistically relevant influence on shear bond strength (P = .454). However, disinfecting ceramic brackets with either adhesive led to a significant reduction in shear bond strength compared with the untreated ceramic bracket group (P < .001). The Fisher's exact test of the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores showed a significant difference within the metal group bonded with different adhesives (P = .0003). The ARI scores 1 and 2 were not reached by the ceramic bracket groups. The disinfection of the ceramic brackets is a suitable procedure for clinical use because the measured shear bond strength values were higher than 6-8 MPa required in orthodontics. PMID:16279832

  10. Effects of silica-coating on surface topography and bond strength of porcelain fused to CAD/CAM pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Takushi; Hamano, Naho; Ino, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain fusing to titanium and the effects of surface treatment on surface structure of titanium. In the shear bond strength test, titanium surface treatments were: conventional, silica-coating without bonding agent, and silica-coating with bonding agent. Titanium surface treatments for analysis by the atomic force microscope (AFM) were: polishing, alumina sandblasting and silica-coating. The shear bond strength value of silica-coating with bonding agent group showed significantly higher than that of other groups. In AFM observation results, regular foamy structure which is effective for wetting was only observed in silica-coating. Therefore, this structure might indicate silicon. Silica-coating renders forms a nanoscopic regular foamy structure, involved in superhydrophilicity, to titanium surface, which is markedly different from the irregular surface generated by alumina sandblasting. PMID:27041024

  11. Influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Shah, K C; Loh, E T; Sim, S S; Tan, C C

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin. Thirty-two freshly extracted human molars were embedded and horizontally sectioned at a level 2 mm from the central fossa to obtain a flat dentin surface. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of eight teeth. Specimens in Group 1 (control) received no pre-treatment with any temporary restorations. Group 2 and 3 specimens were covered with IRM (eugenol-containing) mixed at powder: liquid (P:L) ratio of 10 g: 1 g and 10 g: 2 g, respectively. Specimens in Group 4 were covered with polycarboxylate cement (eugenol-free) mixed at a P:L ratio of 2.85 g: 1 g. The temporary restorations were mechanically removed with an ultrasonic scaler after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The dentin surfaces were cleaned with pumice-water slurry and treated with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus bonding system according to manufacturer's instructions. Composite (Z100) columns (3 mm diameter, 2 mm high) were applied and shear bond testing was carried out after 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C using an Instron Universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The mode of failure was examined using a stereomicroscope at X40 magnification. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffes's post-hoc test at significance level 0.05. Ranking of bond strengths was as follows: Group 1 (22.58 MPa) > Group 2 (21.14 MPa) > Group 4 (15.35 MPa) > Group 3 (13.02 MPa). Group 3 had significantly lower bond strength than Groups 1 and 2. No significant difference in dentin bond strength was observed between the Group 1 (control) and Groups 2 and 4. Although the predominant mode of failure for Groups 1, 2 and 4 was cohesive in dentin, all specimens in Group 3 exhibited adhesive failure. Pre-treatment with polycarboxylate cement or IRM mixed at P:L ratio of 10 g: 1 g did not affect shear bond strength of composite to

  12. The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L. West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

  13. Influence of silane and heated silane on the bond strength of lithium disilicate ceramics - An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; AlQahtani, Mohammed Ayedh; Jeaidi, Zaid Al; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of silane application and silane heat treatment on lithium-disilicate ceramic when bonded to composite resin. Methods: Twelve blocks of lithium-disilicate (LD) ceramic were fabricated and bonding surfaces were etched using 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (90 seconds). Three experimental groups resulted from the various surface treatment combinations, which included, no silane application (NS) (controls), silane application (S) and silane heat treatment (HS) (100°C for 5 minutesutes). Ceramic and composite resin blocks were bonded using an adhesive resin and light cured restorative composite as a luting agent, under standard conditions. A total of 90 specimen sticks (8 x 1mm²) were subjected to micro-tensile bond strength testing. The means of micro-tensile bond strength (µ-tbs) of the study groups were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. The tested specimens were analyzed for mode of failure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The highest µ-tbs value (42.6 ±3.70 MPa) was achieved for LD ceramics with heat-dried silane. Both silane application and heat treatment of silane resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvements in micro-tensile bond strength of LD ceramics when bonded to resin composite. Conclusions: The application of silane and its heat treatment showed significant improvement in bond strength of lithium disilicate ceramic when bonded to composite. PMID:27375687

  14. Effect of Er:YAG Laser on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel and Dentin of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Kabudan, Mona; Gholami, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin of primary teeth is lower than that to permanent teeth; therefore, it may compromise the adhesive bonding. New methods, such as laser application have been recently introduced for tooth preparation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation with bur and Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of composite to enamel and dentin of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five primary molar teeth were collected and 150 specimens were obtained by mesiodistal sectioning of each tooth. In each of the enamel and dentin groups, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups with the following preparations: bur preparation + etching (37% H3PO4), laser preparation + etching, and laser preparation without etching. Single Bond adhesive and Z250 composite were applied to all samples. After thermocycling, the shear bond strength testing was preformed using the Instron Testing Machine. Data were analysed using SPSS-17 and two-way ANOVA. Results: The bond strength of enamel specimens was significantly higher than that of dentin specimens, except for the laser-non-etched groups. The enamel and dentin laser-non-etched groups had no significant difference in bond strength. In both enamel and dentin groups, bur preparation + etching yielded the highest bond strength, followed by laser preparation + etching, and the laser preparation without etching yielded the lowest bond strength (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In both enamel and dentin groups, laser preparation caused lower shear bond strength compared to bur preparation. PMID:26622267

  15. Nonsteady thermal stress analysis and thermal fatigue strength of metal-CFRP bonded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qiang; Shiratori, Masaki; Mori, Takao

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, a finite-element method (FEM) system of nonsteady thermal stress analysis has been developed to analyze the problem of metal-fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) bonded joints. The authors have presented a new algorithm for the system, which can provide an effective thermal stress analysis for metal-carbon-FRP (CFRP) bonded joints. The effectiveness, in terms of the accuracy and central processing unit (CPU) time, has been discussed by analyzing some typical problems. The thermal fatigue strength of Al-CFRP bonded joints has been studied through a series of thermal cyclic fatigue tests. It has been shown that the thermal fatigue strength of the joints can be well described by the maximum equivalent stress at the adhesive layer, which can be calculated by the developed FEM system.

  16. The effect of additional etching and curing mechanism of composite resin on the dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Su; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional acid etching and curing mechanism (light-curing or self-curing) of a composite resin on the dentin bond strength and compatibility of one-step self-etching adhesives. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen human permanent molars were randomly divided into eight groups according to the adhesives used (All-Bond Universal: ABU, Clearfil S3 Bond: CS3), additional acid etching (additional acid etching performed: EO, no additional acid etching performed: EX), and composite resins (Filtek Z-250: Z250, Clearfil FII New Bond: CFNB). Group 1: ABU-EO-Z250, Group 2: ABU-EO-CFNB, Group 3: ABU-EX-Z250, Group 4: ABU-EX-CFNB, Group 5: CS3-EO-Z250, Group 6: CS3-EO-CFNB, Group 7: CS3-EX-Z250, Group 8: CS3-EX-CFNB. After bonding procedures, composite resins were built up on dentin surfaces. After 24-hour water storage, the teeth were sectioned to make 10 specimens for each group. The microtensile bond strength test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The failure mode of the fractured specimens was examined by means of an optical microscope at ×20 magnification. The data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post-hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS Additional etching groups showed significantly higher values than the no additional etching group when using All-Bond Universal. The light-cured composite resin groups showed significantly higher values than the self-cured composite resin groups in the Clearfil S3 Bond. CONCLUSION The additional acid etching is beneficial for the dentin bond strength when using low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives, and low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives are compatible with self-cured composite resin. The acidity of the one-step self-etch adhesives is an influencing factor in terms of the dentin bonding strength and incompatibility with a self-cured composite resin. PMID:24353889

  17. “Evaluation of shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate with three different bonding systems”-An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial that has been investigated for endodontic applications. With the increased use of MTA in pulp capping, pulpotomy, perforation repair, apexification and obturation, the material that would be placed over MTA as a final restoration is an important matter. As composite resins are one of the most widely used final restorative materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using three different bonding systems namely the two-step etch and rinse adhesive, the self-etching primer and the All-in-one system. Material and Methods Forty five specimens of white MTA (Angelus) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each depending on the bonding systems used respectively. In Group A, a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive or ‘total-etch adhesive’, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) were placed over WMTA. In group B, a Two-step self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Medical Inc) and Filtek Z350 were used. In Group C, an All-in-one system, G Bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Filtek Z350 were used. The shear bond strength was measured for all the specimens. The data obtained was subjected to One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test. Results The results suggested that the Two-step etch and rinse adhesive when used to bond a composite resin to white MTA gave better bond strength values and the All-in-one exhibited the least bond strength values. Conclusions The placement of composite used with a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive over WMTA as a final restoration may be appropriate. Key words:Composite resins, dentin bonding agents, mineral trioxide aggregate, shear bond strength. PMID:27398177

  18. In vitro evaluation of influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of one-bottle adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Suryakumari, Nujella B. P.; Reddy, P. Satyanarayana; Surender, L. R.; Kiran, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of one-bottle adhesive systems — (the V generation) at various stages during the bonding procedure and to investigate the effect of the contaminant removing treatments on the recovery of bond strengths. Materials and Methods: In this study the V generation one-bottle system — (Adper Single Bond) was tested. Fifty caries-free human molars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth each: Group I had 15 second etching with 35% Ortho Phosphoric acid, 15 second rinse and blot dried (Uncontaminated); Group II contaminated and blot dried; Group III contaminated and completely dried; Group IV contaminated, washed, blot dried; Group V contaminated, retched washed, and blot dried. The bonding agent was applied and resin composite (Z-100 3M ESPE) was bonded to the treated surfaces using the Teflon mold. The specimens in each group were then subjected to shear bond strength testing in an Instron Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm / minute and the data were subjected to one way ANOVA for comparison among the groups (P<0.05). Results: There was a significant difference between the group that was dried with strong oil-free air after contamination (Group III) and the other groups. When the etched surface was contaminated by saliva, there was no statistical difference between the just blot dry, wash, or the re-etching groups (Groups II, IV, V) if the dentin surface was kept wet before priming. When the etched dentin surface was dried (Group III) the shear bond strength decreased considerably. Conclusion: The bond strengths to the tooth structure of the recent dentin bonding agents are less sensitive to common forms of contamination than assumed. Re-etching without additional mechanical preparation is sufficient to provide or achieve the expected bond strength. PMID:22090757

  19. Shear Bond Strength of a Resin Cement to Different Alloys Subjected to Various Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Kasra; Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Kharrazi fard, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Micromechanical retention of resin cements to alloys is an important factor affecting the longevity of metal base restorations. This study aimed to compare the bond strength and etching pattern of a newly introduced experimental etchant gel namely Nano Met Etch with those of conventional surface treatment techniques for nickel-chrome (Ni-Cr) and high noble alloys. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 discs (8×10×15 mm) were cast with Ni-Cr (n=20), high noble BegoStar (n=50) and gold coin alloys (n=50). Their Surfaces were ground with abrasive papers. Ni-Cr specimens received sandblasting and etching. High noble alloy specimens (BegoStar and gold coin) received sandblasting, sandblasting-alloy primer, etching, etch-alloy primer and alloy primer alone. Cylindrical specimens of Panavia were bonded to surfaces using Tygon tubes. Specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength testing after storing at 37°C for 24 hours. Results: In gold coin group, the highest bond strength was achieved after sandblasting (25.82±1.37MPa, P<0.001) and etching+alloy primer (26.60 ± 5.47 MPa, P<0.01). The lowest bond strength belonged to sandblasting+alloy primer (17.79±2.96MPa, P<0.01). In BegoStar group, the highest bond strength was obtained in the sandblasted group (38.40±3.29MPa, P<0.001) while the lowest bond strength was detected in the sandblast+ alloy primer group (15.38±2.92MPa, P<0.001). For the Ni-Cr alloy, bond strength in the etched group (20.79±2.01MPa) was higher than that in the sandblasted group (18.25±1.82MPa) (P<0.01). Conclusions: For the Ni-Cr alloy, etching was more efficient than sandblasting but for the high noble alloys, higher Au content increased the efficacy of etching. PMID:27536326

  20. Effects of surface treatments on bond strength of glass-infiltrated ceramic.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y C; Tseng, H; Shih, Y H; Lee, S Y

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various surface treatments on the bond strength at the In-Ceram/resin composite interface. Ninety-eight In-Ceram specimens were divided into seven groups and exposed to various surface treatments as follows: (A) control (B) saliva contamination (C) saliva contamination plus aluminum oxide sandblasting (D) glove powder contamination (E) glove powder contamination plus aluminum oxide sandblasting (F) rough aluminum oxide sandblasting and (G) excess glass infiltration. A resin composite cylinder was cemented to each In-Ceram specimen with Panavia 21 resin luting cement. Half of the cemented specimens in each group were stored in water for 24 h, and the other half were stored in water for 2 weeks and then were thermo-cycled for 2000 cycles. Shear bond strengths (SBS) of seven specimens in each subgroup were determined and analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test as well as Student's t-test. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to identify the type of bond failure. Shear bond strength was significantly decreased by saliva and glove powder contaminations (P < 0.05). Sandblasting treatment did not improve the saliva-contaminated specimens. However, the glove powder plus sandblasting group showed no significant difference in SBS compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in SBS between the excess glass-infiltrating group and the control group. The SBS was significantly decreased by rough aluminum oxide sandblasting (P < 0.05). The SBS values of groups without thermocycling were significantly greater than those of groups with thermocycling (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among SBS values of the seven groups with thermocycling. Combined cohesive and adhesive bond failures were seen in every group. Various surface treatments or contaminants may significantly influence the bond strength of In-Ceram restorative in clinical use. PMID:11580818

  1. A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The porcelain fused to gold has been widely used as a restoration both with the natural esthetics of the porcelain and durability and marginal fit of metal casting. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). And porcelain was applied on the center area of metal specimen. Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). RESULTS The 3-point bending test showed the strongest (40.42 ± 5.72 MPa) metal-ceramic bond in the nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy, followed by millingable Pd-Ag alloy (37.71 ± 2.46 MPa), precious metal alloy containing 83% of gold (35.89 ± 1.93 MPa), and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold (34.59 ± 2.63 MPa). Nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold showed significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION The type of metal-ceramic alloys affects the bond strength of porcelain. Every metal-ceramic alloy used in this study showed clinically applicable bond strength with porcelain (25 MPa). PMID:25352959

  2. An assessment of shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and different ceramic infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan Hüseyin; Gürbulak, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate of shear bond strengths between two ceramic repair systems and different ceramic infrastructure materials. One hundred cylindrical specimens of ceramic infrastructure were fabricated with non precious metal alloy, zirconia, alumina, galvano, and glass ceramic: 20 non precious metal alloy (NP), 20 zirconia (Z), 20 alumina (A), 20 galvano (G), and 20 glass ceramic (GC). Specimens were divided into 2 subgroups. One half of the specimens were applied by Clearfil™ (CR) repair system and, another half of that were applied by Cimara&Cimara(®) Zircon (CZ) repair system. Bonded specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 h and were thermocycled at 5-55°C for 1,200 cycles with a 30-sec dwell time and 5-sec transfer time. Shear bond strengths were determined with a mechanical testing device. And mode of failure was recorded. Mann Whitney-U and Kruskal Wallis tests were applied to the data at 95% confidence interval level. Infrastructure groups displayed the following values in megapascals: NP = 10.70 ± 1.88; Z = 9.15 ± 0.80; A = 11.65 ± 0.70; GC = 10.95 ± 0.80; and G = 6.88 ± 0.88. The Mann Whitney-U test results showed no significant difference between the repair systems. The Kruskal Wallis test results demonstrated significant difference between the infrastructures. The lowest bond strength values were observed in G group. In conclusion, average bond strength values were in accordance with previously reported values, therefore it can be suggested that intraoral repair of ceramic restorations can be temporary, but a satisfying alternative for patients. PMID:25906827

  3. The effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of a nonprecious alloy-ceramic interface: an invitro study.

    PubMed

    Lahori, Manesh; Nagrath, Rahul; Sisodia, Siddharth; Dagar, Preety

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of seven different alloy surface treatments on the bond strength of the porcelain-metal interface. Three layers of opaque porcelain and a measured thickness of dentin porcelain were applied to nickel-chromium alloy, A tensile bond strength test was used. The alloy surface treatment that exhibited the highest bond strength was sandblast + surface grinding + sandblast + de-gas, whereas the alloy surface treatment that exhibited the lowest bond strength was sandblast + surface grinding + sandblast + steam cleaning + de-gas. There was a significant difference between the two methods (P < 0.05). It was concluded that de-gassing the alloy prior to porcelain application increased the bond strength and excess surface grinding of the alloy reduced bond strength; steam cleaning the alloy surface prior to de-gassing and porcelain application also significantly reduced the bond strength. PMID:24757351

  4. In vitro evaluation of bond strength and surface roughness of a resin-paint material.

    PubMed

    Muraguchi, Koichi; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takuo

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the stability of a resin-paint material (Master Palette)--which was developed for chairside shade modification of composite restorations--by evaluating its bond strength to indirect resin composite and surface degradation. Bond strength was evaluated with four surface treatments including an application of methylene chloride, airborne particle abrasion with 50 microm aluminum oxide, and additional applications of bonding agents after air-abrasion. The surface roughness (Rz value) of both the resin-paint and indirect resin composite before and after thermo-cycling (4-60 degrees C, 50,000 cycles) was also evaluated. All data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Boneferroni's test (p=0.05). It was found that bond strength was improved by bonding agent application (14.9+/-1.9 MPa to 18.6+/-2.2 MPa, p<0.0054) after thermo-cycling. As for surface roughness, its results after thermo-cycling (2.7+/-0.2 microm, p<0.001) demonstrated that the resin-paint needed further improvements to maintain the original surface texture. PMID:15510873

  5. Comparison of shear bond strength to clinically simulated debonding of orthodontic brackets: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal Ibrahim; Abbassy, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess in vitro the quantitative and qualitative debonding behavior of the AEZ debonding plier, compared to shear debonding force, in debonding orthodontic metal brackets. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two extracted premolars bonded with metal brackets were randomly divided into two equal groups according to the type of simulated debonding method; compressive bond strength (CBS) group using AEZ debonding plier (Ormco Corporation, USA) attached to the Instron machine, and shear bond strength (SBS) group using regular Instron attachments. All teeth were subjected to debonding forces, and debonding strength was assessed. The buccal surfaces were then examined, under a stereomicroscope, and adhesive remnants were scored using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Debonding strengths comparison was performed using the independent sample t-test. ARI score comparison was performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Correlation between debonding strength and ARI scores was performed using the Spearman correlation. Results: There was no significant difference in mean debonding strength between the SBS (M = 6.17 ± 0.77 MPa) and CBS (M = 6.68 ± 1.67 MPa) groups (P > 0.05). The CBS group showed significantly less adhesive remnants than the SBS group (P < 0.05); 62.5% of CBS group had ARI score 1, whereas 68.8% of SBS group had ARI score 3. No significant correlation between ARI and debonding strength was found (P < 0.05). Conclusion: SBS was found to produce similar debonding strength to the AEZ debonding plier in vitro. However, the AEZ debonding plier resulted in less adhesive remnant which is of great advantage for reducing chair-time during cleanup after debonding brackets. PMID:26998474

  6. The effects of silver coating on friction coefficient and shear bond strength of steel orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Arash, Valiollah; Anoush, Keivan; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Rahmatei, Manuchehr; Tavanafar, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Aims of the present study was to measure frictional resistance between silver coated brackets and different types of arch wires, and shear bond strength of these brackets to the tooth. In an experimental clinical research 28 orthodontic brackets (standard, 22 slots) were coated with silver ions using electroplate method. Six brackets (coated: 3, uncoated: 3) were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The amount of friction in 15 coated brackets was measured with three different kinds of arch wires (0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in Nickel-Titanium [Ni-Ti]) and compared with 15 uncoated steel brackets. In addition, shear bond strength values were compared between 10 brackets with silver coating and 10 regular brackets. Universal testing machine was used to measure shear bond strength and the amount of friction between the wires and brackets. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis with t-test. SEM and AFM results showed deposition of a uniform layer of silver, measuring 8-10 μm in thickness on bracket surfaces. Silver coating led to higher frictional forces in all the three types of arch wires, which was statistically significant in 0.019 × 0.025-in SS and 0.018-in Ni-Ti, but it did not change the shear bond strength significantly. Silver coating with electroplating method did not affect the bond strength of the bracket to enamel; in addition, it was not an effective method for decreasing friction in sliding mechanics. PMID:25997114

  7. Effect of bromelain enzyme for dentin deproteinization on bond strength of adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Kirti; Basavanna, Revaplar Siddaveerappa; Shivanna, Vasundhara

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To assess the deproteinizing effect of bromelain enzyme and compare it with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on shear bond strength before application of the adhesive system. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 extracted human premolars were divided into three groups, each one consisted of 10 teeth. The occlusal surface was wet ground to expose superficial dentin. In Group 1, teeth were etched; in Group 2, teeth were etched and deproteinized with bromelain enzyme; in Group 3, teeth were etched and deproteinized with 5% NaOCl. Upon completion of the adhesive procedures, resin composite was inserted into the plastic tube and light-polymerized. All specimens were stored at 37°C in water for 24 h, and the specimens were transferred to the universal testing machine, and then subjected to shear bond strength analysis at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and unpaired t-test at a significance level of 0.05. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The bond strength results were significantly influenced by the application of bromelain enzyme. Statistically significant differences were not demonstrated in control group and NaOCl-treated group. The highest bond strength was seen in bromelain enzyme-treated group. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that removal of unsupported collagen fiber with bromelain enzyme after acid etching results in improved bond strength. PMID:26430297

  8. Effect of different irrigant activation protocols on push-out bond strength.

    PubMed

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of various final irrigant activation protocols on push-out bond strength of fiber post. Thirty-two single-rooted human maxillar central teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, instrumented and obturated. Post-space preparation was performed, and roots were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 4) according to the final irrigant activation protocols; distilled water was used as an irrigant in group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI, no activation) was used in group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, group 4), diode laser (group 5), neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (group 6), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™) technique (group 8). In all groups, fiber posts (White Post DC, FGM) were luted using Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan). The specimens were transversally sectioned, and all slices from coronal and apical regions were subjected to push-out tests. The data were calculated as megapascals and analyzed by using two-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. Removing the smear layer increased the bond strength to dentine when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The highest bond strength was obtained in the PIPS laser-activated irrigation group (p < 0.05). Coronal root region presented significantly higher bond strength than the apical region (p < 0.05). PIPS laser-activated irrigation showed higher efficiency as a final irrigant activation protocol on push-out bond strength of fiber post. PMID:26022731

  9. Evaluation of shear bond strength with different enamel pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Al-Wahadni, Ahed M S

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strengths of two adhesives, Panavia-21 and a composite resin (Transbond XT), with different enamel pre-treatments, acid etching (37 per cent phosphoric acid) and grit blasting (50 microm aluminium oxide particles). The mode of bond failure was also assessed using the modified adhesive remnant index (ARI). Ninety freshly extracted non-carious human premolar teeth were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) Transbond XT, acid-etched enamel surface; (2) Panavia-21, acid-etched enamel surface; (3) Transbond XT, grit-blasted enamel surface; (4) Panavia-21, grit-blasted enamel surface; (5) Transbond XT, acid-etched enamel surface with grit-blasted brackets; (6) Panavia-21, acid-etched enamel surface with grit-blasted brackets. All groups had stainless steel brackets bonded to the buccal surface of each tooth. An Instron universal testing machine was used to determine the shear bond strengths at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/second. Statistical analysis was undertaken using analysis of variance and the Tukey test. The mean bond strength values were as follows: group 1, 135.7 +/- 23.0 N; group 2, 181.5 +/- 18.4 N; group 3, 38.4 +/- 27.5 N; group 4, 59.1 +/- 24.1 N; group 5, 106.7 +/- 21.5 N; group 6, 165.3 +/- 21.4 N. Panavia-21 with the acid-etched enamel surface had a significantly higher shear bond strength than the other groups (P < 0.001). This was followed by the composite group with the acid-etched enamel surface. This group differed significantly from the composite and Panavia-21 groups with the grit-blasted tooth surface (P < 0.001) and from the composite and Panavia-21 groups with the acid-etched enamel surface and grit-blasted brackets (P < 0.01). The current findings indicate that Panavia-21 is an excellent adhesive and produces a bond strength that is clinically useful. Enamel surface preparation using grit blasting alone results in a significantly lower bond strength and should not be

  10. Porcelain repair - Influence of different systems and surface treatments on resin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Young; Yoon, Hyung-In; Park, Ji-Man

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of composite resin on the fracture surface of metal-ceramic depending on the repair systems and surface roughening methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 30 disk specimens were fabricated, 15 of each were made from feldspathic porcelain and nickel-chromium base metal alloy. Each substrate was divided into three groups according to the repair method: a) application of repair system I (Intraoral Repair Kit) with diamond bur roughening (Group DP and DM), b) application of repair system I with airborne-particle abrasion (Group SP and SM), and c) application of repair system II (CoJet Intraoral Repair System, Group CP and CM). All specimens were thermocycled, and the shear bond strength was measured. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and the Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS For the porcelain specimens, group SP showed the highest shear bond strength (25.85 ± 3.51 MPa) and group DP and CP were not significantly different. In metal specimens, group CM showed superior values of bond strength (13.81 ± 3.45 MPa) compared to groups DM or SM. CONCLUSION Airborne-particle abrasion and application of repair system I can be recommended in the case of a fracture localized to the porcelain. If the fracture extends to metal surface, the repair system II is worthy of consideration. PMID:26576249