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Sample records for bonded composite semicircular

  1. Free vibrations of thin-walled semicircular graphite-epoxy composite frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study is made of the effects of variations in lamination and material parameters of thin walled composite frames on their vibrational characteristics. The structures considered are semicircular thin walled frames with I and J sections. The flanges and webs of the frames are modeled by using 2-D shell and plate finite elements. A mixed formulation is used with the fundamental unknowns consisting of both the generalized displacements and stress resultants in the frame. The frequencies and modes predicted by the 2-D finite element model are compared with those obtained from experiments, as well as with the predictions of a non-dimensional thin walled beam finite element model. A detailed study is made of the sensitivity of the vibrational response to variations in the fiber orientation, material properties of the individual layers, and boundary conditions.

  2. Free vibrations of thin-walled semicircular graphite-epoxy composite frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Carden, Huey D.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study is made of the effects of variations in lamination and material parameters of thin walled composite frames on their vibrational characteristics. The structures considered are semicircular thin walled frames with I and J sections. The flanges and webs of the frames are modelled by using 2-D shell and plate finite elements. A mixed formulation is used with the fundamental unknowns consisting of both the generalized displacements and stress resultants in the frames. The frequencies and modes predicted by the 2-D finite element model are compared with those obtained from experiments, as well as with the predictions of a 1-D thin walled beam finite element model. A detailed study is made of the sensitivity of the vibrational response to variations in the fiber orientation, material properties of the individual layers, and boundary conditions.

  3. Surface analysis in composite bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messick, D. L.; Wightman, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The role of the interfacial region in determining the bond strength and durability of composite bonds is discussed. The characterization of a variety of carbon fibers including Celion 6000 using both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is discussed. The emphasis is on composite bonding, that is, the adhesive bonding between composites in contrast to fiber-matrix interaction. The primary objective of the research is the characterization of composite surfaces before adhesive bonding and after fracture of bonded specimens. Work done on the analysis of composite samples pretreated in a number of ways prior to bonding is detailed.

  4. Surface analysis in composite bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messick, D. L.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    X ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements on graphite fiber composites pretreated in a number of different ways including mechanical, chemical, and light irradiation were analyzed. Data acquired on surface contamination as a result of fabrication techniques provides answers to the strength and durability of adhesively bonded composites. These techniques were shown to provide valuable information on surface analysis of pretreated composites prior to adhesive bonding and following lap shear fracture.

  5. Bonded and Stitched Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F. (Inventor); Dial, William B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of forming a composite structure can include providing a plurality of composite panels of material, each composite panel having a plurality of holes extending through the panel. An adhesive layer is applied to each composite panel and a adjoining layer is applied over the adhesive layer. The method also includes stitching the composite panels, adhesive layer, and adjoining layer together by passing a length of a flexible connecting element into the plurality of holes in the composite panels of material. At least the adhesive layer is cured to bond the composite panels together and thereby form the composite structure.

  6. Explosive bonding of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Explosive bonding process produces sheet composites of aluminum alloy reinforced by high-strength stainless steel wires. The bonds are excellent metallurgically, no external heat is required, various metals can be bonded, and the process is inexpensive.

  7. MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENT AND THERMAL X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE SEMICIRCULAR YOUNG COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT 3C 396

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yang; Yang Ji; Lu Dengrong; Yang Chen; Zhou Xin; Koo, Bon-Chul; Jeong, Il-Gyo; DeLaney, Tracey

    2011-01-20

    We have investigated the molecular environment of the semicircular composite supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 396 and performed a Chandra spatially resolved thermal X-ray spectroscopic study of this young SNR. With our CO millimeter observations, we find that the molecular clouds (MCs) at V{sub LSR}{approx} 84 km s{sup -1} can better explain the multiwavelength properties of the remnant than the V{sub LSR} = 67-72 km s{sup -1} MCs that are suggested by Lee et al. At around 84 km s{sup -1}, the western boundary of the SNR is perfectly confined by the western molecular wall. The CO emission fades out from west to east, indicating that the eastern region is of low gas density. In particular, an intruding finger/pillar-like MC, which may be shocked at the tip, can well explain the X-ray and radio enhancement in the southwest and some infrared filaments there. The SNR-MC interaction is also favored by the relatively elevated {sup 12}CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 line ratios in the southwestern 'pillar tip' and the molecular patch on the northwestern boundary. The redshifted {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0 and J = 2-1) wings (86-90 km s{sup -1}) of an eastern 81 km s{sup -1} molecular patch may be the kinematic evidence for shock-MC interaction. We suggest that the 69 km s{sup -1} MCs are in the foreground based on H I self-absorption while the 84 km s{sup -1} MCs at a distance of 6.2 kpc (the tangent point) are in physical contact with SNR 3C 396. The X-ray spectral analysis suggests an SNR age of {approx}3 kyr. The metal enrichment of the X-ray emitting gas in the north and south implies a 13-15 M{sub sun} B1-B2 progenitor star.

  8. Surface characterization in composite and titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The failure surface analysis of adhesively bonded carbon fiber composites is described. The emphasis is on the bonding of composites when the surface has been made intentionally resin-rich. Also discussed is surface analysis of both commercially available and pretreated carbon fibers. The interaction of the fibers with polysulfone is described.

  9. Analysis of "Kiss" Bonds Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott L.; Earthman, James C.

    2014-06-01

    One of the leading challenges to designing lightweight, cost-effective bonded structures is to detect low shear strength "kiss" bonds where no other defects such as voids and cracks exist. To develop a nondestructive testing method that is sensitive to kiss bonds, standards need to be fabricated with known strength values. In the current work, we attempt to create kiss bonds in between carbon fiber composite laminates that have been bonded with epoxy film adhesive and epoxy paste adhesive. Based on ultrasonic testing, when creating true kiss bonds using film adhesives, a complete disbond could not be avoided because of thermally induced stresses during the high-temperature cure. However, further work demonstrated that kiss bonds can be formed using room-temperature curable epoxy paste adhesives by creating an amine blush on the epoxy surface or applying a release agent on the bonding surfaces.

  10. The Semicircular Canal Microphonic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Highstein, S. M.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Present experiments were designed to quantify the alternating current (AC) component of the semicircular canal microphonic for angular motion stimulation as a function of stimulus frequency and amplitude. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Calibrated mechanical indentation of the horizontal canal duct was used as a stimulus to generate hair-cell and afferent responses reproducing those present during head rotation. Sensitivity to polarization of the endolymph DC voltage re: perilymph was also investigated. Modulation of endolymph voltage was recorded using conventional glass electrodes and lock-in amplification over the frequency range 0.2-80 Hz. Access to the endolymph for inserting voltage recording and current passing electrodes was obtained by sectioning the anterior canal at its apex and isolating the cut ends in air. For sinusoidal stimulation below approx.10 Hz, the horizontal semicircular canal AC microphonic was nearly independent of stimulus frequency and equal to approximately 4 microV per micron indent (equivalent to approx. 1 microV per deg/s). A saturating nonlinearity decreasing the microphonic gain was present for stimuli exceeding approx.3 micron indent (approx. 12 deg/s angular velocity). The phase was not sensitive to the saturating nonlinearity. The microphonic exhibited a resonance near 30Hz consistent with basolateral current hair cell resonance observed previously in voltage-clamp records from semicircular canal hair cells. The magnitude and phase of the microphonic exhibited sensitivity to endolymphatic polarization consistent with electro-chemical reversal of hair cell transduction currents.

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of interfaces in composite bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2011-06-23

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  12. Ultrasonic Characterization of Interfaces in Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  13. Cyclic debonding of adhesively bonded composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.; Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of a simple composite to composite bonded joint was analyzed. The cracked lap shear specimen subjected to constant amplitude cyclic loading was studied. Two specimen geometries were tested for each bonded system: (1) a strap adherend of 16 plies bonded to a lap adherend of 8 plies; and (2) a strap adherend of 8 plies bonded to a lap adherend of 16 plies. In all specimens the fatigue failure was in the form of cyclic debonding with some 0 deg fiber pull off from the strap adherend. The debond always grew in the region of adhesive that had the highest mode (peel) loading and that region was close to the adhesive strap interface.

  14. Syntactic foam composites and bonding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McWhirter, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    A manufacturing process has been developed to produce billets molded from a composite of carbon microspheres, a polyimide resin, and carbon fibers. The billets then are machined to configuration which results in extremely sharp and fragile edges on one part. To strengthen these parts, a parylene coating is applied, after which the parts are assembled with other parts by bonding. Bonding and assembly problems are discussed in detail; other problems encountered are summarized, and several are referenced to previous reports.

  15. Production of biopolymer composites by particle bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes a new process, particle-bonding technology, to produce biopolymer composites from agricultural commodities. In this technology, matrix-protein complexes are formed by the interaction of micrometer-scale matrix material with an adhesive protein, zein. This spontaneous process m...

  16. Fluidmechanics of semicircular canals revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    In this work we find the exact solution for the flow field in a semicircular canal which is the main sensor for angular motion in the human body. When the head is rotated the inertia of the fluid in the semicircular canal leads to a deflection of sensory hair cells which are part of a gelatinous structure called cupula. A modal expansion of the governing equation shows that the semicircular organ can be understood as a dynamic system governed by duct modes and a single cupular mode. We use this result to derive an explicit expression for the displacement of the cupula as a function of the angular motion of the head. This result shows in a mathematically and physically clean way that the semicircular canal is a transducer for angular velocity.

  17. A novel composite-to-composite adhesive bond mechanism.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Naotake; Sakamoto, Tominori; Kubota, Yuya; Kondo, Yoshie; Momoi, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adhesion between various resin composites can occur by a chelation reaction of elemental ions. The surface composition of four commercially available resin composites (Beautifil II, Clearfil AP-X, Estelite Σ Quick and Solare) were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Composite-to-composite adhesion with conventional silane coupling treatment was compared to self-etching primer treatment and evaluated by conventional shear bond strength testing. Our results detected Strontium and Barium (alkaline metallic earth ions) on the surface of Beautifil II and Clearfil AP-X resins. The shear bond strength values of self-etching primer treatments of Beautifil II and Clearfil AP-X was significantly higher than Estelite Σ Quick and Solare. Our data suggest that self-etching primer treatment is effective for adhesion of resin composites, depending on their filler composition, due to the chelation adhesion reaction between the acidic monomer and incorporated alkaline metal ions. PMID:21778602

  18. Analysis of adhesively bonded composite lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, L.; Kuruppu, M.; Kelly, D.

    1994-12-31

    A new nonlinear formulation is developed for the governing equations for the shear and peel stresses in adhesively bonded composite double lap joints. The new formulation allows arbitrary nonlinear stress-strain characteristics in both shear and peel behavior. The equations are numerically integrated using a shooting technique and Newton-Raphson method behind a user friendly interface. The failure loads are predicted by utilizing the maximum stress criterion, interlaminar delamination and the energy density failure criteria. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effect of the nonlinear adhesive behavior on the stress distribution and predict the failure load and the associated mode.

  19. Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is related to the development and application of progressive damage modeling techniques to bonded joint technology. The joint designs studied in this work include a conventional composite splice joint and a NASA-patented durable redundant joint. Both designs involve honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon/epoxy facesheets joined using adhesively bonded doublers.Progressive damage modeling allows for the prediction of the initiation and evolution of damage within a structure. For structures that include multiple material systems, such as the joint designs under consideration, the number of potential failure mechanisms that must be accounted for drastically increases the complexity of the analyses. Potential failure mechanisms include fiber fracture, intraply matrix cracking, delamination, core crushing, adhesive failure, and their interactions. The bonded joints were modeled using highly parametric, explicitly solved finite element models, with damage modeling implemented via custom user-written subroutines. Each ply was discretely meshed using three-dimensional solid elements. Layers of cohesive elements were included between each ply to account for the possibility of delaminations and were used to model the adhesive layers forming the joint. Good correlation with experimental results was achieved both in terms of load-displacement history and the predicted failure mechanism(s).

  20. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to GIC using three different adhesives.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, V; Abarajithan, M; Krithikadatta, J; Kandaswamy, D

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the bonding ability of composite to glass ionomer cement (GIC) using three different bonding systems. One hundred samples of composites bonded to GIC were prepared and divided into five groups. In Group A, the composite was bonded to GIC after the initial setting of the GIC being employed as a total-etch adhesive. In Group B, the self-etch primer was employed to bond composite to GIC before the initial setting of the GIC. In Group C, the self-etch primer was employed to bond composite to the GIC after the initial setting of the GIC. In Group D, the GIC-based adhesive was employed to bond composite to the GIC before the initial setting of the GIC. In Group E, the GIC-based adhesive was employed to bond composite to the GIC after the initial setting of the GIC. Shear bond strength analysis was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were tabulated and the statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA; the Tukey's test showed that the bond strength of composite to GIC was significantly higher for the self-etch primer group employed on unset GIC and the GIC-based adhesive group employed on the set GIC for bonding composite to GIC. PMID:19678453

  1. Shear bond strength of composite resin to amalgam: an experiment in vitro using different bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, F; Hey, J H; Ambrose, E R

    1991-01-01

    The shear bond strength between amalgam and composite resin with and without the use of adhesive systems was evaluated. It was found that the application of Cover-Up II or Prisma Universal Bond prior to placement of composite resin enhanced the shear bond strength between amalgam and composite resin more than five times; and a shear strength of 4.34 and 4.30 MPa was measured respectively. Acid-etching of the roughened amalgam surface prior to application of Prisma Universal Bond decreased the bond strength by nearly 45%. PMID:1784535

  2. Incremental layer shear bond strength of low-shrinkage resin composites under different bonding conditions.

    PubMed

    Al Musa, A H; Al Nahedh, H N A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane) repaired with silorane or a methacrylate-based composite (Filtek Z250) under various aging conditions. Also, the incremental bond strength of the silorane-based composite was compared with that of another low-shrinkage methacrylate-based composite (Aelite LS Posterior) under fresh and aged conditions, with and without the use of an adhesive resin between successive layers. The two brands of low-shrinkage composites were compared with a microhybrid, Filtek Z250, which served as the control. Substrate discs were fabricated and second layers were adhered to them immediately, after two weeks of aging, or after four weeks of aging and with and without an adhesive resin. Shear bond strengths were measured and failure modes were evaluated. The incremental bond strength of silorane to the silorane-based composite was not significantly different from that of the methacrylate-based composite. However, repairing a silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite significantly reduced the bond strength. Aelite showed a lower incremental bond strength than Z250 and silorane, but the use of an adhesive significantly improved the bond strength. The absence of an oxygen-inhibited layer did not affect the bond strength of the consecutive layers of the silorane-based composite. PMID:24807812

  3. Non destructive evaluation of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced composite lap joints with varied bond quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R. L.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.

    2012-05-01

    Structural adhesive bonding is widely used to execute assemblies in automobile and aerospace structures. The quality and reliability of these bonded joints must be ensured during service. In this context non destructive evaluation of these bonded structures play an important role. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composite single lap shear joints has been attempted through experimental approach. Series of tests, non-destructive as well as destructive were performed on different sets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite lap joint specimens with varied bond quality. Details of the experimental investigations carried out and the outcome are presented in this paper.

  4. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A Nd:YAG laser was used to etch patterns conducive to adhesive bonding onto CFRP surfaces. These were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply. Laser treated composites were then subjected to optical microscopy, contact angle measurements, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  5. Effect of Bonding Application Time on Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ghassemi, Amir; Mahdian, Mina; Akbarzadeh Bagheban, Alireza; Moayyedi, Seddigheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This experimental study evaluated the effect of bonding application time on the microshear bond strength of composite resin to different types of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Materials and Methods: One-hundred and sixty specimens (two conventional and two resin-modified GICs) were prepared and divided into 16 groups. The surface of all specimens was prepared using two different bonding systems (Frog and Stea) at three different times. After setting, the composite resin (Z100) was placed over the GICs. The specimens were then stored in distilled water for 24 hours (37°C) and exposed to microshear stresses at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The results were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: In conventional GICs, bond strength was affected by the type of bonding system at different times, and bond strength was significantly higher in the Fuji II group compared to Riva Self Cure group. In the Riva Self Cure group, bond strength was significantly affected by time; whereas, the type of bonding system failed to exert a significant effect on bond strength. There was no significant correlation between the type of bonding system and the two brands of resin-modified GICs. Bond strength was not affected by the type of bonding agent; however, among the two brands of resin-modified GICs, Fuji II LC yielded a significantly stronger bond. Conclusion: It appears that the type of bonding agent does not affect the microshear bond strength, and the bonding application time affects the microshear bond strength in Riva Self Cure GICs. PMID:27507998

  6. Rapid induction bonding of composites, plastics, and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D.; Fox, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The Toroid Bonding Gun is and induction heating device. It is a self contained, portable, low powered induction welding system developed for bonding or joining plastic, ceramic, or metallic parts. Structures can be bonded in a factory or in a the field. This type of equipment allows for applying heat directly to the bond lines and/or to the adhesives without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. The induction heating gun originally developed for use in the fabrication of space Gangs of bonders are now used to rapidly join composite sheet and structural components. Other NASA-developed applications of this bonding technique include the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials.

  7. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOEpatents

    Sastri, S.A.; Pemsler, J.P.; Cooke, R.A.; Litchfield, J.K.; Smith, M.B.

    1996-03-05

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates. 2 figs.

  8. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOEpatents

    Sastri, Suri A.; Pemsler, J. Paul; Cooke, Richard A.; Litchfield, John K.; Smith, Mark B.

    1996-01-01

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates.

  9. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Plucknett, Kevin; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite.

  10. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  11. Inspection of bonded composites using selectively excited ultrasonic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Gordon Gustav

    Improved methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) of multi-layered composites are vital for fundamental research in composites fabrication and performance. Fast, accurate NDT methods can also be used to predict catastrophic in-use failure and to reduce costly rejects during the manufacture of composite parts. Commercial normal incidence inspection techniques have generally yielded reliable detection of large areas of delamination and damage. They fail, however, to detect defects within thin bonded regions, such as disbonds, debonds, kissing bonds, and porosity. We have developed and studied a nondestructive testing technique designed to be sensitive to flaws in the bond area of adhesively bonded anisotropic materials. The technique utilizes specific ultrasonic modes which are selected through a priori modeling of the composite as a single anisotropic elastic layer. The displacement and stress profiles of the modes within the fluid loaded layer are evaluated. A propagating mode that is predicted to be highly sensitive to the bond area is then utilized in the inspection. The inspection is carried out with an apparatus designed and constructed to excite and detect the selected ultrasonic mode. The apparatus uses transducers oriented at the theoretically optimal incident angle to excite the desired mode, using a tone burst between 0.5 and 10.0 MHz. We monitor with a second transducer changes in the amplitude of the leaky component of the mode propagating in the plate. By using this apparatus we have experimentally distinguished changes in the bond areas of adhesively bonded aluminum plates and carbon-epoxy composite plates of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic lay-up, The radiated leaky wave amplitudes from poorly bonded plates were less than 50% of those from corresponding well bonded plates. We observed no significant changes in the amplitudes of normal incidence pulse-echo signals for these specimens. These results demonstrate that selective mode excitation can

  12. Probabilistic assessment of failure in adhesively bonded composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    Damage initiation and progressive fracture of adhesively bonded graphite/epoxy composites is investigated under tensile loading. A computer code is utilized for the simulation of composite structural damage and fracture. Structural response is assessed probabilistically during degradation. The effects of design variable uncertainties on structural damage progression are quantified. The Fast Probability Integrator is used to assess the response scatter in the composite structure at damage initiation. Sensitivity of the damage response to design variables is computed. Methods are general purpose in nature and are applicable to all types of laminated composite structures and joints, starting from damage initiation to unstable damage propagation and collapse. Results indicate that composite constituent and adhesive properties have a significant effect on structural durability. Damage initiation/progression does not necessarily begin in the adhesive bond. Design implications with regard to damage tolerance of adhesively bonded joints are examined.

  13. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.N.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an advanced hot gas filter, using ceramic component technology, with enhanced durability to provide increased resistance to thermal fatigue and crack propagation. The material is silicon carbide fiber reinforced nitride bonded silicon carbide.

  14. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical prebonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  15. Adhesive Bonding Characterization of Composite Joints for Cryogenic Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Schieleit, Gregory F.; Biggs, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite cryogenic tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future reusable launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW). This weight reduction is possible due to the large reduction in weight that composite materials can provide over current aluminum technology. In addition to composite technology, adhesively bonded joints potentially have several benefits over mechanically fastened joints, such as weight savings and cryogenic fluid containment. Adhesively bonded joints may be used in several areas of these cryogenic tanks, such as in lobe-to-lobe joints (in a multi-lobe concept), skirt-to-tank joint, strut-to-tank joint, and for attaching stringers and ring frames. The bonds, and the tanks themselves, must be able to withstand liquid cryogenic fuel temperatures that they contain. However, the use of adhesively bonded composite joints at liquid oxygen and hydrogen temperatures is largely unknown and must be characterized. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Michoud Operations performed coupon-level tests to determine effects of material selection, cure process parameters, substrate surface preparation, and other factors on the strength of these composite joints at cryogenic temperatures. This led to the selection of a material and process that would be suitable for a cryogenic tank. KEY WORDS: Composites, Adhesive Bonding, Cryogenics

  16. Effect of surface pretreatments on resin composite bonding to PEEK.

    PubMed

    Silthampitag, Patcharawan; Chaijareenont, Pisaisit; Tattakorn, Kittipong; Banjongprasert, Chaiyasit; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Arksornnukit, Mansuang

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of surface pretreatments on resin composite bonding to polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Four groups of surface pretreatment (no pretreatment, etched with 98% sulfuric acid, etched with piranha solution and sandblasting with 50 µm alumina) were performed on PEEK. Surface roughness, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were examined. Shear bond strength (SBS) and interface characteristics were also evaluated after the specimens were bonded with resin materials. Two-way ANOVA analysis revealed significance on two main effects and interactions. Tukey's multiple comparisons test showed that the SBS of resin composite on PEEK were the highest in the group etched with 98% sulfuric acid and bonded with Heliobond(®) (p<0.05). All pretreatments produced similar spectra of FTIR patterns. SEM demonstrated porosities and pitting from chemical etching, which suggested a significant influence on the adhesion between PEEK and resin materials. PMID:27477234

  17. Metallic and intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this task is to establish a framework for the development and fabrication of metallic-phase-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with improved fracture toughness and damage resistance. The incorporation of metallic phases that plastically deform in the crack tip region, and thus dissipate strain energy, will result in an increase in the fracture toughness of the composite as compared to the monolithic ceramic. It is intended that these reinforced ceramic matrix composites will be used over a temperature range from 20{degrees}C to 800-1200{degrees}C for advanced applications in the industrial sector. In order to systematically develop these materials, a combination of experimental and theoretical studies must be undertaken.

  18. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics For Evaluating Bond Integrity Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott Leonard

    Conventional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was utilized based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Experimental results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting 'kiss' bonds (very low adhesive shear strength), caused by the application of release agents on the bonding surfaces, between flat composite laminates bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Specifically, the local value of the loss coefficient determined from quantitative percussion testing was found to be significantly greater for a release coated panel compared to that for a well bonded sample. Also, the local value of the probe force or force returned to the probe after impact was observed to be lower for the release coated panels. The increase in loss coefficient and decrease in probe force are thought to be due to greater internal friction during the percussion event for poorly bonded specimens. NDT standards were also fabricated by varying the cure parameters of an epoxy film adhesive. Results from QPD for the variable cure NDT standards and lap shear strength measurements taken of mechanical test specimens were compared and analyzed. Finally, experimental results have been compared to a finite element analysis to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. This comparison shows how a lower quality bond leads to a reduction in the percussion force by biasing strain in the percussion tested side of the panel.

  19. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups). Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray), with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups), or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE) (Three-step/Methacrylate group) (n = 6). The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm), and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min) to perform microtensile testing. Results Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p < 0.05). However, it was not significantly different from Preetching/Silorane and Methacrylate groups. Conclusions Pre-etching increased bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. PMID:25671209

  20. Production of biopolymer composites by particle bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a new technology to produce biopolymer composites at room temperature. During the process, micrometer-scale raw material is coated with zein that has strong adhesive property, which is then compressed to form a rigid material. Since this technology does not require purificati...

  1. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  2. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel: Assessment of Two Ethanol Wet-Bonding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Rafizadeh, Mojgan; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB) technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength. Materials and Methods: Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL) adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control);Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73). However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel. PMID:24910690

  3. Fracture Control Requirements for Composite and Bonded Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faile, Gwyn C.

    2004-01-01

    Current new requirements document are top level or specific to shuttle payloads. NASA-STD-5007 top level requirement that imposes fracture control on all manned spacecraft hardware. Composites addressed at very top level. NASA_SDT-5003 imposes fracture control on payloads for the space shuttle. Imposes fracture control on composite and bonded structures. Silent on many important issues such as post proof NDE, residual strength, and reuse. Not adequate for or directly applicable to next generation of spacecraft.

  4. Dual resin bonded joints in polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenak, Steve; Radford, Donald W.; Dean, Michael W.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes applications of the dual resin (miscible polymer) bonding technique (Smiley, 1989) developed as an alternative to traditional bonding approaches to joining thermoplastic matrix composite subassemblies into structures. In the experiments, the performance of joint geometries, such as those that could be used to assemble large truss structures in space, are investigated using truss joint models consisting of woven carbon fiber/PEEK tubes of about 1 mm wall thickness. Specific process conditions and hand-held hardware used to apply heat and pressure were chosen to simulate a field asembly technique. Results are presented on tube/cruciform double lap shear tests, pinned-pinned tube compression tests, and single lap shear bond tests of joints obtained using the dual resin bonding technique.

  5. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  6. Fracture surface analysis in composite and titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    To understand the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composite materials, it is necessary to understand the mechanical properties of the matrix materials and of the reinforcing fibers. Another factor that can affect the mechanical properties of a composite material is the interaction between the fiber and the matrix. In general, composites with strong fiber matrix bonding will give higher modulus, lower toughness composites. Composites with weak bonding will have a lower modulus and more ductility. The situation becomes a bit more complex when all possibilities are examined. To be considered are the following: the properties of the surface layer on the fiber, the interactive forces between polymer and matrix, the surface roughness and porosity of the fiber, and the morphology of the matrix polymer at the fiber surface. In practice, the surface of the fibers is treated to enhance the mechanical properties of a composite. These treatments include anodization, acid etching, high temperature oxidation, and plasma oxidation, to name a few. The goal is to be able to predict the surface properties of carbon fibers treated in various ways, and then to relate surface properties to fiber matrix bonding.

  7. Fatigue Life Methodology for Bonded Composite Skin/Stringer Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isabelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented for determining the fatigue life of bonded composite skin/stringer structures based on delamination fatigue characterization data and geometric nonlinear finite element analyses. Results were compared to fatigue tests on stringer flange/skin specimens to verify the approach.

  8. Production of composites by using gliadin as a bonding material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous papers, a new technology that produces biopolymer composites by particle-bonding was introduced. During the manufacturing process, micrometer-scale raw material was coated with a corn protein, zein, which is then processed to form a rigid material. The coating of raw-material particl...

  9. Behavior of Plastic Bonded Composite Explosives During High Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Y.

    1998-03-01

    The mechanical behavior of plastic bonded composite explosives has been studied during high acceleration in an ultracentrifuge. The pressed explosives studied include LX-14 [95% HMX (cyclotetramethylene- tetranitramine), 5% Estane], Composition A3 type II [91% RDX (cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine), 99% BDNPF (bis-dinitropropyl acetal formal), 6% CAB (cellulose acetate butyrate)], and PAX-3 (85% HMX, 9% BDNPF, 6% CAB/25% Aluminum). The fracture strength of LX-14 is greater than all pressed explosives studied to date. The fracture strength of Composition A3 type II is smaller than all pressed explosives studied to date.

  10. Microleakage in MOD resin composite with three dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Nakamoto, D K

    1989-11-01

    The extent of microleakage under MOD composites was studied when an aluminum oxalate dentin bonding agent (Tenure), a phosphonated resin bonding agent (Bondlite), and a glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Silver) were used. Three groups of 10 extracted molars were prepared with MOD cavities; one box ended on enamel, the other on cementum. In Group 1, Bondlite was applied to dentin and etched enamel before the sample was restored with a light-cured hybrid composite. In Group 2, a 2-mm increment of Ketac Silver was placed in each box before Bondlite and composite. In Group 3, Tenure was applied to dentin before being restored. Teeth were thermal-cycled, stained in silver nitrate, sectioned, and scored for microleakage. Microleakage along the gingival floor was significantly less at enamel margins than at cementum margins in all three groups. All groups showed severe marginal microleakage on cementum. PMID:2700971

  11. Health assessment of bonded composite repairs with frequency response techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Caleb; Whittingham, Brendan; Li, Henry C. H.; Herszberg, Israel; Mouritz, Adrian P.

    2007-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology may be applied to composite bonded repairs to enable the continuous through-life assessment of the repair's efficacy. This paper describes an SHM technique for the detection of debonding in composite bonded patches based on frequency response. The external doubler repair, commonly used to patch aircraft structures, is examined in this paper. An experimental investigation was conducted using carbon/epoxy doubler repairs bonded to carbon/epoxy substrates, with piezoelectric devices used to measure variations in the frequency response of the repaired structure due to debonding of the external doubler. Three piezoelectric devices were adhered to the structure; the actuator to the external doubler and two sensors to the parent panel. To simulate real repair design requirements (minimum surface perturbation) piezoelectric devices were installed on 'internal' surfaces. Clearance for the actuator was created by the removal of damaged material. The frequency response signature of the repaired structure with simulated debonds is analysed with respect to the response of fully bonded repairs. Results are discussed with implications for the development of a technique to monitor the integrity of external bonded repairs.

  12. Fracture surface analysis in composite and titanium bonding: Part 1: Titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, K. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Fractured lap shear Ti 6-4 adherends bonded with polyphenyquinoxaline (PPQ) and polysulfone were analyzed. The effects of adherend pretreatment, stress level, thermal aging, anodizing voltage, and modified adhesive of Ti 6-4 adherend bonded with PPQ on lap shear strength were studied. The effect of adherend pretreatment on lap shear strength was investigated for PS samples. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) used to study the surface topography and surface composition are also discussed.

  13. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

  14. Nondestructive inspection of bonded composite doublers for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Moore, David; Walkington, Phillip D.

    1996-11-01

    One of the major thrusts established under the FAA's National Aging Aircraft Research Program is to foster new technologies associated with civil aircraft maintenance. Recent DOD and other government developments in the use of bonded composite doublers on metal structures has supported the need for research and validation of such doubler applications on US certificated airplanes. Composite doubler technology is rapidly maturing and shows promise of cost savings on aging aircraft. While there have been numerous studies and military aircraft installations of composite doublers, the technology has not been certified for use on commercial aircraft. Before the use of composite doublers can be accepted by the civil aviation industry, it is imperative that methods be developed which can quickly and reliably assess the integrity of the doubler. In this study, a specific composite application was chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Primary among inspection requirements for these doublers is the identification of disbonds, between the composite laminate and aluminum parent material, and delaminations in the composite laminate. Surveillance of cracks or corrosion in the inspection (NDI) method can inspect for every flaw type, therefore it is important to be aware of available NDI techniques and to properly address their capabilities and limitations. This paper reports on a series of NDI tests which have been conducted on laboratory test structures and on a fuselage section cut from a retired L-1011 aircraft. Specific challenges, unique to bonded composite doubler applications, will be highlighted. In order to quickly integrate this technology into existing aircraft maintenance depots, the use of conventional NDI, ultrasonics, x-ray, and eddy current, is stressed. The application of these NDI technique to composite doublers and the results from test specimens, which were loaded to provide a changing flaw profile, are

  15. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    PubMed Central

    de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91) and significant (p=0.01) correlation between the tests. Conclusions The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions. PMID:21308290

  16. Development of explosively bonded TZM wire reinforced Columbian sheet composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, H. E.; Carpenter, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of producing TZM molybdenum wire reinforced C129Y columbium alloy composites by explosive welding were studied. Layers of TZM molybdenum wire were wound on frames with alternate layers of C129Y columbium alloy foil between the wire layers. The frames held both the wire and foils in place for the explosive bonding process. A goal of 33 volume percent molybdenum wire was achieved for some of the composites. Variables included wire diameter, foil thickness, wire separation, standoff distance between foils and types and amounts of explosive. The program was divided into two phases: (1) development of basic welding parameters using 5 x 10-inch composites, and (2) scaleup to 10 x 20-inch composites.

  17. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Daryadar, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC) (Filtek P90) with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC)(Z250), flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus) and different adhesive/composite combinations. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G). In the control group (G7), SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1) Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB)/SC; G2) Preheated SC; G3) SAB/MC; G4) Adper Single Bond (SB)/MC; G5) Flowable MC/MC; G6) Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04) and SB/MC (P<0.001). Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05), except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC. Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. PMID:27148378

  18. Installation of adhesively bonded composites to repair carbon steel structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Dunn, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the viability and durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, efforts are underway to adapt bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. This paper presents a study in the application of composite patches on large trucks and hydraulic shovels typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. It is believed that the use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, will help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel structure and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures. This paper will focus on the first phase of this study which evaluated the performance of different mechanical and chemical surface preparation techniques. The factors influencing the durability of composite patches in severe field environments will be discussed along with related laminate design and installation issues.

  19. 31 CFR 359.15 - When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is the composite rate applied to... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.15 When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds? The most recently announced composite rate applies to a bond during...

  20. 31 CFR 359.15 - When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is the composite rate applied to... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.15 When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds? The most recently announced composite rate applies to a bond during...

  1. 31 CFR 359.15 - When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is the composite rate applied to... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.15 When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds? The most recently announced composite rate applies to a bond during...

  2. 31 CFR 359.15 - When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is the composite rate applied to... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.15 When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds? The most recently announced composite rate applies to a bond during...

  3. Evaluation of micro-shear bond strength of resin modified glass-ionomer to composite resins using various bonding systems

    PubMed Central

    Kasraie, Shahin; Shokripour, Mohadese; Safari, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare the micro-shear bond strength between composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) by different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 discs of RMGI with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4). Four cylinders of composite resin (z250) were bonded to the RMGI discs with Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond in Groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group was the control. Samples were tested by a mechanical testing machine with a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed under a stereo-microscope. Results: The means of micro-shear bond strength values for Groups 1-4 were 14.45, 23.49, 16.23 and 5.46 MPa, respectively. Using a bonding agent significantly increased micro-shear bond strength (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Micro-shear bond strength of RMGI to composite increased significantly with the use of adhesive resin. The bond strength of RMGI to composite resin could vary depending upon the type of adhesive system used. PMID:24347892

  4. The effects of three different desensitizing agents on the shear bond strength of composite resin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Erdemir, Ali; Ercan, Ertugrul; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Kalaycioglu, Baris; Ulker, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three desensitizing agents on the shear bond strengths of four different bonding agents used to bond composite resin to dentin. A total of 160 extracted human molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal plane under water cooling, polished and randomly divided into 4 groups of 40. Each group was treated with a different desensitizing agent (Tooth Mousse, Ultra-EZ, Cervitec Plus), except for an untreated control group. Each group was then randomly subdivided into 4 groups of 10, and a different dentin bonding agent (XP Bond, AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-pop, GBond) was applied to each group in order to bond the specimens to a resin composite (Gradia Direct) built up using a plastic apparatus. A Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the shear bond strength of each specimen. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. With the exception of the Control/AdheSE and Ultra-EZ/XP Bond groups, no statistically significant differences were found in the shear bond strength values of the groups tested. These findings suggest that the use of different desensitizing agents does not affect the shear bond strength of various adhesive systems used to bond resin composite to dentin. PMID:20416554

  5. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  6. Chemically bonded ceramic matrix composites: Densification and conversion to diffusion bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.R.; Guelguen, M.A.; Kriven, W.M.

    1995-10-01

    Chemically bonded ceramics appear to be a promising alternative route for near-net shape fabrication of multi-phase ceramic matrix composites (CMC`s). The hydraulic (and refractory) properties of fine mono-calcium aluminate (CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) powders were used as the chemically bonding matrix phase, while calcia stabilized zirconia powders were the second phase material. Samples containing up to 70 wt% (55 vol%) zirconia have been successfully compacted and sintered. Various processing techniques were evaluated. Processing was optimized based on material properties, dilatometry and simultaneous thermal analysis (DTA/TGA). The physical characteristics of this novel CMC were characterized by hardness, density, and fracture toughness testing. Microstructures were evaluated by SEM and phase identification was verified using XRD.

  7. Shear bond strength of new self-adhesive flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Wajdowicz, Michael N; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Means, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new self-adhesive flowable composite resin systems have been introduced to the market. These new composite resin systems reportedly bond to dentin and enamel without the application of an adhesive bonding agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel of two new self-adhesive flowable composites with and without the use of an etch-and-rinse bonding agent. The new self-adhesive flowable composites had significantly lower bond strengths to enamel compared to a traditional adhesively bonded flowable composite. Both self-adhesive flowable composites had a significant increase in bond strength to enamel with the use of a phosphoric acid-etch and adhesive bonding agent. PMID:22414513

  8. Liquid phase reaction-bonding of structural ceramics and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Y.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of ceramics via the reaction of a solid precursor with either a gas or liquid phase has a number of advantages compared to conventional sintering technology. These advantages are known for gas-phase processes. The authors have explored the potential for synthesizing high performance ceramics in the model system reaction-bonded silicon carbide, in which liquid silicon is used to infiltrate carbonaceous preforms. In this paper results are presented that illustrate the use of alloyed-melts to obtain dense silicon carbide composites with residual refractory silicide phases, such as MoSi/sub 2/, rather than the residual silicon phase which has heretofore limited high temperature properties. Infiltration processing considerations, such as the ultimate infiltration dimensions possible in the presence of simultaneous reaction, are discussed. Microstructure and mechanical properties characterization in the SIC-MoSi/sub 2/ system are presented. Other refractory ceramics systems to which liquid-phase reaction-bonding may be applied are discussed.

  9. AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COMPOSITES AND THEIR EFFECT ON COMPOSITE-ADHESIVE-DENTIN BONDING

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, J.M.; O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Schumacher, G.E.; Skrtic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bond strength and related properties of photo-polymerizable, remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) polymeric composite-adhesive systems to dentin after various periods of aqueous aging at 37 °C. An experimental ACP base and lining composite was made from a photo-activated resin comprising 2,2-bis[p-(2’-hydroxy-3’-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and zirconyl dimethacrylate (ZrDMA); designated BTHZ. An experimental orthodontic composite was formulated from a photo-activated resin comprising ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), TEGDMA, HEMA and methacryloxyethyl phthalate (MEP); designated ETHM. In both composite series three fillers were compared: 1) freshly precipitated zirconium-modified ACP freshly precipitated (as-prepared Zr-ACP), 2) milled Zr-ACP and 3) an ion-leachable fluoride glass. In addition to the shear bond strength (SBS), work to fracture and failure modes of the orthodontic composites were determined. The SBS of the base and lining ACP composites appeared unaffected by filler type or immersion time. In the orthodontic ACP composite series, milled ACP composites showed initial mechanical advantages over as-prepared ACP composites, and produced higher incidence of a failure mode consistent with stronger adhesion. After six months of aqueous exposure, 80 % of specimens failed at the dentin-primer interface, with a 42 % overall reduction in bond strength. BTHZ and ETHM based ACP composites are potentially effective anti-demineralizing-remineralizing agents with possible clinical utility as protective base-liners and orthodontic cements, respectively. The analysis of the bond strength and failure modalities suggests that milled ACP composites may offer greater potential in clinical applications. PMID:19696914

  10. Recent advances in bonded composite repair technology for metallic aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.A.; Chester, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Advanced fiber composites such as boron/epoxy can be employed as adhesively bonded patches to repair or to reinforce metallic aerospace components. This approach provides many advantages over conventional mechanically fastened metallic patches, including improved fatigue behavior, reduced corrosion and easy conformance to complex aerodynamic contours. Bonded composite repairs have been shown to provide high levels of bond durability under aircraft operating conditions. The recent application of bonded composite repairs to military and civil aircraft is described.

  11. Structural Health Monitoring of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Fady

    In recent years, many aerospace organizations have researched and implemented composite materials to achieve better fuel efficiency as well as reduced maintenance cost. In addition to the use of composites, manufacturers are investigating the use of adhesive bonded joints and composite patch bonded repairs to extend the life of their in-service aircraft. Adhesive joints are superior to traditional mechanical fasteners as they reduce stress concentration zones and overall part count. However, the integrity of an adhesive joint is difficult to inspect. Inspection of adhesive joints may be carried out using interrogation technology such as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This thesis focuses on the evaluation of Acoustic-Ultrasonic (AU) SHM technique for the detection of crack and disbond growth. In addition to AU, Capacitance Disbond Detection Technique (CDDT) and the Surface Mountable Crack Detection System (SMCDS) were evaluated for the detection disbonds. Results of the AU system demonstrated that AU technology may be used to detect and quantify crack and disbond growth. It was also found that SMCDS and CDDT both complement each other, as SMCDS identified the location of disbond while CDDT quantify disbond.

  12. Effect of silane primers and unfilled resin bonding agents on repair bond strength of a prosthodontic microfilled composite.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, N; Atsuta, M; Matsumura, H

    2002-07-01

    This study examined the effect of silane primers and bonding agents on bonding between layers of a light-activated composite material when repaired in the laboratory process. Disk specimens were prepared with the dentin portion of a composite material (Dentacolor DA-30) and abraded with a silicon carbide rotary cutting instrument. The specimens were conditioned with either one of the two silane primers (Porcelain Liner M and Silicer) or one of the two unfilled resin bonding agents (Dentacolor Opaker liquid and New Metacolor Photo Opaque liquid), or one of four combinations of two primers and two bonding agents. An intact surface with a thin air-inhibited unpolymerized layer, and an unprimed surface with only silicone carbide abrasion were also used for references. After placement of the enamel portion of the same brand of composite material (Dentacolor SA-30) on each surface of the dentin material, the specimens were light-exposed, and stored for 24 h in either dry or wet condition. Shear bond strengths were then determined with a mechanical testing device. The results showed that combined use of a silane primer and a bonding agent generally showed the greatest magnitude of bond strength regardless of material variation. The use of an unfilled resin bonding agent after application of a silane primer (Porcelain Liner M) is recommended to ensure adequate repair bonding between layers of the composite material. PMID:12153453

  13. The behavior of bonded doubler splices for composite sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, T. A.; Weisahaar, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the behavior of adhesively bonded doubler splices of two composite material sandwich panels are presented. The splices are studied from three approaches: analytical; numerical (finite elements); and experimental. Several parameters that characterize the splice are developed to determine their influence upon joint strength. These parameters are: doubler overlap length; core stiffness; laminate bending stiffness; the size of the gap between the spliced sandwich panels; and room and elevated temperatures. Similarities and contrasts between these splices and the physically similar single and double lap joints are discussed. The results of this investigation suggest several possible approaches to improving the strength of the sandwich splices.

  14. Nondestructive inspection of bonded composite doublers for aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Moore, D.; Walkington, P.

    1996-12-31

    One major thrust in FAA`s National Aging Aircraft Research Program is to foster new technologies in civil aircraft maintenance. Recent DOD and other government developments in using bonded composite doublers on metal structures support the need for validation of such doubler applications on US certificated airplanes. In this study, a specific composite application was chosen on an L-1011 aircraft. Primary inspection requirements for these doublers include identifying disbonds between composite laminate and aluminum parent material, and delaminations in the composite laminate. Surveillance of cracks or corrosion in the parent aluminum material beneath the double is also a concern. No single NDI method can inspect for every flaw type, therefore we need to know NDI capabilities and limitations. This paper reports on a series of NDI tests conducted on laboratory test structures and on a fuselage section from a retired L-1011. Application of ultrasonics, x-ray, and eddy current to composite doublers and results from test specimens loaded to provide a changing flaw profile, are presented in this paper. Development of appropriate inspection calibration standards are also discussed.

  15. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L. )

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of [alpha] versus [beta]-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  16. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L.

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of {alpha} versus {beta}-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  17. Fatigue Life Methodology for Bonded Composite Skin/Stringer Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isabelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is presented for determining the fatigue life of composite structures based on fatigue characterization data and geometric nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses. To demonstrate the approach, predicted results were compared to fatigue tests performed on specimens which represented a tapered composite flange bonded onto a composite skin. In a first step, tension tests were performed to evaluate the debonding mechanisms between the flange and the skin. In a second step, a 2D FE model was developed to analyze the tests. To predict matrix cracking onset, the relationship between the tension load and the maximum principal stresses transverse to the fiber direction was determined through FE analysis. Transverse tension fatigue life data were used to -enerate an onset fatigue life P-N curve for matrix cracking. The resulting prediction was in good agreement with data from the fatigue tests. In a third step, a fracture mechanics approach based on FE analysis was used to determine the relationship between the tension load and the critical energy release rate. Mixed mode energy release rate fatigue life data were used to create a fatigue life onset G-N curve for delamination. The resulting prediction was in good agreement with data from the fatigue tests. Further, the prediction curve for cumulative life to failure was generated from the previous onset fatigue life curves. The results showed that the methodology offers a significant potential to Predict cumulative fatigue life of composite structures.

  18. Caul and method for bonding and curing intricate composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis S. (Inventor); Goodno, Kenneth N. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention disclosed here is a method for forming and curing an intricate structure of criss-crossing composite stringers and frames that are bonded to a skin panel. A structure constructed in accordance with the invention would be well-suited for use as a portion of an aircraft fuselage, a boat hull, or the like. The method is preferably practiced by applying uncured composite stringers to an uncured composite sheet panel. This is followed by placing cured frames crosswise over the stringers. The frames have openings at the locations where they intersect with the stringers which enables the frames to come into direct contact with the skin along most of their length. During the forming and curing process, the stringers are covered with a plurality of cauls, and the entire assembly of skin panel, stringers, frames and cauls is subjected to a vacuum bagging and curing process. The cauls serve to maintain both part shape and to control the flow of resin within the stringers as they are cured. Further, they probably eliminate the need for intermediate protective materials between the vacuum bag and the stringers.

  19. Retrograde root filling with dentin-bonded modified resin composite.

    PubMed

    Rud, J; Rud, V; Munksgaard, E C

    1996-09-01

    A retrograde root-end cover with a special resin composite (Retroplast) combined with the dentin bonding agent Gluma (Bayer AG) has been used since 1984 by the authors. Its content of silver, added to promote radiopacity, has been found to lower the working time and storage stability of the composite and might cause discolorations. Since 1990, silver has therefore been replaced with ytterbium trifluoride, which eliminates these side effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results obtained with these two resin composites and to evaluate the healing results after several years in function. Apical fillings (351) with the modified Retroplast showed the following radiographic healing pattern 1 yr after surgery: 80% complete healing, 2% scar tissue, 12% uncertain healing, and 6% failure. No significant difference in this healing pattern was found, compared with that obtained with the silver-containing Retroplast. Cases with ytterbium trifluoride classified as scar tissue and uncertain healing at 1 yr when examined at 2 to 4 yr postoperatively showed 89% complete healing. 0% scar tissue, 1% uncertain healing, and 9% failure. This result is significantly different from that obtained 1 yr after surgery. Based on calculations, it was predicted that with time 90% will become complete healing, whereas 10% will become failure. PMID:9198430

  20. Bond strength of resin composite to differently conditioned amalgam.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Vallittu, P K; Huysmans, M-C; Kalk, W; Vahlberg, T

    2006-01-01

    Bulk fracture of teeth, where a part of the amalgam restoration and/or the cusp is fractured, is a common clinical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of a hybrid resin composite to fresh amalgam. Amalgams (N=84) were condensed into acrylic and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments (N=6): (1) Alloy primer + opaquer, (2) Air-particle abrasion (50 micro m Al(2)O(3)) + alloy primer + opaquer, (3) Silica coating (30 micro m SiO(x)) + silanization + opaquer, (4) Opaquer + pre-impregnated continuous bidirectional E-glass fibre sheets, (5) Silica coating + silanization + fibre sheets, (6) Silica coating + silanization + opaquer + fibre sheet application. Non-conditioned amalgam surfaces were considered as control group (7). The mean surface roughness depth (R(Z)) was measured from the control group and air-abraded amalgam surfaces. The resin composite was bonded to the conditioned amalgam specimens using polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested under dry and thermocycled (6.000, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s) conditions. The shear bond strength of resin composite to amalgam substrates was measured in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Surface roughness values for the non-conditioned control group (R(Z) approximately 0.14 micro m) and for air-particle abraded surfaces with either Al(2)O(3) or SiO(x) (R(Z) approximately 0.19 micro m and R(Z) approximately 0.16 micro m, respectively) did not show significant differences (p=0.23) (One-way ANOVA). In dry conditions, silica coating and silanization followed by fibre sheet application exhibited significantly higher results (14.8+/-5.6 MPa) than those of the groups conditioned with alloy primer (2.2+/-0.7 MPa) (p<0.001), air-particle abrasion+alloy primer (4.4+/-2.0 MPa, p<0.001), silica coating+silanization alone (6.2+/-0.8 MPa, p=0.009) or non-conditioned group (1.4+/-0.6, p<0.001). Silica coating and silanization followed

  1. Repair bond strength of restorative resin composite applied to fiber-reinforced composite substrate.

    PubMed

    Tezvergil, Arzu; Lassila, Lippo V J; Yli-Urpo, Antti; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2004-02-01

    Delamination or fracture of composite veneers can occur as a result of improper design of the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) framework. This in vitro study tested the repair bond strength of restorative composite to aged FRC. The substrate was multiphase polymer matrix FRC (everStick) aged by boiling for 8 h and storing at 37 degrees C in water for 6 weeks. The aged substrate surfaces were wet-ground flat with 1200-grit silicon carbide paper and subjected randomly to 5 different surface treatments: 1) An adhesion primer (Composite Activator) and resin (CA), 2) Silane (EspeSil) and resin (SIL-MP), 3) Silane, adhesive primer, and resin (Clearfil Repair) (CF), 4) Air particle-abrading (CoJet), silane, and resin (CJ-SIL-MP), 5) Resin (Scotchbond Multipurpose Resin) only as control (MP). Restorative composite resin (Z250) was added to the substrate in 2 mm layer increments and light-cured. Subsequently, every surface treatment group was divided into 2 subgroups of 12 specimens each. The specimens were either 48 h water-stored or thermocycled (6000 x 5-55 degrees C). The shear bond strengths of composite resin to FRC were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The data were analyzed by ANOVA for factors 'treatment type' and 'storage condition'; Tukey's post-hoc tests and Weibull analysis were performed. ANOVA showed a significant difference as a function of surface treatment (P<0.05) and storage condition (P<0.05). The CJ-SIL-MP group showed highest bond strength and Weibull modulus after thermocycling. Repair of multiphase polymer matrix FRC may show reliable bond strength when silane treatment is used along with air-particle abrading. PMID:15124783

  2. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  3. The Effect of Surface Roughness on Repair Bond Strength of Light-Curing Composite Resin to Polymer Composite Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Timo T.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the shear bond strength of a new composite resin to polymer-based composite substrates using various surface roughnesses and two kinds of polymer matrices. Materials and methods: Particulate filler composite resin with cross-linked polymer matrix and fiber-reinforced composite with semi-interpenetrating polymer matrix were used as bonding substrates after being ground to different roughnesses. Substrates were aged in water for one week before bonding to new resin composites. Twelve specimens in the substrate groups were ground with grinding papers of four grits; 320, 800, 1200 and 2400. Results: Corresponding values of surface roughness (Ra) varied from 0.09 to 0.40 for the particulate filler composite resin and 0.07 to 0.96 for the fiber-reinforced composite resin. Characteristic shear bond strength between the new resin and particulate filler composite resin was highest (27.8 MPa) with the roughest surface (Weibull modulus: 2.085). Fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest bond strength (20.8 MPa) with the smoothest surface (Weibull modulus: 4.713). Conclusions: We concluded that surface roughness did not increase the bonding of new resin to the substrate of IPN based fiber-reinforced composite, whereas the roughness contributed to bonding the new resin to the particulate filler composite resin with a cross-linked polymer matrix. PMID:24167536

  4. Size limitations in semicircular duct systems

    PubMed

    Muller

    1999-06-01

    The present article discusses mechanical requirements and limitations which are applicable to the construction of the system of semicircular ducts, especially to its size. The simplified case of a single, uniform duct system has been considered which can be described by a second order equation of motion. The principal functional quantities for this rotation-sensor are: (1) response speed; (2) sensitivity; and (3) regular flow. The response speed of a single, uniform semicircular duct is characterized by the short time constant (T2) which is dependent on the duct radius (r). Its estimated range is from 0.04 ms in the smallest to 140 ms in the largest known labyrinth. The sensitivity is characterized by the maximal endolymph displacement after a step stimulus (xmax). Its estimated range is from 0.0016 &mgr;m to 5.97 mm (6.56 decades!), assuming an input angular velocity of omega=1 rad s-1. The Reynolds number is a measure for an undisturbed laminar flow. Its estimated range varies from 7.38.10(-4)to 45.1 for omega=1 rad s-1. The above data follow from graphs in which, for a single uniform duct, circuit radius (R) is plotted against duct radius (r) for labyrinths of 233 species belonging to different vertebrate-groups. A relation R =38.9. r1.60was determined. The smallest labyrinth was found in a carp larva (Cyprinus), the largest in a whale shark (Rhincodon). Large whales possess labyrinths of average mammalian size. It is revealed that semicircular duct size is bound by requirements concerning regular flow and by a too low response speed for large labyrinths, and by a too low sensitivity for small labyrinths. Other important quantities are mechanical amplification factors which are a consequence of more complex vestibular constructions than a single uniform duct circuit. Allometric relationships are interpreted as compromises between the quantities mentioned. A hypothesis for the relatively large semicircular duct sizes of fishes, especially Elasmobranchii, compared

  5. Resonance-based bonding detection for piezoelectric fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dwo-Wen; Yin, Ching-Chung

    2008-11-01

    A resonance-based method is presented to determine the bonding conditions of piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC) patches attached to host structures. The PFCs are used to be functional materials by applying voltage through the interdigital electrodes symmetrically aligned on opposite surfaces of the composite patches. Interfacial debonds usually degrade the function. Only the edge debonds are taken into account in this paper. A partially debonded patch bears an in-plane extensional vibration if the interdigital electrodes are excited by a sinusoidal voltage. Electric impedance of the PFC patch adhered on an aluminum plate was measured in a broad frequency range to seek the resonant frequencies. The modal characteristics depend on the size of debond, material properties of the PFC, and stiffness of remaining adhesive in front of the edge debond. Extensional vibration of an elastic sheet is characteristic of the resonant frequencies being inversely proportional to the debonding length. The lowest several modes are considered. Experimental results indicate that self-detecting progressive debonding between the PFC patch and the host plate is feasible.

  6. Further understanding of aged composite and adhesively bonded structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslehurst, Rikard B.; Baird, John P.

    1996-11-01

    As the application of advanced composite materials and adhesively bonded components becomes increasingly numerous in aircraft structures, so is the number of aircraft containing such structures that can be classified in the aging aircraft category. The effect of environmental and in- service aging of such structures is not well known or understood, neither have NDE techniques been able to satisfactorily qualify and quantify the loss of structural integrity due to the aging process. This paper will present the latest developments in the practical use of a field portable holographic interferometric testing system. The system results, known as holographic interferograms, provide a better understanding of how a structure is behaving under realistic loads in the presence of defects, damage and material property aging. The system has been applied to a variety of defects in composite and adhesive bondlines, as well as artificial environmental aging of these materials. The holographic interferograms produced form these investigations will be briefly reviewed and their impact on structural integrity of the component discussed.

  7. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen profiles on the bond strength of repaired composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Hossam; ElKhatat, Essam; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Baroudi, Kusai; Beshr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of repaired three types of composite resins under various hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) profiles with various session numbers. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of three types of composite resin (nanofilled composite, nanohybrid composite and microfilled composite) each type of composite was divided into four group according to various profiles of HBO treatment (control, 2bar, 3 bar and 5 bar). Then, the specimens were repaired; thermocycled, the tensile bond strength were measured. Then the data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for the repaired nanofilled composite resin specimens while; the lowest bond strength was obtained for the repaired microfilled composite resin specimens. The highest tensile bond strength was recorded for the specimens who treated with the highest pressure of HBO. Conclusion: The bond strength of repaired nanofilled composite resins is better than the other types of composite resin. The highest pressure of HBO, the highest bond strength of repaired composite resins. PMID:27195232

  8. Evaluation of a thermoplastic polyimide (422) for bonding GR/PI composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hot-melt processable copolyimide previously studied and characterized as an adhesive for bonding Ti-6Al-4V was used to bond Celion 6000/LARC-160 composite. Comparisons are made for the two adherend systems. A bonding cycle was determined for the composite bonding and lap shear specimens were prepared which were thermally exposed in a forced-air oven for up to 5000 h at 204 C. The lap shear strengths (LSSs) were determined at RT, 177, and 204 C. After thermal exposure at RT, 177, and 204 C the LSS decreased significantly; however, a slight increase was noted for the 204 C tests. Initially the LSS values are higher for the bonded Ti-6Al-4V than for the bonded composite, however, the LSS decreases dramatically between 5000 and 10,000 h of 204 C thermal exposure. Longer periods of thermal exposure up to 20,000 h results in further decreases in the LSSs. Although the bonded composite retained useful strengths for exposures up to 5000 h, based on the por results of the bonded Ti-6Al-4V beyond 5000 h, the 422 adhesive bonded composites would most likely also produce poor strengths beyond 5000 h exposure. Adhesive bonded composite lap shear specimens exposed to boiling water for 72 h exhibited greatly reduced strengths at all test temperatures. The percent retained after water boil for each test temperature was essentially the same for both systems.

  9. Evaluation of a thermoplastic polyimide (422) for bonding GR/PI composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hot-melt processable copolyimide previously studied and characterized as an adhesive for bonding Ti-6Al-4V was used to bond Celion 6000/LARC-160 composite. Comparisons are made for the two adherend systems. A bonding cycle was determined for the composite bonding and lap shear specimens were prepared which were thermally exposed in a forced-air oven for up to 5000 h at 204 C. The lap shear strengths (LSSs) were determined at RT, 177, and 204 C. After thermal exposure at RT, 177, and 204 C the LSS decreased significantly; however, a slight increase was noted for the 204 C tests. Initially the LSS values are higher for the bonded Ti-6Al-4V than for the bonded composite, however, the LSS decreases dramatically between 5000 and 10,000 h of 204 C thermal exposure. Longer periods of thermal exposure up to 20,000 h results in further decreases in the LSSs. Although the bonded composite retained useful strengths for exposures up to 5000 h, based on the poor results of the bonded Ti-6Al-4V beyond 5000 h, the 422 adhesive bonded composites would most likely also produce poor strengths beyond 5000 h exposure. Adhesive bonded composite lap shear specimens exposed to boiling water for 72 h exhibited greatly reduced strengths at all test temperatures. The percent retained after water boil for each test temperature was essentially the same for both systems.

  10. Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring of composite bonded joints using macro fiber composite transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Oliver, Joseph; Kosmatka, John; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles

    2006-03-01

    The monitoring of adhesively-bonded joints through the use of ultrasonic guided waves is the general topic of this paper. Specifically, composite-to-composite joints representative of the wing skin-to-spar bonds of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are examined. This research is the first step towards the development of an on-board structural health monitoring system for UAV wings based on integrated ultrasonic sensors. The study investigates two different lay-ups for the wing skin and two different types of bond defects, namely poorly-cured adhesive and disbonded interfaces. The guided wave propagation problem is studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method that accounts for viscoelastic damping, and experimentally by utilizing macro fiber composite (MFC) transducers which are inexpensive, flexible, highly robust, and viable candidates for application in on-board monitoring systems. Based upon change in energy transmission, the presence of damage is successfully identified through features extracted in both the time domain and discrete wavelet transform domain. A unique "passive" version of the diagnostic system is also demonstrated experimentally, whereby MFC sensors are utilized for detecting and locating simulated active damage in an aluminum plate. By exploiting the directivity behavior of MFC sensors, a damage location algorithm which is independent of wave speed is developed. Application of this approach in CFRP components may alleviate difficulties associated with damage location in highly anisotropic systems.

  11. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Stainless Steel Crowns Using Two Mechanical Surface Treatments and Two Bonding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Sara; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to stainless steel crowns (SSC) using two mechanical surface treatments (MSTs) and two bonding systems. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SSCs were divided into six groups of 14; Group1: No MST+Scotchbond Universal adhesive (N+U), Group 2: Surface roughening by a diamond bur+Scotchbond Universal adhesive (R+U), Group 3: Sandblasting+Scotchbond Universal adhesive (S+U), Group 4: No MST+Alloy Primer+Clearfil SE Primer and Bond (N+A), Group 5: Surface roughening by a diamond bur+Alloy Primer+Clearfil SE Primer and Bond (R+A), Group 6: Sandblasting+Alloy Primer+Clearfil SE Primer and Bond (S+A). After MST and bonding procedure, composite cylinders were bonded to the lingual surface of SSCs, then the SBS of composite to SSCs was measured using a universal testing machine following thermocycling. Results: The SBS of groups R+U and S+U was significantly higher than that of group N+U. No significant difference was noted in SBS of groups R+U and S+U. The SBS of group S+A was significantly higher than that of groups N+A and R+A. No significant difference was noted in the SBS of groups N+A and R+A (P>0.05). Conclusions: In Scotchbond Universal adhesive groups, sandblasting and surface roughening by diamond bur significantly increased the SBS of composite to SSCs compared to no MST. In Alloy Primer groups, sandblasting significantly increased the SBS of composite to SSC compared to surface roughening with diamond bur and no MST. PMID:27536330

  12. Bonding and nondestructive evaluation of graphite/PEEK composite and titanium adherends with thermoplastic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Berry, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bonded single overlap shear specimens were fabricated from Graphite/PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) composite adherends and titanium adherends. Six advanced thermoplastic adhesives were used for the bonding. The specimens were bonded by an electromagnetic induction technique producing high heating rates and high-strength bonds in a few minutes. This contrasts with conventionally heated presses or autoclaves that take hours to process comparable quality bonds. The Graphite/PEEK composites were highly resistant to delamination during the testing. This allowed the specimen to fail exclusively through the bondline, even at very high shear loads. Nondestructive evaluation of bonded specimens was performed ultrasonically by energizing the entire thickness of the material through the bondline and measuring acoustic impedance parameters. Destructive testing confirmed the unique ultrasonic profiles of strong and weak bonds, establishing a standard for predicting relative bond strength in subsequent specimens.

  13. A 3-year randomized clinical trial evaluating two different bonded posterior restorations: Amalgam versus resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Pamir, Tijen; Tezel, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance and postoperative sensitivity of a posterior resin composite with that of bonded amalgam in 40 (n = 20) large sized cavities and to evaluate whether resin composite could be an alternative for bonded amalgam. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial. Twenty patients in need of at least two posterior restorations were recruited. Authors randomly assigned one half of the restorations to receive bonded amalgam and the other half to composite restorations. Forty bonded amalgams (n = 20) and composites (n = 20) were evaluated for their performance on modified-US Public Health Service criteria and postoperative sensitivity using visual analogue scale (VAS) for 36-months. Results: Success rate of this study was 100%. First clinical alterations were rated as Bravo after 1 year in marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, and surface roughness for both amalgam and composite. At the 3rd year, overall “Bravo” rated restorations were 12 for bonded amalgam and 13 for resin composites. There were no significant differences among the VAS scores of composites and bonded amalgams for all periods (P > 0.05) except for the comparisons at the 3rd year evaluation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, both resin composite and bonded amalgam were clinically acceptable. Postoperative sensitivity results tend to decrease more in composite restorations rather than amalgams. Therefore, it was concluded that posterior resin composite can be used even in large sized cavities. PMID:27011734

  14. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Brugger, Ronald P.

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  15. Conducting and non-conducting biopolymer composites produced by particle bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report, we introduce two types of processes for the production of biopolymer composites: one is fabricated by bonding biopolymers with corn protein or wheat protein and the other by bonding starch with a synthetic polymer. These two types of biopolymer composites make use of the strong bon...

  16. Nonlinear Analysis of Bonded Composite Single-LAP Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oterkus, E.; Barut, A.; Madenci, E.; Smeltzer, S. S.; Ambur, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a semi-analytical solution method to analyze the geometrically nonlinear response of bonded composite single-lap joints with tapered adherend edges under uniaxial tension. The solution method provides the transverse shear and normal stresses in the adhesive and in-plane stress resultants and bending moments in the adherends. The method utilizes the principle of virtual work in conjunction with von Karman s nonlinear plate theory to model the adherends and the shear lag model to represent the kinematics of the thin adhesive layer between the adherends. Furthermore, the method accounts for the bilinear elastic material behavior of the adhesive while maintaining a linear stress-strain relationship in the adherends. In order to account for the stiffness changes due to thickness variation of the adherends along the tapered edges, their in-plane and bending stiffness matrices are varied as a function of thickness along the tapered region. The combination of these complexities results in a system of nonlinear governing equilibrium equations. This approach represents a computationally efficient alternative to finite element method. Comparisons are made with corresponding results obtained from finite-element analysis. The results confirm the validity of the solution method. The numerical results present the effects of taper angle, adherend overlap length, and the bilinear adhesive material on the stress fields in the adherends, as well as the adhesive, of a single-lap joint

  17. Eddy current inspection of bonded composite crack repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Thomas K., Jr.; Guijt, Cornelius; Fredell, Robert

    1996-11-01

    The aging of the US aircraft fleet poses serious economic and safety challenges. Fatigue cracks in the 7079-T6 aluminum fuselage skin of aging transports have presented zn opportunity to test a prototype repair. GLARE, a fiber metal laminate, has been applied to repair fuselage cracks in the fuselage skin of a US transport aircraft. This affordable prototype solution to extend the life of aging aircraft requires an inspection method to track crack growth and monitor the effectiveness of the patch on repaired fuselage skin. The fiber metal laminate patch is opaque and the fuselage skin at the damage location generally can only be accessed from the outside surface requiring the use of a non-destructive means to monitor crack length. Advances in eddy current inspection technology have provided a means to detect and track crack growth beneath patches on fuselage skins. This paper describes the development of low-frequency eddy current techniques to monitor cracks under bonded composite repair patches applied to stiffened fuselage structures. The development involved the use of a rugged portable eddy current inspection unit. The results show crack growth can be monitored to ensure the continued structural integrity of repaired flawed structures; however, the influence of substructure present a challenge to the inspector in detecting crack growth.

  18. The Bond Strength of Resin Bonded Bridge Retainers to Abutments of Differing Proportions of Enamel and Composite.

    PubMed

    Durey, Kathryn; Nattress, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Four groups of specimens were constructed using bovine enamel and composite resin. After a period of ageing, the specimens were roughened and acid etched before they were cemented to air abraded base metal alloy beams with a universal resin cement. After further ageing, tensile peel testing was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine. The force required to produce failure increased as the amount of composite resin on the bonding surface of the abutment increased. This difference reached statistical significance (p < 0.5) when the abutments contained > 50% composite. The mode of failure was mixed on the majority of retainers. Within the limitations of the study, findings suggest that RBB retainers can be cemented to abutments restored with composite resin without a reduction in bond strength. PMID:26415336

  19. Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Composites Using Surface Treatments and Repair Materials: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, M; Saritha, G; Rajasekhar, V; Pachlag, K Amit; Purushotham, R; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhancement of bond strength between new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness of old composite to promote mechanical interlocking and subsequent coating with bonding agents to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding. So this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and repair materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite repairs The mode of failure of repaired composites whether cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The substrates for 60 composite specimens were fabricated and aged with water treatment and subjected to various surface treatments. The surface treatment regimens used in the study were: No surface treatment, abraded with diamond bur, air abraded (sandblasted) with 50 µ aluminum oxide particles. Specimens were then repaired with fresh composite using either Clearfil™ repair or all-bond two adhesive systems. Specimens were water stored, thermocycled and tested for SBS using universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. Results: It was clearly showed that surface roughening of the aged composite substrate with air abrasion, followed by the application of Clearfil™ repair adhesive system (Group IIIa) yielded the highest repair bond strength (32.3 ± 2.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatment with air abrasion followed by bonding with Clearfil™ repair adhesive system can be attempted clinically for the repair of composite restorations. PMID:25628478

  20. The effect of dentin primer on the shear bond strength between composite resin and enamel.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, F; Hey, J H; Ambrose, E R; Louie, P W; Shinkewski, D J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of accidental dentin primer contact with etched enamel on shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel. Four dentin bonding systems were included in this study: GLUMA Dentin Bond, Scotchbond, and Prisma Universal Bond 2 and 3. Eighty extracted human permanent anterior teeth were used and divided in eight test groups. The vestibular surfaces were ground and acid etched. For each dentin bonding system 10 samples were treated with dentin primer prior to placement of resin. Shear bond testing showed that enamel contact with dentin primer in the above two systems decreased the shear bond strength between composite and enamel by 31 to 44%. PMID:8337183

  1. Bonding performance and interfacial characteristics of short fiber-reinforced resin composite in comparison with other composite restoratives.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free-energy (SFE) of short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC), using different adhesive systems, in comparison with other composite restoratives. The resin composites used were everX Posterior (EP), Clearfil AP-X (CA), and Filtek Supreme Ultra Universal Restorative (FS). The adhesive systems used were Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SM), Clearfil SE Bond (CS), and G-Premio Bond (GB). Resin composite was bonded to dentin, and SBS was determined after 24 h of storage in distilled water and after 10,000 thermal cycles (TCs). The SFEs of the resin composites and the adhesives were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. The SFE values and SFE characteristics were not influenced by the type of resin composite, but were influenced by the type of adhesive system. The results of this study suggest that the bonding performance and interfacial characteristics of SFRC are the same as for other composite restoratives, but that these parameters are affected by the type of adhesive system. The bonding performance of SFRC was enhanced by thermal cycling in a manner similar to that for other composite restoratives. PMID:26954878

  2. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with class II bonded composite resin.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether composite resin bonded to enamel or to both enamel and dentin can increase the fracture resistance of teeth with Class II cavity preparations. Extracted maxillary pre-molars with MOD slot preparations were restored with composite resin bonded to enamel (P-30 and Enamel Bond) or composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin (P-30 and Scotch-bond). Teeth in a control group were prepared but left unrestored. All teeth were loaded occlusally in a universal testing machine until they fractured. Means of forces required to fracture teeth in each of the three groups were statistically compared (one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t test). Teeth restored with combined enamel- and dentin-bonded composite resins were significantly more resistant to fracture than were similarly prepared but unrestored teeth and also than teeth restored with enamel-bonded composite resin (p less than 0.05). A significant difference was not demonstrated between the enamel-bonded group and the unrestored group. Further testing is needed to determine the durability of the bonds between tooth and restoration in the clinical setting. PMID:3511111

  3. Shear bond strength of resin composite bonded with two adhesives: Influence of Er: YAG laser irradiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Farzaneh; Birang, Reza; Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Hourmehr, Zahra; Kazemi, Shantia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental surfaces prepared with different Er:YAG laser distance may have different characteristics compared with those prepared with conventional instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance from enamel and dentin surfaces on the shear bond strength of composite with self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems compared with conventional preparation method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred caries-free human third molars were randomly divided into twenty groups (n = 10). Ten groups were designated for enamel surface (E1-E10) and ten for dentin surface (D1-D10). Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was used on the E1-E8 (240 mJ, 25 Hz) and D1-D8 (140 mJ, 30 Hz) groups at four different distances of 0.5 (standard), 2, 4 and 11 mm. Control groups (E9, E10, D9 and D10) were ground with medium grit diamond bur. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into two subgroups that were bonded with either Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond. Resin composite (Z100) was dispensed on prepared dentin and enamel. The shear bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by SPSS12 statistical software using three way analysis of variance, Tukey and independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between enamel and dentin substrates (P < 0.001) and between lased and un-lased groups; the un-lased group had significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.001). Shear bond strength increased significantly with an increase in the laser irradiation distance (P < 0.05) on enamel surfaces (in both bonding agent subgroups) and on dentin surfaces (in the Single Bond subgroup). Conclusion: Laser irradiation decreases shear bond strength. Irradiation distance affects shear bond strength and increasing the distance would decrease the negative effects of laser irradiation. PMID:25540665

  4. The Age-Related Orientational Changes of Human Semicircular Canals

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Hui-Ying; Chen, Ke-Guang; Yin, Dong-Ming; Hong, Juan; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Dai, Pei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some changes are found in the labyrinth anatomy during postnatal development. Although the spatial orientation of semicircular canals was thought to be stable after birth, we investigated the age-related orientational changes of human semicircular canals during development. Methods We retrospectively studied the computed tomography (CT) images of both ears of 76 subjects ranged from 1 to 70 years old. They were divided into 4 groups: group A (1–6 years), group B (7–12 years), group C (13–18 years), and group D (>18 years). The anatomical landmarks of the inner ear structures were determined from CT images. Their coordinates were imported into MATLAB software for calculating the semicircular canals orientation, angles between semicircular canal planes and the jugular bulb (JB) position. Differences between age groups were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Relationships between variables were analyzed using Pearson analysis. Results The angle between the anterior semicircular canal plane and the coronal plane, and the angle between the horizontal semicircular canal plane and the coronal plane were smaller in group D than those in group A (P<0.05). The JB position, especially the anteroposterior position of right JB, correlated to the semicircular canals orientation (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences in the angles between ipsilateral canal planes among different age groups were found. Conclusion The semicircular canals had tendencies to tilt anteriorly simultaneously as a whole with age. The JB position correlated to the spatial arrangement of semicircular canals, especially the right JB. Our calculation method helps detect developmental and pathological changes in vestibular anatomy. PMID:27090280

  5. Designing Flaps for Closure of Circular and Semicircular Skin Defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Removing skin lesions from the human body is a simple procedure, but closing the resulting defect may prove a difficult task. The surgeon quite often encounters a problem when the lesion is located in a confined anatomical area where the elasticity of the skin is limited or when the lesion is large. To obviate these difficulties, I present 4 new incisions for closure of circular and semicircular skin defects on difficult parts of the human body such as the scalp, face, axilla, back, and sacrococcygeal areas. This article describes a working model made of white bond paper that can be enlarged or reduced in size using a regular copying machine that can be prepared in advance of surgery to make sure that it adapts to a particular anatomical location. Also, it describes a geometrical analysis in order to determine the distortion of the minimal tension lines of the skin, skin wastage, and length of the suture lines. In summary, it is possible to use a variety of skin incisions, taking advantage of the minimal tension lines of the skin and also taking into consideration the anatomical characteristics of the region involved. PMID:27104106

  6. Permeability testing of composite material and adhesive bonds for the DC-XA composite feedline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Hercules IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy and Hysol EA 9394 epoxy adhesive bonded between composite/titanium were tested for permeability after various numbers of thermal cycles between 100 C and liquid nitrogen (-196 C). The specimens were quenched from the 100 C temperature into liquid nitrogen to induce thermal shock into the material. Results showed that the carbon/epoxy system was practically impermeable even after 12 thermal cycles. The EA 9394 adhesive bondline was more permeable than the carbon/epoxy, but vacuum mixing minimized the permeability and kept it within allowable limits. Thermal cycling had little effect on the permeability values of the bondline specimens.

  7. Effect of thermocycling on the bond strength of composite resin to bur and laser treated composite resin.

    PubMed

    Özel Bektas, Özden; Eren, Digdem; Herguner Siso, Seyda; Akin, Gulsah E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two different surface treatments (Er:YAG laser and bur) and three different numbers of thermal cycling (no aging, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 cycles) on the micro-shear bond strength of repaired composite resin. Ninety-six composite blocks (4 mm × 4 mm × 1 mm) obtained with a micromatrix hybrid composite were prepared. The composite blocks were then randomly divided into four groups (n = 24), according to the thermal cycling procedure: (1) stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h (control group), (2) 1,000 cycles, (3) 5,000 cycles, and (4) 10,000 cycles. After aging, the blocks were further subdivided into two subgroups (n = 12), according to surface treatment. Bur and laser-treated composite surfaces were treated with an etch&rinse adhesive system. In addition, a microhybrid composite resin was bonded to the surfaces via polyethylene tubing. Specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength test by a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0 and 5 mm/min. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 0.05) for micro-shear bond strengths. After conducting a bond strength test, it was found that the laser and bur-treated specimens had similar results. Aging with 10,000 thermocycles significantly affected the repair bond strength of composite resins. PMID:21833556

  8. Fracture Control Requirements for Composite and Bonded Vehicle and Payload Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2006-01-01

    The document presents a minimum set of fracture control requirements to be used across MSFC programs in designing and assessing composite and bonded structures. The scope includes manned launch, retrieval, transfer, and landing vehicles, space habitats, and payloads or experiments that are launched, retrieved, stored, or operated during any portion of a manned spaceflight mission. It is applicable to in-house and contract activities. The requirements apply to fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, sandwich construction (bonded metallic and nonmetallic), and bonds between metallic or composite parts fall within the scope of this document.

  9. Hydrogen bonds of sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Yu, Yue; An, Qingda; Wang, Liyan; Li, Shenglin; Huang, Xuelin; Mu, Siyang; Qi, Shanwei

    2016-05-20

    Sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material (SA/AKP) was successfully obtained by blending method. The hydrogen bonds of SA/AKP composite material were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (HNMR). Experiment manifested the existence of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in SA/AKP system; strength of intermolecular hydrogen bond enhanced with the increase of AKP in the composite material and the interaction strength of hydrogen bonding followed the order: OH…Ether O>OH…π>OH…N. The percentage of intermolecular hydrogen bond decreased with increase of pH. At the same time, the effect of hydrogen bonds on properties of the composite material was discussed. The increase of intermolecular hydrogen bonding led to the decrease of crystallinity, increase of apparent viscosity and surface tension, as well as obvious decrease of heat resistance of SA/AKP composite material. SA/AKP fiber SEM images and energy spectrum showed that crystallized salt was separated from the fiber, which possibly led to the fibrillation of the composite fibers. PMID:26917400

  10. Effects of aging on repair bond strengths of a polyacid-modified composite resin.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Sau, C W; Lye, K W

    1999-01-01

    The effect of age of a poly-acid-modified composite resin on repair bond strength after different methods of surface conditioning was studied. Surface conditioning methods included the following: maleic acid with resin application; polyacrylic acid with resin application; sand-blasting with resin application. Shear bond testing between the aged and new material was carried out with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Although repair bonds strengths after all surface conditioning methods were significantly higher than the control group at 1 week, no statistically significant differences in bond strengths were noted after aging the material for 6 months. After all aging periods, surface conditioning with sand-blasting and resin application resulted in the highest repair bond for poly-acid-modified composite resins. Specimens with cohesive failure in the material gave significantly higher repair bond strengths than specimens with adhesive failure at the repaired interface. PMID:10823087

  11. Evaluation of Microleakage of Dental Composites Using Bonding Agents with Different Placement Techniques: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasvir; Garg, Deepanshu; Sunil, MK; Sawhney, Anshul; Malaviya, Neha; Tripathi, Shashank; Arora, Saloni

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid progress of adhesive dentistry over the past decade has been attributed to the significant advances in dentin bonding technology. Requirements of an ideal bonding agent are quite similar to those indicated by Buonocore despite of many improvements. As we enter the new millennium, it is important for us to examine the past. Objective To evaluate the microleakage of three bonding agents namely Single Bond, Prime & Bond NT and Excite using different composite materials namely Z100, Spectrum TPH, Tetric with three different placement techniques. Materials and Methods Fifty four extracted human premolars were taken & divided into 9 groups depending upon application of bonding agents followed by composite restorations. Specimens were subjected to thermal cycling at 60C, 370C, 540C and again at 370C & then placed in 10 ml each of freshly prepared 50% silver nitrate solution for 2 hour in darkness, washed & placed under sun light for 24 hours. The sectioned specimens were then observed under stereomicroscope to detect microleakage. Results On comparing the mean microleakage scores among the three groups, maximum microleakage scores have been obtained when no bonding agent was used, while least microleakage scores were obtained with double coat of bonding agent. Conclusion The present study suggests that the placement of bonding agent technique before composite restoration can be effective to limit the microleakage at the tooth restoration interface. PMID:26501015

  12. 31 CFR 359.15 - When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is the composite rate applied to Series I savings bonds? 359.15 Section 359.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES...

  13. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.

    2014-05-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical impacts on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock waves have been identified.

  14. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical impacts bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock wave have been identified.

  15. Matters of simulation of the semicircular canal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurfinkel, V. S.; Petukhov, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the human semicircular canal system was developed based on the theory of dynamic similitude. This enlarged model makes it convenient to conduct tests on the vestibular processes and dynamics in the semicircular canals. Tests revealed hydromechanical interaction between canals, with asymmetry of the conditions of movement of the endolymph in the canals in opposite directions. A type of vestibular reactions, occurring with angular oscillations of the head, was predicted and demonstrated using this model and human test subjects.

  16. Results from FAA program to validate bonded composite doublers for commercial aviation use

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. In addition, Service Life Extension Programs are attempting to extend the {open_quotes}economic{close_quotes} service life of commercial airframes to thirty years. The use of bonded composites may offer the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to extend the lives of their aircraft. The Federal Aviation Administration Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft.

  17. Controlled intermittent interfacial bond concept for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, T. U.; Atkins, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Concept will enhance fracture resistance of high-strength filamentary composite without degrading its tensile strength or elastic modulus. Concept provides more economical composite systems, tailored for specific applications, and composite materials with mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness, that can be optimized.

  18. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  19. Production of endolymph in the semicircular canal of the frog Rana esculenta.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms of secretion of endolymph were studied in vitro in the isolated inner ear of the frog. Prior to in vitro experiments, the composition of perilymph was evaluated in vivo and compared to that of plasma. Composition of perilymph resembled that of an extracellular fluid, although Na and Cl concentrations were higher and K concentration was lower in perilymph than in plasma water. No difference in Ca and Mg concentrations was observed between these two fluids. Osmolality averaged 227 mosmol/kg H2O in perilymph and 183 mosmol/kg H2O in plasma. Endolymph in frog inner ear corresponded in chemical pattern to mammalian endolymph. K and Na concentrations in endolymph collected from the ampulla of the posterior vertical semicircular canal averaged 121.1 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively. Osmolality of endolymph was 237 mosmol/kg H2O. K and Na concentrations were unaltered when inner ears were incubated for 24 h either at 15 degrees C or at 4 degrees C. Addition of ouabain (10(-4) M) to the perilymph-like bathing solution altered greatly Na and K composition of endolymph after incubation for 3 h at 15 degrees C. The Na and K concentration gradients between endolymph and the bath were abolished after incubation for 24 h. Ligatures of the posterior vertical semicircular canal were performed at different sites to isolate some parts of the canal, i.e. the ampulla and the non-ampullar duct. K concentration in the ampulla after incubation for 24 h remained as high as 20 times that in the bath. This K gradient was abolished in the presence of ouabain (10(-4) M). High K concentration could be maintained in the non-ampullar part of the semicircular canal only if the latter communicated with the ampulla. It is concluded that endolymph is actively secreted into the ampulla of the semicircular canal. Na+-K+-activated ATPase in the ampullar dark cells may energize the ouabain sensitive ionic transports that are involved in the production of endolymph. Endolymph secreted into the

  20. Evaluation of the bond strength between aged composite cores and luting agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength between aged composite-resin core and luting agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy-five resin composites and also seventy-five zirconia ceramic discs were prepared. 60 composite samples were exposed to thermal aging (10,000 cycles, 5 to 55℃) and different surface treatment. All specimens were separated into 5 groups (n=15): 1) Intact specimens 2) Thermal aging-air polishing 3) Thermal aging- Er:YAG laser irradiation 4) Thermal aging- acid etching 5) Thermal-aging. All specimens were bonded to the zirconia discs with resin cement and fixed to universal testing machine and bond strength testing loaded to failure with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fractured surface was classified as adhesive failure, cohesive failure and adhesive-cohesive failure. The bond strength data was statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis method complemented by the Bonferroni correction Mann-Whitney U test. The probability level for statistical significance was set at α=.05. RESULTS Thermal aging and different surface treatment methods have significant effect on the bond strength between composite-resin cores and luting-agent (P<.05). The mean baseline bond strength values ranged between 7.07 ± 2.11 and 26.05 ± 6.53 N. The highest bond strength of 26.05 ± 6.53 N was obtained with Group 3. Group 5 showed the lowest value of bond strength. CONCLUSION Appropriate surface treatment method should be applied to aged composite resin cores or aged-composites restorations should be replaced for the optimal bond strength and the clinical success. PMID:25932308

  1. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins

    PubMed Central

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P < 0.05 was selected as the level of statistical significance in this study. Results: The results showed that for enamel (24 h), the μ-SBS of the Wave MV and Wave HV groups were significantly lower than the Margin Bond group. Tukey test indicated the absence of a significant difference between the μ-SBS of the Wave group and the Margin Bond group. However, the μ-SBS of the Grandioflow group was significantly higher than the one for the Margin Bond as a bonding agent. In enamel (9 months), there was a significant difference between the Grandioflow and Margin Bond groups. Regarding bonding to the porcelain the one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant difference among the groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that flowable composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite

  2. Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites for Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, Jennifer; Morscher, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    High temperature adhesives with good thermal conductivity, mechanical performance, and long term durability are crucial for the assembly of heat rejection system components for space exploration missions. In the present study, commercially available adhesives were used to bond high conductivity carbon-carbon composites to titanium sheets. Bonded pieces were also exposed to high (530 to 600 Kelvin for 24 hours) and low (liquid nitrogen 77K for 15 minutes) temperatures to evaluate the integrity of the bonds. Results of the microstructural characterization and tensile shear strengths of bonded specimens will be reported. The effect of titanium surface roughness on the interface microstructure will also be discussed.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of the fiber-matrix interfacial bond in aerospace composites.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, D G; Kleitsa, D; Matikas, T E

    2013-01-01

    The properties of advanced composites rely on the quality of the fiber-matrix bonding. Service-induced damage results in deterioration of bonding quality, seriously compromising the load-bearing capacity of the structure. While traditional methods to assess bonding are destructive, herein a nondestructive methodology based on shear wave reflection is numerically investigated. Reflection relies on the bonding quality and results in discernable changes in the received waveform. The key element is the "interphase" model material with varying stiffness. The study is an example of how computational methods enhance the understanding of delicate features concerning the nondestructive evaluation of materials used in advanced structures. PMID:23935408

  4. Ultrasonic Characterization of the Fiber-Matrix Interfacial Bond in Aerospace Composites

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, D. G.; Kleitsa, D.; Matikas, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of advanced composites rely on the quality of the fiber-matrix bonding. Service-induced damage results in deterioration of bonding quality, seriously compromising the load-bearing capacity of the structure. While traditional methods to assess bonding are destructive, herein a nondestructive methodology based on shear wave reflection is numerically investigated. Reflection relies on the bonding quality and results in discernable changes in the received waveform. The key element is the “interphase” model material with varying stiffness. The study is an example of how computational methods enhance the understanding of delicate features concerning the nondestructive evaluation of materials used in advanced structures. PMID:23935408

  5. Reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Behrendt, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the reaction-bonded SiC- and Si3N4-matrix types of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (FRCMC). A variety of reaction-bonding methods are being pursued for FRCMC fabrication: CVI, CVD, directed metal oxidation, and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Due to their high specific modulus and strength, toughness, and fabricability, reaction-bonded FRCMC are important candidate materials for such heat-engine components as combustor liners, nozzles, and turbine and stator blading. The improvement of long-term oxidative stability in these composites is a major goal of current research.

  6. In-vitro comparison of the effect of different bonding strategies on the micro-shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite resin to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pouran; Alizadeh, Vahid; Fathpour, Kamyar; Mazaheri, Hamid; Mortazavi, Vajihosadat

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the micro-shear bond strengths of a new low-shrinkage composite resin to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 70 extracted premolars were assigned to one of seven groups (n = 10): Group 1: OptiBond Solo Plus (Opt; Kerr); Group 2: SE Bond (SE; Kuraray); Group 3: Silorane System Adhesive (SSA; 3M ESPE); Group 4: OptiBond Solo Plus + LS Bond (Opt LS); Group 5: SE Bond + LS Bond (SE LS); Group 6: OptiBond Solo Plus (Opt Po); and Group 7: SE Bond (SE Po). Occlusal dentin was exposed and restored with Filtek LS (3M ESPE) in groups 1 to 5 and Point 4 (Kerr) in groups 6 and 7. After thermocycling (1000 cycles at 5/55΀C), micro-shear bond test was carried out to measure the bond strengths. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and post hoc Tukeytests (P < 0.05). Results: Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the two types of composite resin (P = 0.187), between bonding agents (P = 0.06) and between composite resin and bonding agents (P = 0.894). Because P value of bonding agents was near the significance level, one-way ANOVA was used separately between the two composite groups. This analysis showed significant differences between silorane composite resin groups (P = 0.045) and Tukey test showed a significant difference between Groups 4 and 5 (P = 0.03). Conclusion: The application of total-etch and self-etch methacrylate-based adhesives with and without use of a hydrophobic resin coating resulted in acceptable bond strengths. PMID:27076826

  7. Test and analysis of Celion 3000/PMR-15, graphite/polyimide bonded composite joints: Data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Standard single lap, double lap and symmetric step lap bonded joints of Celion 3000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite were evaluated. Composite to composite and composite to titanium joints were tested at 116 K (-250 F), 294 K (70 F) and 561 K (550 F). Joint parameters evaluated are lap length, adherend thickness, adherend axial stiffness, lamina stacking sequence and adherend tapering. Advanced joint concepts were examined to establish the change in performance of preformed adherends, scalloped adherends and hybrid systems. The material properties of the high temperature adhesive, designated A7F, used for bonding were established. The bonded joint tests resulted in interlaminar shear or peel failures of the composite and there were very few adhesive failures. Average test results agree with expected performance trends for the various test parameters. Results of finite element analyses and of test/analysis correlations are also presented.

  8. Test and analysis of Celion 3000/PMR-15, graphite/polyimide bonded composite joints: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Standard single lap, double lap and symmetric step lap bonded joints of Celion 3000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite were evaluated. Composite to composite and composite to titanium joints were tested at 116K (-250 F), 294K (70 F) and 561K (550 F). Joint parameters evaluated were lap length, adherend thickness, adherend axial stiffness, lamina stacking sequence and adherend tapering. Tests of advanced joint concepts were also conducted to establish the change in performance of preformed adherends, scalloped adherends and hybrid systems. Special tests were conducted to establish material properties of the high temperature adhesive, designated A7F, used for bonding. Most of the bonded joint tests resulted in interlaminar shear or peel failures of the composite. There were very few adhesive failures. Average test results agree with expected performance trends for the various test parameters. Results of finite element analyses and of test/analysis correlations are also presented.

  9. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words:Bond

  10. Evaluating Resin-Dentin Bond by Microtensile Bond Strength Test: Effects of Various Resin Composites and Placement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Maleknejad, Fatemeh; Forghani, Maryam; Afshari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of a methacrylate-based compared to a silorane-based resin composite in Class I cavity using different placement techniques. Materials and Methods: Class I cavities with dimension of (4 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm deep) were prepared in extracted sound human molars. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups. The first three groups were filled with Filtek P90 using three methods of insertion; bulk, incremental and snow-plow, and the remaining three groups were filled with Clearfil AP-X using the same three placement techniques. After 24 hours of storage in water at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled to 1000 cycles. Specimens were prepared for MTBS testing by creating bonded beams obtained from the pulpal floor. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analyses of data were performed by two-way ANOVA/Tukey (α=.05). Results: The experiment showed significant differences between the two resin composites with regard to filling techniques (P<0.05). The MTBS was significantly higher in each of Filtek P90 subgroup compared to Clearfil AP-X ones (P<0.05). With respect to filling technique in both resin composites, bulk insertion showed the significantly lowest MTBS (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found between the outcome of incremental and snow-plow techniques (P>0.05). Conclusion: Silorane-based resin composite as opposed to methacrylate based resin composite and layering placements in contrast to bulk filling method had higher microtensile bond strength. PMID:26966466

  11. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  12. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  13. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

  14. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-07-28

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

  15. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to composite submitted to different surface pretreatments

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Victor Hugo; Griza, Sandro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extensively destroyed teeth are commonly restored with composite resin before cavity preparation for indirect restorations. The longevity of the restoration can be related to the proper bonding of the resin cement to the composite. This study aimed to evaluate the microshear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements to composite resin. Materials and Methods Composite discs were subject to one of six different surface pretreatments: none (control), 35% phosphoric acid etching for 30 seconds (PA), application of silane (silane), PA + silane, PA + adhesive, or PA + silane + adhesive (n = 6). A silicone mold containing a cylindrical orifice (1 mm2 diameter) was placed over the composite resin. RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) or BisCem (Bisco Inc.) self-adhesive resin cement was inserted into the orifices and light-cured. Self-adhesive cement cylinders were submitted to shear loading. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results Independent of the cement used, the PA + Silane + Adhesive group showed higher microshear bond strength than those of the PA and PA + Silane groups. There was no difference among the other treatments. Unicem presented higher bond strength than BisCem for all experimental conditions. Conclusions Pretreatments of the composite resin surface might have an effect on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to this substrate. PMID:24516824

  16. Multiple-frequency C-scan bond testing for composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, J.; Lepage, B.

    2012-05-01

    Adhesive-bonded components and structures have become an important part of manufacturing in the aerospace industry. These components often rely on honeycomb composite structures for strong yet lightweight design. However, the quality of the bonds is very important to the overall integrity of the composite structures. Due to their wide range of laminate and core configurations, these materials pose inspection challenges, especially during inspection for damage in the core, for example, disbonds and crushed core. For improved probability of detection (POD) on honeycomb composite structures, a multiple frequency C-scan-based approach exploiting both amplitude and phase C-scans is proposed.

  17. Microtensile bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite with semi-interpenetrating polymer matrix to dentin using various bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) to dentin using various adhesive systems. Forty eight (n = 8/group) human molars were flattened to expose dentin. A layer of preimpregnated unidirectional FRC (everStick) was applied on the dentin surface after treatment with either a single-step self-etching adhesive, two-step self-etching system, or a conventional three-step adhesive system. For the control, particulate filler composite (PFC) (Filtek Z250) layering without FRC was used. After 24-hour water storage at 37 degrees C, the specimens were sectioned, further water-stored at 37 degrees C for 30 days and then tested. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, and reliability was analyzed with Weibull distribution. microTBS values differed significantly according to the adhesive material used (p < 0.05). Single-step self-etching adhesive showed the lowest bond reliability and microTBS values with both FRC and PFC, whereas conventional three-step and two-step self-etching systems showed higher bond reliability and microTBS with both materials. PMID:19241691

  18. Structural Performance Evaluation of Composite-To-Steel Weld Bonded Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Bhavesh; Frame, Barbara J; Dove, Caroline; Fuchs, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    The Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC), a collaboration of Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, and the US Department of Energy is conducting a focal project to demonstrate the use of composite materials in high volume structural applications such as an underbody capable of carrying crash loads. One of the critical challenges is to attach the composite part to the steel structure in a high-volume automotive manufacturing environment and meet the complex requirements for crash. Weld-bonding, a combination of adhesive bonding and spot welding, was selected as the primary joining method. A novel concept of bonding doubler steel strips to composite enabled the spot welding to the steel structure, ensuring the compability with the OEM assembly processes. The structural performance of the joint, including durability, was assessed via analytical and physical testing under quasi-static loading at various temperatures. This paper discusses the results of the experiments designed to generate key modeling parameters for Finite Element Analysis of the joint.

  19. Effect of various intraoral repair systems on the shear bond strength of composite resin to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Han, In-Hae; Kang, Dong-Wan; Chung, Chae-Heon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study compared the effect of three intraoral repair systems on the bond strength between composite resin and zirconia core. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty zirconia specimens were divided into three groups according to the repair method: Group I- CoJet™ Repair System (3M ESPE) [chairside silica coating with 30 µm SiO2 + silanization + adhesive]; Group II- Ceramic Repair System (Ivoclar Vivadent) [etching with 37% phosphoric acid + Zirconia primer + adhesive]; Group III- Signum Zirconia Bond (Heraus) [Signum Zirconia Bond I + Signum Zirconia Bond II]. Composite resin was polymerized on each conditioned specimen. The shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine, and fracture sites were examined with FE-SEM. Surface morphology and wettability after surface treatments were examined additionally. The data of bond strengths were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tamhane post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS Increased surface roughness and the highest wettability value were observed in the CoJet sand treated specimens. The specimens treated with 37% phosphoric acid and Signum Zirconia Bond I did not show any improvement of surface irregularity, and the lowest wettability value were found in 37% phosphoric acid treated specimens. There was no significant difference in the bond strengths between Group I (7.80 ± 0.76 MPa) and III (8.98 ± 1.39 MPa). Group II (3.21 ± 0.78 MPa) showed a significant difference from other groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION The use of Intraoral silica coating system and the application of Signum Zirconia Bond are effective for increasing the bond strength of composite resin to zirconia. PMID:24049565

  20. Effect of Pre-heating on Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Daneshkazemi, Alireza; Behniafar, Behnaz; Sheshmani, Mahsan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Direct composite resin restorations are widely used and the impact of different storage temperatures on composites is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin after different pre-curing temperatures. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 44 human molars were ground with diamond burs under water coolant and polished with 600 grit silicon carbide papers to obtain flat dentin surfaces. The dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups (n=22) according to the composite resin applied: FiltekP60 and Filtek Z250. Each group included three subgroups of composite resin pre-curing temperatures (4°C, 23°C and 37°C). Composite resins were applied to the dentin surfaces in a plastic mold (8mm in diameter and 4mm in length) incrementally and cured. Twenty-two composite-to-dentin hour-glass sticks with one mm2 cross-sectional area per group were prepared. Microtensile bond strength measurements were made using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of one mm/min. For statistical analysis, t-test, one-way and two-way ANOVA were used. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Filtek P60 pre-heated at 37ºC had significantly higher microtensile bond strength than Filtek Z250 under the same condition. The microtensile bond strengths were not significantly different at 4ºC, 23ºC and 37ºC subgroups of each composite resin group. Conclusion: Filtek P60 and Filtek Z250 did not have significantly different microtensile bond strengths at 4ºC and 23ºC but Filtek P60 had significantly higher microtensile bond strength at 37 ºC. Composite and temperature interactions had significant effects on the bond strength. PMID:25628684

  1. Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katnam, K. B.; Da Silva, L. F. M.; Young, T. M.

    2013-08-01

    Advanced composite materials have gained popularity in high-performance structural designs such as aerospace applications that require lightweight components with superior mechanical properties in order to perform in demanding service conditions as well as provide energy efficiency. However, one of the major challenges that the aerospace industry faces with advanced composites - because of their inherent complex damage behaviour - is structural repair. Composite materials are primarily damaged by mechanical loads and/or environmental conditions. If material damage is not extensive, structural repair is the only feasible solution as replacing the entire component is not cost-effective in many cases. Bonded composite repairs (e.g. scarf patches) are generally preferred as they provide enhanced stress transfer mechanisms, joint efficiencies and aerodynamic performance. With an increased usage of advanced composites in primary and secondary aerospace structural components, it is thus essential to have robust, reliable and repeatable structural bonded repair procedures to restore damaged composite components. But structural bonded repairs, especially with primary structures, pose several scientific challenges with the current existing repair technologies. In this regard, the area of structural bonded repair of composites is broadly reviewed - starting from damage assessment to automation - to identify current scientific challenges and future opportunities.

  2. Push-Out Bond Strength of Restorations with Bulk-Fill, Flow, and Conventional Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Rodrigo Vieira; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Kaneshima, Edmilson Nobumitu; Barbosa, Aline Silvestre; Picolotto, Cassiana Pedrotti; Lima, Ana Eliza de Souza; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strengths of composite restorations made with different filler amounts and resin composites that were photoactivated using a light-emitting diode (LED). Thirty bovine incisors were selected, and a conical cavity was prepared in the facial surface of each tooth. All preparations were etched with Scotchbond Etching Gel, the Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus adhesive system was applied followed by photoactivation, and the cavities were filled with a single increment of Filtek Z350 XT, Filtek Z350 XT Flow, or bulk-fill X-tra fil resin composite (n = 10) followed by photoactivation. A push-out test to determine bond strength was conducted using a universal testing machine. Data (MPa) were submitted to Student's t-test at a 5% significance level. After the test, the fractured specimens were examined using an optical microscope under magnification (10x). Although all three composites demonstrated a high prevalence of adhesive failures, the bond strength values of the different resin composites photoactivated by LED showed that the X-tra fil resin composite had a lower bond strength than the Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z350 XT Flow resin composites. PMID:26457322

  3. The effect of additional etching and curing mechanism of composite resin on the dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Su; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional acid etching and curing mechanism (light-curing or self-curing) of a composite resin on the dentin bond strength and compatibility of one-step self-etching adhesives. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen human permanent molars were randomly divided into eight groups according to the adhesives used (All-Bond Universal: ABU, Clearfil S3 Bond: CS3), additional acid etching (additional acid etching performed: EO, no additional acid etching performed: EX), and composite resins (Filtek Z-250: Z250, Clearfil FII New Bond: CFNB). Group 1: ABU-EO-Z250, Group 2: ABU-EO-CFNB, Group 3: ABU-EX-Z250, Group 4: ABU-EX-CFNB, Group 5: CS3-EO-Z250, Group 6: CS3-EO-CFNB, Group 7: CS3-EX-Z250, Group 8: CS3-EX-CFNB. After bonding procedures, composite resins were built up on dentin surfaces. After 24-hour water storage, the teeth were sectioned to make 10 specimens for each group. The microtensile bond strength test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The failure mode of the fractured specimens was examined by means of an optical microscope at ×20 magnification. The data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post-hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS Additional etching groups showed significantly higher values than the no additional etching group when using All-Bond Universal. The light-cured composite resin groups showed significantly higher values than the self-cured composite resin groups in the Clearfil S3 Bond. CONCLUSION The additional acid etching is beneficial for the dentin bond strength when using low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives, and low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives are compatible with self-cured composite resin. The acidity of the one-step self-etch adhesives is an influencing factor in terms of the dentin bonding strength and incompatibility with a self-cured composite resin. PMID:24353889

  4. Dentin bond strengths of three adhesive/composite core systems using different curing units.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Meu; Nikaido, Toru; Okada, Ayako; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the tensile bond strengths of three adhesive/composite core materials to bovine dentin using three different curing units. Bovine dentin surfaces were ground with 600-grit SiC paper. Bonding area was demarcated with a vinyl tape (4-mm-diameter hole). Three adhesive/composite core systems--S6054 (experimental), UniFil Core, and Clearfil DC Core Automix--were used with three curing units--Curing Light XL3000 (quartz-tungsten-halogen), Hyper Lightel (high-power quartz-tungsten-halogen), and LEDemetronl (blue light-emitting diode)--according to manufacturers' instructions. After 24 hours of storage in water at 37 degrees C, tensile bond strengths were measured at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. Results were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (p < 0.05). Highest tensile bond strength was obtained using Clearfil DC Core Automix with Hyper Lightel. PMID:18540391

  5. SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for fabricating strong and tough SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composites (SiC/RBSN) was developed. Using this technique, composites containing approximately 23, 30, and 40 volume fractions of aligned 140 micron diameter, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers were fabricated. The room temperature physical and mechanical properties were evaluated. The results for composite tensile strength, bend strength, and fracture strain indicate that the composite displays excellent properties when compared with the unreinforced matrix of comparable porosity. The composite stress at which the matrix first cracks and the ultimate composite fracture strength increase with increasing volume fraction of fibers, and the composite fails gracefully. The mechanical property data of this ceramic composite are compared with similar data for unreinforced commercially available Si3N4 materials and for SEP SiC/SiC composites.

  6. Bond strength of composites to etched and silica-coated porcelain fusing alloys.

    PubMed

    Schneider, W; Powers, J M; Pierpont, H P

    1992-05-01

    In vitro bond strengths of two composite veneering materials to two porcelain fusing alloys were measured utilizing two storage conditions. The alloys were etched or treated with silica applied by blasted, thermal or pyrogenic techniques and then silanated. Bond strengths were higher for the Ni-Cr-Be than the Au-Pd alloy with most values greater than 18 MPa. Bond strengths to etched and silanated Au-Pd alloy were low (less than 6.5 MPa), whereas samples treated with silica and silanated had significantly higher values. Bond strengths to the Ni-Cr-Be alloy were highest with the thermal and pyrogenic silica treatments. After thermocycling, most bond strengths to the Au-Pd alloy decreased, but were the same or higher to the Ni-Cr-Be alloy. Cohesive failures of the opaquers were observed. PMID:1325930

  7. Performance analysis of bonded composite doublers on aircraft structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-08-01

    Researchers contend that composite repairs (or structural reinforcement doublers) offer numerous advantages over metallic patches including corrosion resistance, light weight, high strength, elimination of rivets, and time savings in installation. Their use in commercial aviation has been stifled by uncertainties surrounding their application, subsequent inspection and long-term endurance. The process of repairing or reinforcing airplane structures is time consuming and the design is dependent upon an accompanying stress and fatigue analysis. A repair that is too stiff may result in a loss of fatigue life, continued growth of the crack being repaired, and the initiation of a new flaw in the undesirable high stress field around the patch. Uncertainties in load spectrums used to design repairs exacerbates these problems as does the use of rivets to apply conventional doublers. Many of these repair or structural reinforcement difficulties can be addressed through the use of composite doublers. Primary among unknown entities are the effects of non-optimum installations and the certification of adequate inspection procedures. This paper presents on overview of a program intended to introduce composite doubler technology to the US commercial aircraft fleet. In this project, a specific composite application has been chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Through the use of laboratory test structures and flight demonstrations on an in-service L-1011 airplane, this study is investigating composite doubler design, fabrication, installation, structural integrity, and non-destructive evaluation. In addition to providing an overview of the L-1011 project, this paper focuses on a series of fatigue and strength tests which have been conducted in order to study the damage tolerance of composite doublers. Test results to-date are presented.

  8. Effects of three surface conditioning techniques on repair bond strength of nanohybrid and nanofilled composites

    PubMed Central

    Nassoohi, Negin; Kazemi, Haleh; Sadaghiani, Morad; Mansouri, Mona; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Repair bond strength of different composite resins has been assessed in few studies. In addition, reports on the efficacy of surface treatments are debated. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments on two nanocomposites versus a microhybrid composite. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 135 composite blocks (45 specimens per composite) of microhybrid (Filtek Supreme Z250, 3M ESPE, USA), nanohybrid (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE), and nanofilled (Filtek Supreme Z350, 3M ESPE) were thermocycled (5000 rounds) and then surface roughened (except in a control group of 9 specimens of three composite types). Each composite type was divided into three subgroups of surface treatments: (1) Bur abrading and phosphoric acid (PA) etching, (2) sandblasting and PA etching, and (3) hydrofluoric etching and silane application (n = 15 × 9, complying with ISO TR11405). Composite blocks were repaired with the same composite type but of a different color. Microtensile bond strength and modes of failure were analyzed statistically using two-way analyses of variance, Tukey and Chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Results: There were significant differences between three composite resins (P < 0.0001) and treatment techniques (P < 0.0001). Their interaction was nonsignificant (P = 0.228). The difference between nanofilled and nanohybrid was not significant. However, the microhybrid composite showed a significantly higher bond strength (Tukey P < 0.05). Sandblasting was significantly superior to the other two methods, which were not different from each other. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it seems that microhybrid composite might have higher repair strengths than two evaluated nanocomposites. Among the assessed preparation techniques, sandblasting followed by PA etching might produce the highest bond strength. PMID:26759592

  9. “Evaluation of shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate with three different bonding systems”-An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial that has been investigated for endodontic applications. With the increased use of MTA in pulp capping, pulpotomy, perforation repair, apexification and obturation, the material that would be placed over MTA as a final restoration is an important matter. As composite resins are one of the most widely used final restorative materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using three different bonding systems namely the two-step etch and rinse adhesive, the self-etching primer and the All-in-one system. Material and Methods Forty five specimens of white MTA (Angelus) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each depending on the bonding systems used respectively. In Group A, a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive or ‘total-etch adhesive’, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) were placed over WMTA. In group B, a Two-step self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Medical Inc) and Filtek Z350 were used. In Group C, an All-in-one system, G Bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Filtek Z350 were used. The shear bond strength was measured for all the specimens. The data obtained was subjected to One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test. Results The results suggested that the Two-step etch and rinse adhesive when used to bond a composite resin to white MTA gave better bond strength values and the All-in-one exhibited the least bond strength values. Conclusions The placement of composite used with a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive over WMTA as a final restoration may be appropriate. Key words:Composite resins, dentin bonding agents, mineral trioxide aggregate, shear bond strength. PMID:27398177

  10. Are the low-shrinking composites suitable for orthodontic bracket bonding?

    PubMed Central

    Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Cantekin, Kenan; Demirbuga, Sezer; Ozturk, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS), adhesive remnant index (ARI), and microleakage of low-shrinking and conventional composites used as an orthodontic bracket bonding adhesive. Materials and Methods: A hundred twenty non-caries human premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were used in this study. Sixty of them were separated into two groups. Brackets were bonded to the teeth in the test group with Silorane (3M-Espe) and control group with Transbond-XT (3M-Unitek). SBS values of these brackets were recorded in MPa using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined after the failure of brackets. The remaining 60 teeth were divided into two groups and microleakage was evaluated by the dye penetration method. Statistical analyses were performed by Wilcoxon, Pearson Chi-square, and Mann–Whitney U tests at P < 0.05 level. Results: The mean SBS for Transbond XT was significantly greater than low-shrinking composite (P < 0.001). Significant differences (χ2 =29.60, P < 0.001) were present between the two groups for the ARI scores. Microleakage values were lower in low-shrinking composite than in the control group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although low-shrinking composite produced insufficient SBS and ARI scores, microleakage values were lower in low-shrinking composite than in the control group on the etched enamel surfaces, when used as a bracket bonding composite. PMID:24926207

  11. Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring of composite wing skin-to-spar bonded joints in aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    The monitoring of adhesively bonded joints by ultrasonic guided waves is the general topic of this paper. Specifically, composite-to-composite joints representative of the wing skin-to-spar bonds of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are examined. This research is the first step towards the development of an on-board structural health monitoring system for UAV wings based on integrated ultrasonic sensors. The study investigates two different lay-ups for the wing skin and two different types of bond defects, namely poorly cured adhesive and disbonded interfaces. The assessment of bond state is based on monitoring the strength of transmission through the joints of selected guided modes. The wave propagation problem is studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method that accounts for viscoelastic damping, and experimentally by ultrasonic testing that uses small PZT disks preferably exciting and detecting the single-plate s0 mode. Both the models and the experiments confirm that the ultrasonic energy transmission through the joint is highly dependent on the bond conditions, with defected bonds resulting in increased transmission strength. Large sensitivity to the bond conditions is found at mode coupling points, as a result of the large interlayer energy transfer.

  12. Processing and properties of FeAl-bonded composites

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Subramanian, R.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.

    1996-12-31

    Iron aluminides are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as carbides, borides, oxides, and nitrides, which makes them suitable as the matrix in composites or cermets containing fine ceramic particulates. For ceramic contents varying from 30 to 60 vol.%, composites of Fe-40 at. % Al with WC, TiC, TiB{sub 2}, and ZrB{sub 2} were fabricated by conventional liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures. For ceramic contents from 70 to 85 vol.%, pressureless melt infiltration was found to be a more suitable processing technique. In FeAl-60 vol.% WC, flexure strengths of up to 1.8 GPa were obtained, even though processing defects consisting of small oxide clusters were present. Room temperature fracture toughnesses were determined by flexure testing of chevron-notched specimens. FeAl/WC and FeAl/TiC composites containing 60 vol.% carbide particles exhibited K{sub Q} values around 20 MPa m{sup 1/2}. Slow crack growth measurements carried out in water and in dry oxygen suggest a relatively small influence of water-vapor embrittlement. It appears therefore that the mechanical properties of iron aluminides in the form of fine ligaments are quite different from their bulk properties. Measurements of the oxidation resistance, dry wear resistance, and thermal expansion of iron aluminide composites suggest many potential applications for these new materials.

  13. Production of Degradable Biopolymer Composites by Particle-bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventionally, polymer composites had been manufactured by mixing the component materials in the extruder at high temperature. Agricultural biopolymers are usually mixtures of many types of compounds; when used as raw materials, however, high-temperature process causes unwanted consequences such a...

  14. Mixed-mode cyclic debonding of adhesively bonded composite joints. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezaizadeh, M. A.; Mall, S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined experimental-analytical investigation to characterize the cyclic failure mechanism of a simple composite-to-composite bonded joint is conducted. The cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens of graphite/epoxy adherend bonded with EC-3445 adhesive are tested under combined mode 1 and 2 loading. In all specimens tested, fatigue failure occurs in the form of cyclic debonding. The cyclic debond growth rates are measured. The finite element analysis is employed to compute the mode 1, mode 2, and total strain energy release rates (i.e., GI, GII, and GT). A wide range of mixed-mode loading, i.e., GI/GII ranging from 0.03 to 0.38, is obtained. The total strain energy release rate, G sub T, appeared to be the driving parameter for cyclic debonding in the tested composite bonded system.

  15. A Proposed Approach for Certification of Bonded Composite Repairs to Flight-Critical Airframe Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Alan A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on the difficult issue of the certification of adhesively bonded repairs in applications where credit has to be given to the patch for restoring residual strength in flight-critical structure. The scope of the paper includes both adhesively bonded composite repairs to composite components and composite repairs to metallic components. After discussing typical bonded repairs and, as a baseline, procedures currently used to certify new structure, a proposal is made which may constitute an acceptable basis for the structural certification of repairs. The key requirement is to demonstrate an acceptably low probability of patch disbonding during the remaining life of the structure. The focus is on one-off repairs where development of a comprehensive certification procedure based even on limited testing will be infeasible: Firstly, a decision process is undertaken to establish if there is indeed a certification issue. That is situations where flight safety depends on the structural integrity of the repair patch.

  16. Bio-inspired carbon nanotube-polymer composite yarns with hydrogen bond-mediated lateral interactions.

    PubMed

    Beese, Allison M; Sarkar, Sourangsu; Nair, Arun; Naraghi, Mohammad; An, Zhi; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf O; Buehler, Markus J; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2013-04-23

    Polymer composite yarns containing a high loading of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been developed in which the inherent acrylate-based organic coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through an extensive hydrogen-bond network. This design takes advantage of a toughening mechanism seen in spider silk and collagen, which contain an abundance of hydrogen bonds that can break and reform, allowing for large deformation while maintaining structural stability. Similar to that observed in natural materials, unfolding of the polymeric matrix at large deformations increases ductility without sacrificing stiffness. As the PVA content in the composite increases, the stiffness and energy to failure of the composite also increases up to an optimal point, beyond which mechanical performance in tension decreases. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations confirm this trend, showing the dominance of nonproductive hydrogen bonding between PVA molecules at high PVA contents, which lubricates the interface between DWNTs. PMID:23548065

  17. Laser Surface Preparation of Epoxy Composites for Secondary Bonding: Optimization of Ablation Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John; Wohl, Christopher J.; Lin, Yi; Connell, John W.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Blohowiak, Kay Y.

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation has been identified as one of the most critical aspects of attaining predictable and reliable adhesive bonds. Energetic processes such as laser ablation or plasma treatment are amenable to automation and are easily monitored and adjusted for controlled surface preparation. A laser ablation process was developed to accurately remove a targeted depth of resin, approximately 0.1 to 20 micrometers, from a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite surface while simultaneously changing surface chemistry and creating micro-roughness. This work demonstrates the application of this process to prepare composite surfaces for bonding without exposing or damaging fibers on the surface. Composite panels were prepared in an autoclave and had a resin layer approximately 10 micrometers thick above the fiber reinforcement. These composite panels were laser surface treated using several conditions, fabricated into bonded panels and hygrothermally aged. Bond performance of aged, experimental specimens was compared with grit blast surface treated specimens using a modified double cantilever beam test that enabled accelerated saturation of the specimen with water. Comparison of bonded specimens will be used to determine how ablation depth may affect average fracture energies and failure modes.

  18. Effect of interfacial chemical bonding and surface topography on adhesion in carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Drzal, L.T.; Sugiura, N.; Hook, D. |

    1994-12-31

    A series of PAN-based IM6 carbon fibers having varying amounts of surface treatment were, pretreated with compounds representing the constituents encountered in epoxy composites to pre-react any groups on the fiber surface before composite fabrication in order to determine the effect of chemical bonding on fiber-matrix adhesion. Chemical bonding was quantified using XPS. Chemical bonding between reactive groups in amine cured epoxy matrices and the surface groups present on IN46 carbon fibers as a result of commercial surface treatments has been detected although the absolute amount of chemical bonding is low (1-3%). It was found that reaction with monofunctional epoxy groups having hydrocarbon functionalities blocked the surface from further reaction and reduced the adhesion that could be attained to its lowest value. Prereaction with difunctional amines had little effect on adhesion when compared to normal composite fabrication procedures. Prereaction with difunctional epoxy groups did enhance adhesion levels over the level attained in normal composite fabrication methods. These results showed that chemical bonding between epoxy and the carbon fiber surface could increases the adhesion between fiber and matrix about 25% while between the amino group and the carbon fiber surface about 15%. Quantitative measurements of the fiber surface microtopography were made with scanning tunneling microscopy. An increase in roughness was detected with increasing surface treatment. It was concluded that surface roughness also accounted for a significant increase in fiber-matrix adhesion.

  19. Effect of filling technique on the bond strength of methacrylate and silorane-based composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Weingartner; Borges, Fernanda Blos; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Boscato, Noéli

    2016-01-01

    The bond strength of methacrylate (Z350, 3M ESPE) and silorane (P90, 3M ESPE) restorations, using different cavity filling techniques, was investigated. Cavities (6 × 3 × 3) in bovine teeth were filled using bulk, oblique, or horizontal increments. A push-out test was carried out after 24 h. Data were statistically analyzed (α = 5%). Methacrylate-based composites and the horizontal filling technique showed the highest bond strength values (10.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.05). Silorane-based composites showed no statistically significant differences regarding the filling techniques (p > 0.05). PMID:27050940

  20. Interfacial push-out measurements of fully-bonded SiC/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Steiner, D. ); Zinkle, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The direct measurement of interfacial bond strength and frictional resistance to sliding in a fully-bonded SiC/SiC composite is measured. It is shown that a fiber push-out technique can be utilized for small diameter fibers and very thin composite sections. Results are presented for a 22 micron thick section for which 37 out of 44 Nicalon fibers tested were pushed-out within the maximum nanoindentor load of 120 mN. Fiber interfacial yielding, push-out and sliding resistance were measured for each fiber. The distribution of interfacial strengths is treated as being Weibull in form. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Comparison of bond strength of three adhesives: composite resin, hybrid GIC, and glass-filled GIC.

    PubMed

    Rix, D; Foley, T F; Mamandras, A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 3 orthodontic adhesives in the areas of shear-peel bond strength, location of adhesive failure, and extent of enamel cracking before bonding and after debonding of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives included a composite resin control (Transbond XT; 3M/Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America Corp, Alsip, Ill), and a polyacid-modified composite resin under dry and saliva-contaminated conditions (Assure; Reliance Orthodontic Products Inc, Itasca, Ill). Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 160 (4 groups of 40) human premolars. The bonded teeth were stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 30 days and thermocycled for 24 hours before debonding with a Universal Instron (Instron Corp, Canton, Mass) testing machine. The extent of cracking in the buccal surfaces was evaluated under 16x magnification before bonding and after debonding. Although the bond strength of the composite resin control (20.19 MPa) was significantly greater (P <.05) than that of the adhesives in the other groups, clinically acceptable shear-peel bond strengths were found for all adhesives (Fuji Ortho LC = 13.57 MPa, Assure-dry = 10.74 MPa, Assure-wet = 10.99 MPa). The bond strength for the Assure adhesive was not significantly affected by saliva contamination. The sample of extracted premolars used in this study displayed a greater frequency of buccal surface enamel cracking (46.7%) than that reported in the literature for in vivo premolars (7.8%-10.2%), which was possibly due to the extraction process. The frequency of enamel cracking in a subset of this sample (n = 34) increased from 46.4% at prebonding to 62.4% at postdebonding as a result of the forces of debonding. PMID:11174538

  2. Bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin core: influence of temperature on silane coupling agents.

    PubMed

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Simamotos Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Rontani, Regina Maria Puppin; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air drying temperature and different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between glass fiber posts and composite resin core. The post surface was cleaned with alcohol and treated with different silane coupling agents, being three prehydrolyzed silanes [Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE)] and one two-component silane [Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply)]. Two post-silanization air drying temperatures, 23ºC and 60ºC, were applied. A cylindrical plastic matrix was placed around the silanized post and filled with composite resin. Each bonded post provided 7 slices for push-out testing. Each slice was loaded to failure under compression at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott tests (α=0.05). Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean of the control group with that of each experimental group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured slices. For the 23ºC air drying temperature, the use of RelyX Ceramic Primer resulted in significantly lower bond strength than the other silane coupling agents, while the bond strength with Silane Coupling Agent was the highest of all groups. Only with Silane Coupling Agent, the bond strength for the 23ºC air drying temperature was significantly higher than that for 60ºC air drying. In conclusion, the use of warm air drying after silane application produced no increase in the bond strength between the fiber-reinforced composite post and the composite core. The two-component silane produced higher bond strength than all prehydrolyzed silanes when it was used with air drying at room temperature. PMID:22460308

  3. Effect of eugenol-containing temporary cements on bond strength of composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Ganss, C; Jung, M

    1998-01-01

    The effect of temporary materials on shear bond strength of composite to dentin was investigated. Sixty previously impacted (caries-free) human third molars were embedded and sectioned horizontally at the pulp chamber and at the half of the crown. The samples were covered with ZOE, Temp Bond (eugenol-containing), Fermit, (temporary resin material, used without cementing) and Provicol, (eugenol-free, calcium hydroxide-containing). All specimens were stored in saline for 10 days. After mechanical cleaning the dentin was pretreated with a dentin bonding agent (Syntac), and the composite columns were applied. Debonding was performed using a Zwick Universal Testing Machine (cross-head speed 1.5 mm/min). The mode of failure was noted using a light microscope, and the thickness of the dentin at the composite/dentin interface was measured. The median shear bond strength values for the treated and control samples were: ZOE 7.46 MPa, Temp Bond 10.22 MPa, Fermit 6.49 MPa, Provicol 8.43 MPa, and control 10.06 MPa. No two groups were significantly different at the 0.05 level (one-way ANOVA and Scheffé test). In all groups the predominant mode of failure was adhesive and there was a slight tendency towards lower shear bond strength values at lower values for the thickness of the dentin. Under the conditions described the use of eugenol-containing temporary cements had no adverse effect on shear bond strength of a dual-curing composite luting cement to dentin. PMID:9573789

  4. A dense and strong bonding collagen film for carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2015-08-01

    A strong bonding collagen film was successfully prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The surface conditions of the modified C/C composites were detected by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra. The roughness, optical morphology, bonding strength and biocompatibility of collagen films at different pH values were detected by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), universal test machine and cytology tests in vitro. After a 4-h modification in 30% H2O2 solution at 100 °C, the contact angle on the surface of C/C composites was decreased from 92.3° to 65.3°. Large quantities of hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups were formed on the surface of the modified C/C composites. Then a dense and continuous collagen film was prepared on the modified C/C substrate. Bonding strength between collagen film and C/C substrate was reached to 8 MPa level when the pH value of this collagen film was 2.5 after the preparing process. With 2-day dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslinking at 105 °C, the bonding strength was increased to 12 MPa level. At last, the results of in vitro cytological test showed that this collagen film made a great improvement on the biocompatibility on C/C composites.

  5. Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rahbani Nobar, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Composite repair is a minimally invasive and conservative approach. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an additional hydrophobic resin layer on the repair shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite repaired with silorane or methacrylate-based composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty bar-shaped composite blocks were fabricated and stored in saline for 72 hours. The surface of the samples were roughened by diamond burs and etched with phosphoric acid; then, they were randomly divided into three groups according to the repairing process: Group 1: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-silorane composite; group 2: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin-silorane composite, and group 3: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin methacrylate-based composite. Repairing composite blocks measured 2.5×2.5×5mm. After repairing, the samples were stored in saline for 24 hours and thermocycled for 1500 cycles. The repair bond strength was measured at a strain rate of 1mm/min. Twenty additional cylindrical composite blocks (diameter: 2.5mm, height: 6mm) were also fabricated for measuring the cohesive strength of silorane-based composite. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: Cohesive bond strength of silorane composite was significantly higher than the repair bond strengths in other groups (P<0.001). The repair bond strength of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 (P=0.001). Conclusion: Application of an additional hydrophobic resin layer for repair of silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite enhanced the repair shear bond strength. PMID:27559348

  6. Long Term Water Storage Deteriorates Bonding of Composite Resin to Alumina and Zirconia Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, T.T.; Matinlinna, J.P; Vallittu, P.K.; Lassila, L.V.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long term water storage and ageing on the bond strength of resin composite cement to yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide (zirconia) and dialuminium trioxide (alumina). Substrate specimens of alumina and zirconia were air particle abraded with dialuminium trioxide before priming and application of composite resin. Priming was made with gamma metharyloxy-trimethoxysilane or acryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane monomer after which the intermediate dimethacrylate resin was applied and photopolymerized. This was followed by curing particulate composite resin cement (Relyx ARC) to the substrate as a resin stub. The ageing methods of the specimens (n=6) were: (1) they stored four years in 37±1ºC distilled water, (2) thermocycled 8000 times between 55±1ºC and 5±1ºC, (3) stored first in water for four years and then thermocycled. Specimens which were stored dry, were used as controls. Bonding of composite resin was measured by shear-bond strength test set-up. Both thermocycling and long-term water storage decreased significantly shear bond strength values compared to the control group (from the level of 20 MPa to 5 MPa) regardless of the used primer or the type of the substrate. Combination of four years water storage and thermocyling reduced the bond strength even more, to the level of two to three megapascals. In can be concluded that water storage and thermocycling itselves, and especially combination of water storage and thermocycling can cause considerable reduction in the bond strength of composite resin cement to alumina and zirconia. PMID:24167535

  7. Manufacture of bonded-particle nuclear fuel composites

    DOEpatents

    Stradley, J.G.; Sease, J.D.

    1973-10-01

    A preselected volume of nuclear fuel particles are placed in a cylindrical mold cavity followed by a solid pellet of resin--carbon matrix material of preselected volume. The mold is heated to liquefy the pellet and the liquefied matrix forced throughout the interstices of the fuel particles by advancing a piston into the mold cavity. Excess matrix is permitted to escape through a vent hole in the end of the mold opposite to that end where the pellet was originally disposed. After the matrix is resolidified by cooling, the resultant fuel composite is removed from the mold and the resin component of the matrix carbonized. (Official Gazette)

  8. Evaluation of shear bond strengths of gingiva-colored composite resin to porcelain, metal and zirconia substrates

    PubMed Central

    An, Hong-Seok; Park, Ji-Man

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of the gingiva-colored composite resin and the tooth-colored composite resin to porcelain, metal and zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty cylindrical specimens were fabricated and divided into the following 6 groups (Group 1-W: tooth-colored composite bonded to porcelain, Group 1-P: gingiva-colored composite bonded to porcelain, Group 2-W: tooth-colored composite bonded to base metal, Group 2-P: gingiva-colored composite bonded to base metal, Group 3-W: toothcolored composite bonded to zirconia, Group 3-P: gingiva-colored composite bonded to zirconia). The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine after thermocycling and the failure mode was noted. All data were analyzed using the two-way analysis of variance test and the Bonferroni post-hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The mean shear bond strength values in MPa were 12.39, 13.42, 8.78, 7.98, 4.64 and 3.74 for Group 1-W, 1-P, 2-W, 2-P, 3-W and 3-P, respectively. The difference between the two kinds of composite resin was not significant. The shear bond strength of Group 1 was the highest and that of Group 3 was the lowest. The differences among Group 1, 2 and 3 were all significant (P<.05). CONCLUSION The shear bond strength of the gingiva-colored composite was not less than that of the tooth-colored composite. Thus, repairing or fabricating ceramic restorations using the gingiva-colored composite resin can be regarded as a practical method. Especially, the prognosis would be fine when applied on porcelain surfaces. PMID:22053249

  9. Mullite fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, T.; Sayir, A.; Lightfoot, A.; Haggerty, J.

    1996-01-01

    Fracture toughnesses of brittle ceramic materials have been improved by introducing reinforcements and carefully tailored interface layers. Silicon carbide and Si3N4 have been emphasized as matrices of structural composites intended for high temperature service because they combine excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal and physical properties. Both matrices have been successfully toughened with SiC fibers, whiskers and particles for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) parts made by sintering, hot pressing or reaction forming processes. These SiC reinforced CMCs have exhibited significantly improved toughnesses at low and intermediate temperature levels, as well as retention of properties at high temperatures for selected exposures; however, they are vulnerable to attack from elevated temperature dry and wet oxidizing atmospheres after the matrix has cracked. Property degradation results from oxidation of interface layers and/or reinforcements. The problem is particularly acute for small diameter (-20 tim) polymer derived SiC fibers used for weavable toes. This research explored opportunities for reinforcing Si3N4 matrices with fibers having improved environmental stability; the findings should also be applicable to SiC matrix CMCs.

  10. Ceramic matrix composites properties/microstresses with complete and partial interphase bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A multilevel substructuring technique which includes a unique fiber substructuring concept is used for the analysis of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. This technique has four levels of substructuring--from laminate to ply, to supply, and then to fiber. A stand-alone computer code CEMCAN (Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer), incorporating this technique and specifically for the simulation of ceramic matrix composites behavior, is currently under development at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The thermal and mechanical properties, along with the microstresses, for a SiC/RBSN (silicon carbide fiber and reaction bonded silicon nitride matrix) composite at different fiber volume ratios and varying degrees of interfacial bond around the fiber circumference are computed. Values predicted by CEMCAN computer code are shown to bound the experimentally measured values. Results also show that transverse tensile strength test can be a sensitive test method to assess interfacial conditions.

  11. Effect of new adhesion promoter and mechanical interlocking on bonding strength in metal-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, A.; Göring, M.; Lindner, T.; Töberling, G.; Puschmann, M.; Riedel, F.; Scharf, I.; Schreiter, K.; Spange, S.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    There are various opportunities to improve the adhesion between polymer and metal in metal-plastic composites. The addition of a bonding agent which reacts with both joining components at the interfaces of the composite can enhance the bonding strength. An alternative method for the adjustment of interfaces in metal-plastic composites is the specific surface structuring of the joining partners in order to exploit the mechanical interlock effect. In this study the potential of using an adhesion promoter based on twin polymerization for metal-plastic composites in combination with different methods of mechanical surface treatment is evaluated by using the tensile shear test. It is shown that the new adhesion promoter has a major effect when applied on smooth metal surfaces. A combination of both mechanical and chemical surface treatment of the metal part is mostly just as effective as the application of only one of these surface treatment methods.

  12. Effect of laser welding on the titanium composite tensile bond strength.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Pagnano, Valéria de Oliveira; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the shear bond strength between commercially pure titanium, with and without laser welding, after airbone-particle abrasion (Al(2)O(3)) and 2 indirect composites. Sixty-four specimens were cast and divided into 2 groups with and without laser welding. Each group was divided in 4 subgroups, related to Al(2)O(3) grain size: A - 250 microm; B - 180 microm; C- 110 microm; and D - 50 microm. Composite rings were formed around the rods and light polymerized using UniXS unit. Specimens were invested and their shear bond strength at failure was measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The highest bond strength means were recorded in 250 microm group without laser welding. The lowest shear bond strength means were recorded in 50 microm group with laser welding. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between all groups. In conclusion, airborne particle abrasion yielded significantly lower bond strength as the Al(2)O(3) particle size decreased. Shear bond strength decreased in the laser welded specimens. PMID:20126909

  13. Supersonic Retropulsion Surface Preparation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Adhesive Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Blohowiak, Kay Y.; Connell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Surface preparation is widely recognized as a key step to producing robust and predictable bonds in a precise and reproducible manner. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, can lack precision and reproducibility, which can lead to variation in surface properties and subsequent bonding performance. The use of a laser to ablate composite surface resin can provide an efficient, precise, and reproducible means of preparing composite surfaces for adhesive bonding. Advantages include elimination of physical waste (i.e., grit media and sacrificial peel ply layers that ultimately require disposal), reduction in process variability due to increased precision (e.g. increased reproducibility), and automation of surface preparation, all of which improve reliability and process control. This paper describes a Nd:YAG laser surface preparation technique for composite substrates and the mechanical performance and failure modes of bonded laminates thus prepared. Additionally, bonded specimens were aged in a hot, wet environment for approximately one year and subsequently mechanically tested. The results of a one year hygrothermal aging study will be presented.

  14. 21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMICIRCULAR SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMI-CIRCULAR SIDE DINING ROOM, NOW CALLED THE BEAR PIT WAS ADDED IN 1927. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY-PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  15. Piezoelectric and bonding properties of a cement-based composite for dental application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Jinsong; Zhu, Jianguo; Ye, Yongmei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Zhiqing

    2008-11-01

    A cement-based piezoelectric composite was introduced as real-time health monitoring systems to dentin. Lithium sodium potassium niobate and zinc polycarboxylate cement were mixed and made piezoelectric under different poling conditions. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope confirmed the component and microstructure of the cement. The bonding force of the composites was compared to that of pure cement by analysis of variance. The optimum poling method was determined and the influencing factors of piezoelectric coefficient were discussed.

  16. Analysis techniques for the prediction of springback in formed and bonded composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasick, Michael F.; Renieri, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    Two finite element analysis codes are used to model the effects of cooling on the dimensional stability of formed and bonded composite parts. The two analysis routines, one h-version and one p-version, are compared for modeling time, analysis execution time, and exactness of solution as compared to actual test results. A recommended procedure for predicting temperature effects on composite parts is presented, based on the results of this study.

  17. Effect of three surface conditioning methods to improve bond strength of particulate filler resin composites.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Alander, P; Vallittu, P K; Huysmans, M-C; Kalk, W

    2005-01-01

    The use of resin-based composite materials in operative dentistry is increasing, including applications in stress-bearing areas. However, composite restorations, in common with all restorations, suffer from deterioration and degradation in clinical service. Durable repair alternatives by layering a new composite onto such failed composite restorations, will eliminate unnecessary loss of tooth tissue and repeated insults to the pulp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the repair bond strength of a particulate filler resin-composite (PFC) to 5 PFC substrates. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following surface conditioning methods: (1) Hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel (9.5%) etching, (2) Air-borne particle abrasion (50 microm Al2O3), (3) Silica coating (30 microm SiOx, CoJet-Sand). After each conditioning method, a silane coupling agent was applied. Adhesive resin was then applied in a thin layer and light polymerized. The low-viscosity diacrylate resin composite was bonded to the conditioned substrates in polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested in dry and thermocycled (6.000, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s) conditions. One-way ANOVA showed significant influence of the surface conditioning methods (p < 0.001), and the PFC types (p < 0.0001) on the shear bond strength values. Significant differences were observed in bond strength values between the acid etched specimens (5.7-14.3 MPa) and those treated with either air-borne particle abrasion (13.0-22.5 MPa) or silica coating (25.5-41.8 MPa) in dry conditions (ANOVA, p < 0.001). After thermocycling, the silica coating process resulted in the highest bond values in all material groups (17.2-30.3 MPa). PMID:15754140

  18. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500.degree. C. in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850.degree. to 950.degree. C. in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  19. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.; Shell, T.E.

    1985-05-20

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500/sup 0/C in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  20. Characterization of mode I and mixed-mode failure of adhesive bonds between composite adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of an adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize both the static and fatigue beyond growth mechanism under mode 1 and mixed-mode 1 and 2 loadings. Two bonded systems were studied: graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 and FM-300 adhesives. For each bonded system, two specimen types were tested: a double-cantilever-beam specimen for mode 1 loading and a cracked-lapshear specimen for mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading. In all specimens tested, failure occurred in the form of debond growth. Debonding always occurred in a cohesive manner with EC 3445 adhesive. The FM-300 adhesive debonded in a cohesive manner under mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading, but in a cohesive, adhesive, or combined cohesive and adhesive manner under mode 1 loading. Total strain-energy release rate appeared to be the driving parameter for debond growth under static and fatigue loadings.

  1. Characterization of mode 1 and mixed-mode failure of adhesive bonds between composite adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of an adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize both the static and fatigue beyond growth mechanism under mode 1 and mixed-mode 1 and 2 loadings. Two bonded systems were studied: graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 and FM-300 adhesives. For each bonded system, two specimen types were tested: a double-cantilever-beam specimen for mode 1 loading and a cracked-lapshear specimen for mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading. In all specimens tested, failure occurred in the form of debond growth. Debonding always occurred in a cohesive manner with EC 3445 adhesive. The FM-300 adhesive debonded in a cohesive manner under mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading, but in a cohesive, adhesive, or combined cohesive and adhesive manner under mode 1 loading. Total strain-energy release rate appeared to be the driving parameter for debond growth under static and fatigue loadings.

  2. Effect of surface treatment on micro shear bond strength of two indirect composites

    PubMed Central

    Moezizadeh, Maryam; Ansari, Zahra Jaberi; Fard, Fatemeh Matin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of surface treatment on micro shear bond strength of two indirect composites. Materials and Methods: Blocks of 2 × 7 × 20 mm dimensions were made from two kinds of resin composites, Gradia and Signum plus. Samples were subjected to secondary curing to complete polymerization. They were divided into five groups: control without any preparation, second group sandblasted with aluminum oxide, third, fourth and fifth groups were lased under a beam of 0.5, 1 and 2 W respectively. Panavia resin cement was placed on the composite blocks using tygon tubes and cured and micro shear bond strength was measured. One sample of each group was observed under electronic microscope. Data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Results: For Gradia composite, the sandblasted group showed highest strength (25.7±2.9 MPa) followed by the laser beam of 1 W group (with 23.6± 2.8 MPa). In Signum composite, the laser beam of 1 W (21.4±4.2 MPa) showed the highest strength followed by the sandblasted group (with 19.4±3.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatments using sandblast and laser beam of 1W power along with silane are two effective methods to increase the bond strength of composites. PMID:22876007

  3. PHOSPHATE-BONDED FIBER AND WASTE RESIDUAL COMPOSITES FOR APPLIED COMMERCIALIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We expect to prove the technical and economic feasibility of producing phosphate-bonded waste pulp and paper mill residue composite building products. These products will be tested on a commercial scale and tested to relevant industry performance standards. Overall project per...

  4. Bond and low cycle fatigue behavior of thermoset composite reinforcing for the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.

    1990-09-21

    This thesis encompasses two separate research projects. The first project, described in Chapter 2 was a project investigating the fatigue behavior of thermoset Fiber Composite (FC) sandwich wall ties. The second research project detailed in this thesis was a project studying the bond and tensile properties of FC rod and FC fibers.

  5. The influence of bonding agents in improving interactions in composite propellants determined using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Dostanić, J; Husović, T V; Usćumlić, G; Heinemann, R J; Mijin, D

    2008-12-01

    Binder-oxidizer interactions in rocket composite propellants can be improved using adequate bonding agents. In the present work, the effectiveness of different 1,3,5-trisubstituted isocyanurates was determined by stereo and metallographic microscopy and using the software package Image-Pro Plus. The chemical analysis of samples was performed by a scanning electron microscope equipped for energy dispersive spectrometry. PMID:19094035

  6. Explosive bonded TZM-wire-reinforced C129Y columbium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Technique consists of positioning layers of TZM metal filaments between thin C129Y columbium sheets and joining multiple sheet stacks by single explosive joining operation. Metallurgical bonds are excellent, external heat is not required, process is relatively inexpensive, and resulting composites are considerably stronger than base alloy.

  7. An Experimental Investigation of Silicone-to-Metal Bond Strength in Composite Space Docking System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a new universal docking mechanism for future space exploration missions called the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). A candidate LIDS main interface seal design is a composite assembly of silicone elastomer seals vacuum molded into grooves in an electroless nickel plated aluminum retainer. The strength of the silicone-tometal bond is a critical consideration for the new system, especially due to the presence of small areas of disbond created during the molding process. In the work presented herein, seal-to-retainer bonds of subscale seal specimens with different sizes of intentional disbond were destructively tensile tested. Nominal specimens without intentional disbonds were also tested. Tension was applied either uniformly on the entire seal circumference or locally in one short circumferential length. Bond failure due to uniform tension produced a wide scatter of observable failure modes and measured load-displacement behaviors. Although the preferable failure mode for the seal-to-retainer bond is cohesive failure of the elastomer material, the dominant observed failure mode under the uniform loading condition was found to be the less desirable adhesive failure of the bond in question. The uniform tension case results did not show a correlation between disbond size and bond strength. Localized tension was found to produce failure either as immediate tearing of the elastomer material outside the bond region or as complete peel-out of the seal in one piece. The obtained results represent a valuable benchmark for comparison in the future between adhesion loads under various separation conditions and composite seal bond strength.

  8. Bond slip detection of concrete-encased composite structure using shear wave based active sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lei; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Kong, Qingzhao; Huo, Linsheng; Lim, Ing; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-12-01

    Concrete-encased composite structure exhibits improved strength, ductility and fire resistance compared to traditional reinforced concrete, by incorporating the advantages of both steel and concrete materials. A major drawback of this type of structure is the bond slip introduced between steel and concrete, which directly reduces the load capacity of the structure. In this paper, an active sensing approach using shear waves to provide monitoring and early warning of the development of bond slip in the concrete-encased composite structure is proposed. A specimen of concrete-encased composite structure was investigated. In this active sensing approach, shear mode smart aggregates (SAs) embedded in the concrete act as actuators and generate desired shear stress waves. Distributed piezoceramic transducers installed in the cavities of steel plates act as sensors and detect the wave response from shear mode SAs. Bond slip acts as a form of stress relief and attenuates the wave propagation energy. Experimental results from the time domain analysis clearly indicate that the amplitudes of received signal by lead zirconate titanate sensors decreased when bond slip occurred. In addition, a wavelet packet-based analysis was developed to compute the received signal energy values, which can be used to determine the initiation and development of bond slip in concrete-encased composite structure. In order to establish the validity of the proposed method, a 3D finite element analysis of the concrete-steel bond model is further performed with the aid of the commercial finite element package, Abaqus, and the numerical results are compared with the results obtained in experimental study.

  9. Repair bond strength of composite resin to sandblasted and laser irradiated Y-TZP ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kirmali, Omer; Barutcigil, Çağatay; Ozarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Harorlı, Osman Tolga

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different surface treatments on the repair bond strength of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramic (Y-TZP) zirconia to a composite resin. Sixty Y-TZP zirconia specimens were prepared and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) as follows: Group 1, surface grinding with Cimara grinding bur (control); Group 2, sandblasted with 30 µm silica-coated alumina particles; Group 3, Nd:YAG laser irradiation; Group 4, Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation; Group 5, sandblasted + Nd:YAG laser irradiation; and Group 6, sandblasted + Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. After surface treatments, the Cimara(®) System was selected for the repair method and applied to all specimens. A composite resin was built-up on each zirconia surface using a cylindrical mold (5 × 3 mm) and incrementally filled. The repair bond strength was measured with a universal test machine. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). Surface topography after treatments were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Shear bond strength mean values ranged from 15.896 to 18.875 MPa. There was a statistically significant difference between group 3 and the control group (p < 0.05). Also, a significant increase in bond strength values was noted in group 6 (p < 0.05). All surface treatment methods enhanced the repair bond strength of the composite to zirconia; however, there were no significant differences between treatment methods. The results revealed that Nd:YAG laser irradiation along with the combination of sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation provided a significant increase in bond strength between the zirconia and composite resin. PMID:25715193

  10. Characterization of bond in steel-fiber-reinforced cementitious composites under tensile loads

    SciTech Connect

    Namur, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated was bonding in steel fiber reinforced cementitious composites, like fiber-reinforced mortar. The study was basically analytical, consisting primarily of two analytical models that predict the bond shear stress distribution at the interface between the fibers and the matrix, as well as the normal tensile distributions in the fibers and the matrix. The two models were, however, based on separate assumptions. While the first model assumed a known bond shear stress versus slip relationship at the interface between the fibers and the surrounding matrix, the second model was based on a mechanism of force transfer between the fibers and the matrix, hence circumventing the rather complex task of determining the relationship between the bond stress and the slip for the given type of fiber and matrix. Some applications to this second model, such as the bond modulus, the debonding stress, the length of the debonded zone were also investigated. A theoretical study of the pull-out process of steel fibers in cementitious matrices is included. The problem consisted of relating an idealized bond shear stress versus slip relationship to a pull-out curve. The derivation as based on the assumption that this relationship is linearly elastic-perfectly frictional, and then extended to the case of a fiction decaying linearly with the slip. The problem was subdivided into two components: a primal problem, whereby the pull-out curve is predicted from an assumed bond shear stress-slip relationship, and the dual problem, in which an experimentally obtained pull-out curve was used to predict the interfacial constitutive model, namely the bond-slip curve. Model application was illustrated by three examples of pull-out tests. The pull-out curves obtained in the laboratory, which featured the pull-out force versus the end slip of the pull-out fiber, were used to predict bond shear stress-slip relationships.

  11. The cryogenic bonding evaluation at the metallic-composite interface of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel with additional impact investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Eric A.

    A bonding evaluation that investigated the cryogenic tensile strength of several different adhesives/resins was performed. The test materials consisted of 606 aluminum test pieces adhered to a wet-wound graphite laminate in order to simulate the bond created at the liner-composite interface of an aluminum-lined composite overwrapped pressure vessel. It was found that for cryogenic applications, a flexible, low modulus resin system must be used. Additionally, the samples prepared with a thin layer of cured resin -- or prebond -- performed significantly better than those without. It was found that it is critical that the prebond surface must have sufficient surface roughness prior to the bonding application. Also, the aluminum test pieces that were prepared using a surface etchant slightly outperformed those that were prepared with a grit blast surface finish and performed significantly better than those that had been scored using sand paper to achieve the desired surface finish. An additional impact investigation studied the post impact tensile strength of composite rings in a cryogenic environment. The composite rings were filament wound with several combinations of graphite and aramid fibers and were prepared with different resin systems. The rings were subjected to varying levels of Charpy impact damage and then pulled to failure in tension. It was found that the addition of elastic aramid fibers with the carbon fibers mitigates the overall impact damage and drastically improves the post-impact strength of the structure in a cryogenic environment.

  12. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to aged resin composite surfaces: effect of surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Mehmet; Yesilyurt, Cemal; Kusgöz, Adem; Ulker, Mustafa; Nur, Metin

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of surface conditioning protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets to aged composite resin surfaces in vitro. Ninety composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height, were prepared and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) control with no surface treatment, (2) 38 per cent phosphoric acid gel, (3) 9.6 per cent hydrofluoric acid gel, (4) airborne aluminium trioxide particle abrasion, (5) sodium bicarbonate particle abrasion, and (6) diamond bur. The metal brackets were bonded to composite surfaces by means of an orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT). All specimens were stored in water for 1 week at 37°C and then thermocycled (1000 cycles, 5-55°C) prior to SBS testing. SBS values and residual adhesive on the composite surface were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (P = 0.000) between the groups. Group 6 had the highest mean SBS (10.61 MPa), followed by group 4 (10.29 MPa). The results of this study suggest that a clinically acceptable bond strength can be achieved by surface conditioning of aged resin composite via the application of hydrofluoric acid, aluminium trioxide particle abrasion, sodium bicarbonate particle abrasion, or a diamond bur. PMID:20660131

  13. Microshear bond strength of preheated silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins to dentin.

    PubMed

    Demirbuga, Sezer; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Cantekin, Kenan; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating on microshear bond strength (MSBS) of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins to human dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into three main groups: (1) composite resins were heated upto 68 °C; (2) cooled to 4 °C; and (3) control [room temperature (RT)]. Each group was then randomly subdivided into four subgroups according to adhesive system used [Solobond M (Voco), All Bond SE (Bisco), Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) (Kuraray), Silorane adhesive system (SAS) (3M ESPE)]. Resin composite cylinders were formed (0.9 mm diameter × 0.7 mm length) and MSBS of each specimen was tested. The preheated groups exhibited the highest MSBS (p < 0.001) and the groups cooled to 4 °C exhibited the lowest MSBS (p < 0.001). The CSE showed higher MSBS than the other adhesives (p < 0.001). This study concludes that preheating of composite resins may be an alternative way to increase the MSBS of composites on dentin. PMID:26381904

  14. Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.

  15. Environmental Aging of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M Structural Adhesive in Composite to Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Miner, Gilda A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Baughman, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites have found increased usage in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance is not well established. In this study, adhesive bonds were prepared by the secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminate. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of single-lap-shear (SLS) specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The aging results of strength retention and failure modes to date are reported.

  16. Advanced leading edge thermal-structure concept. Direct bond reusable surface insulation to a composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Figueroa, H.; Coe, C. F.; Kuo, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced leading-edge concept was analyzed using the space shuttle leading edge system as a reference model. The comparison indicates that a direct-bond system utilizing a high temperature (2700 F) fibrous refractory composite insulation tile bonded to a high temperature (PI/graphite) composite structure can result in a weight savings of up to 800 lb. The concern that tile damage or loss during ascent would result in adverse entry aerodynamics if a leading edge tile system were used is addressed. It was found from experiment that missing tiles (as many as 22) on the leading edge would not significantly affect the basic force-and-moment aerodynamic coefficients. Additionally, this concept affords a degree of redundancy to a thermal protection system in that the base structure (being a composite material) ablates and neither melts nor burns through when subjected to entry heating in the event tiles are actually lost or damaged during ascent.

  17. A novel dentin bond strength measurement technique using a composite disk in diametral compression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Lian-Shan; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Rob; Aparicio, Conrado; Lin, Chun-Pin; Fok, Alex

    2012-04-01

    New methods are needed that can predict the clinical failure of dental restorations that primarily rely on dentin bonding. Existing methods have shortcomings, e.g. severe deviation in the actual stress distribution from theory and a large standard deviation in the measured bond strength. We introduce here a novel test specimen by examining an endodontic model for dentin bonding. Specifically, we evaluated the feasibility of using the modified Brazilian disk test to measure the post-dentin interfacial bond strength. Four groups of resin composite disks which contained a slice of dentin with or without an intracanal post in the center were tested under diametral compression until fracture. Advanced nondestructive examination and imaging techniques in the form of acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used innovatively to capture the fracture process in real time. DIC showed strain concentration first appearing at one of the lateral sides of the post-dentin interface. The appearance of the interfacial strain concentration also coincided with the first AE signal detected. Utilizing both the experimental data and finite-element analysis, the bond/tensile strengths were calculated to be: 11.2 MPa (fiber posts), 12.9 MPa (metal posts), 8.9 MPa (direct resin fillings) and 82.6 MPa for dentin. We have thus established the feasibility of using the composite disk in diametral compression to measure the bond strength between intracanal posts and dentin. The new method has the advantages of simpler specimen preparation, no premature failure, more consistent failure mode and smaller variations in the calculated bond strength. PMID:22266033

  18. Effect of surface treatment on bond strength between an indirect composite material and a zirconia framework.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Kamio, Shingo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of various surface treatments for zirconia ceramics on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia ceramics. In addition, we investigated the durability of shear bond strength by using artificial aging (20,000 thermocycles). A total of 176 Katana zirconia disks were randomly divided into eight groups according to surface treatment, as follows: group CON (as-milled); group GRD (wet-ground with 600-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper); groups 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa (airborne-particle abrasion at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa, respectively); and group HF (9.5% hydrofluoric acid etching). Shear bond strength was measured at 0 thermocycles in half the specimens after 24-h immersion. The remaining specimens were subjected to 20,000 thermocycles before shear bond strength testing. Among the eight groups, the 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa airborne-particle abraded groups had significantly higher bond strengths before and after thermocycling. The Mann-Whitney U-test revealed no significant difference in shear bond strength between 0 and 20,000 thermocycles, except in the 0.2 MPa group (P = 0.013). From the results of this study, use of airborne-particle abrasion at a pressure of 0.1 MPa or higher increases initial and durable bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia ceramics. PMID:22466885

  19. Adhesively bonded steel and composites-durability in substitute ocean water

    SciTech Connect

    Aartun, L.; Dillard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Ocean water, marine life and certain oil-well fluids constitute a highly aggressive environment for most metals. In the offshore oil industry, the economic driving force to seek new materials points towards polymeric composites which offer reduction of weight and elimination of corrosion. However, a combined use of steel and composites creates a joining problem. Exposure to humid air and liquid water affects adhesive bonds in a negative manner, and adhesively bonded metal systems are even less durable in marine than in non-ocean environments. In marine environments and sea coast atmospheres, marine life and salts can contribute to the degradation process. On an operating oil rig, repair and replacements involving adhesive bonding are forced to be carried out under non-ideal conditions because of environmental regulations (affecting surface treatments) and safety requirements (affecting the curing method). The objective of this work is to develop environmentally friendly surface preparations and to study, the influence of salt water on the durability of adhesively bonded steel/composite systems.

  20. Bond-slip detection of concrete-encased composite structure using electro-mechanical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yabin; Li, Dongsheng; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Kong, Qingzhao; Lim, Ing; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    Concrete-encased composite structure is a type of structure that takes the advantages of both steel and concrete materials, showing improved strength, ductility, and fire resistance compared to traditional reinforced concrete structures. The interface between concrete and steel profiles governs the interaction between these two materials under loading, however, debonding damage between these two materials may lead to severe degradation of the load transferring capacity which will affect the structural performance significantly. In this paper, the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique using piezoceramic transducers was experimentally investigated to detect the bond-slip occurrence of the concrete-encased composite structure. The root-mean-square deviation is used to quantify the variations of the impedance signatures due to the presence of the bond-slip damage. In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, finite element model analysis was performed to simulate the behavior of concrete-steel debonding based on a 3D finite element concrete-steel bond model. The computed impedance signatures from the numerical results are compared with the results obtained from the experimental study, and both the numerical and experimental studies verify the proposed EMI method to detect bond slip of a concrete-encased composite structure.

  1. Shear test of composite bonded to dentin: Er:YAG laser versus dental handpiece preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1995-05-01

    The erbium:YAG laser coupled with a cooling stream of water appears to be an effective means of removing dental hard tissues. However, before the procedure is deemed clinically viable, there are several important issues of safety and efficacy that need to be explored. In this study we investigated the surface that remains following laser ablation of dentin and compared the results to the use of a dental handpiece. Specifically, we studied the effect the laser radiation had on the bonding of composite to dentin. The crowns of extracted human molars were removed revealing the underlying dentin. An additional thickness of material was removed with either a dental handpiece or an Er:YAG laser by raster scanning the samples under a fixed handpiece or laser. Comparable surface roughnesses were achieved. A cylinder of composite was bonded onto the prepared surfaces following the manufacturer's directions. The dentin-composite bond was then shear stressed to failure on a universal testing apparatus and the maximum load recorded. Preliminary results indicated that laser irradiated samples had improved bond strengths. SEM photographs of the surfaces were also taken to compare the two methods of tooth preparation.

  2. [Is amalgam stained dentin a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?].

    PubMed

    Scholtanus, J D

    2016-06-01

    After the removal of amalgam restorations, black staining of dentin is often observed, which is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from amalgam. A study was carried out to determine whether this amalgam stained dentin is a proper substrate for bonding resin composites. A literature study and an in vitro study showed that Sn and Zn in particular are found in amalgam stained dentin, and this was the case only in demineralised dentin. In vitro, demineralised dentin acted as porte d'entrÈe for amalgam corrosion products. Bond strength tests with 5 adhesive strategies showed no differences between bond strengths to amalgam stained and to sound dentin, but did show different failure types. A clinical study showed good survival of extensive cusp replacing resin composite restorations. No failures were attributed to inadequate adhesion. It is concluded that staining of dentin by amalgam corrosion products has no negative effect upon bond strength of resin composite. It is suggested that Sn and Zn may have a beneficial effect upon dentin, thus compensating the effects of previous carious attacks, preparation trauma and physico-chemical challenges during clinical lifetime. PMID:27275662

  3. Effect of excitation energy on dentine bond strength and composite properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H

    1994-06-01

    A number of available dentine adhesives and dental composites require light activation for polymerization. There are many variables which affect the light absorbing properties (e.g. bond strength) of these materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of excitation energy (EE) on the dentine shear bond strength (SBS) of two lengths (2.1 mm and 3.25 mm) of light-cured (or dual-cured) dentine adhesives/dental composites. Diametral tensile (DTS) and compressive (CS) strengths of the same composites were also studied as a function of EE. Three resin composites with their respective adhesives (Marathon One/Tenure, Z100/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Herculite XRV/Optibond) were used. Five commercial curing lights were used to produce spectra of 100-650 mW cm-2. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. No significant correlation was observed at the P > 0.05 level between EE and SBS in the shorter specimens. The SBS of Optibond is independent of EE and composite length. The SBS data were also analysed with Weibull statistics. The characteristic strengths calculated varied between 14 and 27 MPa. For the composites tested, mean values of DTS varied between 33 and 54 MPa and CS varied between 167 and 414 MPa. The DTS and CS of Z100 were significantly greater than those of the other materials. Intensities > or = 250 mW cm-2 produced equivalent mechanical properties within all composite materials and equivalent bond strengths in systems which included dentine, adhesive and composite resin. PMID:8027461

  4. Analysis of Bonded Joints Between the Facesheet and Flange of Corrugated Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrington, Phillip W.; Collier, Craig S.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for the stress analysis of bonded composite corrugated panel facesheet to flange joints. The method relies on the existing HyperSizer Joints software, which analyzes the bonded joint, along with a beam analogy model that provides the necessary boundary loading conditions to the joint analysis. The method is capable of predicting the full multiaxial stress and strain fields within the flange to facesheet joint and thus can determine ply-level margins and evaluate delamination. Results comparing the method to NASTRAN finite element model stress fields are provided illustrating the accuracy of the method.

  5. Shear bond strength of composite resin to titanium according to various surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yun; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Park, Ha-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM When veneering composite resin-metal restoration is prepared, the fact that bond strength between Ti and composite resin is relatively weak should be considered. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength between the veneering composite resin and commercial pure (CP) Ti / Ti-6Al-4V alloy according to the method of surface treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The disks were cast by two types of metal. Their surfaces were treated by sandblasting, metal conditioner, TiN coating and silicoating respectively. After surface treatment, the disks were veneered by composite resin (Tescera™, Bisco, USA) which is 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. The specimens were stored in water at 25℃ for 24 hours, and then evaluated for their shear bond strength by universal testing machine (STM-5®, United Calibration, USA). These values were statistically analyzed. RESULTS 1. All methods of surface treatment were used in this study satisfied the requirements of ISO 10477 which is the standard of polymer-based crown and bridge materials. 2. The metal conditioner treated group showed the highest value in shear bond strength of CP Ti, silicoated group, TiN coated group, sandblasted group, in following order. 3. The silicoated group showed the highest value in shear bond strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, metal conditioner treated group, sandblasted group, TiN coated group, in following order. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this study, all methods of surface treatment used in this study are clinically available. PMID:21165258

  6. Effect of composite containing an iodonium salt on the bond strength of brackets to bovine enamel.

    PubMed

    Soares, Eveline Freitas; Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the incorporation of an iodonium salt in experimental composites, on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to bovine teeth. Two hundred and seventy bovine teeth were embedded in self-curing acrylic resin and divided into 18 groups (n=15), according to the experimental composite with an iodonium salt at molar concentrations 0 (control), 0.5, or 1%; the light-activation times (8, 20 and 40 s); and the storage times (10 min or 24 h). Metallic brackets were fixed on the tooth surface using experimental composites. Photoactivation was performed with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit curing unit for 8, 20 and 40 s. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 10 min or 24 h and submitted to bond strength test at 0.5 mm/min. The data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was used to classify the failure modes. The shear bond strengths (MPa) at 10 min for light-activation times of 8, 20 and 40 s were: G1 - 4.6, 6.9 and 7.1; G2 - 8.1, 9.2 and 9.9; G3 - 9.1, 10.4 and 10.7; and at 24 h were: G1 - 10.9, 11.1 and 11.7; G2 - 11.8, 12.7 and 14.2; G3 - 12.1, 14.4 and 15.8. There was a predominance of ARI score 3 for groups with 10 min storage time, and ARI score 2 for groups with 24 h storage time. In conclusion, the addition of iodonium salt (C05 and C1) to the experimental composite may increase the bond strength of brackets to bovine enamel using reduced light exposure times. PMID:25252260

  7. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

  8. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting

  9. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Heba A.; Ghalab, Radwa M.; Elsayed Akah, Mai M.; Mobarak, Enas H.

    2015-01-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm2) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64–86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage. PMID:26966567

  10. Ultrasonic inspection technique for composite doubler/aluminum skin bond integrity for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieske, John H.; Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phillip D.

    1998-03-01

    As part of the FAA's National Aging Aircraft Research Program to foster new technologies for civil aircraft maintenance and repair, use of bonded composite doublers on metal aircraft structures has been advanced. Research and validation of such doubler applications on U.S. certified commercial aircraft has begun. A specific composite application to assess the capabilities of composite doublers was chosen on a L-1011 aircraft for reinforcement of the corner of a cargo door frame where a boron-epoxy repair patch of up to 72 plies was installed. A primary inspection requirement for these doublers is the identification of disbonds between the composite laminate and the aluminum parent material. This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique using a modified immersion focus transducer where a robust signal amplitude signature of the composite/aluminum interface is obtained to characterize the condition of the bond. Example waveforms and C-scan images are shown to illustrate the ultrasonic response for various transducer configurations using a boron-epoxy/aluminum skin calibration test sample where disbonds and delaminations were built-in. The modified focus transducer is compatible with portable ultrasonic scanning systems that utilize the weeper or dripless bubbler technologies when an ultrasonic inspection of the boron-epoxy composite doublers installed on aircraft is implemented.

  11. Differences in interfacial bond strengths of graphite fiber-epoxy resin composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needles, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of epoxy-size and degree of cure on the interfacial bonding of an epoxy-amine-graphite fiber composite system is examined. The role of the fiber-resin interface in determining the overall mechanical properties of composites is poorly understood. A good interfacial adhesive bond is required to achieve maximum stress transfer to the fibers in composites, but at the same time some form of energy absorbing interfacial interaction is needed to achieve high fracture toughening. The incompatibility of these two processes makes it important to understand the nature and basic factors involved at the fiber-resin interface as stress is applied. The mechanical properties including interlaminar shear values for graphite fiber-resin composites are low compared to glass and boron-resin composites. These differences have been attributed to poor fiber-matrix adhesion. Graphite fibers are commonly subjected to post-treatments including application of organic sizing in order to improve their compatibility with the resin matrix and to protect the fiber tow from damage during processing and lay-up. In such processes, sized graphite fiber tow is impregnated with epoxy resin and then layed-up i nto the appropriate configuration. Following an extended ambient temperature cure, the graphite-resin composite structure is cured at elevated temperature using a programmed temperature sequence to cure and then cool the product.

  12. Ultrasonic inspection technique for composite doubler/aluminum skin bond integrity for aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.; Roach, D.P.; Walkington, P.D.

    1998-02-01

    As part of the FAA`s National Aging Aircraft Research Program to foster new technologies for civil aircraft maintenance and repair, use of bonded composite doublers on metal aircraft structures has been advanced. Research and validation of such doubler applications on US certified commercial aircraft has begun. A specific composite application to assess the capabilities of composite doublers was chosen on a L-1011 aircraft for reinforcement of the comer of a cargo door frame where a boron-epoxy repair patch of up to 72 plies was installed. A primary inspection requirement for these doublers is the identification of disbonds between the composite laminate and the aluminum parent material. This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic pulse echo technique using a modified immersion focus transducer where a robust signal amplitude signature of the composite aluminum interface is obtained to characterize the condition of the bond. Example waveforms and C-scan images are shown to illustrate the ultrasonic response for various transducer configurations using a boron-epoxy aluminum skin calibration test sample where disbonds and delaminations were built-in. The modified focus transducer is compatible with portable ultrasonic scanning systems that utilize the weeper or dripless bubbler technologies when an ultrasonic inspection of the boron-epoxy composite doublers installed on aircraft is implemented.

  13. The role of molecular mobility in the consolidation and bonding of thermoplastic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, V.

    1991-01-01

    The time required to consolidate thermoplastic composite materials was determined using isothermal compression molding and laser-assisted consolidation experiments; very short consolidation times, less than one second, were obtained using the laser process. Characterization of parts produced using the laser process included measuring interlaminar properties, void content, polymer degradation, and crystallinity. A nonisothermal diffusional bonding model was developed to determine whether the experimental interlaminar properties were consistent with a molecular interdiffusion mechanism. Model predictions were found to be consistent with experimental results. Theoretical self-diffusivities and relaxation times were calculated for the polymer resin using the reptation theory for polymer melts. These predictions were compared to experimental measurements of the relaxation times using rheometric experiments. The isothermal bonding time obtained from the laser consolidation experiments was comparable to the experimental relaxation times. Comparison of the theoretical predictions indicated that the bonding was controlled by the longer, less mobile chains in the resin system.

  14. Influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Shah, K C; Loh, E T; Sim, S S; Tan, C C

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin. Thirty-two freshly extracted human molars were embedded and horizontally sectioned at a level 2 mm from the central fossa to obtain a flat dentin surface. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of eight teeth. Specimens in Group 1 (control) received no pre-treatment with any temporary restorations. Group 2 and 3 specimens were covered with IRM (eugenol-containing) mixed at powder: liquid (P:L) ratio of 10 g: 1 g and 10 g: 2 g, respectively. Specimens in Group 4 were covered with polycarboxylate cement (eugenol-free) mixed at a P:L ratio of 2.85 g: 1 g. The temporary restorations were mechanically removed with an ultrasonic scaler after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The dentin surfaces were cleaned with pumice-water slurry and treated with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus bonding system according to manufacturer's instructions. Composite (Z100) columns (3 mm diameter, 2 mm high) were applied and shear bond testing was carried out after 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C using an Instron Universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The mode of failure was examined using a stereomicroscope at X40 magnification. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffes's post-hoc test at significance level 0.05. Ranking of bond strengths was as follows: Group 1 (22.58 MPa) > Group 2 (21.14 MPa) > Group 4 (15.35 MPa) > Group 3 (13.02 MPa). Group 3 had significantly lower bond strength than Groups 1 and 2. No significant difference in dentin bond strength was observed between the Group 1 (control) and Groups 2 and 4. Although the predominant mode of failure for Groups 1, 2 and 4 was cohesive in dentin, all specimens in Group 3 exhibited adhesive failure. Pre-treatment with polycarboxylate cement or IRM mixed at P:L ratio of 10 g: 1 g did not affect shear bond strength of composite to

  15. Semicircular canals as a primary etiological factor in motion sickness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented which support the view that the semicircular canals of humans can act as the essential factor for the production of motion sickness and the evocation of symptoms characteristic of this malady in the absence of 'motion.' Quantitative grading of acute symptoms demonstrated that motion sickness can be evoked by stimuli which are adequately provocative and unique for the canals. These results are compared with those of two provocative rotational tests that introduce Coriolis (cross-coupled angular acceleration) forces or generate a rotating linear acceleration vector. Wide interindividual differences but only slight intraindividual differences among the six provocative test conditions are revealed, indicating that individuals usually possess an overall susceptibility to motion which is relatively independent of its type. The fact that typical symptoms of motion sickness were also produced by bithermal irrigation of several subjects who represented a wide range of susceptibility adds to the evidence that semicircular canals can act as the primary etiological factor in this malady.

  16. Algorithm of semicircular laser spot detection based on circle fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengzhou; Xu, Ruihua; Hu, Bingliang

    2013-07-01

    In order to obtain the exact center of an asymmetrical and semicircular aperture laser spot, a method for laser spot detection method based on circle fitting was proposed in this paper, threshold of laser spot image was segmented by the method of gray morphology algorithm, rough edge of laser spot was detected in both vertical and horizontal direction, short arcs and isolated edge points were deleted by contour growing, the best circle contour was obtained by iterative fitting and the final standard round was fitted in the end. The experimental results show that the precision of the method is obviously better than the gravity model method being used in the traditional large laser automatic alignment system. The accuracy of the method to achieve asymmetrical and semicircular laser spot center meets the requirements of the system.

  17. Shear Bond Strength of the Repair Composite Resin to Zirconia Ceramic by Different Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Arami, Sakineh; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoumeh; Namdar, Fatemeh; Safavi, Nassimeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the amount of surface roughness (Ra) of Zirconia Ceramic following different surface treatments as well as the assessment of its shear bond strength to composite resin. Methods: 40 sintered zirconia ceramic block samples were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 and underwent the following surface treatments: a) Control group without treatment b) Air abrasion with Al2O3 particles (50um) c) Er:YAG laser with 2W power for 10s d) Nd:YAG laser with 1.5W power for 2min Then the mean surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated by profilometer. In the next step, Alloy primer was used on a section of 9mm2 on the samples following the manufacturer’s instructions. After that Clearfil AP-X composite resin in cylinder shape with an internal diameter and height of 3mm were cured on the sections mentioned. At the end, all samples were tested to assess the shear bond strength by the Universal Testing Machine at a speed of 0.5mm/min until fracture occurred. The mean shear bond strengths were calculated and statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that roughness (Ra) was significantly different between the groups (P≤0.05). Ra was higher in the Nd:YAG group compared to the other groups (P≤0.05). The lower Ra was related to the control group. Air abrasion group showed highest amounts of shear bond strength and Nd:YAG laser group demonstrated lower amounts of shear bond strength (P≤0.05). Conclusion: Various surface treatments are differently effective on bond strength. Air abrasion is the most effective method to condition zirconia ceramic surfaces. PMID:25653817

  18. Comparing the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays in relation to different surface conditioning and curing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayındır, Yusuf Ziya; Demirbuga, Sezer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that different surface conditioning (etch and rinse and self-etch) and curing techniques (light cure/dual cure) had no effect on the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 extracted human molar teeth were horizontally sectioned and randomly divided into two groups according to restoration technique (direct and indirect restorations). Each group was further subdivided into seven subgroups (n = 8) according to bonding agent (etch and rinse adhesives Scotchbond multi-purpose plus, All-Bond 3, Adper Single Bond and Prime Bond NT; and self-etch adhesives Clearfil Liner Bond, Futurabond DC and G bond). Indirect composites were cemented to dentin surfaces using dual-curing luting cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested using a Universal Testing Machine. Two samples from each subgroup were evaluated under Scanning electron microscopy to see the failing modes. Data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests and Tukey's tests. Results: Surface conditioning and curing of bonding agents were all found to have significant effects on shear bond strength (P < 0.05) of both direct and indirect composite inlays. With direct restoration, etch and rinse systems and dual-cured bonding agents yielded higher bond strengths than indirect restoration, self-etch systems and light-cured bonding agents. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that direct restoration to be a more reliable method than indirect restoration. Although etch and rinse bonding systems showed higher shear bond strength to dentin than self-etch systems, both systems can be safely used for the adhesion of direct as well as indirect restorations. PMID:24932118

  19. Surface modifications and Nano-composite coatings to improve the bonding strength of titanium-porcelain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Litong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei; Li, Baoe; Lin, Cheng; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2016-04-01

    Surface modifications of Ti and nano-composite coatings were employed to simultaneously improve the surface roughness, corrosion resistance and chemical bonding between porclain-Ti. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, corrosion resistance and bonding strength tests. The SEM results showed that hybrid structures with micro-stripes, nano-pores and nano-protuberances were prepared by surface modification of Ti, which significantly enhanced the surface roughness and corrosion resistance of Ti. Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti anodized with pre-treatment in 40% HF acid. TiO2 nanoparticles were added into the hybrid coating to increase the solid phase content of the sols and avoid the formation of microcracks. With the TiO2 content increasing from 45 wt% to 60 wt%, the quantities of the microcracks on the coating surface gradually decreased. The optimal TiO2 content for the nanocomposite coatings is 60 wt% in this research. Compared to the uncoated group, the bonding strength of the coated groups showed a bonding strength improvement of 23.96%. The cytotoxicity of the 4# coating group was ranked as zero, which corresponds to non-cytotoxicity. PMID:26838834

  20. Multitechnique monitoring of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded composite lap-joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias; Khomenko, Anton; Dib, Gerges; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2015-03-01

    The requirement for reduced structural weight has driven the development of adhesively bonded joints. However, a major issue preventing their full acceptance is the initiation of premature failure in the form of a disbond between adherends, mainly due to fatigue, manufacturing flaws or impact damage. This work presents the integrated approach for in-situ monitoring of degradation of the adhesive bond in the GFRP composite lap-joint using ultrasonic guided waves and dynamic measurements from strategically embedded FBG sensors. Guided waves are actuated with surface mounted piezoelectric elements and mode tuning is used to provide high sensitivity to the degradation of the adhesive layer parameters. Composite lap-joints are subjected to fatigue loading, and data from piezoceramic transducers are collected at regular intervals to evaluate the progression of damage. Results demonstrate that quasi-static loading affects guided wave measurements considerably, but FBG sensors can be used to monitor the applied load levels and residual strains in the adhesive bond. The proposed technique shows promise for determining the post-damage stiffness of adhesively bonded joints.

  1. Prototype neural semicircular canal prosthesis using patterned electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gong, W; Merfeld, D M

    2000-05-01

    The design of a prototype semicircular canal prosthesis is presented along with preliminary results. This device measures angular velocity of the head (+/-500 degrees/s) using a piezoelectric vibrating gyroscope. With a digital filter this velocity is filtered to match the dynamic characteristics of the semicircular canals, which are the physiological rotation sensors of the vestibular system. This digitally filtered signal is used to modulate the pulse rate of electrical stimulation. The pulse rate is varied between 50 and 250 Hz via a sigmoidal lookup table relating pulse rate to angular velocity; the steady-state rate is 150 Hz. A current source utilizes these timing pulses to deliver charge balanced, cathodic-first, biphasic, current pulses to the nerves innervating the semicircular canal via platinum electrodes. Power is supplied via lithium batteries. dc/dc converters are used to generate regulated +/-5 V supplies from the batteries. All of the components are contained in a small, lightweight, Nylon box measuring roughly 43 mm x 31 mm x 25 mm, which can be mounted on the top of an animal's head. This device has been tested in guinea pigs having surgically implanted platinum electrodes, and the results show that the prosthesis can provide a rotational cue to the nervous system. PMID:10925955

  2. Effect of components and surface treatments of fiber-reinforced composite posts on bond strength to composite resin.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yuya; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the components and surface treatments of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts on the durable bonding to core build-up resin evaluated using the pull-out and microtensile tests. Four types of experimental FRC posts, combinations of two types of matrix resins (polymethyl methacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate) and two types of fiberglass (E-glass and zirconia-containing glass) were examined. The FRC posts were subjected to one of three surface treatments (cleaned with ethanol, dichloromethane, or sandblasting). The bond strength between the FRC posts and core build-up resin were measured using the pull-out and microtensile tests before and after thermal cycling. The bond strengths obtained by each test before and after thermal cycling were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (p<0.05). The bond strengths except for UDMA by the pull-out test decreased after thermal cycling. Regardless the test method and thermal cycling, matrix resins, the surface treatment and their interaction were statistically significant, but fiberglass did not. Dichloromethane treatment was effective for the PMMA-based FRC posts by the pull-out test, but not by the microtensile test. Sandblasting was effective for both PMMA- and UDMA-based FRC posts, regardless of the test method. The bond strengths were influenced by the matrix resin of the FRC post and the surface treatment. The bond strengths of the pull-out test showed a similar tendency of those of the microtensile test, but the value obtained by these test were different. PMID:23800844

  3. Effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite repairs.

    PubMed

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Taghvaei, Arnica; Jamali, Zahra; Jafari, Toloo; Amiri Daneshvar, Farshid; Khafri, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Methods. Seventy-five cylindrical specimens of a Filtek Z350XT composite resin were fabricated and stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours. After thermocycling, the specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the following surface treatments: no treatment (group 1); air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles (group 2); irradiation with Er:YAG laser beams (group 3); roughening with coarse-grit diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid (group 4); and etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 120 s (group 5). Another group of Filtek Z350XT composite resin samples (4×6 mm) was fabricated for the measurement of cohesive strength (group 6). A silane coupling agent and an adhesive system were applied after each surface treatment. The specimens were restored with the same composite resin and thermocycled again. A shearing force was applied to the interface in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (P < 0.05). Results. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05). SBS of controls was significantly lower than the other groups; differences between groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were not significant. Surface treatment with diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid resulted in the highest bond strength. Conclusion. All the surface treatments used in this study improved the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite resin used. PMID:27092209

  4. Effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite repairs

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Taghvaei, Arnica; Jamali, Zahra; Jafari, Toloo; Amiri Daneshvar, Farshid; Khafri, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Methods. Seventy-five cylindrical specimens of a Filtek Z350XT composite resin were fabricated and stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours. After thermocycling, the specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the following surface treatments: no treatment (group 1); air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles (group 2); irradiation with Er:YAG laser beams (group 3); roughening with coarse-grit diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid (group 4); and etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 120 s (group 5). Another group of Filtek Z350XT composite resin samples (4×6 mm) was fabricated for the measurement of cohesive strength (group 6). A silane coupling agent and an adhesive system were applied after each surface treatment. The specimens were restored with the same composite resin and thermocycled again. A shearing force was applied to the interface in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (P < 0.05). Results. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05). SBS of controls was significantly lower than the other groups; differences between groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were not significant. Surface treatment with diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid resulted in the highest bond strength. Conclusion. All the surface treatments used in this study improved the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite resin used. PMID:27092209

  5. Composite casting/bonding construction of an air-cooled, high temperature radial turbine wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G.; Rodgers, C.; Metcalfe, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A composite casting/bonding technique has been developed for the fabrication of a unique air-cooled, high temperature radial inflow turbine wheel design applicable to auxilliary power units with small rotor diameters and blade entry heights. The 'split blade' manufacturing procedure employed is an alternative to complex internal ceramic coring. Attention is given to both aerothermodynamic and structural design, of which the latter made advantageous use of the exploration of alternative cooling passage configurations through CAD/CAM system software modification.

  6. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Everleigh, C.A.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-04-21

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads. 9 figs.

  7. Effect of service environments on adhesively bonded joints in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1992-01-01

    The models employed in the present computational methods for evaluating severe service-environment effects on adhesively bonded joints in composites are based on composite analyses and structural mechanics, encompassing nonlinear environmental degradation. The methods are demonstrated for the case of a butt joint with a single doubler, subjected to the environmental effects as well as static and cyclic loads. The highest joint strength is noted to be required in the case of cyclic loads and hygrothermal service environments; margins of safety for adhesive material stresses decline rapidly in such cases.

  8. Design/Analysis of Metal/Composite Bonded Joints for Survivability at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    A major design and analysis challenge for the JWST ISM structure is the metal/composite bonded joints that will be required to survive down to an operational ultra-low temperature of 30K (-405 F). The initial and current baseline design for the plug-type joint consists of a titanium thin walled fitting (1-3mm thick) bonded to the interior surface of an M555/954-6 composite truss square tube with an axially stiff biased lay-up. Metallic fittings are required at various nodes of the truss structure to accommodate instrument and lift-point bolted interfaces. Analytical experience and design work done on metal/composite bonded joints at temperatures below liquid nitrogen are limited and important analysis tools, material properties, and failure criteria for composites at cryogenic temperatures are virtually nonexistent. Increasing the challenge is the difficulty in testing for these required tools and parameters at 30K. A preliminary finite element analysis shows that failure due to CTE mismatch between the biased composite and titanium or aluminum is likely. Failure is less likely with Invar, however an initial mass estimate of Invar fittings demonstrates that Invar is not an automatic alternative. In order to gain confidence in analyzing and designing the ISM joints, a comprehensive joint development testing program has been planned and is currently running. The test program is designed for the correlation of the analysis methodology, including tuning finite element model parameters, and developing a composite failure criterion for the effect of multi-axial composite stresses on the strength of a bonded joint at 30K. The testing program will also consider stress mitigation using compliant composite layers and potential strength degradation due to multiple thermal cycles. Not only will the finite element analysis be correlated to the test data, but the FEA will be used to guide the design of the test. The first phase of the test program has been completed and the

  9. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Everleigh, Carl A.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads.

  10. Self-bonded composite films based on cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals as antifungal materials.

    PubMed

    Robles, Eduardo; Salaberria, Asier M; Herrera, Rene; Fernandes, Susana C M; Labidi, Jalel

    2016-06-25

    Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals, two main components of agricultural and aquacultural by-products, were obtained from blue agave and yellow squat lobster industrial residues. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained using high pressure homogenization, while chitin nanocrystals were obtained by hydrolysis in acid medium. Cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Infrared spectroscopy. Self-bonded composite films with different composition were fabricated by hot pressing and their properties were evaluated. Antifungal activity of chitin nanocrystals was studied using a Cellometer(®) cell count device, mechanical properties at tension were measured with a universal testing machine, water vapor permeability was evaluated with a thermohygrometer and surface tension with sessile drop contact angle method. The addition of chitin nanocrystals reduced slightly the mechanical properties of the composite. Presence of chitin nanocrystals influenced the growth of Aspergillus sp fungus in the surface of the composites as expected. PMID:27083791

  11. Non-destructive Evaluation of Bonds Between Fiberglass Composite and Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Selina; Sonta, Kestutis; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. E.; Berger, Libby

    2015-01-01

    To assess the integrity and reliability of an adhesive joint in an automotive composite component, several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methodologies are correlated to lap shear bond strengths. A glass-fabric-reinforced composite structure was bonded to a metallic structure with a two-part epoxy adhesive. Samples were subsequently cut and tested in shear, and flaws were found in some areas. This study aims to develop a reliable and portable NDE system for service-level adhesive inspection in the automotive industry. The results of the experimental investigation using several NDE methods are presented and discussed. Fiberglass-to-metal bonding is the ideal configuration for NDE via thermography using excitation with induction heating, due to the conductive metal and non-conductive glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Excitation can be either by a research-grade induction heater of highly defined frequency and intensity, or by a service-level heater, such as would be used for sealing windshields in a body shop. The thermographs thus produced can be captured via a high-resolution infrared camera, with principal component analysis and 2D spatial Laplacian processing. Alternatively, the thermographs can be captured by low resolution thermochromic microencapsulated liquid crystal film imaging, which needs no post-processing and can be very inexpensive. These samples were also examined with phased-array ultrasound. The NDE methods are compared to the lap shear values and to each other for approximate cost, accuracy, and time and level of expertise needed.

  12. Bond stress-slip mechanisms in high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Z., Aydee Patricia

    This research covers integrated experimental and analytical investigations of the mechanisms that influence the fiber pull-out versus slip response of typical fibers used in the production of fiber reinforced cementitious composites, in order to improve their mechanical performance. The fibers investigated include smooth steel fibers, hooked steel fibers, Torex twisted steel fibers and PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fibers. Torex is a newly developed steel fiber, of general polygonal shape, that is twisted along its longitudinal axis to improve the mechanical component of bond. PVA fibers, currently used as replacement for asbestos fibers, have good mechanical properties and are believed to develop an adhesive or chemical bond component with cement matrices. Matrix parameters investigated comprised four different additives (fly ash, metakaolin, PVA polymer and latex) and the fineness of the sand. The experimental program included two types of tests, a single fiber pull-out test and a tensile test on notched prisms, considered an indirect test to measure bond. The first test was used when the fiber diameter exceeded 200 microns. The second test was primarily carried out for PVA fibers with a diameter in the range of 11 to 50 microns. Closed-loop control was used in the notched prism tests where the rate of crack opening at the notch controlled the machine displacement. Also in these tests, three different volume fractions of fibers were investigated for each parameter in order to back-calculate the bond strength. The analytical program includes three parts: (1) a study to model the contribution of the hook to the mechanical component of bond in hooked steel fibers, (2) a study to back-calculate adhesive-frictional bond of fine PVA fibers from the stress versus crack opening response of notched tensile prisms, and (3) a study to model the effect of twisting on the mechanical contribution of bond in Torex steel fibers. This last model utilizes a finite element code (based on

  13. Shear bond strengths of an indirect composite layering material to a tribochemically silica-coated zirconia framework material.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Taro; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Kubochi, Kei; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated shear bond strengths of a layering indirect composite material to a zirconia framework material treated with tribochemical silica coating. Zirconia disks were divided into two groups: ZR-PRE (airborne-particle abrasion) and ZR-PLU (tribochemical silica coating). Indirect composite was bonded to zirconia treated with one of the following primers: Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CCP), Clearfil Mega Bond Primer with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (MGP+Act), ESPE-Sil (SIL), Estenia Opaque Primer, MR. Bond, Super-Bond PZ Primer Liquid A with Liquid B (PZA+PZB), and Super-Bond PZ Primer Liquid B (PZB), or no treatment. Shear bond testing was performed at 0 and 20,000 thermocycles. Post-thermocycling shear bond strengths of ZR-PLU were higher than those of ZR-PRE in CCP, MGP+Act, SIL, PZA+PZB, and PZB groups. Application of silane yielded better durable bond strengths of a layering indirect composite material to a tribochemically silica-coated zirconia framework material. PMID:27252003

  14. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures

  15. Development of FRP composite structural biomaterials: ultimate strength of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond in in vivo simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Latour, R A; Black, J

    1992-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being developed as alternatives to metals for structural orthopedic implant applications. FRP composite fracture behavior and environmental interactions are distinctly different from those which occur in metals. These differences must be accounted for in the design and evaluation of implant performance. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength in a FRP composite is known to strongly influence fracture behavior. The interfacial bond strength of four candidate fiber/matrix combinations (carbon fiber/polycarbonate, carbon fiber/polysulfone, polyaramid fiber/polycarbonate, polyaramid fiber/polysulfone) were investigated at 37 degrees C in dry and in vivo simulated (saline, exudate) environments. Ultimate bond strength was measured by a single fiber-microdroplet pull-out test. Dry bond strengths were significantly decreased following exposure to either saline or exudate with bond strength loss being approximately equal in both the saline and exudate. Bond strength loss is attributed to the diffusion of water and/or salt ions into the sample and their interaction with interfacial bonding. Because bond degradation is dependent upon diffusion, diffusional equilibrium must be obtained in composite test samples before the full effect of the test environment upon composite mechanical behavior can be determined. PMID:1512281

  16. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resin Bonded to Resin-Modified Glass-ionomer Containing Micro- and Nano-hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Moradian, Marzie; Motamedi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The adhesion of resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) to composite resin has a very important role in the durability of sandwich restorations. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent candidate as a filler material for improving the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cement. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding micro- and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) powder to RMGI on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nanofilled and silorane-based composite resins bonded to RMGI containing micro- and nano-HA. Materials and Method Sixty cylindrical acrylic blocks containing a hole of 5.5×2.5 mm (diameter × height) were prepared and randomly divided into 6 groups as Group 1 with RMGI (Fuji II LC) plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 2 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group3 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group 4 with RMGI plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 5 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90Filtek composite resin; and Group 6 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin. The specimens were stored in water (37° C, 1 week) and subjected to 1000 thermal cycles (5°C/55°C). SBS test was performed by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0.05). Results There were significant differences between groups 1 and 4 (RMGI groups, p= 0.025), and groups 3 and 6 (RMGI+ nano-HA groups, p= 0.012). However, among Z350 and P90 specimens, no statistically significant difference was detected in the SBS values (p= 0.19, p= 0.083, respectively). Conclusion RMGI containing HA can improve the bond strength to methacrylate-based in comparison to silorane-based composite resins. Meanwhile, RMGI

  17. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing repair using a

  18. The use of isostatic pressing to improve the strength of TLP diffusion bonds in aluminium-based composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzadi, A.A.; Wallach, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) diffusion bonding of aluminium-SiC composites, using copper interlayers, was carried out under low bonding pressure to minimize plastic deformation. This was followed by solid-state diffusion bonding under relatively high pressure as a complementary process to improve joint strength and reliability. In the high pressure stage, plastic deformation was avoided by lateral constraint of the sample in order to build up a hydrostatic stress state, simulating hot isostatic pressing (hipping). The bonding temperature in a TLP process is usually determined by the temperature at which the liquid phase forms, e.g., the Al-Cu eutectic formation temperature in this case. In theory, it should be possible to vary the applied pressure in order to optimize bonding. However, the superplastic behavior of the material used in this work led to excessive deformation at the bonding temperature, with consequent restrictions on the bonding pressure and on the resulting bond strengths. The subsequent use of higher bonding pressures with minimal plastic deformation in the second stage of the process resulted in considerable improvements in bond strength. Bonds with shear strengths as high as 70% and 92% respectively of the shear strengths of two aluminium composites, 8090 Al/SiC and 359 Al/SiC (given the same thermal cycles including post solution treatment and ageing), have been achieved.

  19. Characterization of polysulfone-epoxy/amine interphase for bonding themoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Immordino, K.M.; McKnight, S.H.; Gillespie, J.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Thermoplastic matrix composites offer several advantages over thermoset matrix composites such as higher interlaminar toughness and infinite shelf life and rapid manufacturing. However, traditional welding techniques for joining thermoplastics require intimate contact between the components, localized heating at the interface and moderate consolidation pressure. Assembly tolerances represent a challenge in scaling welding techniques to large structures where any gaps in the bondline may result in overheating and poor joint quality and performance. Thermoset adhesives offer a low pressure solution to fill gaps. However joining thermoplastic composite components with structural thermoset adhesives often requires elaborate surface treatment of the thermoplastic composite adherents. These surface treatments have several limitations in production environments including finite shelf life, cost, and possible restrictions on part size and shape. These limitations may potentially hinder the widespread use of these materials in structural applications. Other methods for enhancing the bond performance are available. Previous work at the authors` institution has shown that adhesion between thermoplastic composites and epoxy-based adhesives is improved in instances where polymer interdiffusion across the interface is suspected. The improved joint performance has been attributed to interfacial diffusion of the adhesive pre-polymers into the thermoplastic material during processing. Upon final cure, bonding is believed to be enhanced through entanglements between the thermoplastic polymer chains and the network structure of the adhesive. Optimization of this bonding process requires an understanding of the rate of diffusion of the adhesive prepolymers into the thermoplastic and the structure and properties of the interfacial region. This paper focuses on the diffusion study.

  20. Storage effect on dentine structure and on resultant composite bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Lin, C T

    1997-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a food simulating solution (75 vol% ethanol/water) and an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir) on dentine structure and chemistry, using scanning electron microscopic examination and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) microscopic characterization. The effect on the bonding of composites to the conditioned dentine were evaluated by shear bond strength (SBS) tests. Three adhesive/composite systems were examined: Tenure/Marathon One, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100, and Optibond/Herculite XRV. Control specimens were stored in either distilled water or tested without storage. Dentine surface exposure to ethanol resulted in partial loss of the smear layer and of plugs, as well as possible perturbation of collagen. Dentine surfaces exposed to artificial saliva or to distilled water had no evidence of any change from normal appearance of the smear layer. The measured FTIR spectra for most specimens conditioned in these two liquids appeared to be similar to those obtained from fresh dentine. SBS data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The SBS value for the non-preconditioned control (23.0 +/- 3.7 MPa) or for the dentine preconditioned in distilled water (22.9 +/- 4.2 MPa) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that for dentine pre-conditioned in ethanol (20.0 +/- 3.5 MPa). The SBS (13.3 +/- 3.4 MPa) of all bonding systems was reduced by 40-50% (P < 0.001) when artificial saliva pre-conditioned dentine was used. The failure mode at the dentine-bonding agent interface for the artificial saliva group was adhesive in nature. This is in contrast to the complex cohesive fracture mode found in the control groups and in most ethanol conditioned groups. Dentine structure and chemistry, shear bond strength, and the subsequent debonded mode can be significantly affected by exposure to oral environment prior to conditioning. PMID:9426164

  1. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Phillips, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2) sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  2. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2)sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  3. ADHESION OF AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COMPOSITES BONDED TO DENTIN: A STUDY IN FAILURE MODALITY

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Schumacher, G.E.; Antonucci, J.M.; Skrtic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims As a bioactive filler capable of remineralizing tooth structures, the main disadvantage of as-made amorphous calcium phosphate (am-ACP) are its large agglomerates. The objective of this study was to mill ACP, and compare the adhesive strength to dentin, work to fracture, and failure modes of both groups to glass-filled composites and one commercial compomer after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months of exposure to simulated saliva solution (SLS). Flat dentin surfaces were acid-etched, primed, and photopolymerized. Composites were applied, photo-cured, and debonded in shear. The resin used in each composite was identical: ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methacryloxyethyl phthalate. Fillers consisted of am-ACP and milled ACP (m-ACP), and a strontium-containing glass (Sr-glass) at respective mass fractions of (40, 60, and 75) %. Findings 90 % of the fracture surfaces in this study showed adhesive failure, with most of these occurring at the dentin/primer interface. 52 % of failures after 24 h immersion occurred at the primer/composite interface. After six months of SLS exposure, 80 % of specimens failed at the dentin/primer interface, with a 42 % overall reduction in bond strength. Conclusions Milled ACP composites showed initial mechanical advantages over am-ACP composites and the compomer, and produced a higher incidence of a failure mode consistent with stronger adhesion. Evidence is provided which suggests that milled ACP composites may offer enhanced potential in clinical bonding applications. PMID:19107798

  4. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    PubMed

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. PMID:25556290

  5. Comparison of Effect of C-Factor on Bond Strength to Human Dentin Using Different Composite Resin Materials

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Jaya Prakash; Raju, RVS Chakradhar; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Jyotsna, SV; Bhutani, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the use of low shrinkage composites for restoring cavities with high configuration factor (C-factor) which are subjected to high stresses. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of C- factor on tensile bond strength to human dentin using methacrylate based nanohybrid and low shrinkage silorane composite. Materials and Methods In this study 40 non carious human molar teeth were selected and assigned into two main groups - cavity (Class I cavity with high C-factor) and flat group (flat surface with low C-factor). Two different composite materials- methacrylate based and silorane low shrinkage composite were used to restore the teeth. Dentin surface was treated, adhesive application was done and composite was applied as per manufacturer’s instructions. Samples were stored in distilled water then subjected to tensile bond strength measurement using universal testing machine. Results Statistical analysis was done using Independent sample t-test. The mean bond strength in methacrylate based and silorane composite was significantly higher in flat preparation (Low C-factor) than cavity preparation. The mean bond strength in both cavity (High C-factor) and flat preparation(Low C-factor) was significantly higher in silorane than in conventional methacrylate based composite. Conclusion The bond strength of composites to dentin is strongly influenced by C-factor and type of composite resin material used. PMID:26436056

  6. Effect of three different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Subramonian, Rajalekshmy; Mathai, Vijay; Christaine Angelo, Jeya Balaji Mano; Ravi, Jotish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of 10% sodium ascorbate, 10% grape seed extract, and 10% pine bark extract on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Ninety recently extracted human premolars were divided into six groups of 15 teeth each. Except Group I (negative control), the labial enamel surface of all specimens in the other groups were bleached with 37.5% hydrogen peroxide. After bleaching, Group II specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 3weeks before composite bonding. Immediately following bleaching; Groups III, IV, and V specimens were treated with antioxidants 10% sodium ascorbate, 10% grape seed extract, and 10% pine bark extract, respectively, for 10 min and bonded with composite resin. In Group VI (positive control), the composite bonding was done immediately after bleaching. All specimens were stored in deionized water for 24 h at 37΀C before shear bond strength testing. The data obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test. Results: The unbleached teeth showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the bleached teeth treated with the antioxidant 10% pine bark extract. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that the use of antioxidants effectively reversed the compromised bond strength of bleached enamel. Among the antioxidants, 10% pine bark extract application after bleaching showed better bond strength. PMID:25829695

  7. Thermomechanical Processing and Roll Bonding of Tri-Layered Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hobyung; Kang, Gyeong Tae; Hong, Sun Ig

    2016-05-01

    Tri-layered Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn composite was processed by roll bonding and the effect of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical performance and electrical conductivity was studied. Roll-bonded composite exhibited the brief work hardening and subsequent rapid work softening because of the high stored deformation energy, leading to failure at the plastic strain of 8 to 10 pct. The mechanical instability of as-roll-bonded composites was abated by heat treatment (HT) at 723 K (450 °C) and the extended work hardening with enhanced ductility compared to that of the as-roll-bonded composites was observed after HT. The strength and electrical conductivity of clad composite is dependent on the precipitation strengthening of Cu-Cr and recovery softening of Cu-Ni-Zn during post-roll-bonding HT. The increase of roll-bonding temperature enhances the precipitation kinetics and it takes shorter time to reach maximum hardness in Cu-Cr layer during post-roll-bonding HT. The toughness of as-roll-bonded Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn clad composite at 773 K (500 °C) [42 MJ/mm3] is greater than those at 723 K (450 °C) [24 MJ/mm3] and 823 K (550 °C) [38 MJ/mm3]. The maximum toughness [100 MJ/mm3] with the electrical conductivity of 68 pct IACS was obtained in the Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn clad composite roll-bonded at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequently heat-treated at 723 K (450 °C).

  8. Finite element applications to explore the effects of partial bonding on metal matrix composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Trowbridge, D.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanics of materials approach (definition of E, G, Nu, and Alpha) and the finite element method are used to explore the effects of partial bonding and fiber fracture on the behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites. Composite ply properties are calculated for various degrees of disbonding to evaluate the sensitivity of these properties to the presence of fiber/matrix disbonding and fiber fracture. The mechanics of materials approach allows for the determination of the basic ply material properties needed for design/analysis of composites. The finite element method provides the necessary structural response (forces and displacements) for the mechanics of materials equations. Results show that disbonding of fractured fibers affect only E sub (111) and alpha sub (111) significantly.

  9. Finite element applications to explore the effects of partial bonding on metal matrix composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.; Trowbridge, D.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanics of materials approach (definition of E, G, nu, and alpha) and the finite element method are used to explore the effects of partial bonding and fiber fracture on the behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites. Composite ply properties are calculated for various degrees of disbonding to evaluate the sensitivity of these properties to the presence of fiber/matrix disbonding and fiber fracture. The mechanics of materials approach allows for the determination of the basic ply material properties needed for design/analysis of composites. The finite element method provides the necessary structural response (forces and displacements) for the mechanics of materials equations. Results show that disbonding of fractured fibers affect only E-l(11) and alpha-l(11) significantly.

  10. Fabrication and properties of aluminum-carbon nanotube accumulative roll bonded composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, Sahar

    2011-12-01

    Accumulative roll bonding was adapted to fabricate a carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite. The microstructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and it was confirmed that the nanotubes were embedded into the metal matrix while maintaining their multiwalled structure. Measurements revealed that the as-received carbon nanotubes had a bimodal diameter size distribution, while only nanotubes with diameters >30 nm and more than 30 walls were retained during four consecutive rolling operations at 50% reduction. The elastic deflection and vibration damping properties of the laminated composite were investigated by cantilever bending test and by impulse excitation method in samples with different concentrations of carbon nanotubes. Measurements by both methods revealed that a 0.23wt% concentration of nanotubes increased the elastic modulus according to the rule of mixtures and the damping behavior of the composites increased by the addition of nanotubes up to 0.1wt%.

  11. Validation of bonded composite doubler technology through application oriented structural testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Dennis; Graf, Darin

    1996-01-01

    One of the major thrusts established under the FAA's National Aging Aircraft Research Program is to foster new technologies associated with civil aircraft maintenance. Recent DOD and other government developments in the use of bonded composite patches on metal structures has supported the need for research and validation of such doubler applications on U.S. certificated airplanes. Composite patching is a rapidly maturing technology which shows promise of cost savings on aging aircraft. Sandia Labs is conducting a proof-of-concept project with Delta Air Lines, Lockheed Martin, Textron, and the FAA which seeks to remove any remaining obstacles to the approved use of composite doublers. By focusing on a specific commercial aircraft application - reinforcement of the L-1011 door frame - and encompassing all 'cradle-to-grave' tasks such as design, analysis, installation, and inspection, this program is designed to prove the capabilities of composite doublers. This paper reports on a series of structural tests which have been conducted on coupons and subsize test articles. Tension-tension fatigue and residual strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of the door corner installation were subjected to extreme tension, shear, and bending loads. In this manner it was possible to study strain fields in and around the Lockheed-designed composite doubler using realistic aircraft load scenarios and to assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate. The data acquired was also used to validate finite element models (FEM) and associated Damage Tolerance Analyses.

  12. Validation of bonded composite doubler technology through application oriented structural testing

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Graf, D.

    1996-08-01

    One of the major thrusts established under the FAA`s National Aging Aircraft Research Program is to foster new technologies associated with civil aircraft maintenance. Recent DOD and other government developments in the use of bonded composite patches on metal structures has supported the need for research and validation of such doubler applications on U.S. certificated airplanes. Composite patching is a rapidly maturing technology which shows promise of cost savings on aging aircraft. Sandia Labs is conducting a proof-of-concept project with Delta Air Lines, Lockheed Martin, Textron, and the FAA which seeks to remove any remaining obstacles to the approved use of composite doublers. By focusing on a specific commercial aircraft application - reinforcement of the L-1011 door frame - and encompassing all {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} tasks such as design, analysis, installation, and inspection, this program is designed to prove the capabilities of composite doublers. This paper reports on a series of structural tests which have been conducted on coupons and subsize test articles. Tension-tension fatigue and residual strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of the door corner installation were subjected to extreme tension, shear, and bending loads. In this manner it was possible to study strain fields in and around the Lockheed-designed composite doubler using realistic aircraft load scenarios and to assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate. The data acquired was also used to validate finite element models (FEM) and associated Damage Tolerance Analyses.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of adhesion strength measurement devices for ceramic/titanium matrix composite bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohlchuck, Bobby; Zeller, Mary V.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive bond between ceramic cement and a titanium matrix composite substrate to be used in the National Aerospace Plane program is evaluated. Two commercially available adhesion testers, the Sebastian Adherence Tester and the CSEM REVETEST Scratch Tester, are evaluated to determine their suitability for quantitatively measuring adhesion strength. Various thicknesses of cements are applied to several substrates, and bond strengths are determined with both testers. The Sabastian Adherence Tester has provided limited data due to an interference from the sample mounting procedure, and has been shown to be incapable of distinguishing adhesion strength from tensile and shear properties of the cement itself. The data from the scratch tester has been found to be difficult to interpret due to the porosity and hardness of the cement. Recommendations are proposed for a more reliable adhesion test method.

  14. Bioinspired Interface Engineering in Elastomer/Graphene Composites by Constructing Sacrificial Metal-Ligand Bonds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Tang, Zhenghai; Yang, Zhijun; Guo, Baochun

    2016-07-01

    It remains a huge challenge to create advanced elastomers combining high strength and great toughness. Despite enhanced strength and stiffness, elastomeric nanocomposites suffer notably reduced extensibility and toughness. Here, inspired by the concept of sacrificial bonding associated with many natural materials, a novel interface strategy is proposed to fabricate elastomer/graphene nanocomposites by constructing a strong yet sacrificial interface. This interface is composed of pyridine-Zn(2+) -catechol coordination motifs, which is strong enough to ensure uniform graphene dispersion and efficient stress transfer from matrix to fillers. Moreover, they are sacrificial under external stress, which dissipates much energy and facilitates chain orientation. As a result, the strength, modulus, and toughness of the elastomeric composites are simultaneously strikingly enhanced relative to elastomeric bulk. This work suggests a promising methodology of designing advanced elastomers with exceptional mechanical properties by engineering sacrificial bonds into the interface. PMID:27229634

  15. Evaluation of the interfacial bond properties between carbon phenolic and glass phenolic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, K.; Clinton, R.; Jeelani, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of moisture and surface finish on the mechanical and physical properties of the interfacial bond between carbon/phenolic (C/P) and glass/phenolic (G/P) composite materials have been studied. Test results indicate that moisture substantially degrades the integrity of the interfacial bond between C/P and G/P materials. The apparent effect of the autoclave curing of the C/P material reduces the ultimate interlaminar shear length of the C/P material by 20 percent compared to the hydroclave curing of the C/P material. The variation in applied surface finishes is found to have no appreciable effect on the ultimate interlaminar shear strength of the interface in the wet laminate.

  16. SHM system using rectangular versus circular piezoceramic for the inspection within the bond of a composite bonded joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Micheau, Philippe; Masson, Patrice; Castaings, Michel

    2012-04-01

    A bonded joint between an aluminum plate and CFRP plate (7 plies) is considered using a titanium spar. The bonding is ensured by double sided adhesive that is prone to degradation with aging structures. The problem is to detect the disbond occurring at the CFRP plate/titanium spar interface using guided waves generated by piezoceramic transducers (PZT) bonded on the CFRP plate. The objective of the present work is to optimize the SHM configuration (PZT location, Lamb wave mode, size and shape of the PZT) for pitch and catch measurements within the bond. 1D, 2D and 3D numerical simulations of the instrumented structure were performed to optimize the SHM configuration. It appears that the rectangular shape can ensure a plane wave front within the bond, since the circular shape generates complex wave fronts. For experimental investigation, coupon structure was manufactured with synthetic damages inserted using two hemispherical Teflon tapes between adhesive and titanium spar. The structure was instrumented for inspection within the bond by using rectangular PZT. Experimental validation of propagation characteristics and damage sensitivity are performed using LDV measurement within the bond line. Damage detectability using rectangular piezoceramics in pitch-catch configuration within the bond is validated.

  17. Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Fons-Font, Antonio; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, María; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubén A.; Solá-Ruiz, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 µm aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (α=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-W<0.001). The worst techniques were Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Rely X; Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Multilink and Lava TM + CoJet + silane + Multilink. Adhesive failure (separation of cement and ceramic) was produced at a lesser force than cohesive failure (fracture of cement) (p-value M-W<0.001). Electron microscopy confirmed that the surface treatments modified the zirconium-oxide ceramic, creating a more rough and retentive surface, thus providing an improved micromechanical interlocking between the cement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

  18. Development of structural health monitoring systems for composite bonded repairs on aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Moss, Scott D.; Konak, Michael J.; van der Velden, Stephen P.; Stade, Bryan; Baker, Alan A.

    2001-08-01

    The application of bonded composite patches to repair or reinforce defective metallic structures is becoming recognized as a very effective versatile repair procedure for many types of problems. Immediate applications of bonded patches are in the fields of repair of cracking, localized reinforcement after removal of corrosion damage and for reduction of fatigue strain. However, bonded repairs to critical components are generally limited due to certification concerns. For certification and management of repairs to critical structure, the Smart Patch approach may be an acceptable solution from the airworthiness prospective and be cost effective for the operator and may even allow some relaxation of the certification requirements. In the most basic form of the Smart Patch in-situ sensors can be used as the nerve system to monitor in service the structural condition (health or well-being) of the patch system and the status of the remaining damage in the parent structure. This application would also allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. TO this end a stand-alone data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired systems, which is in close proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be up-loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote (wireless) data access. This paper describes two in-situ health monitoring systems which will be used on a composite bonded patch applied to an F/A-18. The two systems being developed consists of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film-based and a conventional electrical-resistance foil strain gauge-based sensing system. The latter system uses a primary cell (Lithium- based battery) as the power source, which should enable an operating life of 1-2 years. The patch

  19. Building a better semicircular canal: could we balance any better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd

    2004-03-01

    Every vertebrate organism uses fluid-filled semicircular canals (SCCs) to sense rotation -- and thus to balance, navigate and hunt. Whereas the size of most organs typically scales with the size of the organism itself, the SCC are all about the same size -- whether in lizards, mice, humans, or whales. What is so special about these dimensions? We consider fluid flow in the canals and elastic deformations of a sensory membrane, and isolate physical and physiological constraints required for successful SCC function. We demonstrate that the `parameter space' open to evolution is almost completely constrained; furthermore, the most sensitive possible SCC has dimensions that are remarkably close to those common to all vertebrates.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of reaction bonded silicon carbide/carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have generated considerable excitement in the scientific and engineering communities because of their exceptional mechanical and physical properties observed at the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes possess exceptionally high stiffness and strength combined with high electrical and thermal conductivities. These novel material properties have stimulated considerable research in the development of nanotube-reinforced composites (Thostenson et al 2001 Compos. Sci. Technol. 61 1899, Thostenson et al 2005 Compos. Sci. Technol. 65 491). In this research, novel reaction bonded silicon carbide nanocomposites were fabricated using melt infiltration of silicon. A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (NT-CMCs) were fabricated and the structure and properties were characterized. Here we show that carbon nanotubes are present in the as-fabricated NT-CMCs after reaction bonding at temperatures above 1400 °C. Characterization results reveal that a very small volume content of carbon nanotubes, as low as 0.3 volume %, results in a 75% reduction in electrical resistivity of the ceramic composites. A 96% decrease in electrical resistivity was observed for the ceramics with the highest nanotube volume fraction of 2.1%.

  1. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  2. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2006-04-18

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  3. Residual thermal stress control in composite reinforced metal structures. [by mechanical loading of metal component prior to bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. B.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced composite materials, composed of boron or graphite fibers and a supporting matrix, make significant structural efficiency improvements available to aircraft and aerospace designers. Residual stress induced during bonding of composite reinforcement to metal structural elements can be reduced or eliminated through suitable modification to the manufacturing processes. The most successful method employed during this program used a steel tool capable of mechanically loading the metal component in compression prior to the adhesive bonding cycle. Compression loading combined with heating to 350 F during the bond cycle can result in creep deformation in aluminum components. The magnitude of the deformation increases with increasing stress level during exposure to 350 F.

  4. Microtensile bond strength of quartz fiber posts to different composite cores.

    PubMed

    Khamverdi, Zahra; Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese; Gheysari, Faeze

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the microtensile bond strength of quartz fiber posts to different composites, and to composite combinations used as core materials. Thirty fiber posts were treated with a 24% hydrogen peroxide solution and silanized. The posts were divided into 5 groups according to the resin composite used as follows (n = 6): G1 - Ælite Flow (Bisco, Inc), G2 - Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE), G3 - Biscore (Bisco, Inc), G4 - Ælite Flow + Filtek Z250, G5 - Ælite Flow + Biscore. The resin composites were placed around the posts to produce cylindrical specimens. Two 1-mm² thick sticks containing the post in the center and composite cores on both ends were provided from each cylinder and tested for microtensile strength with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Fractured surfaces were observed using a stereomicroscope with 20× magnification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured sticks. The results showed that G2 had the highest bond strength values, and the lowest values were seen with G3. There were significant differences between groups 1, 2, 4 and groups 3, 5 (p < 0.05). Under the stereomicroscope, most of the failures were adhesive between the post and core material. Under SEM, Ælite and Z250 had smoother surfaces than Biscore, containing less porosities and voids. PMID:21860915

  5. Effect of composite resin contamination with powdered and unpowdered latex gloves on its shear bond strength to bovine dentin.

    PubMed

    Oskoee, S S; Navimipour, E J; Bahari, M; Ajami, A A; Oskoee, P A; Abbasi, N M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of composite resin contamination with powdered and unpowdered latex gloves on the shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and two-step self-etch adhesive systems. Standard flat dentin surfaces were prepared on the facial aspect of 120 bovine incisors and randomly assigned into two (n=60) groups: group 1: Single Bond (SB), group 2: Clearfil SE Bond (CSE). Furthermore, each group was randomly subdivided into three (n=20) based on the type of composite contamination (without contamination, contamination with powdered latex gloves, and contamination with unpowdered latex gloves). The adhesives were applied and resin composite bonded to the dentin. After thermocycling, the specimens were subjected to a shear bond strength test. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post hoc Bonferroni test were used for statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare shear bond strength values in each group. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.02. Two-way ANOVA showed that the shear bond strength was significantly influenced by the type of composite surface contamination (p=0.001). In the SB group there were no significant differences between different surface treatments (p=0.08). In the CSE group a significant difference was observed between the subgroup without contamination and the subgroup with powdered latex glove contamination (p=0.01); however, no significant differences were observed between the other subgroups. PMID:22433010

  6. Chemical composition, crystal structure, and their relationships with the intrinsic properties of spinel-type crystals based on bond valences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Lavina, Barbara; Tu, Bingtian; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2014-06-16

    Spinel-type crystals may possess complex and versatile chemical composition and crystal structure, which leads to difficulty in constructing relationships among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and intrinsic properties. In this work, we develop new empirical methods based on bond valences to estimate the intrinsic properties, namely, compressibility and thermal expansion of complex spinel-type crystals. The composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra is derived as a function of the composition-weighted average of bond valences, which can be calculated according to the experimental chemical composition and crystal structural parameters. We discuss the coupled effects of tetrahedral and octahedral frameworks on the aforementioned intrinsic properties. The bulk modulus could be quantitatively calculated from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra. In contrast, a quantitative estimation of the thermal expansion coefficient could be obtained from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in octahedral coordination polyhedra. These empirical methods have been validated by the results obtained for a new complex quaternary spinel-type oxynitride Mg0.268Al2.577O3.733N0.267 as well as MgAl2O4 and Al2.85O3.45N0.55 from the literature. Further, these empirical methods have the potential to be extensively applied in other types of complex crystals. PMID:24871452

  7. Influence of methyl mercaptan on the repair bond strength of composites fabricated using self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Miho; Rikuta, Akitomo; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Shibasaki, Syo; Matsuyoshi, Saki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    The influence of methyl mercaptan on the repair bond strength of composites fabricated using self-etch adhesives was investigated. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of test liquids placed on composites that had been immersed in different concentrations of methyl mercaptan (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 M). To determine the repair bond strength, self-etch adhesives were applied to the aged composite, and then newly added composites were condensed. Ten samples of each specimen were subjected to shear testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm min(-1). Samples were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Although the dispersion force of the composites remained relatively constant, their polar force increased slightly as the concentration of methyl mercaptan increased. The hydrogen-bonding forces were significantly higher after immersion in 1.0 M methyl mercaptan, leading to higher surface-free energies. However, the repair bond strengths for the repair restorations prepared from composites immersed in 1.0 M methyl mercaptan were significantly lower than for those immersed in 0.01 and 0.10 M methyl mercaptan. Considering the results of this study, it can be concluded that the repair bond strengths of both the aged and newly added composites were affected by immersion in methyl mercaptan solutions. PMID:25545663

  8. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives. [bonding metal and composite material structures for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rubber-toughened, addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber-containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride has been mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  9. Bending effects of unsymmetric adhesively bonded composite repairs on cracked aluminum panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Cory; Sun, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    The bending effects of unsymmetrically bonded composite repairs on cracked aluminum panels were quantified using a plate linear finite element model. Stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates were obtained from the model twice, once with out-of-plane displacement suppressed and another time without these restrictions. Several configurations were examined, crack growth stability was identified, and the effect of a debond was considered. The maximum stress intensity factor was also analyzed. Previous work by other authors was found to underpredict the bending effect.

  10. Nanostructured BN-Mg composites: features of interface bonding and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V; Shtansky, Dmitry; Sorokin, Pavel B; Golberg, Dmitri

    2016-01-14

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the lightest industrially used metals. However, wide applications of Mg-based components require a substantial enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. This can be achieved by introducing small particles or fibers into the metal matrix. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the stability and mechanical properties of a nanocomposite made of magnesium reinforced with boron nitride (BN) nanostructures (BN nanotubes and BN monolayers). We show that boron vacancies at the BN/Mg interface lead to a substantial increase in BN/Mg bonding establishing an efficient route towards the development of BN/Mg composite materials with enhanced mechanical properties. PMID:26662205

  11. Increased fracture toughness of graphite-epoxy composites through intermittent interlaminar bonding. [Mylar interlayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felbeck, D. K.; Jea, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Intermittent interlaminar bonding, which can lead to a large increase in the fracture surface area, was achieved through the introduction of thin perforated Mylar between the layers of a multi-layer continuous-filament graphite-epoxy composite. For the best optimum condition included in this study, fracture toughness was increased from about 100 kJ/sq m for untreated specimens to an average of about 500 kJ/sq m, while tensile strength dropped from 500 MPa to 400 MPa, and elastic modulus remained the same at about 75 GPa. An approximate analysis is presented to explain the observed improvement in toughness.

  12. The bond strength of highly filled flowable composites placed in two different configuration factors

    PubMed Central

    Sagsoz, Omer; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Karatas, Ozcan; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Parlak, Hatice; Olmez, Melek Hilal; Demirbuga, Sezer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of different flowable composite resins placed in different configuration factors (C-factors) into Class I cavities. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human molars were divided into 10 groups. Five different composite resins; a universal flowable composite (AeliteFlo, BISCO), two highly filled flowable composites (GrandioSO Flow, VOCO; GrandioSO Heavy Flow, VOCO), a bulk-fill flowable composite (smart dentin replacement [SDR], Dentsply), and a conventional paste-like composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) were placed into Class I cavities (4 mm deep) with 1 mm or 2 mm layers. Restored teeth were sectioned vertically with a slow-speed diamond saw (Isomet 1000, Buehler) and four micro-specimens (1 mm × 1 mm) were obtained from each tooth (n = 20). Specimens were subjected to μTBS test. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. Fractured surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Results: The μTBS in SDR-1 mm were higher than other groups, where Filtek Supreme XT-2 mm and GrandioSO Flow-2 mm were lower. No significant differences were found between C-factors for any composite resin (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Bulk-fill flowable composite provided more satisfactory μTBS than others. Different C-factors did not affect mean μTBS of the materials tested. PMID:26957788

  13. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the

  14. A High-Frequency Annular-Array Transducer Using an Interdigital Bonded 1-3 Composite

    PubMed Central

    Chabok, Hamid Reza; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Kim, Hyung Ham; Williams, Jay A.; Park, Jinhyoung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a 1–3 composite annular-array transducer. An interdigital bonded (IB) 1–3 composite was prepared using two IB operations on a fine-grain piezoelectric ceramic. The final composite had 19-μm-wide posts separated by 6-μm-wide polymer kerfs. A novel method to remove metal electrodes from polymer portions of the 1–3 composite was established to eliminate the need for patterning and aligning the electrode on the composite to the electrodes on a flexible circuit. Unloaded epoxy was used for both the matching and backing layers and a flexible circuit was used for interconnect. A prototype array was successfully fabricated and tested. The results were in reasonable agreement with those predicted by a circuit-analogous model. The average center frequency estimated from the measured pulse-echo responses of array elements was 33.5 MHz and the −6-dB fractional bandwidth was 57%. The average insertion loss recorded was 14.3 dB, and the maximum crosstalk between the nearest-neighbor elements was less than −37 dB. Images of a wire phantom and excised porcine eye were obtained to show the capabilities of the array for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. PMID:21244988

  15. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  16. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  17. The Comparison of Shear Bond Strength Between Fibre Reinforced Composite Posts with Three Different Composite Core Materials – An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Anche, Sampath; Kakarla, Pranitha; Kadiyala, Krishna Kishore; Sreedevi, B.; Chiramana, Sandeep; Dev J., Ravi Rakesh; Manne, Sanjay Dutt; G., Deepthi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strength between fiber reinforced composite post with three different composite core materials. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were: 30 maxillary central incisors, pre fabricated fiber reinforced composite post (postec plus posts), Multi-core heavy body, Ti-core, Fluoro-core, Etchant gel, Silane coupling agent, Dentin bonding agent, Standardized gutta percha points, Rely-X dual cure composite resin. A total of 30 human maxillary central incisor were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups of 10 specimens each namely A, B and C. Results: The results obtained were analyzed by using one way analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference and they showed highest mean shear bond strength for group C when compared with group A and group B. There is no significant difference in the shear bond strength values between group A and group B. Conclusion: The teeth restored with multicore HB showed highest shear bond strength. The teeth restored with Fluoro core showed lowest shear bond strength. No statistically significant difference exists between the shear bond strength values between Ti-core and Fluoro-core. PMID:24596784

  18. The Effect of Nylon and Polyester Peel Ply Surface Preparation on the Bond Quality of Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Molly K.

    The preparation of the surfaces to be bonded is critical to the success of composite bonds. Peel ply surface preparation is attractive from a manufacturing and quality assurance standpoint, but is a well known example of the extremely system-specific nature of composite bonds. This study examined the role of the surface energy, morphology, and chemistry left by peel ply removal in resulting bond quality. It also evaluated the use of contact angle surface energy measurement techniques for predicting the resulting bond quality of a prepared surface. The surfaces created by preparing three aerospace fiber-reinforced composite prepregs were compared when prepared with a nylon vs a polyester peel ply. The prepared surfaces were characterized with contact angle measurements with multiple fluids, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray electron spectroscopy. The laminates were bonded with aerospace grade film adhesives. Bond quality was assessed via double cantilever beam testing followed by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces.The division was clear between strong bonds (GIC of 600- 1000J/m2 and failure in cohesion) and weak bonds (GIC of 80-400J/m2 and failure in adhesion). All prepared laminates showed the imprint of the peel ply texture and evidence of peel ply remnants after fabric removal, either through SEM or XPS. Within an adhesive system, large amounts of SEM-visible peel ply material transfer correlated with poor bond quality and cleaner surfaces with higher bond quality. The both sides of failed weak bonds showed evidence of peel ply remnants under XPS, showing that at least some failure is occurring through the remnants. The choice of adhesive was found to be significant. AF 555 adhesive was more tolerant of peel ply contamination than MB 1515-3. Although the bond quality results varied substantially between tested combinations, the total surface energies of all prepared surfaces were very similar. Single fluid contact angle

  19. An Electrokinetic Model of Transduction in the Semicircular Canal

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Dennis P.

    1970-01-01

    Transduction in the semicircular canal was studied by focusing an infrared beam on either side of exposed ampullae from the posterior canals of Rana pipiens. The direction of fluid movement resulting from a stimulus was inferred by observing the polarity of the change in afferent impulse mean rate relative to the spontaneous value. On the basis of the accepted functional polarization of this receptor, the results indicate that fluid moved toward the warmer side of the ampulla. Convection and thermal reception were shown to be unlikely explanations for these results. Morover, cupular displacements toward the warmer side would not be expected. Because thermo-osmosis can cause fluid to move toward the warmer side in a gelatin membrane, the results can be interpreted as evidence that thermo-osmosis occurred in the gelatinous cupula and influenced the transduction mechanism. Thermo-osmosis of liquids appears to be due to an electric field that is set up in a charged membrane; hence, the hair cells might have detected an electric field that occurred in the cupula during thermo-osmosis. Electroreception might be an important link in the transduction of physiological stimuli also. Rotational stimuli could result in weak electric fields in the cupula by the mechanoelectric effect. Cupular displacements could be important for large stimuli, but extrapolations to threshold stimuli suggest displacements of angstrom amplitudes. Therefore, electroreception by the hair cells could be an explanation of the great sensitivity that has been observed in the semicircular canal and other labyrinthine receptors. PMID:5496906

  20. An electrokinetic model of transduction in the semicircular canal.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, D P

    1970-09-01

    Transduction in the semicircular canal was studied by focusing an infrared beam on either side of exposed ampullae from the posterior canals of Rana pipiens. The direction of fluid movement resulting from a stimulus was inferred by observing the polarity of the change in afferent impulse mean rate relative to the spontaneous value. On the basis of the accepted functional polarization of this receptor, the results indicate that fluid moved toward the warmer side of the ampulla. Convection and thermal reception were shown to be unlikely explanations for these results. Morover, cupular displacements toward the warmer side would not be expected. Because thermo-osmosis can cause fluid to move toward the warmer side in a gelatin membrane, the results can be interpreted as evidence that thermo-osmosis occurred in the gelatinous cupula and influenced the transduction mechanism. Thermo-osmosis of liquids appears to be due to an electric field that is set up in a charged membrane; hence, the hair cells might have detected an electric field that occurred in the cupula during thermo-osmosis. Electroreception might be an important link in the transduction of physiological stimuli also. Rotational stimuli could result in weak electric fields in the cupula by the mechanoelectric effect. Cupular displacements could be important for large stimuli, but extrapolations to threshold stimuli suggest displacements of angstrom amplitudes. Therefore, electroreception by the hair cells could be an explanation of the great sensitivity that has been observed in the semicircular canal and other labyrinthine receptors. PMID:5496906

  1. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (< 10 μm vs. <400 nm). We have developed biomechanical models of vertebrate hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (<10 Hz) signals. We observe that very low frequency mechanoreception requires increased stimulus amplitude, and argue that this is adaptive to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  2. Changes in monkey horizontal semicircular canal afferent responses after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correia, M. J.; Perachio, A. A.; Dickman, J. D.; Kozlovskaia, I. B.; Sirota, M. G.; Iakushin, S. B.; Beloozerova, I. N.

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular responses from single horizontal semicircular canal afferents in two rhesus monkeys were studied after recovery from a 14-day biosatellite (Cosmos 2044) orbital spaceflight. On the 1st postflight day, the mean gain for 9 different horizontal canal afferents, tested using one or several different passive yaw rotation waveforms, was nearly twice that for 20 horizontal canal afferents similarly tested during preflight and postflight control studies. Adaptation of the afferent response to passive yaw rotation on the 1st postflight day was also greater. These results suggest that at least one component of the vestibular end organ (the semicircular canals) is transiently modified after exposure to 14 days of microgravity. It is unclear whether the changes are secondary to other effects of microgravity, such as calcium loss, or an adaptive response. If the response is adaptive, then this report is the first evidence that the response of the vestibular end organ may be modified (presumably by the central nervous system via efferent connections) after prolonged unusual vestibular stimulation. If this is the case, the sites of plasticity of vestibular responses may not be exclusively within central nervous system vestibular structures, as previously believed.

  3. Bio-Inspired Composite Interfaces: Controlling Hydrogel Mechanics via Polymer-Nanoparticle Coordination Bond Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2015-03-01

    In soft nanocomposite materials, the effective interaction between polymer molecules and inorganic nanoparticle surfaces plays a critical role in bulk mechanical properties. However, controlling these interfacial interactions remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry in mussel threads, we present a novel approach to control composite mechanics via polymer-particle interfacial dynamics; by incorporating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) into a catechol-modified polymer network the resulting hydrogels are crosslinked via reversible coordination bonds at Fe3O4 NP surfaces thereby providing a dynamic gel network with robust self-healing properties. By studying the thermally activated composite network relaxation processes we have found that the polymer-NP binding energy can be controlled by engineering both the organic and inorganic side of the interface.

  4. Method for fabricating light weight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1987-06-17

    The invention is directed to the fabrication of ultralight carbon- bonded carbon fiber composites of densities in the range of about 0. 04 to 0.10 grams per cubic centimeter. The composites are fabricated by forming an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous fibers which include carbonized fibers and 0-50 weight percent fugitive fibers and a particulate thermosetting resin precursor. The slurry is brought into contact with a perforated mandrel and the water is drained from the slurry through the perforations at a controlled flow rate of about 0. 03 to 0.30 liters per minutes per square inch of a mandrel surface. The deposited billet of fibers and resin precursor is heated to cure the resin precursor to bind the fibers together, removed from the mandrel, and then the resin and fugitive fibers, if any, are carbonized.

  5. SEM/XPS analysis of fractured adhesively bonded graphite fibre-reinforced polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Messick, D. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The surfaces of the graphite fiber-reinforced polyimide composites presently pretreated prior to bonding with polyimide adhesive contained variable amounts of a fluoropolymer, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Lap shear strengths were determined for unaged samples and for those aged over 500- and 1000-hour periods at 177 and 232 C. Unaged sample lap strengths, which were the highest obtained, exhibited no variation with surface pretreatment, but a significant decrease is noted with increasing aging temperature. These thermally aged samples, however, had increased surface fluorine concentration, while a minimal concentration was found in unaged samples. SEM demonstrated a progressive shift from cohesive to adhesive failure for elevated temperature-aged composites.

  6. A cylindrical traveling wave ultrasonic motor using bonded-type composite beam.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao

    2016-02-01

    A cylindrical traveling wave ultrasonic motor using bonded-type composite beam is proposed in this work. In this new design, a new exciting mode for L-B (longitudinal-bending) hybrid vibrations using bonded-type is adopted, which requires only two pieces of PZT ceramic plates and a single metal beam. In the new motor, the traveling wave of a cylinder can be excited by the L-B vibrations of a bonded-type beam. When two alternating voltages with phase difference are applied, the longitudinal and bending vibrations of the beam can be generated synchronously based on the new exciting mode for L-B hybrid vibrations, and the temporal phase difference of the two vibrations is always 90°. Finite element method is adopted to realize the modal degeneration in order to confirm the final structural parameters of the motor, and analyze the motion trajectory of the driving tip. After the fabrication of a prototype, the vibration characteristics and mechanical output ability are measured. The maximum no-load speed and maximum output torque of the prototype are 342 rpm and 6.26 mN m at a voltage of 100 Vrms. PMID:26433433

  7. Cervical Interfacial Bonding Effectiveness of Class II Bulk Versus Incremental Fill Resin Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, F; Kaisarly, D; Michna, A; ArRejaie, A; Bader, D; El Gezawi, M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical interfacial bonding quality has been a matter of deep concern. The purpose of this study was to analyze microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and cervical interfacial gap distance (IGD) of bulk-fill vs incremental-fill Class II composite restorations. Box-only Class II cavities were prepared in 91 maxillary premolars (n = 7) with gingival margin placement 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction at one side and 1 mm below it on the other side. Eighty-four maxillary premolars were divided into self-etch and total-etch groups and further subdivided into six restorative material subgroups used incrementally and with an open-sandwich technique: group 1, Tetric Ceram HB (TC) as a control; group 2, Tetric EvoFlow (EF); group 3, SDR Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR); group 4, SonicFill (SF); group 5, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TN); and group 6, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TE). Groups 2-6 were bulk-fill restoratives. Tetric N-Bond Self-Etch (se) and Tetric N-Bond total-etch (te) adhesive were used in subgroups 1-5, whereas AdheSE (se) and ExciTE F (te) were used in subgroup 6. In an additional group, Filtek P90 Low Shrink Restorative (P90) was used only with its corresponding self-etch bond. The materials were manipulated, light-cured (1600 mW/cm(2)), artificially aged (thermal and occlusal load-cycling), and sectioned. Two microrods/restoration (n = 14/group) were tested for MTBS at a crosshead-speed of 0.5 mm/min (Instron testing machine). Fracture loads were recorded (Newtons), and MTSBs were calculated (Megapascals). Means were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, Conover-Inman post hoc analysis for MTBS (multiple comparisons), and Mann-Whitney U test for IGD. The ends of the fractures were examined for failure mode. One microrod/restoration (n = 7/group) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (×1200) for IGD. MTBS values for SF/te, P90 in enamel, and TC+SDR/te in enamel and cementum were significantly higher compared with those for the control TC

  8. In situ health monitoring of bonded composite repairs using a novel fiber Bragg grating sensing arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Claire; Baker, Wayne; Moss, Scott D.; Galea, Stephen C.; Jones, Rhys

    2002-11-01

    As the replacement costs of military aircraft escalate, there is an increasing trend to operate existing aircraft well beyond their original design life. As the fleet ages, structural problems such as airframe corrosion and cracking are becoming significant issues. In recent years, bonded composite patches or doublers have been developed to repair or reinforce defective regions of the airframe. However certification concerns have limited most application of these bonded composite repairs to secondary structures. In order to alleviate certification concerns, and thus facilitate the implementation of this repair technology to critical damage in primary structure, the 'smart patch' approach has been proposed. This approach involves incorporating sensors into the composite patch to self-monitor patch health. This paper describes the use of optical fibre Bragg gratings to measure the changes in thermal residual strain that occur when a composite patch starts to disbond from the parent structure. Conventionally, the Bragg sensing mechanism relies on a shift in reflected wavelength, which requires the use of costly optical measurement tools. A modified sensing arrangement is proposed, which incorporates two Bragg gratings, and a fibre optic coupler. The reflection from the first Bragg grating acts as a reference source for an active Bragg grating on the patch. This modified arrangement allows a relative wavelength shift to be translated into a change in the optical power, which can be measured easily using a low cost interrogation system. The modified sensing arrangement also allows us to more readily miniaturise the opto-electrical interrogation system, thus enabling these systems to be more easily implemented on operational aircraft.

  9. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength and nanoleakage of conventional and self-adhering flowable composites to primary teeth dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Priyanka; Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The latest advancement in adhesive dentistry is the development of self adhering flowable composite resin which incorporates the self-etch adhesion technology to eliminate the steps of etching, rinsing, priming and bonding. Few studies have addressed resin bonding to primary teeth. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength and nanoleakage of conventional and self adhering flowable composites to primary teeth dentin. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, I.T.S Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Greater Noida; in association with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.T.S Engineering College, Greater Noida; and the Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Sixty of the ninety primary teeth were evaluated for shear bond strength and thirty for nanoleakage. The samples were divided into three groups; Group I – Dyad Flow (Kerr), Group II – Fusio Liquid Dentin (Pentron Clinical Technologies) and Group III – G-aenial Universal Flo (GC). Shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine. Nanoleakage pattern was observed under scanning electron microscope. Results: The shear bond strength of conventional flowable composite was significantly greater than self adhering flowable composite (p<0.05). Nanoleakage scores of both conventional and self adhering flowable composites were comparable. Conclusions: Self adhering flowable composites combine properties of composites and self etch adhesives, eliminating the need for separate bond application that simplifies direct restorative procedure. The evolution of self adhering materials could open new horizons for pediatric dentistry.

  10. Infiltration kinetics and interfacial bond strength of metal-matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    The research accomplishments for this three-year metal matrix composite research program centered upon three areas: infiltration kinetics, wettability studies and predictions of interfacial properties. A pre-conditioning reaction model was hypothesized to explain the incubation period observed to precede the liquid metal infiltration of SiC particulate, and a rate equation for pre-conditioning was experimentally established for the infiltration of SiC particulate by liquid aluminum. Experimental wettability studies were completed for aluminum--silicon, aluminum--magnesium, and aluminum--lithium alloys in contact with SiC by utilizing a capillary rise apparatus. The oxide layers on the ceramic substrate and on the molten metal surface were observed to strongly influence wetting behavior. Differential optical reflectance was used to measure the optical transitions in aluminum and its alloys. Interfacial bond energies were estimated using a work of decohesion model. Punch shear tests then provided relative estimates of bond strengths for several aluminum alloys in contact with silicon carbide. Concepts from surface science and thermodynamics were coupled to theoretically predict wettability. Wetting was treated as a surface phenomenon, in which a surface reaction monolayer was sufficient to cause wetting. Aluminum matrix composite processing using the liquid metal route is complicated by the oxide barrier formed on the liquid metal. A transport model was used to explain the observed interfacial reaction behavior.

  11. Ultrasonic, microwave, and millimeter wave inspection techniques for adhesively bonded stacked open honeycomb core composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Clint D.; Cox, Ian; Ghasr, Mohammad Tayeb Ahmed; Ying, Kuang P.; Zoughi, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Honeycomb sandwich composites are used extensively in the aerospace industry to provide stiffness and thickness to lightweight structures. A common fabrication method for thick, curved sandwich structures is to stack and bond multiple honeycomb layers prior to machining core curvatures. Once bonded, each adhesive layer must be inspected for delaminations and the presence of unwanted foreign materials. From a manufacturing and cost standpoint, it can be advantageous to inspect the open core prior to face sheet closeout in order to reduce end-article scrap rates. However, by nature, these honeycomb sandwich composite structures are primarily manufactured from low permittivity and low loss materials making detection of delamination and some of the foreign materials (which also are low permittivity and low loss) quite challenging in the microwave and millimeter wave regime. Likewise, foreign materials such as release film in adhesive layers can be sufficiently thin as to not cause significant attenuation in through-transmission ultrasonic signals, making them difficult to detect. This paper presents a collaborative effort intended to explore the efficacy of different non-contact NDI techniques for detecting flaws in a stacked open fiberglass honeycomb core panel. These techniques primarily included air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonics, single-sided wideband synthetic aperture microwave and millimeter-wave imaging, and lens-focused technique. The goal of this investigation has been to not only evaluate the efficacy of these techniques, but also to determine their unique advantages and limitations for evaluating parameters such as flaw type, flaw size, and flaw depth.

  12. Temporary zinc oxide-eugenol cement: eugenol quantity in dentin and bond strength of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tamara; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Malinovskii, Vladimir; Flury, Simon; Häner, Robert; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of eugenol from eugenol-containing temporary materials may reduce the adhesion of subsequent resin-based restorations. This study investigated the effect of duration of exposure to zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement on the quantity of eugenol retained in dentin and on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the resin composite. The ZOE cement (IRM Caps) was applied onto the dentin of human molars (21 per group) for 1, 7, or 28 d. One half of each molar was used to determine the quantity of eugenol (by spectrofluorimetry) and the other half was used for μTBS testing. The ZOE-exposed dentin was treated with either OptiBond FL using phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) or with Gluma Classic using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning. One group without conditioning (for eugenol quantity) and two groups not exposed to ZOE (for eugenol quantity and μTBS testing) served as controls. The quantity of eugenol ranged between 0.33 and 2.9 nmol mg⁻¹ of dentin (median values). No effect of the duration of exposure to ZOE was found. Conditioning with H₃PO₄ or EDTA significantly reduced the quantity of eugenol in dentin. Nevertheless, for OptiBond FL, exposure to ZOE significantly decreased the μTBS, regardless of the duration of exposure. For Gluma Classic, the μTBS decreased after exposure to ZOE for 7 and 28 d. OptiBond FL yielded a significantly higher μTBS than did Gluma Classic. Thus, ZOE should be avoided in cavities later to be restored with resin-based materials. PMID:23841789

  13. Polymer Composition and Substrate Influences on the Adhesive Bonding of a Biomimetic, Cross-Linking Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Matos-Pérez, Cristina R.; White, James D.; Wilker, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical biological materials such as bone, sea shells, and marine bioadhesives are providing inspiration for the assembly of synthetic molecules into complex structures. The adhesive system of marine mussels has been the focus of much attention in recent years. Several catechol-containing polymers are being developed to mimic the cross-linking of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) used by shellfish for sticking to rocks. Many of these biomimetic polymer systems have been shown to form surface coatings or hydrogels, however bulk adhesion is demonstrated less often. Developing adhesives requires addressing design issues including finding a good balance between cohesive and adhesive bonding interactions. Despite the growing number of mussel mimicking polymers, there has been little effort to generate structure-property relations and gain insights on what chemical traits give rise to the best glues. In this report, we examined the simplest of these biomimetic polymers, poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]. Pendant catechol groups (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxystyrene) were distributed throughout a polystyrene backbone. Several polymer derivatives were prepared, each with a different 3,4-dihyroxystyrene content. Bulk adhesion testing showed where the optimal middle ground of cohesive and adhesive bonding resides. Adhesive performance was benchmarked against commercial glues as well as the genuine material produced by live mussels. In the best case, bonding was similar to cyanoacrylate “Krazy” or “Super” glue. Performance was also examined using low (e.g., plastics) and high (e.g., metals, wood) energy surfaces. Adhesive bonding of poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene] may be the strongest of reported mussel protein mimics. These insights should help us to design future biomimetic systems, thereby bringing us closer to development of bone cements, dental composites, and surgical glues. PMID:22582754

  14. Polymer composition and substrate influences on the adhesive bonding of a biomimetic, cross-linking polymer.

    PubMed

    Matos-Pérez, Cristina R; White, James D; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2012-06-01

    Hierarchical biological materials such as bone, sea shells, and marine bioadhesives are providing inspiration for the assembly of synthetic molecules into complex structures. The adhesive system of marine mussels has been the focus of much attention in recent years. Several catechol-containing polymers are being developed to mimic the cross-linking of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) used by shellfish for sticking to rocks. Many of these biomimetic polymer systems have been shown to form surface coatings or hydrogels; however, bulk adhesion is demonstrated less often. Developing adhesives requires addressing design issues including finding a good balance between cohesive and adhesive bonding interactions. Despite the growing number of mussel-mimicking polymers, there has been little effort to generate structure-property relations and gain insights on what chemical traits give rise to the best glues. In this report, we examine the simplest of these biomimetic polymers, poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]. Pendant catechol groups (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxystyrene) are distributed throughout a polystyrene backbone. Several polymer derivatives were prepared, each with a different 3,4-dihyroxystyrene content. Bulk adhesion testing showed where the optimal middle ground of cohesive and adhesive bonding resides. Adhesive performance was benchmarked against commercial glues as well as the genuine material produced by live mussels. In the best case, bonding was similar to that obtained with cyanoacrylate "Krazy Glue". Performance was also examined using low- (e.g., plastics) and high-energy (e.g., metals, wood) surfaces. The adhesive bonding of poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene] may be the strongest of reported mussel protein mimics. These insights should help us to design future biomimetic systems, thereby bringing us closer to development of bone cements, dental composites, and surgical glues. PMID:22582754

  15. Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khamverdi, Zahra; Kasraei, Shahin; Ronasi, Negin; Rostami, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods Ninety enamel surfaces of maxillary incisors were randomly divided into 9 groups as follows: G1: control (no bleaching); G2: bleaching; G3: bleaching and storage for seven days; G4 - 6: bleaching and application of 600, 800 and 1,000 µmol of EGCG-containing solution for 10 minutes, respectively; G7 - 9: bleaching and application of 600, 800 and 1,000 µmol of EGCG-containing solution for 20 minutes, respectively. The specimens were bleached with 30% hydrogen peroxide gel and a composite resin cylinder was bonded on each specimen using a bonding agent. Shear bond strength of the samples were measured in MPa. Data was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). Results The maximum and minimum mean shear bond strength values were observed in G1 and G2, respectively. Time and concentration of EGCG showed no significant effects on bond strength of the groups (p > 0.05). Multiple comparison of groups did not reveal any significant differences between the groups except for G2 and all the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions There is a significant decrease in bond strength of composite resin to enamel immediately after bleaching. A delay of one week before bonding and the use of EGCG increased bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. PMID:24303360

  16. Effect of Er:YAG Laser on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel and Dentin of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Kabudan, Mona; Gholami, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin of primary teeth is lower than that to permanent teeth; therefore, it may compromise the adhesive bonding. New methods, such as laser application have been recently introduced for tooth preparation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation with bur and Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of composite to enamel and dentin of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five primary molar teeth were collected and 150 specimens were obtained by mesiodistal sectioning of each tooth. In each of the enamel and dentin groups, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups with the following preparations: bur preparation + etching (37% H3PO4), laser preparation + etching, and laser preparation without etching. Single Bond adhesive and Z250 composite were applied to all samples. After thermocycling, the shear bond strength testing was preformed using the Instron Testing Machine. Data were analysed using SPSS-17 and two-way ANOVA. Results: The bond strength of enamel specimens was significantly higher than that of dentin specimens, except for the laser-non-etched groups. The enamel and dentin laser-non-etched groups had no significant difference in bond strength. In both enamel and dentin groups, bur preparation + etching yielded the highest bond strength, followed by laser preparation + etching, and the laser preparation without etching yielded the lowest bond strength (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In both enamel and dentin groups, laser preparation caused lower shear bond strength compared to bur preparation. PMID:26622267

  17. On the Nature of Variations in Density and Composition within TATB-based Plastic Bonded Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J H; Willey, T M; Overturf, G

    2006-06-27

    Initiation of insensitive high explosives is affected by porosity in the 100 nm to micron size range. It is also recognized that as-pressed plastic bonded explosives (PBX) are heterogeneous in composition and density at much coarser length scale (10 microns-100 microns). However, variations in density and composition of these explosives have been poorly characterized. Here, we characterize the natural variations in composition and density of TATB-based PBX LX-17 with synchrotron radiation tomography and ultra small angle x-ray scattering. Large scale variations in composition occur as a result of binder enrichment at the prill particle boundaries. The pore fraction is twice as high in the prill particle as in the boundary. The pore distribution is bimodal, with small pores of 50-100 nm in radius and a broader distribution of pores in the 0.5-1.5 micron size range. The higher pore density within the prill particle is attributed to contact asperities between the crystallites that might inhibit complete consolidation and binder infiltration.

  18. Strengthening Mechanisms in Nanostructured Al/SiCp Composite Manufactured by Accumulative Press Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Rahimian, Mehdi; Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Yaghinali, Parisa; Carreño, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The strengthening mechanisms in nanostructured Al/SiCp composite deformed to high strain by a novel severe plastic deformation process, accumulative press bonding (APB), were investigated. The composite exhibited yield strength of 148 MPa which was 5 and 1.5 times higher than that of raw aluminum (29 MPa) and aluminum-APB (95 MPa) alloys, respectively. A remarkable increase was also observed in the ultimate tensile strength of Al/SiCp-APB composite, 222 MPa, which was 2.5 and 1.2 times greater than the obtained values for raw aluminum (88 MPa) and aluminum-APB (180 MPa) alloys, respectively. Analytical models well described the contribution of various strengthening mechanisms. The contributions of grain boundary, strain hardening, thermal mismatch, Orowan, elastic mismatch, and load-bearing strengthening mechanisms to the overall strength of the Al/SiCp microcomposite were 64.9, 49, 6.8, 2.4, 5.4, and 1.5 MPa, respectively. Whereas Orowan strengthening mechanism was considered as the most dominating strengthening mechanism in Al/SiCp nanocomposites, it was negligible for strengthening the microcomposite. Al/SiCp nanocomposite showed good agreement with quadratic summation model; however, experimental results exhibited good accordance with arithmetic and compounding summation models in the microcomposite. While average grain size of the composite reached 380 nm, it was less than 100 nm in the vicinity of SiC particles as a result of particle-stimulated nucleation mechanism.

  19. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  20. Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Repair Micro-shear Bond Strength of Silica- and Zirconia-filled Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Joulaei, Mohammad; Bahari, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Anahid; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Effect of surface treatments on repair bond strength of aged composite resins might be different due to their dissimilar fillers. The aim was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on repair micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) of silica- (Spectrum TPH) and zirconia-filled (Filtek Z250) composite resins. Materials and methods Twenty-seven composite resin blocks were made from each type of composite resin: Z250 and Spectrum TPH. After aging, blocks of each type were randomly divided into three groups according to surface treatments: alloy primer, silane, and only surface roughening. Subsequently, each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups based on the adhesive system used: Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond, and Margin Bond. Four composite resin columns were added on each block. After thermocycling, µSBStest were done at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analysed using multifactor ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). Results Analysis of data showed that the effect of composite resin type was not significant (p > 0.05), but the effects of the type of surface treatment (p = 0.01) and the type of adhesive system (p = 0.01) were significant on repair µSBS. In addition, the cumulative effect of the composite type-surface treatment and the composite type with the type of adhesive system were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, the cumulative effects of the adhesive system-surface treatment (p = 0.03) and the composite type-the adhesive system-surface treatments (p = 0.002) were significant. Conclusion Although repair µSBS values of both silica- and zirconia-filled composite resins were similar, use of different combinations of surface treatments and adhesive systems affected their repair µSBS differently. PMID:23277859

  1. Rim region growth and its composition in reaction bonded boron carbide composites with core-rim structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayun, S.; Weizmann, A.; Dilman, H.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum was detected in reaction-bonded boron carbide that had been prepared by pressureless infiltration of boron carbide preforms with molten silicon in a graphite furnace under vacuum. The presence of Al2O3 in the heated zone, even though not in contact with the boron carbide preform, stands behind the presence of aluminium in the rim region that interconnects the initial boron carbide particles. The composition of the rim corresponds to the Bx(C,Si,Al)y quaternary carbide phase. The reaction of alumina with graphite and the formation of a gaseous aluminum suboxide (Al2O) accounts for the transfer of aluminum in the melt and, subsequently in the rim regions. The presence of Al increases the solubility of boron in liquid silicon, but with increasing aluminum content the activity of boron decreases. These features dominate the structural evolution of the rim-core in the presence of aluminum in the melt.

  2. Effect of Mechanical Surface Treatment on the Repair Bond Strength of the Silorane-based Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Talatahari, Elham; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Sajadi Oskoee, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. A proper bond must be created between the existing composite resin and the new one for successful repair. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of three mechanical surface treatments, using diamond bur, air abrasion, and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, on the repair bond strength of the silorane-based composite resin. Materials and methods. Sixty cylindrical composite resin specimens (Filtek Silorane) were fabricated and randomly divided into four groups according to surface treatment: group 1 (control group) without any mechanical surface treatment, groups 24 were treated with air abrasion, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and diamond bur, respectively. In addition, a positive control group was assigned in order to measure the cohesive strength. Silorane bonding agent was used in groups 14 before adding the new composite resin. Then, the specimens were subjected to a shear bond strength test and data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P &0.05. The topographical effects of surface treatments were characterized under a scanning electron microscope. Results. There were statistically significant differences in the repair bond strength values between groups 1 and 2 and groups 3 and 4 (P &0.001). There were no significant differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.98) and groups 3 and 4 (P= 0.97). Conclusion. Surface treatment using Er,Cr:YSGG laser and diamond bur were effective in silorane-based composite resin repair. PMID:25093047

  3. An In Vitro Comparative Study of Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Bleached Enamel using Synthetic and Herbal Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Suneetha, Ram; Pavithra, S; Thomas, John; Nanga, G Swapna Priya; Shiromany, Aseem; Shivrayan, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: The bond strength to bleached enamel is reduced, if adhesive restorations are carried out immediately. So the purpose of this in vitro study was an attempt to regain the lost bond strength, for which, the comparison of shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel was carried out using various antioxidants: 10% Sodium ascorbate, Rosemary extracts, Pedicularis extracts. Materials and Methods: Fifty human extracted single rooted teeth were collected. They were decoronated and coronal portions were embedded in self cure acrylic resin with their buccal surfaces facing upwards. The samples were randomly divided into positive, negative control groups and three experimental groups (n = 10). In positive control group, specimens were not bleached, before bonding procedure. In negative control group, bleaching was done with 10% carbamide peroxide and bonding was carried out immediately. In experimental groups, following antioxidants were used after bleaching: Group A: 10% Sodium ascorbate, Group B: Rosemary extracts, Group C: Pedicularis extracts. Then the bonding procedures were carried out in all the groups and were subjected for shear bond strength analysis. Results: Results clearly showed that groups A and B were effective in reversal of bond strength immediately. Conclusion: 10% sodium ascorbate solution and rosemary extracts were effective in reversal of shear bond strength immediately after bleaching. PMID:25628489

  4. Influence of Diamond Particles Coated with TiO2 Film on Wettability of Vitrified Bond and Transverse Rupture Strength (TRS) of Vitrified Bond Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongdong; Wan, Long; Liu, Xiaopan; Hu, Weida; Li, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    TiO2 films were prepared on the surface of the diamond particles using a classical sol-gel method. The results showed that the TiO2 covered on the diamond surface as a rough and dense film with anatase phase, and tightly combined with the diamond substrates via the Ti-O-C bond. The initial oxidation temperature and compression strength of diamond were improved to 725 °C and 23.8 N with TiO2 film coated. TiO2 film increased the roughness of the diamond surface, promoted its mutual solubility, and formed the chemical bonding (Ti-O-Si) between the vitrified bond and the diamond. Therefore, the TiO2 film decreased the interface energy of the diamond, and promoted the wetting angle of vitrified bond with diamond to 36.7°. As a result, the TRS of vitrified bond diamond composites was increased to 76.3 MPa.

  5. Building a better semicircular canal: could we balance any better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd

    2003-11-01

    Every vertebrate organism uses fluid-filled semi-circular canals (SCC) to sense angular rotation -- and thus to balance, navigate, and hunt. Whereas the size of most organs typically scales with the size of the organism itself, the SCC are all about the same size--whether in lizards, mice, humans or whales. What is so special about these dimensions? We consider fluid flow in the canals and elastic deformations of a sensory membrane, and isolate physical and physiological constraints required for successful SCC function. We demonstrate that the `parameter space' open to evolution is almost completely constrained; furthermore, the most sensitive possible SCC has dimensions that are remarkably close to those common to all vertebrates.

  6. Bond mechanisms in fiber-reinforced cement-based composites. Final report, 1 July 1987-30 August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Naaman, A.E.; Namur, G.; Najm, H.; Alwan, J.

    1989-08-01

    This report presents a comprehensive investigation of the mechanisms of bond in steel-fiber-reinforced-cement-based composites. Following a state-of-the-art review on bond in reinforced and prestressed concrete as well as fiber reinforced concrete, the results of an experimental and an analytical program are described. The experimental program focuses primarily on the behavior of fibers under pull-out conditions. Pull-out load versus end-slip behavior and bond shear stress versus slip relationship are studied extensively.

  7. Effect of thermal cycling on interface bonding requirements in Al2O3 fiber-reinforced superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) mismatch-induced stresses as they affect the fiber-matrix bond integrity of Al2O3 fiber-reinforced superalloy composites are examined. Of the three individual stress components, only the radial stress directly affects the integrity of the fiber-matrix interface. It is noted that a compressive radial stress leads to a clamping action on the fiber and is therefore beneficial to the integrity of the fiber-matrix bond. A radial tensile stress, on the other hand, can cause debonding of the fiber from the matrix for a weak fiber-matrix bond.

  8. Bond Strengths of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites to Various Underlying Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Sezin; Sen Tunc, Emine; Gonulol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) values of a methacrylate (FZ 250) and a silorane-based (FS) resin composite to various underlying materials. Materials and Methods. A total of 80 samples were prepared with four different underlying materials; a flowable (FLC) and a bulk-fill flowable composite (BFC), and a conventional (CGIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC). These underlying materials were laminated plus to methacrylate or silorane-based resin composites (n = 10). To evaluate the specimens SBS values were evaluated with a universal testing machine (cross-head speed; 1.0 mm/min). Statistical comparisons were carried out using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results. SBS values for FZ250 were significantly higher than for FS for all of the underlying materials tested (P < 0.05). SBS values of FZ250 to BFC were significantly higher than to all other materials (P < 0.05), whereas SBS values of FS did not vary significantly according to underlying material (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The use of FS in conjunction with any of the tested materials showed lower SBS than the FZ 250. Also, new low elastic modulus liner BFC presented slightly good interfacial adhesion so, the usage of BFC as an underlying material may be preferable for FZ 250. PMID:24895608

  9. Behavior of adhesively bonded concrete-graphite/epoxy composite bridge girders

    SciTech Connect

    Gordaninejad, F.; Saiidi, M.S.; Wehbe, N. )

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the behavior of composite bridge girders constructed from carbon fiber reinforced plastic sections and concrete slabs. The study examined four-point bending of three beams, one bare, I-type, graphite/epoxy beam, and two constructed from concrete slab and graphite/epoxy sections. The concrete slab and graphite/epoxy section were adhesively bonded and no shear connectors were used. All three beams are approximately one-eighth scale models of bridge girders. The sections are geometrically symmetric and have the same symmetric lamination schemes. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed on the bare I-sections to develop basic understanding of the bending behavior. The analyses and tests were then extended to the composite girders. The theoretical and experimental results for the failure loads were in close agreement. It was found that the slip at the interface of the concrete slab and the graphite/epoxy beam had minor effects on the failure load, but it significantly reduced the stiffness of the composite sections. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems. PMID:25736259

  11. Effect of water and ice on strength and fracture toughness of intermittently bonded boron-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.; Mai, Y. W.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of water and ice on the strength and fracture toughness of boron-epoxy composites with polyurethane intermittent bonding have been investigated. Neither simple soaking in water nor soaking followed by freezing and thawing have marked effects on the strength of the fully-coated composites, but they have disastrous effects on the uncoated composites. Toughness is affected only marginally, with some small reductions in the fully-coated samples, and with essentially no effect on the uncoated composites. An analysis is presented which explains adequately the experimental strength and toughness results obtained, and which is based on an argument that water absorption reduces the interfacial shear strength only of the uncoated areas and not those regions coated by the polyurethane varnish. The results indicate that the advantages of appropriate intermittent bonding (i.e., high strength combined with high toughness) are retained in wet conditions so that such composites may be favorably used in such adverse environmental conditions.

  12. Effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength of resin composite bonded to CAD/CAM resin-ceramic hybrid materials

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Merve Bankoğlu; Bal, Bilge Turhan; Ünver, Senem; Doğan, Aylin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength of resin composite bonded to thermocycled and non-thermocycled CAD/CAM resin-ceramic hybrid materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens (10×10×2 mm) from each material were divided into 12 groups according to different surface treatments in combination with thermal aging procedures. Surface treatment methods were airborne-particle abrasion (abraded with 50 micron alumina particles), dry grinding (grinded with 125 µm grain size bur), and hydrofluoric acid (9%) and silane application. According to the thermocycling procedure, the groups were assigned as non-thermocycled, thermocycled after packing composites, and thermocycled before packing composites. The average surface roughness of the non-thermocycled specimens were measured after surface treatments. After packing composites and thermocycling procedures, shear bond strength (SBS) of the specimens were tested. The results of surface roughness were statistically analyzed by 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and SBS results were statistically analyzed by 3-way ANOVA. RESULTS Surface roughness of GC were significantly lower than that of LU and VE (P<.05). The highest surface roughness was observed for dry grinding group, followed by airborne particle abraded group (P<.05). Comparing the materials within the same surface treatment method revealed that untreated surfaces generally showed lower SBS values. The values of untreated LU specimens showed significantly different SBS values compared to those of other surface treatment groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION SBS was affected by surface treatments. Thermocycling did not have any effect on the SBS of the materials except acid and silane applied GC specimens, which were subjected to thermocycling before packing of the composite resin. PMID:27555894

  13. A comprehensive assessment of adhesively bonded joints between sandwich composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, Khaled Omar

    Assessment of adhesively bonded joints between sandwich composite beams are presented in this thesis in three parts, each is concerned with a distinct aspect of the joint behaviour. In physical order, these include the deformations of the entire joint assembly, the state of stress in the joint overlap region, and the strain energy release at the crack-tip at the end of the overlap. Analytical models developed in this thesis, however, are not limited in their application to adhesive joint between sandwich beams. In each part of this thesis, the integrity of the proposed analytical models are tested against geometrically non-linear finite element models. In this first part of this thesis, an analytical asymptotic model is presented for the analysis of balanced and unbalanced adhesively bonded joints. The model takes advantage of the asymptotic nature of the adhesive stress functions by eliminating exponentially small terms. Analysis of balanced and unbalanced adhesive joints is greatly simplified with negligible loss in accuracy. Accurate closed-form solutions for both adhesive peel and shear stresses are presented, providing an efficient analysis and design tool and a significant contribution to the literature on unbalanced adhesively bonded joints. In the second part, the asymptotic model is extended to the analysis of strain energy release rates in adhesively bonded joints, using the crack closure concept. Closed-form expressions are presented for various joint types. The shear force and adhesive layer effects are included in the analysis, thus improving on currently available works in the literature. In joints with a long crack and a thin adhesive layer, the asymptotic model is shown to be in good agreement with classical beam theory models. In the third part, deformations in adhesively bonded joints between sandwich beams are studied. Adherends are modeled as cylindrically bent plates on elastic foundations and the overlap section is treated as a single

  14. Hydrogen bonds, interfacial stiffness moduli, and the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, John H.

    2015-03-15

    The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes K{sub N} of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The K{sub N} calculations fall in the range (2.01 – 4.67) ×10{sup 17} N m{sup −3}. The average ratio K{sub N}/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043) × 10{sup 10} m{sup −1} for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of K{sub N} via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.

  15. Hydrogen bonds, interfacial stiffness moduli, and the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2015-03-01

    The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes KN of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The KN calculations fall in the range (2.01 - 4.67) ×1017 N m-3. The average ratio KN/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043) × 1010 m-1 for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of KN via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.

  16. Method for fabricating light weight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Lewis, Jr., John

    1989-01-01

    Ultralight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites of densities in the range of about 0.04 to 0.10 grams per cubic centimeter are fabricated by forming an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous fibers which include carbonized fibers and 0-50 weight percent fugitive fibers and a particulate thermosetting resin precursor. The slurry is brought into contact with a perforated mandrel and the water is drained from the slurry through the perforations at a controlled flow rate of about 0.03 to 0.30 liters per minutes per square inch of mandrel surface. The deposited billet of fibers and resin precursor is heated to cure the resin precursor to bind the fibers together, removed from the mandrel, and then the resin and fugitive fibers, if any, are carbonized.

  17. Cohesive Laws and Progressive Damage Analysis of Composite Bonded Joints, a Combined Numerical/Experimental Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations, in agreement with experimental tests, indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  18. Functional Implications of Ubiquitous Semicircular Canal Non-Orthogonality in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Jeri C.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Rowe, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘canonical model’ of semicircular canal orientation in mammals assumes that 1) the three ipsilateral canals of an inner ear exist in orthogonal planes (i.e., orthogonality), 2) corresponding left and right canal pairs have equivalent angles (i.e., angle symmetry), and 3) contralateral synergistic canals occupy parallel planes (i.e., coplanarity). However, descriptions of vestibular anatomy that quantify semicircular canal orientation in single species often diverge substantially from this model. Data for primates further suggest that semicircular canal orthogonality varies predictably with the angular head velocities encountered in locomotion. These observations raise the possibility that orthogonality, symmetry, and coplanarity are misleading descriptors of semicircular canal orientation in mammals, and that deviations from these norms could have significant functional consequences. Here we critically assess the canonical model of semicircular canal orientation using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography scans of 39 mammal species. We find that substantial deviations from orthogonality, angle symmetry, and coplanarity are the rule for the mammals in our comparative sample. Furthermore, the degree to which the semicircular canals of a given species deviate from orthogonality is negatively correlated with estimated vestibular sensitivity. We conclude that the available comparative morphometric data do not support the canonical model and that its overemphasis as a heuristic generalization obscures a large amount of functionally relevant variation in semicircular canal orientation between species. PMID:24260256

  19. The analysis of adhesively bonded advanced composite joints using joint finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.

    The design and sizing of adhesively bonded joints has always been a major bottleneck in the design of composite vehicles. Dense finite element (FE) meshes are required to capture the full behavior of a joint numerically, but these dense meshes are impractical in vehicle-scale models where a course mesh is more desirable to make quick assessments and comparisons of different joint geometries. Analytical models are often helpful in sizing, but difficulties arise in coupling these models with full-vehicle FE models. Therefore, a joint FE was created which can be used within structural FE models to make quick assessments of bonded composite joints. The shape functions of the joint FE were found by solving the governing equations for a structural model for a joint. By analytically determining the shape functions of the joint FE, the complex joint behavior can be captured with very few elements. This joint FE was modified and used to consider adhesives with functionally graded material properties to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. Furthermore, proof-of-concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint. Furthermore, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior with large rotations was developed, and progressive failure of the adhesive was modeled by re-meshing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results predicted using the joint FE was compared with experimental results for various

  20. Electrochemical Evaluation of Lead Base Composite Anodes Fabricated by Accumulative Roll Bonding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbasi, Maryam; Keshavarz Alamdari, Eskandar

    2015-04-01

    Accumulative roll bonding is used for the first time in lead systems to fabricate advanced lead base composite anodes. For this purpose, Ag as the most common and effective additive, Co as the best metallic immiscible substitution for Ag, and MnO2 as the ceramic and electrocatalytic agent have been used as additives to produce anodes. The accumulative roll bonding processed sheets have been fabricated under determined conditions. The electrochemical properties of the prepared samples are investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, Polarization tests, electrowinning tests, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results indicate that the ARB-processed composite lead sheets can be perfectly used as novel developed anodes. The advantages include 5.51 times increase of current density, in the Pb-pct0.5Ag 9-pass sample compared to pure lead anode, decreased charge transfer resistance from 56.31 (Ω cm2) in pure lead anode to 17.5 (Ω cm2) in the Pb-pct2MnO2 8-pass sample (72 pct lower), and decreased oxygen evolution potential from 1.95 (V/SHE) in pure lead anode to 1.77 (V/SHE) in the Pb-pct2MnO2 8-pass sample (0.18 (V/SHE) lower). Electrowinning tests results reveal Pb-2 pctMnO2 8-pass showed best anodic performance withsignificant lower compared corrosion rate (75 pct), product and electrolyte contamination, slime formation, energy consumption and higher Zn deposit and energy conservation (to 294 kWh/t-Zn). Finest Zn deposit morphology (effective reduced grain size corresponding to smoothness and compaction) has been supplied by Pb-2 pctMnO2 8-pass sample resulted from enhanced growth rate of Zn in lack of Pb contaminations that could act as suitable nucleation sites.

  1. The Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Advanced Composite Joints Using Joint Finite Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and sizing of adhesively bonded joints has always been a major bottleneck in the design of composite vehicles. Dense finite element (FE) meshes are required to capture the full behavior of a joint numerically, but these dense meshes are impractical in vehicle-scale models where a course mesh is more desirable to make quick assessments and comparisons of different joint geometries. Analytical models are often helpful in sizing, but difficulties arise in coupling these models with full-vehicle FE models. Therefore, a joint FE was created which can be used within structural FE models to make quick assessments of bonded composite joints. The shape functions of the joint FE were found by solving the governing equations for a structural model for a joint. By analytically determining the shape functions of the joint FE, the complex joint behavior can be captured with very few elements. This joint FE was modified and used to consider adhesives with functionally graded material properties to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. Furthermore, proof-of-concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint. Furthermore, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior with large rotations was developed, and progressive failure of the adhesive was modeled by re-meshing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results predicted using the joint FE was compared with experimental results for various

  2. Marginal microleakage of class V resin-based composite restorations bonded with six one-step self-etch systems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the microleakage of class V restorations bonded with various one-step self-etching adhesives. Seventy class V resin-based composite restorations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 35 premolars, by using: Clearfil S3 Bond, G-Bond, iBond, One Coat 7.0, OptiBond All-In-One, or Xeno IV. The Adper Single Bond etch-and-rinse two-step adhesive was employed as a control. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles in separate water baths at 5°C and 55°C and loaded under 40 to 70 N for 50,000 cycles. Marginal microleakage was measured based on the penetration of a tracer agent. Although the control showed no microleakage at the enamel margins, there were no differences between groups (p = 0.06). None of the adhesives avoided microleakage at the dentin margins, and they displayed similar performances (p = 0.76). When both margins were compared, iBond® presented higher microleakage (p < 0.05) at the enamel margins (median, 1.00; Q3-Q1, 1.25-0.00) compared to the dentin margins (median, 0.00; Q3-Q1, 0.25-0.00). The study adhesives showed similar abilities to seal the margins of class V restorations, except for iBond®, which presented lower performance at the enamel margin. PMID:23739787

  3. Develop, demonstrate, and verify large area composite structural bonding with polyimide adhesives. [adhesively bonding graphite-polyimide structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhombal, B. D.; Wykes, D. H.; Hong, K. C.; Stenersen, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The technology required to produce graphite-polyimide structural components with operational capability at 598 K (600 F) is considered. A series of polyimide adhesives was screened for mechanical and physical properties and processibility in fabricating large midplane bonded panels and honeycomb sandwich panels in an effort to fabricate a structural test component of the space shuttle aft body flap. From 41 formulations, LaRC-13, FM34B-18, and a modified LaRC-13 adhesive were selected for further evaluation. The LaRC-13 adhesive was rated as the best of the three adhesives in terms of availability, cost, processibility, properties, and ability to produce void fee large area (12" x 12") midplane bonds. Surface treatments and primers for the adhesives were evaluated and processes were developed for the fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels of very good quality which was evidenced by rupture in the honeycomb core rather than in the facesheet bands on flatwise tensile strength testing. The fabrication of the adhesively bonded honeycomb sandwich cover panels, ribs, and leading edge covers of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide laminates is described.

  4. Effect of Different Anti-Oxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resins to Bleached Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Saladi, Hari Krishna; Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Burla, Devipriya; Ballullaya, Srinidhi Vishnu; Devalla, Srihari; Maroli, Sohani; Jayaprakash, Thumu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The bond strength of the composite to the bleached enamel plays a very important role in the success and longevity of an aesthetic restoration. Aim The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of Aloe Vera with 10% Sodium Ascorbate on the Shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached human enamel. Materials and Methods Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 5 groups. Group I and V are unbleached and bleached controls groups respectively. Group II, III, IV served as experimental groups. The labial surfaces of groups II, III, IV, V were treated with 35% Carbamide Peroxide for 30mins. Group II specimens were subjected to delayed composite bonding. Group III and IV specimens were subjected to application of 10% Sodium Ascorbate and leaf extract of Aloe Vera following the Carbamide Peroxide bleaching respectively. Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength using universal testing machine and the results were statistically analysed using ANOVA test. Tukey (HSD) Honest Significant Difference test was used to comparatively analyse statistical differences between the groups. A p-value <0.05 is taken as statistically significant. Results The mean shear bond strength values of Group V showed significantly lower bond strengths than Groups I, II, III, IV (p-value <0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the shear bond strength values of groups I, II, III, IV. Conclusion Treatment of the bleached enamel surface with Aloe Vera and 10% Sodium Ascorbate provided consistently better bond strength. Aloe Vera may be used as an alternative to 10% Sodium Ascorbate. PMID:26674656

  5. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on dentine bond and composite strength.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H; Mueller, H J; Chiu, C H

    1994-12-01

    The effect of up to 30 days' immersion in 75% ethanol solution and in an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir) on the dentine shear bond strength (SBS) of three adhesive/composite systems (Tenure/Marathon One, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 and Optibond/Herculite XRV) was evaluated. Two control series were stored either in 100% humidity or in air. Diametral tensile specimens (DTS) of the composites studied were stored in 75% ethanol for up to 30 days. The fracture mode and morphology of the failure interface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The SBS for all systems stored in Moi-Stir (24.8 +/- 3.0 MPa) and air (28.3 +/- 3.0 MPa) was not influenced by length of storage. Microscopic (SEM) examination of the debonded air, and Moi-Stir stored specimens showed that failure had primarily occurred through the dentine. Significant decreases (30-50%) in the SBS of all systems occurred after immersion in 75% ethanol. There was no significant difference among brands. The DTS of the composites showed significant decreases as a function of ethanol exposure. Marathon One and Herculite XRV showed significantly lower DTS after 14 days' storage while Z100 showed no reduction in DTS until after 30 days. The decrease in both SBS and DTS after storage in ethanol was a function of the square root of time (P < 0.001) and followed Fick's laws of diffusion. Ethanol diffusivity was approximated as 1.8 x 10(-6) cm2 s-1 for both SBS and DTS specimens, suggesting that alcohol attack in SBS specimens occurred primarily in the composite system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7844264

  6. Damage prognosis of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles R; Gobbato, Maurizio; Conte, Joel; Kosmatke, John; Oliver, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The extensive use of lightweight advanced composite materials in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drastically increases the sensitivity to both fatigue- and impact-induced damage of their critical structural components (e.g., wings and tail stabilizers) during service life. The spar-to-skin adhesive joints are considered one of the most fatigue sensitive subcomponents of a lightweight UAV composite wing with damage progressively evolving from the wing root. This paper presents a comprehensive probabilistic methodology for predicting the remaining service life of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of UAVs. Non-destructive evaluation techniques and Bayesian inference are used to (i) assess the current state of damage of the system and, (ii) update the probability distribution of the damage extent at various locations. A probabilistic model for future loads and a mechanics-based damage model are then used to stochastically propagate damage through the joint. Combined local (e.g., exceedance of a critical damage size) and global (e.g.. flutter instability) failure criteria are finally used to compute the probability of component failure at future times. The applicability and the partial validation of the proposed methodology are then briefly discussed by analyzing the debonding propagation, along a pre-defined adhesive interface, in a simply supported laminated composite beam with solid rectangular cross section, subjected to a concentrated load applied at mid-span. A specially developed Eliler-Bernoulli beam finite element with interlaminar slip along the damageable interface is used in combination with a cohesive zone model to study the fatigue-induced degradation in the adhesive material. The preliminary numerical results presented are promising for the future validation of the methodology.

  7. Temperature dependence of the magnetomechanical effect in metal-bonded cobalt ferrite composites under torsional strain

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Snyder, J. E.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Jiles, D. C.

    2000-05-01

    Metal-bonded cobalt ferrite composites are promising candidates for torque sensors and other magnetostrictive sensing and actuating applications. In the present study, the temperature dependence of the magnetomechanical effect in a ring-shape cobalt ferrite composite under torsional strain has been investigated in the temperature range of -37 to 90 degree sign C. The changes of external axial magnetic field were measured as a function of applied torque. Magnetomechanical sensitivity of {delta}H{sub ext}/{delta}{tau}=65 A N{sup -1} m{sup -2} was observed with a magnetomechanical hysteresis of {delta}{tau}={+-}0.62 N m at room temperature (22 degree sign C). These were then measured as a function of temperature. Both decreased as the temperature increased throughout the entire range. The magnetomechanical hysteresis became negligible at temperatures higher than 60 degree sign C, above which there was a linear change in external magnetic field with applied torque. These temperature dependences are explained by the changes of magnetostriction, anisotropy, spontaneous magnetization, and pinning of domain walls caused by the availability of increased thermal energy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Metal-bonded Co-ferrite composites for magnetorestrictive torque sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Snyder, J.E.; Schwichtenberg, C.R.; Dennis, K.W.; McCallum, R.W.; Jiles, D.C.

    1999-09-01

    A new class of magnetomechanical sensor materials, co-ferrite (CoO {center{underscore}dot} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and metal-bonded (Ag, Ni, Co) Co-ferrite composites, has been investigated. These materials exhibited magnetostriction in excess of 200 ppm and high d{sub 33} ({partial{underscore}derivative}{lambda}/{partial{underscore}derivative}H){sub {sigma}} coefficient, 1.3 x 10{sup {minus}9} A{sup {minus}1}m, at low applied field (<100 kA/m). Selected compositions were formed into test samples in the form of rings brazed to stainless steel through-shafts. Changes of surface axial magnetic field in response to applied torque as high as 64 AN{sup {minus}1}m{sup {minus}2} were observed for a demonstration sample of dimensions 25 mm OD, 12.5 mm ID, and 8 mm high. A hysteresis of {+-}0.5 N{center{underscore}dot}m was observed. These materials appear to be promising candidates for torque sensors, and other magnetostrictive sensor and actuator applications.

  9. Characterization of Fatigue Damage for Bonded Composite Skin/Stringer Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Isabelle; Cvitkovich, Michael; Krueger, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue damage was characterized in specimens which consisted of a tapered composite flange bonded onto a composite skin. Quasi-static tension tests were performed first to determine the failure load. Subsequently, tension fatigue tests were performed at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the failure load to evaluate the debonding mechanisms. For four specimens, the cycling loading was stopped at intervals. Photographs of the polished specimen edges were taken under a light microscope to document the damage. At two diagonally opposite corners of the flange, a delamination appeared to initiate at the flange tip from a matrix crack in the top 45deg skin ply and propagated at the top 45deg/-45deg skin ply interface. At the other two diagonally opposite corners, a delamination running in the bondline initiated from a matrix crack in the adhesive pocket. In addition, two specimens were cut longitudinally into several sections. Micrographs revealed a more complex pattern inside the specimen where the two delamination patterns observed at the edges are present simultaneously across most of the width of the specimen. The observations suggest that a more sophisticated nondestructive evaluation technique is required to capture the complex damage pattern of matrix cracking and multi-level delaminations.

  10. Fabrication, Microstructure, and Mechanical Property of NiAl-based Composite with Microlaminated Architecture by Roll Bonding and Annealing Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guohua; Wang, Qingwei; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Weiping; Du, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Microlaminated TiB2-NiAl composite sheets consisting of alternating TiB2-rich and monolithic NiAl layers have been successfully fabricated by roll bonding and reaction annealing of Ni sheets and TiB2/Al composite sheets. Solid-liquid reaction mechanisms including diffusion reaction and precipitation were determined in the initial multi-laminated Ni-(TiB2/Al) sheets at 1473 K (1200 °C). After fabrication, the microlaminated composite sheets have a strong texture with <111> parallel to normal direction formed by phase transformation inheritance from initial rolling texture of Ni sheets via diffusion reaction. Both the tensile strength and elongation of the microlaminated TiB2-NiAl composite sheets were significantly improved when tested at the temperatures above BDTT, which could be attributed to the unique laminated structure, bimodal grain size distribution in NiAl matrix, and enhanced interface bonding between both layers.

  11. Effect of amalgam corrosion products in non-discolored dentin on the bond strength of replaced composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Eslami, Samaneh; Ameri, Hamide; Chasteen, Joseph E.; Majidinia, Sara; Moghadam, Fatemeh Velayaty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of amalgam corrosion products in non-discolored dentin on the bond strength of replaced composite resin. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-one Class I cavities were prepared on extracted premolars and divided into seven groups. Group 1: Light-cured composite; Groups 2, 3, and 4: Amalgam stored in 37°C normal saline for respectively 1, 3, and 6 months and then replaced with composite leaving the cavity walls intact. Groups 5, 6, and 7: Identical to Groups 2, 3, and 4, except the cavity walls were extended 0.5 mm after amalgam removal. Eighteen specimens from each group were selected for shear bond strength testing, while on remaining five samples, elemental microanalysis was conducted. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Freidman (α = 0.05). Results: There was a significant difference between Groups 1 and 4 and also between Group 1 and Groups 5, 6, and 7. However, Groups 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant difference regarding bond strength. Bond strengths of Group 4 was significantly less than Groups 2 and 3. However, Groups 5, 6, and 7 showed similar bond strength. There was no difference among all groups in terms of metal elements at any storage times. PMID:25657522

  12. Microtensile bond strength of indirect resin composite to resin-coated dentin: interaction between diamond bur roughness and coating material.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Oishi, Takumi; Sugawara, Toyotarou; Hirai, Yoshito

    2009-02-01

    This aim of this study was to determine the effect of type of bur and resin-coating material on microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of indirect composite to dentin. Dentin surfaces were first ground with two types of diamond bur and resin-coated using UniFil Bond (UB) or Adper Single Bond (SB), and then bonded to a resin composite disc for indirect restoration with adhesive resin cement. After storage for 24 hr in distilled water at 37 degrees C, microTBS was measured (crosshead speed 1 mm/min). When UB was applied to dentin prepared using the regular-grit diamond bur, microTBS was significantly lower than that in dentin prepared using the superfine-grit bur. In contrast, no significant difference was found between regular-grit and superfine-grit bur with SB. However, more than half of the superfine-grit specimens failed before microTBS testing. These results indicate that selection of bur type is important in improving the bond strength of adhesive resin cement between indirect resin composite and resin-coated dentin. PMID:19622875

  13. Approach to In- Situ Producing Reinforcing Phase Within an Active-Transient Liquid Phase Bond Seam for Aluminum Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Liao, Xianjin; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Linjie; Zhang, Jianxun

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the braze composition design route for aluminum matrix composite, the feasibility of in situ producing reinforcing phase within the transient liquid phase bond seam matrix, by adding active melting point increaser (MPI, e.g., Ti) together with general melting point depressant (MPD, e.g., Cu) into the interlayer, was demonstrated. For SiC p /A356 composite, by comparing the wettability, joint microstructure, joint shear strength, and fracture path for the developed Al-19Cu-1Ti, Al-19Cu, Al-33Cu-1Ti, Al-33Cu (wt pct), and commercial Cu foils as interlayer, the feasibility of in situ producing reinforcing phase within the bond seam by adding Ti was demonstrated. Especially for Al-19Cu-1Ti active braze, small and dispersed ternary aluminide of Al-Si-Ti phase was obtained within the bond seam as in situ reinforcement, leading to a favorable fracture path within SiC p /A356, not along the initial interface or within the bond seam. For the formation mechanism of the in situ reinforcing phase of MPI-containing intermetallic compound within the bond seam, a model of repeating concentration-precipitation-termination-engulfment during isothermal solidification is proposed.

  14. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study. PMID:27041894

  15. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment on Surface Characteristics and Adhesive Bond Quality of Peel Ply Prepared Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracey, Ashley C.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if atmospheric pressure plasma treatment could modify peel ply prepared composite surfaces to create strong adhesive bonds. Two peel ply surface preparation composite systems previously shown to create weak bonds (low fracture energy and adhesion failure) that were potential candidates for plasma treatment were Toray T800/3900-2 carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) prepared with Precision Fabrics Group, Inc. (PFG) 52006 nylon peel ply and Hexcel T300/F155 CFRP prepared with PFG 60001 polyester peel ply. It was hypothesized that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment could functionalize and/or remove peel ply remnants left on the CFRP surfaces upon peel ply removal. Surface characterization measurements and double cantilever beam (DCB) testing were used to determine the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface characteristics and bond quality of peel ply prepared CFRP composites. Previous research showed that Toray T800/3900-2 carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites prepared with PFG 52006 peel ply and bonded with Cytec MetlBond 1515-3M structural film adhesive failed in adhesion at low fracture energies when tested in the DCB configuration. Previous research also showed that DCB samples made of Hexcel T300/F155 carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites prepared with PFG 60001 peel ply and bonded with Henkel Hysol EA 9696 structural film adhesive failed in adhesion at low fracture energies. Recent research suggested that plasma treatment could be able to activate these "un-bondable" surfaces and result in good adhesive bonds. Nylon peel ply prepared 177 °C cure and polyester peel ply prepared 127 °C cure CFRP laminates were treated with atmospheric pressure plasma after peel ply removal prior to bonding. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was capable of significantly increasing fracture energies and changing failure modes. For Toray T800/3900-2 laminates prepared with PFG 52006 and bonded with

  16. Active Metal Brazing and Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to C/C Composites for Heat Rejection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, Tarah; Cerny, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Robust assembly and integration technologies are critically needed for the manufacturing of heat rejection system (HRS) components for current and future space exploration missions. Active metal brazing and adhesive bonding technologies are being assessed for the bonding of titanium to high conductivity Carbon-Carbon composite sub components in various shapes and sizes. Currently a number of different silver and copper based active metal brazes and adhesive compositions are being evaluated. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Several mechanical tests have been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of different brazing and adhesive approaches in tension and in shear that are both simple and representative of the actual system and relatively straightforward in analysis. The results of these mechanical tests along with the fractographic analysis will be discussed. In addition, advantages, technical issues and concerns in using different bonding approaches will also be presented.

  17. Bond strength comparison of amalgam repair protocols using resin composite in situations with and without dentin exposure.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Schoonbeek, Geert; Gökçe, Bülent; Cömlekoglu, Erhan; Dündar, Mine

    2010-01-01

    The replacement of defective amalgam restorations leads to loss of tooth material and weakens the tooth, creating an increased risk of cusp fracture. The repair of such defects is a minimal intervention technique. The current study compared the repair bond strengths of a resin composite to amalgam and an amalgam-dentin complex after various surface conditioning methods. The specimens (N = 50) consisted of sound human canines with cylindrical preparations (diameter: 2.3 mm, depth: 3 mm) with amalgam-dentin complex (N = 30, n = 10/per group) and two groups with amalgam only (N = 20, n = 10/per group). The teeth were embedded in auto-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The preparations were filled with non-Gamma 2 amalgam. The enamel was removed to expose dentin. The specimens with the amalgam-dentin complex were randomly assigned to one of the following conditioning methods: Group 1: Silicacoating amalgam, etching dentin, silane application on amalgam, primer/bonding on dentin, opaquer on amalgam, resin composite on both; Group 2: Etching dentin, silicacoating amalgam, silane application on amalgam, primer/bonding on dentin, opaquer on amalgam, resin composite on both and Group 3: Etching dentin, primer/bonding on dentin, opaquer, resin composite. The specimens with only amalgam were assigned to one of the following conditioning methods: Group 4: Silicacoating, silane application, opaquer, resin composite and Group 5: Opaquer, resin composite. For the two control groups, where no dentin was involved (Groups 4 and 5), bonding was achieved only on amalgam and Group 5 had no conditioning. The specimens were kept in water at 37 degrees C for five weeks before bond strength (MPa +/- SD) testing (Universal Testing Machine). After debonding, the failure types were analyzed. The results were significantly affected by the surface conditioning method (ANOVA). Only dentin conditioning (Group 3) showed the highest bond strength (39.9 +/- 14). The unconditioned control

  18. The effect of a desensitizer and CO2 laser irradiation on bond performance between eroded dentin and resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Meng; Shin, Sang-Wan; Kim, Min-Soo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was aimed to evaluate effect of the desensitizing pretreatments on the micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBS) to eroded dentin and sound dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-two extracted molars were prepared to form a flat dentin surface, and then they were divided into two groups. Group I was stored in distilled water while group II was subjected to a pH cycling. Each group was then subdivided into three subgroups according to desensitizing pretreatment used: a) pretreatment with desensitizer (Gluma); b) pretreatment with CO2 Laser (Ultra Dream Pluse); c) without any pretreatment. All prepared surfaces were bonded with Single Bond 2 and built up with resin composite (Filtek Z250). The micro-tensile bond test was performed. Fracture modes were evaluated by stereomicroscopy. Pretreated surfaces and bonded interfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data obtained was analyzed by two-way ANOVA (α=0.05). RESULTS For both sound and eroded dentin, samples treated with desensitizer showed the greatest µTBS, followed by samples without any treatment. And samples treated with CO2 laser showed the lowest µTBS. SEM study indicated that teeth with eroded dentin appeared prone to debonding, as demonstrated by existence of large gaps between adhesive layers and dentin. CONCLUSION Pretreatment with Gluma increased the µTBS of Single Bond 2 for eroded and sound teeth. CO2 laser irradiation weakened bond performance for sound teeth but had no effect on eroded teeth. PMID:25006379

  19. Clinical comparison between a modified light-curing denture base resin and a conventional composite resin for orthodontic bonding.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Lucia; Cacciafesta, Vittorio; Melsen, Birte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate and compare the bond failure rate of a modified visible light-cured denture base resin (Triad VLC Provisional Material; Dentsply International Inc., York, PA) with that of a conventional visible light-cured composite resin (Transbond XT; 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA) for the bonding of orthodontic brackets. Both adhesives were used in each patient following a split-mouth design. Thirty-five consecutive patients with fixed appliances were included in the study, and the performance of 655 stainless steel brackets was evaluated: 325 brackets were bonded with the modified Triad VLC resin and 330 were bonded with Transbond XT resin. The incidence and site of bond failures were recorded over a period of 12 months. The overall failure rate of Triad VLC (4.3%) was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of Transbond XT (3.6%). No significant differences in the failure rates of upper and lower arches within each material or between the two materials were found (p>0.05). Transbond XT showed a significantly higher failure rate (p<0.05) in the anterior (4.8%) than in the posterior teeth (1.6%). The present findings demonstrate that Triad VLC could be used as an alternative bonding material for direct bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:12887574

  20. Effect of cyclic loading on marginal adaptation and bond strength in direct vs. indirect class II MO composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Logani, Ajay; Jain, Veena; Shah, Naseem

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cyclic loading on the marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength of direct vs indirect Class II composite restorations in an in-vitro model. Forty Class II cavities were prepared on the mesial surface of extracted human maxillary first premolars and divided into two groups: Group I--direct composite restorations and Group II--indirect composite restorations. Groups I and II were further divided into subgroups: A (without cyclic loading) and B (with cyclic loading of 150,000 cycles at 60N). The gingival margin of the proximal box was evaluated at 200x magnification for marginal adaptation in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. The restorations were sectioned perpendicular to the bonded surface into 1 mm thickslabs. The slabswere further trimmed at the interface to produce a cross-sectional surface area of approximately 1 mm2. All specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. The marginal adaptation was analyzed using descriptive studies and bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. The indirect composite restorations performed better under cyclic loading. PMID:18833866

  1. Oxidation effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1989-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded silicon nitride composites were measured after 100 hrs exposure at temperatures to 1400 C in nitrogen and oxygen environments. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The results indicate that composites heat treated in a nitrogen environment at temperatures to 1400 C showed deformation and fracture behavior equivalent to that of the as-fabricated composites. Also, the composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment beyond 400 C yielded significantly lower tensile strength values. Specifically in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 C, composites retained approx. 40 percent of their as-fabricated strength, and those heat treated in the temperatures from 1200 to 1400 C retained 70 percent. Nonetheless, for all oxygen heat treatment conditions, composite specimens displayed strain capability beyond the matrix fracture stress; a typical behavior of a tough composite.

  2. High conductivity composite flip-chip joints and silver-indium bonding to bismuth telluride for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen P.

    Two projects are reported. First, the barrier layer and silver (Ag)-indium (In) transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding for thermoelectric (TE) modules at high temperature were studied, and followed with a survey of Ag microstructure and grain growth kinetics. Second, the high electrical conductivity joint materials bonded by both Ag-AgIn TLP and solid-state bonding processes for small size flip-chip applications were designed. In the first project, barrier and Ag-In TLP bonding layer for TE module at high temperature application were studied. Bismuth telluride (Bi2 Te3) and its alloys are used as materials for a TE module. A barrier/bonding composite was developed to satisfy the TE module for high temperature operation. Titanium (Ti)/ gold (Au) was chosen as the barrier layers and an Ag-rich Ag-In joint was chosen as the bonding layer. An electron-beam evaporated Ti layer was selected as the barrier layer. An Ag-In fluxless TLP bonding process was developed to bond the Bi 2Te3 chips to the alumina substrates for high temperature applications. To prepare for bonding, the Bi2Te3 chips were coated with a Ti/Au barrier layer followed by a Ag layer. The alumina substrates with titanium-tungsten (TiW)/Au were then electroplated with the Ag/In/Ag structure. These Bi2Te3 chips were bonded to alumina substrates at a bonding temperature of 180ºC with a static pressure as low as 100psi. The resulting void-free joint consists of five regions: Ag, (Ag), Ag2In, (Ag), and Ag, where (Ag) is Ag-rich solid solution with In atoms in it and Ag is pure Ag. This joint has a melting temperature higher than 660ºC, and it manages the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the Bi2Te3 and alumina substrate. The whole Ti/Au barrier layer and Ag-In bonding composite between Bi 2Te3 and alumina survived after an aging test at 250°C for 200 hours. The Ag-In joint transformed from Ag/(Ag)/Ag2In/(Ag)/Ag to a more reliable (Ag) rich layer after the aging test. Ag thin films were

  3. Mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical and physical properties of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) have been evaluated. The composites contained 23 and 40 volume fraction of aligned 140 micro m diameter chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Preliminary results for composite tensile and bend strengths and fracture strain indicate that the composites displayed excellent properties when compared with unreinforced RBSN of comparable porosity. Fiber volume fraction showed little influence on matrix first cracking strain but did influence the stressed required for matrix first cracking and for ultimate composite fracture strength. It is suggested that by reducing matrix porosity and by increasing the volume fraction of the large diameter SiC fiber, it should be possible to further improve the composite stress at which the matrix first cracks.

  4. Mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1986-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical and physical properties of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) have been evaluated. The composites contained 23 and 40 volume fraction of aligned 140 micro m diameter chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Preliminary results for composite tensile and bend strengths and fracture strain indicate that the composites displayed excellent properties when compared with unreinforced RBSN of comparable porosity. Fiber volume fraction showed little influence on matrix first cracking strain but did influence the stressed required for matrix first cracking and for ultimate composite fracture strength. It is suggested that by reducing matrix porosity and by increasing the volume fraction of the large diameter SiC fiber, it should be possible to further improve the composite stress at which the matrix first cracks.

  5. Mechanical amplification by hair cells in the semicircular canals

    PubMed Central

    Rabbitt, Richard D.; Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are the essential mechanotransducers of the inner ear, responsible not only for the transduction of sound and motion stimuli but also, remarkably, for nanomechanical amplification of sensory stimuli. Here we show that semicircular canal hair cells generate a mechanical nonlinearity in vivo that increases sensitivity to angular motion by amplification at low stimulus strengths. Sensitivity at high stimulus strengths is linear and shows no evidence of amplification. Results suggest that the mechanical work done by hair cells contributes ∼97 zJ/cell of amplification per stimulus cycle, improving sensitivity to angular velocity stimuli below ∼5°/s (0.3-Hz sinusoidal motion). We further show that mechanical amplification can be inhibited by the brain via activation of efferent synaptic contacts on hair cells. The experimental model was the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. Physiological manifestation of mechanical amplification and efferent control in a teleost vestibular organ suggests the active motor process in sensory hair cells is ancestral. The biophysical basis of the motor(s) remains hypothetical, but a key discriminating question may involve how changes in somatic electrical impedance evoked by efferent synaptic action alter function of the motor(s). PMID:20133682

  6. Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates

    PubMed Central

    Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlated with agility and have been used to infer locomotion in extinct species. To refine models of canal functional morphology and to improve locomotor inferences for extinct species, we compare 3D vector measurements of head rotation during locomotion with 3D vector measures of canal sensitivity. Contrary to the predictions of conventional models that are based upon R, we find that axes of rapid head rotation are not aligned with axes of either high or low sensitivity. Instead, animals with fast head rotations have similar sensitivities in all directions, which they achieve by orienting the three canals of each ear orthogonally (i.e., along planes at 90° angles to one another). The extent to which the canal configuration approaches orthogonality is correlated with rotational head speed independent of body mass and phylogeny, whereas R is not. PMID:23045679

  7. Free-surface flow over a semi-circular obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery, Kristen; Liapis, Stergios

    1999-05-01

    The fully non-linear free-surface flow over a semi-circular bottom obstruction was studied numerically in two dimensions using a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation. The problem was solved in the time domain that allows the prediction of a number of transient phenomena, such as the generation of upstream advancing solitary waves, as well as the simulation of wave breaking. A parametric study was performed for a range of values of the depth-based Froude number up to 2.5 and non-dimensional obstacle heights, up to 0.9. When wave breaking does not occur, three distinct flow regimes were identified: subcritical, transcritical and supercritical. When breaking occurs it may be of any type: spilling, plunging or surging. In addition, for values of the Froude number close to 1, the upstream solitary waves break. A systematic study was undertaken to define the boundaries of each type of breaking and non-breaking pattern and to determine the drag and lift coefficients, free-surface profile characteristics and transient behavior. Copyright

  8. Intranasal scopolamine affects the semicircular canals centrally and peripherally.

    PubMed

    Weerts, Aurélie P; Putcha, Lakshmi; Hoag, Stephen W; Hallgren, Emma; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Wuyts, Floris L

    2015-08-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS), a condition caused by an intravestibular conflict, remains an important obstacle that astronauts encounter during the first days in space. Promethazine is currently the standard treatment of SMS, but scopolamine is used by some astronauts to prevent SMS. However, the oral and transdermal routes of administration of scopolamine are known to have substantial drawbacks. Intranasal administration of scopolamine ensures a fast absorption and rapid onset of therapeutic effect, which might prove to be suitable for use during spaceflights. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intranasally administered scopolamine (0.4 mg) on the semicircular canals (SCCs) and the otoliths. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 19 healthy male subjects. The function of the horizontal SCC and the vestibulo-ocular reflex, as well as the saccular function and utricular function, were evaluated. Scopolamine turned out to affect mainly the SCCs centrally and peripherally but also the utricles to a lesser extent. Centrally, the most probable site of action is the medial vestibular nucleus, where the highest density of muscarinic receptors has been demonstrated and afferent fibers from the SCCs and utricles synapse. Furthermore, our results suggest the presence of muscarinic receptors in the peripheral vestibular system on which scopolamine has a suppressive effect. Given the depressant actions on the SCCs, it is suggested that the pharmacodynamic effect of scopolamine may be attributed to the obliteration of intravestibular conflict that arises during (S)MS. PMID:25953832

  9. Semicircular Canal Geometry, Afferent Sensitivity And Animal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry of the semicircular canals has been used in evolutionary studies to predict the behaviors of extinct animals. These predictions have relied on an assumption that the responses of the canals can be determined from their dimensions, and that an organism’s behavior can be determined from these responses. However, the relationship between a canal’s sensitivity and its size is not well known. An intraspecies comparison among canal responses in each of three species (cat, squirrel monkey, and pigeon) was undertaken to evaluate various models of canal function and determine how their dimensions may be related to afferent physiology. All models predicted the responses of the cat afferents, but the models performed less well for squirrel monkey and pigeon. Possible causes for this discrepancy include incorrectly assuming that afferent responses accurately represent canal function, or errors in current biophysical models of the canals. These findings leave open the question as to how reliably canal anatomy can be used to estimate afferent responses and how closely afferent responses are related to behavior. Other labyrinthine features—such as orientation of the horizontal canal, which is reliably held near earth-horizontal across many species—may be better to use when extrapolating the posture and related behavior of extinct animals from labyrinthine morphology. PMID:16550591

  10. Cryogenic optical measurements of 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite mirror with support mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Enya, Keigo; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Takaki, Junji; Haruna, Masaki; Kume, Masami; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2008-03-10

    A 720 mm diameter 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirror has been fabricated and tested at cryogenic temperatures. Interferometric measurements show significant cryogenic deformation of the C/SiC composite mirror, which is well reproduced by a model analysis with measured properties of the bonded segments. It is concluded that the deformation is due mostly to variation in coefficients of thermal expansion among segments. In parallel, a 4-degree-of-freedom ball-bearing support mechanism has been developed for cryogenic applications. The C/SiC composite mirror was mounted on an aluminum base plate with the support mechanism and tested again. Cryogenic deformation of the mirror attributed to thermal contraction of the aluminum base plate via the support mechanism is highly reduced by the support, confirming that the newly developed support mechanism is promising for its future application to large-aperture cooled space telescopes. PMID:18327285

  11. Influence of temporary cement remnant and surface cleaning method on bond strength to dentin of a composite luting system.

    PubMed

    Kanakuri, Katsuhito; Kawamoto, Yoshikazu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of polycarboxylate temporary cement remaining on the dentin surface on the bond strength of a composite luting system. An acrylic resin plate was luted to bovine dentin with a polycarboxylate temporary cement (HY-Bond Temporary Cement Hard, HYB). The temporary cement was not used for the control groups. After removing the temporary cement with an excavator, dentin specimens were divided into five groups; 1) no subsequent treatment, 2) cleaning with a rotational brush (RTB), 3) cleaning with a rotational brush and non-fluoridated flour of pumice, 4) sweeping with an air scaler, and 5) treated with a sonic toothbrush. A silane-treated ceramic disk (IPS Empress) was bonded to each dentin specimen with a composite luting system (Panavia F). Shear testing results showed that the RTB groups exhibited the highest bond strength regardless of the use of temporary cement (P < 0.05). The use of a rotational brush with water coolant is recommended to achieve ideal bond strength between the Panavia F luting system and dentin to which HYB temporary cement was primarily applied. PMID:15881223

  12. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  13. Parametric study of stress-intensity factors in bonded composite stringer panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Stress-intensity factors are determined for an infinite cracked orthotropic sheet adhesively bonded to an orthotropic stringer. Since the stringer is modeled as a semi-infinite sheet, the solution is most appropriate for a crack tip located near a stringer edge. Both adherends are treated as homogeneous, orthotropic media which are representative of many fiber-reinforced composite materials. The complex variable theory of elasticity was used to obtain a set of integral equations describing the problem. The integral equations are replaced by an equivalent sheet of algebraic equations, which are solved to obtain the shear stress distribution in the adhesive layer. From these adhesive stresses, the stress-intensity factors are found. A parametric study is conducted to determine the sensitivity of the system to material properties and specimen configuration. Unless the crack tip is very close to or under the stringer, the stress-intensity factor is approximately that of the unstiffened sheet. However, as the crack propagates beneath the stringer, the stress-intensity factor decreases significantly. Increasing the stringer stiffness or the adhesive stiffness also decreases the stress-intensity factor.

  14. Loading Analysis of Composite Wind Turbine Blade for Fatigue Life Prediction of Adhesively Bonded Root Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi-Majd, Davood; Azimzadeh, Vahid; Mohammadi, Bijan

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays wind energy is widely used as a non-polluting cost-effective renewable energy resource. During the lifetime of a composite wind turbine which is about 20 years, the rotor blades are subjected to different cyclic loads such as aerodynamics, centrifugal and gravitational forces. These loading conditions, cause to fatigue failure of the blade at the adhesively bonded root joint, where the highest bending moments will occur and consequently, is the most critical zone of the blade. So it is important to estimate the fatigue life of the root joint. The cohesive zone model is one of the best methods for prediction of initiation and propagation of debonding at the root joint. The advantage of this method is the possibility of modeling the debonding without any requirement to the remeshing. However in order to use this approach, it is necessary to analyze the cyclic loading condition at the root joint. For this purpose after implementing a cohesive interface element in the Ansys finite element software, one blade of a horizontal axis wind turbine with 46 m rotor diameter was modelled in full scale. Then after applying loads on the blade under different condition of the blade in a full rotation, the critical condition of the blade is obtained based on the delamination index and also the load ratio on the root joint in fatigue cycles is calculated. These data are the inputs for fatigue damage growth analysis of the root joint by using CZM approach that will be investigated in future work.

  15. Effect of adherend thickness and mixed mode loading on debond growth in adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalgiri, P. D.; Johnson, W. S.; Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Symmetric and unsymmetric double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens were tested and analyzed to assess the effect of: (1) adherend thickness, and (2) a predominantly mode I mixed mode loading on cyclic debond growth and static fracture toughness. The specimens were made of unidirectional composite (T300/5208) adherends bonded together with EC3445 structural adhesive. The thickness was 8, 16, or 24 plies. The experimental results indicated that the static fracture toughness increases and the cyclic debond growth rate decreases with increasing adherend thickness. This behavior was related to the length of the plastic zone ahead of the debond tip. For the symmetric DCB specimens, it was further found that displacement control tests resulted in higher debond growth rates than did load control tests. While the symmetric DCB tests always resulted in cohesive failures in the bondline, the unsymmetric DCB tests resulted in the debond growing into the thinner adherend and the damage progressing as delamination in that adherend. This behavior resulted in much lower fracture toughness and damage growth rates than found in the symmetric DCB tests.

  16. Design and demonstration of automated data analysis algorithms for ultrasonic inspection of complex composite panels with bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Forsyth, David S.; Welter, John T.

    2016-02-01

    To address the data review burden and improve the reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of large composite structures, automated data analysis (ADA) algorithms have been developed to make calls on indications that satisfy the detection criteria and minimize false calls. The original design followed standard procedures for analyzing signals for time-of-flight indications and backwall amplitude dropout. However, certain complex panels with varying shape, ply drops and the presence of bonds can complicate this interpretation process. In this paper, enhancements to the automated data analysis algorithms are introduced to address these challenges. To estimate the thickness of the part and presence of bonds without prior information, an algorithm tracks potential backwall or bond-line signals, and evaluates a combination of spatial, amplitude, and time-of-flight metrics to identify bonded sections. Once part boundaries, thickness transitions and bonded regions are identified, feature extraction algorithms are applied to multiple sets of through-thickness and backwall C-scan images, for evaluation of both first layer through thickness and layers under bonds. ADA processing results are presented for a variety of complex test specimens with inserted materials and other test discontinuities. Lastly, enhancements to the ADA software interface are presented, which improve the software usability for final data review by the inspectors and support the certification process.

  17. Transient Liquid-Phase Diffusion Bonding of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite Using a Mixed Cu-Ni Powder Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Joydeep; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the transient liquid-phase diffusion bonding of an aluminum metal matrix composite (6061-15 wt.% SiCp) has been investigated for the first time using a mixed Cu-Ni powder interlayer at 560 °C, 0.2 MPa, for different holding times up to 6 h. The microstructure of the isothermally solidified zone contains equilibrium precipitate CuAl2, metastable precipitate Al9Ni2 in the matrix of α-solid solution along with the reinforcement particles (SiC). On the other hand, the microstructure of the central bond zone consists of equilibrium phases such as NiAl3, Al7Cu4Ni and α-solid solution along with SiC particles (without any segregation) and the presence of microporosities. During shear test, the crack originates from microporosities and propagates along the interphase interfaces resulting in poor bond strength for lower holding times. As the bonding time increases, with continual diffusion, the structural heterogeneity is diminished, and the microporosities are eliminated at the central bond zone. Accordingly, after 6-h holding, the microstructure of the central bond zone mainly consists of NiAl3 without any visible microporosity. This provides a joint efficiency of 84% with failure primarily occurring through decohesion at the SiC particle/matrix interface.

  18. The effects of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of composite resin to machined titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljadi, Mohammad

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between machined titanium and composite resin using different surface treatments. Materials and Methods: Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) specimens were ground with 600 grit SiC paper and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=20/group). Group #1 (Control): samples were sandblasted with 110 microm Al2 O3 for 10 sec. Group #2 (Rocatec): samples were treated with the Rocatec system following the manufacturer's directions but the silanization step was eliminated. Group #3 (Silano Pen): samples were treated with the Silano Pen system. Group #4 (H2SO4 etched): samples were sandblasted with 110 microm Al2O3 for 10 sec and etched with 48% H2SO4 for 60 minutes at 60 oC. Group#5 (acid etching + Rocatec): samples received both treatments as described in Groups 4 and 2, respectively. Group #6 (acid etching + Silano Pen): samples received both treatments as described in Groups 4 and 3, respectively. Composite was bonded to the treated titanium surface, half of the specimens from each group (n=10/group) were subjected to thermocycling, and the samples were tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine. Representative samples from each group were evaluated with SEM. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in bond strength between the six groups of surface treatment and that thermocycling significantly decreased shear bond strength. There was no significant interaction (p = 0.07) between surface treatment and thermocycling status. With regard to the effect of surface treatment, a Tukey Post Hoc test showed that groups 3 (Silano Pen) and 6 (Silano Pen + H2SO4) showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater bond strengths compared to the rest of the groups. There was no significant difference in the bond strength between the four other groups. Conclusion: 1) Silano Pen is effective in improving the bond strength of titanium to composite resin. 2) The silanization step in

  19. Push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite posts with various resin cements according to the root level

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hoon-Sang; Noh, Young-Sin; Lee, Yoon; Min, Kyung-San

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether the push-out bond strengths between the radicular dentin and fiber reinforced-composite (FRC) posts with various resin cements decreased or not, according to the coronal, middle or apical level of the root. MATERIALS AND METHODS FRC posts were cemented with one of five resin cement groups (RelyX Unicem: Uni, Contax with activator & LuxaCore-Dual: LuA, Contax & LuxaCore-Dual: Lu, Panavia F 2.0: PA, Super-Bond C&B: SB) into extracted human mandibular premolars. The roots were sliced into discs at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Push-out bond strength tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the failure aspect was analyzed. RESULTS There were no significant differences (P>.05) in the bond strengths of the different resin cements at the coronal level, but there were significant differences in the bond strengths at the middle and apical levels (P<.05). Only the Uni and LuA cements did not show any significant decrease in their bond strengths at all the root levels (P>.05); all other groups had a significant decrease in bond strength at the middle or apical level (P<.05). The failure aspect was dominantly cohesive at the coronal level of all resin cements (P<.05), whereas it was dominantly adhesive at the apical level. CONCLUSION All resin cement groups showed decreases in bond strengths at the middle or apical level except LuA and Uni. PMID:24049569

  20. Influence of fiber content on mechanical performance of SiC-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Singh, J.P.; Bhatt, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of fiber content on the resulting mechanical properties (first matrix cracking stress, ultimate strength, and work-of-fracture) of silicon carbide (SiC)-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix composites was investigated. Flexure tests were used to evaluate mechanical properties of composites containing various fiber contents. The first matrix cracking stress, ultimate strength, and work-of-fracture of the composites increased with increasing fiber content, reaching a peak value at a fiber content of {approximately} 16 vol.%. Further increases in fiber content degraded the mechanical properties of the composites. The variations in mechanical properties with fiber contents were correlated to the residual stresses in the matrix phase, processing related flaws, and failure modes observed in these composites.

  1. Evaluation of Microleakage of Silorane and Methacrylate Based Composite Materials in Class I Restorations by Using Two Different Bonding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alshetili, Mohsen S; Aldeyab, Sultan S

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the microleakage of silorane-based composite material (Filtek P90) with that of two homologous methacrylate-based composites materials (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z250 XT), by using two different bonding techniques. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary first premolars prepared for standardized Class I cavities (4 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm) were randomly divided into three groups. Group A (n = 20) was filled with Filtek Z250 (Methacrylate) using single bond universal total etching technique, Group B (n = 20) was filled with Filtek Z250 XT (Methacrylate) using single bond universal self-etching technique and Group C (n = 20) restored with Filtek P90 (Silorane) with dedicated two-step self-etching prime and bond adhesive system (P90 system adhesive). Teeth were subjected to thermocycling regime (500×, 5-55°C), and dye penetration by immersing in 2% methylene blue for 24 h. Tooth sectioning was performed, and extent of the dye penetration was scored based on dye penetration scale to evaluate the microleakage. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of Kruskal–Wallis test to compare the mean ranks between groups. Results: There was no significant difference observed for microleakage among the three composite materials tested in the present study. However, the cavities restored with silorane (Filtek P90) based composite displayed higher microleakage than the Filtek Z250, Z250 XT. Conclusion: All the restorative systems tested in this study exhibited microleakage, but the silorane technology showed more microleakage when compared to the methacrylate-based composite systems. PMID:26668473

  2. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Thermal Expansion and Mechanical Properties of Sic Fiber-reinforced Reaction-bonded Si3n4 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal expansion curves for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix composites (SiC/RBSN) and unreinforced RBSN were measured from 25 to 1400 C in nitrogen and in oxygen. The effects of fiber/matrix bonding and cycling on the thermal expansion curves and room-temperature tensile properties of unidirectional composites were determined. The measured thermal expansion curves were compared with those predicted from composite theory. Predicted thermal expansion curves parallel to the fiber direction for both bonding cases were similar to that of the weakly bonded composites, but those normal to the fiber direction for both bonding cases resulted in no net dimensional changes at room temperature, and no loss in tensile properties from the as-fabricated condition. In contrast, thermal cycling in oxygen for both composites caused volume expansion primarily due to internal oxidation of RBSN. Cyclic oxidation affected the mechanical properties of the weakly bonded SiC/RBSN composites the most, resulting in loss of strain capability beyond matrix fracture and catastrophic, brittle fracture. Increased bonding between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix due to oxidation of the carbon-rich fiber surface coating and an altered residual stress pattern in the composite due to internal oxidation of the matrix are the main reasons for the poor mechanical performance of these composites.

  3. Fracture Analysis of Double-Side Adhesively Bonded Composite Repairs to Cracked Aluminium Plate Using Line Spring Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yong; Su, Weiguo

    2016-06-01

    A line spring model is developed for analyzing the fracture problem of cracked metallic plate repaired with the double-sided adhesively bonded composite patch. The restraining action of the bonded patch is modeled as continuous distributed linear springs bridging the crack faces provided that the cracked plate is subjected to extensional load. The effective spring constant is determined from 1-D bonded joint theory. The hyper-singular integral equation (HSIE), which can be solved using the second kind Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, is applied to determine the crack opening displacements (COD) and the crack tip stress intensity factors (SIF) of the repaired cracked plate. The numerical result of SIF for the crack-tip correlates very well with the finite element (FE) computations based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The present analysis approaches and mathematical techniques are critical to the successful design, analysis and implementation of crack patching.

  4. Determinants of Spatial and Temporal Coding by Semicircular Canal Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Highstein, Stephen M.; Rabbitt, Richard D.; Holstein, Gay R.; Boyle, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular semicircular canals are internal sensors that signal the magnitude, direction, and temporal properties of angular head motion. Fluid mechanics within the 3-canal labyrinth code the direction of movement and integrate angular acceleration stimuli over time. Directional coding is accomplished by decomposition of complex angular accelerations into 3 biomechanical components—one component exciting each of the 3 ampullary organs and associated afferent nerve bundles separately. For low-frequency angular motion stimuli, fluid displacement within each canal is proportional to angular acceleration. At higher frequencies, above the lower corner frequency, real-time integration is accomplished by viscous forces arising from the movement of fluid within the slender lumen of each canal. This results in angular velocity sensitive fluid displacements. Reflecting this, a subset of afferent fibers indeed report angular acceleration to the brain for low frequencies of head movement and report angular velocity for higher frequencies. However, a substantial number of afferent fibers also report angular acceleration, or a signal between acceleration and velocity, even at frequencies where the endolymph displacement is known to follow angular head velocity. These non-velocity-sensitive afferent signals cannot be attributed to canal biomechanics alone. The responses of non-velocity-sensitive cells include a mathematical differentiation (first-order or fractional) imparted by hair-cell and/or afferent complexes. This mathematical differentiation from velocity to acceleration cannot be attributed to hair cell ionic currents, but occurs as a result of the dynamics of synaptic transmission between hair cells and their primary afferent fibers. The evidence for this conclusion is reviewed below. PMID:15845995

  5. Lateral semicircular canal fistula in cholesteatoma: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anais; Bouchetemblé, Pierre; Costentin, Bertrand; Dehesdin, Danièle; Lerosey, Yannick; Marie, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to present the authors' experience on the management of labyrinthine fistula secondary to cholesteatoma. 695 patients, who underwent tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma, in a University Hospital between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed, to select only those with labyrinthine fistulas. 42 patients (6%) had cholesteatoma complicated by fistula of the lateral semicircular canal (LSCC). The following data points were collected: symptoms, pre- and postoperative clinical signs, surgeon, CT scan diagnosis, fistula type, surgical technique, preoperative vestibular function and audiometric outcomes. Most frequent symptoms were unspecific, such as otorrhea, hearing loss and dizziness. However, preoperative high-resolution computed tomography predicted fistula in 88 %. Using the Dornhoffer and Milewski classification, 16 cases (38 %) were identified as stage 1, 22 (52 %) as stage II, and 4 (10 %) as stage III. The choice between open or closed surgical procedure was independent of the type of fistulae. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed from the fistula and immediately covered by autogenous material. In eight patients (19 %), the canal was drilled with a diamond burr before sealing with autologous tissue. After surgery, hearing was preserved or improved in 76 % of the patients. There was no statistically significant relationship between the extent of the labyrinthine fistula and the hearing outcome. In conclusion, a complete and nontraumatic removal of the matrix cholesteatoma over the fistula in a one-staged procedure and its sealing with bone dust and fascia temporalis, with sometimes exclusion of the LSCC, is a safe and effective procedure to treat labyrinthine fistula. PMID:26351038

  6. Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Composition and Bonding at Perovskite Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitting Kourkoutis, L.

    2010-03-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has proven to be a powerful technique to study buried perovskite oxide heterointerfaces. With the recent addition of 3^rd order and now 5^th order aberration correction, which provides a factor of 100x increase in signal over an uncorrected system, we are now able to record 2D maps of composition and bonding of oxide interfaces at atomic resolution [1]. Here, we present studies of the microscopic structure of oxide/oxide multilayers and heterostructures by STEM in combination with EELS and its effect on the properties of the film. Using atomic-resolution spectroscopic imaging we show that the degradation of the magnetic and transport properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/SrTiO3 multilayers correlates with atomic intermixing at the interfaces and the presence of extended defects in the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 layers. When these defects are eliminated, metallic ferromagnetism at room temperature can be stabilized in 5 unit cell thick manganite layers, almost 40% thinner than the previously reported critical thickness of 3-5 nm for sustaining metallic ferromagnetism below Tc in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3.[4pt] [1] D.A. Muller, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, M. Murfitt, J.H. Song, H.Y. Hwang, J. Silcox, N. Dellby, O.L. Krivanek, Science 319, 1073-1076 (2008).

  7. Adhesive-Bonded Composite Joint Analysis with Delaminated Surface Ply Using Strain-Energy Release Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadegani, Alireza; Yang, Chihdar; Smeltzer, Stanley S. III

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to determine the strain energy release rate due to an interlaminar crack of the surface ply in adhesively bonded composite joints subjected to axial tension. Single-lap shear-joint standard test specimen geometry with thick bondline is followed for model development. The field equations are formulated by using the first-order shear-deformation theory in laminated plates together with kinematics relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. The system of second-order differential equations is solved to using the symbolic computation tool Maple 9.52 to provide displacements fields. The equivalent forces at the tip of the prescribed interlaminar crack are obtained based on interlaminar stress distributions. The strain energy release rate of the crack is then determined by using the crack closure method. Finite element analyses using the J integral as well as the crack closure method are performed to verify the developed analytical model. It has been shown that the results using the analytical method correlate well with the results from the finite element analyses. An attempt is made to predict the failure loads of the joints based on limited test data from the literature. The effectiveness of the inclusion of bondline thickness is justified when compared with the results obtained from the previous model in which a thin bondline and uniform adhesive stresses through the bondline thickness are assumed.

  8. An evaluation of the interfacial bond properties between carbon phenolic and glass phenolic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kelvin; Clinton, Raymond; Jeelani, Shaik

    1989-01-01

    The effects of moisture and surface finish on the mechanical and physical properties of the interfacial bond between the carbon/phenolic (C/P) and glass/phenolic (G/P) composite materials are presented. Four flat panel laminates were fabricated using the C/P and G/P materials. Of the four laminates, one panel was fabricated in which the C/P and G/P materials were cured simultaneously. It was identified as the cocure. The remaining laminates were processed with an initial simultaneous cure of the three C/P billets. Two surface finishes, one on each half, were applied to the top surface. Prior to the application and cure of the G/P material to the machined surface of the three C/P panels, each was subjected to the specific environmental conditioning. Types of conditioning included: (1) nominal fabrication environment, (2) a prescribed drying cycle, and (3) a total immersion in water at 160 F. Physical property tests were performed on specimens removed from the C/P materials of each laminate for determination of the specific gravity, residual volatiles and and resin content. Comparisons of results with shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle material specifications verified that the materials used in fabricating the laminates met acceptance criteria and were representative of SRM nozzle materials. Mechanical property tests were performed at room temperature on specimens removed from the G/P, the C/P and the interface between the two materials for each laminate. The double-notched shear strength test was used to determine the ultimate interlaminar shear strength. Results indicate no appreciable difference in the C/P material of the four laminates with the exception of the cocure laminate, where 20 percent reduction in the strength was observed. The most significant effect and the ultimate strength was significantly reduced in the wet material. No appreciable variation was noted between the surface finishes in the wet laminate.

  9. Interfacial Structure, Bonding and Composition of InAs and GaSb Thin Films Determined Using COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionca, Codrin; Walko, Donald Alan; Yacoby, Yizhak; Dorin, Catalina; Mirecki Millunchick, Joanna; Clarke, Roy

    2007-03-01

    We have used Bragg rod x-ray diffraction and Coherent Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA) direct phase retrieval method to extract atomic resolution electron density maps of a complementary series of heteroepitaxial III-V semiconductor samples. From the 3D electron density maps we derived the spacing between monolayers, the chemical composition and the distribution of bond lengths for all atomic planes in the film and across the interface with the substrate. InAs films grown on GaSb (001) using different As species (dimer or tetramer form) both showed conformal roughness and mixed GaSb/InSb interfacial bonding character. The tetramer conditions favored InSb bonding at the heterointerface; the percentages corresponding to InSb and GaAs bonding were equal in the case of the dimer. The GaAs film grown on InAs (001) displayed significant In and As interdiffusion and had a significant percentage of GaAs-like bonds at the heterointerface.

  10. Variational multiscale approach to enforce perfect bond in multiple-point constraint applications when forming composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkmen, R. Emre; Bradford, Mark A.; Crews, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Composite laminates that consist of two or more layers find widespread applications in a variety of engineering structures. In the computational modelling of composite laminates, the layers can be stacked together and connected conveniently at the nodes by using multiple-point constraints (MPCs). However, this type of modelling leads to weakening of the kinematic constraint conditions imposed by the bond between the juxtaposed layers and as a consequence, MPCs application at the nodes produces behaviour that is softer than the perfectly bonded composite beam behaviour. The work herein shows that when kinematic conditions for composite action are weakly imposed in the variational form, they can be enforced in the point-wise sense by proper selection of the interpolation field or otherwise reinforced by using variational multiscale approach without modifying the kinematic model. The originality of the approach presented herein is in the interpretation of the MPCs application as the solution in a superfluously extended space because of the weakening in the kinematic constraints. It is shown that the perfect bond between the composite beam layers can be recovered by excluding the identified fine-scale effect from the solution of the multiple point constraint application. The convergence characteristic of the finite element formulation is also improved by using the variational multi-scale approach. It is also shown that the fine-scale effects can be represented by using extra fictitious elements and springs, which offers a direct correction technique in modelling of composite beams that is especially useful when access to the numerical procedure is limited.

  11. Effect of composite surface treatment and aging on the bond strength between a core build-up composite and a luting agent

    PubMed Central

    COTES, Caroline; CARDOSO, Mayra; de MELO, Renata Marques; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between composite core and resin cement. Material and Methods Eighty blocks (8×8×4 mm) were prepared with core build-up composite. The cementation surface was roughened with 120-grit carbide paper and the blocks were thermocycled (5,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a 30 s dwell time in each bath). A layer of temporary luting agent was applied. After 24 h, the layer was removed, and the blocks were divided into five groups, according to surface treatment: (NT) No treatment (control); (SP) Grinding with 120-grit carbide paper; (AC) Etching with 37% phosphoric acid; (SC) Sandblasting with 30 mm SiO2 particles, silane application; (AO) Sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 particles, silane application. Two composite blocks were cemented to each other (n=8) and sectioned into sticks. Half of the specimens from each block were immediately tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS), while the other half was subjected to storage for 6 months, thermocycling (12,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s in each bath) and µTBS test in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). Results The µTBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (p=0.007) and thermocycling (p=0.000). Before aging, the SP group presented higher bond strength when compared to NT and AC groups, whereas all the other groups were statistically similar. After aging, all the groups were statistically similar. SP submitted to thermocycling showed lower bond strength than SP without thermocycling. Conclusion Core composites should be roughened with a diamond bur before the luting process. Thermocycling tends to reduce the bond strength between composite and resin cement. PMID:25760269

  12. Acoustic effects of a superior semicircular canal dehiscence: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Pazen, D; Meister, H; Lauxmann, M; Eiber, A; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K B

    2015-03-01

    A dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal is said to be responsible for a number of specific and unspecific ear symptoms and possible a conductive hearing loss of up to 40 dB. As in vivo a dehiscence would not be opened against air, but is naturally patched with dura and the brain, it was our aim to investigate the effects of an superior semicircular canal dehiscence on the air conduction hearing in fresh human temporal bones with different boundary conditions. At ten fresh human temporal bones, we investigated the transmission of sound energy through the middle and inner ear using a round window microphone and laser Doppler vibrometer for perilymph motions inside the dehiscence. After baseline measurements, the superior semicircular canal was opened. We investigated the change of the transfer function when the canal is opened against air (pressure equivalent water column), against a water column and when it is patched with a layer of dura. Opening the superior semicircular canal resulted in a loss of sound transmission of maximal 10-15 dB only in frequencies below 1 kHz. When covering the dehiscence with a water column, the conductive hearing component was reduced to 6-8 dB. Placing a dura patch on top of the dehiscence resulted in a normalization of the transfer function. If our experiments are consistent with the conditions in vivo, then superior semicircular canal dehiscence does not lead to an extensive and clinically considerable conductive air conduction component. PMID:24381023

  13. Low-frequency otolith and semicircular canal interactions after canal inactivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Merfeld, D. M.; Hess, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    During sustained constant velocity and low-frequency off-vertical axis rotations (OVAR), otolith signals contribute significantly to slow-phase eye velocity. The adaptive plasticity of these responses was investigated here after semicircular canal plugging. Inactivation of semicircular canals results in a highly compromised and deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Based on the VOR enhancement hypothesis, one could expect an adaptive increase of otolith-borne angular velocity signals due to combined otolith/canal inputs after inactivation of the semicircular canals. Contrary to expectations, however, the steady-state slow-phase velocity during constant velocity OVAR decreased in amplitude over time. A similar progressive decrease in VOR gain was also observed during low-frequency off-vertical axis oscillations. This response deterioration was present in animals with either lateral or vertical semicircular canals inactivated and was limited to the plane(s) of the plugged canals. The results are consistent with the idea that the low-frequency otolith signals do not simply enhance VOR responses. Rather, the nervous system appears to correlate vestibular sensory information from the otoliths and the semicircular canals to generate an integral response to head motion.

  14. Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Georgi, Justin A.; Sipla, Justin S.; Forster, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function. PMID:23516495

  15. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LRcomposite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, it was seen that microleakage was the least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT. Conclusion: Transbond LR in combination with 0.0175 inch multistranded wire showed least microleakage amongst the groups studied. PMID:25584325

  17. Study on the strength of cold-bonded high-phosphorus oolitic hematite-coal composite briquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen; Sun, Ti-chang; Liu, Zhen-zhen; Kou, Jue; Xu, Cheng-yan

    2014-05-01

    Composite briquettes containing high-phosphorus oolitic hematite and coal were produced with a twin-roller briquette machine using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, molasses, starch, sodium silicate, and bentonite as binders. The effect of these binders on the strength of the composite briquettes, including cold strength and high-temperature strength, was investigated by drop testing and compression testing. It was found the addition of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 not only improved the reduction of iron oxides and promoted dephosphorization during the reduction-separation process but also provided strength to the composite briquettes during the briquetting process; a compressive strength of 152.8 N per briquette was obtained when no binders were used. On this basis, the addition of molasses, sodium silicate, starch, and bentonite improved the cold strength of the composite briquettes, and a maximum compressive strength of 404.6 N per briquette was obtained by using starch. When subjected to a thermal treatment at 1200°C, all of the composite briquettes suffered from a sharp decrease in compressive strength during the initial reduction process. This decrease in strength was related to an increase in porosity of the composite briquettes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that the decrease in strength of the composite briquettes could be caused by four factors: decomposition of bonding materials, gasification of coal, transportation of byproduct gases in the composite briquettes, and thermal stress.

  18. Effect of mucoprotein on the bond strength of resin composite to human dentin.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Lilliam Marie; Powers, John M; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Marshall, Grayson W

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the bond strength and analyze the morphology of the dentin-adhesive interface of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesive systems with two kinds of artificial saliva (with and without 450 mg/L mucin) contamination under different conditions of decontaminating the interface. Bonded specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded surface in 1-mm thick slabs. These 1-mm thick slabs were remounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned in sticks perpendicular to the bonding interfaces with a 1-mm(2) area. Nine specimens from each condition were tested after 24 h on a testing machine (Instron) at a speed of 0.5 mm/min for a total of 360 specimens. Mean and standard deviations of bond strength (MPa) were calculated. ANOVA showed significant differences as well as Fisher's PLSD intervals (p < 0.05). The following values are the results for different groups: Control group 34-60 MPa, saliva without mucin 0-52 MPa, and saliva with mucin 0-57 MPa. Failure sites were mixed and adhesive failure was common for the low bond strength results. P&BNT with ideal conditions and following the manufacturer's instructions (control) had the highest bond strengths and the dentin-adhesive interface exhibited an ideal morphology of etch-and-rinse system. SEM gave complementary visual evidence of the effect in the dentin/adhesive interface structure with some contaminated conditions compared with their respective control groups. This in vitro artificial saliva model with and without mucin showed that an organic component of saliva could increase or decrease the bond strength depending on the specific bonding agent and decontamination procedure. PMID:21516294

  19. Effect of mucoprotein on the bond strength of resin composite to human dentin

    PubMed Central

    Powers, John M.; O’Keefe, Kathy L.; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the bond strength and analyze the morphology of the dentin-adhesive interface of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesive systems with two kinds of artificial saliva (with and without 450 mg/L mucin) contamination under different conditions of decontaminating the interface. Bonded specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded surface in 1-mm thick slabs. These 1-mm thick slabs were remounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned in sticks perpendicular to the bonding interfaces with a 1-mm2 area. Nine specimens from each condition were tested after 24 h on a testing machine (Instron) at a speed of 0.5 mm/min for a total of 360 specimens. Mean and standard deviations of bond strength (MPa) were calculated. ANOVA showed significant differences as well as Fisher’s PLSD intervals (p < 0.05). The following values are the results for different groups: Control group 34–60 MPa, saliva without mucin 0–52 MPa, and saliva with mucin 0–57 MPa. Failure sites were mixed and adhesive failure was common for the low bond strength results. P&BNT with ideal conditions and following the manufacturer’s instructions (control) had the highest bond strengths and the dentin-adhesive interface exhibited an ideal morphology of etch-and-rinse system. SEM gave complementary visual evidence of the effect in the dentin/adhesive interface structure with some contaminated conditions compared with their respective control groups. This in vitro artificial saliva model with and without mucin showed that an organic component of saliva could increase or decrease the bond strength depending on the specific bonding agent and decontamination procedure. PMID:21516294

  20. Tympanometric findings in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, A; Brandolini, C; Piras, G; Modugno, G C

    2013-04-01

    The diagnostic role of audio-impedancemetry in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) disease is well known. In particular, since the first reports, the presence of evoked acoustic reflexes has represented a determining instrumental exhibit in differential diagnosis with other middle ear pathologies that are responsible for a mild-low frequencies air-bone gap (ABG). Even though high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) completed by parasagittal reformatted images still represents the diagnostic gold standard, several instrumental tests can support a suspect of labyrinthine capsule dehiscence when "suggestive" symptoms occur. Objective and subjective audiometry often represents the starting point of the diagnostic course aimed at investigating the cause responsible for the so-called "intra-labyrinthine conductive hearing loss". The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of tympanometry, in particular of the inter-aural asymmetry ratio in peak compliance as a function of different mild-low frequencies ABG on the affected side, in the diagnostic work-up in patients with unilateral SSCD. The working hypothesis is that an increase in admittance of the "inner-middle ear" conduction system due to a "third mobile window" could be detected by tympanometry. A retrospective review of the clinical records of 45 patients with unilateral dehiscence selected from a pool of 140 subjects diagnosed with SSCD at our institution from 2003 to 2011 was performed. Values of ABG amplitude on the dehiscent side and tympanometric measurements of both ears were collected for each patient in the study group (n = 45). An asymmetry between tympanometric peak compliance of the involved side and that of the contralateral side was investigated by calculating the inter-aural difference and the asymmetry ratio of compliance at the eardrum. A statistically significant correlation (p = 0.015 by Fisher's test) between an asymmetry ratio ≥ 14% in favour of the pathologic ear and an ABG

  1. Effect of postoperative peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Roubickova, A; Dudek, M; Comba, L; Housova, D; Bradna, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with several adhesive systems. Combined cylindrical Class V cavities located half in enamel and half in dentin were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molars. The cavities were bonded with the self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE-Bond (CLF), Adper Prompt (ADP), and iBond (IBO) and an etch-and-rinse adhesive Gluma Comfort Bond (GLU) and restored with a microhybrid composite Charisma. Experimental groups were treated 25 times for eight hours per day with a peroxide bleaching gel Opalescence PF 20, while the control groups were stored in distilled water for two months and then subjected to a microleakage test using a dye penetration method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the etching and penetration abilities of the adhesives and morphology of debonded restoration-enamel interfaces after the microleakage tests. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests at p=0.05. The microleakage of all GLU groups was low and not significantly affected by peroxide bleaching. Low microleakage was recorded for CLF control groups, but after bleaching, a small but significant increase in microleakage at the enamel margin indicated its sensitivity to peroxide bleaching. For ADP and IBO control groups, the microleakage at the enamel margins was significantly higher than for GLU and CLF and exceeded that at the dentin margins. Bleaching did not induce any significant changes in the microleakage. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that in our experimental setup, decreased adhesion and mechanical resistance of the ADP- and IBO-enamel interfaces could be more important than the chemical degradation effects induced by the peroxide bleaching gel. PMID:23570299

  2. Microtensile strength of resin cement bond to indirect composite treated by different output powers of Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Garshasbzadeh, Nazanin Zeinab; Mirzaie, Mansoreh; Yassini, Esmaeil; Shahabi, Sima; Benedicenti, Stefano; Angiero, Francesca; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different output powers of Er:YAG laser on microtensile bonding strength of indirect composite to resin cements.36 indirect composite blocks (GC Gradia DA2, Japan) size 15 × 10 × 10 mm(3) were constructed, and divided into 12 groups, as follows:G1: control group (no treatment); Groups G2 to G6: treated with Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm) in noncontact mode, frequency 20 Hz, pulse duration 470 µs, with output power ranging from 2W to 6W; Groups G7 sandblasting, Groups 8 to G12: as Groups G2 to G 6 with preparatory sandblasting. One specimen from each group was analyzed by SEM; each specimen was fixed to a specialized metal jig using cyanoacrylate (Mitreapel, Beta Kimya San. Ve TIC, Iran) and debonded under tension with a universal testing machine (Zwick, Germany) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). Sandblasting and laser can improve bond strength above an energy level of 150 mJ. SEM evaluation of laser-treated specimens showed irregularities and deep undercuts. T test analysis showed no significant difference between sandblasted and non-sandblasted group, with laser output power of 0, 100, or 150 mJ (P = 0.666, P = 0.875, and P =  .069); in the specimens irradiated with energy output of 200, 250, or 300 mJ, sandblasted specimens showed higher bond strength than non-sandblasted ones. The results demonstrate that, in composite resin irradiated with laser at energy output of 200-300 mJ, sandblasting might be a suitable procedure to enhance bond strength of resin cement. PMID:26873266

  3. The Effect of Ti on Microstructural Characteristics and Reaction Mechanism in Bonding of Al-Ceramic Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Li; Kehong, Wang; Deku, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    The effect of Ti on microstructural characteristics and reaction mechanism in bonding of Al-Ceramic composite was studied. Ti and Al-Ceramic composite were diffusion welded at 550, 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C in a vacuum furnace. The microstructures and compositions of the interface layers were analyzed, and the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the joints were examined. The results indicated that there was a systematic switch from Ti/Ti7Al5Si12/composite at 600 °C and Ti/TiAl3/Ti7Al5Si12/composite at 700 °C to Ti/Ti7Al5Si12/TiAl3/Ti7Al5Si12/composite at 800 °C and Ti/Ti7Al5Si12/TiAl3/composite at 900 °C. The formation of TiAl3 at 700 and 800 °C depended on Al segregation, which was an uphill diffusion driven by chemical potential. The maximum shear strength was 40.9 MPa, found in the joint welded at 700 °C. Most joints fractured between Ti7Al5Si12 and Al-Ceramic composite. In any case, Ti7Al5Si12 was favorable for Al-Ceramic composite welding, which attached to Al-Ceramic composite, reducing the differences in physiochemical properties between SiC and metal, improving the mechanical properties of the joints and increasing the surface wettability of Al-Ceramic composite.

  4. Role of enamel deminerlization and remineralization on microtensile bond strength of resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Abbas; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Al-Wasifi, Yasser; Fareed, Wamiq; Khurshid, Zohaib

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed to establish the microtensile bond strength of enamel following exposure to an aerated drink at various time intervals with/without application of remineralization agent. In addition, degree of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel has been assessed using polarized light microscopy. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human incisors split into two halves were immersed in aerated beverage (cola drink) for 5 min and stored in saliva until the time of microtensile bond testing. Prepared specimens were divided randomly into two study groups; remineralizing group (n = 70): specimens were treated for remineralization using casein phosphopeptides and amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) remineralization agent (Recaldent™; GC Europe) and control group (n = 70): no remineralization treatment; specimens were kept in artificial saliva. All specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength at regular intervals (1 h, 1 days, 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks) using a universal testing machine. The results statistically analyzed (P = 0.05) using two-way ANOVA test. Results: Results showed statistically significant increase in bond strength in CPP-ACP tested group (P < 0.05) at all-time intervals. The bond strength of remineralizing group samples at 2 days (~13.64 megapascals [MPa]) is comparable to that of control group after 1 week (~12.44 MPa). Conclusions: CPP-ACP treatment of teeth exposed to an aerated drink provided significant increase in bond strength at a shorter interval compared to teeth exposed to saliva alone. PMID:27403057

  5. Dynamic fracture of adhesively bonded composite structures using cohesive zone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhecha, Dhaval P.

    material model to be used in an explicit code (LS-DYNA). Dynamic simulations of the standard test configurations for Mode I (Double Cantilever Beam) and Mode II (End Load Split) are carried out using the explicit code. Verification of these coupon tests leads to the crash analysis of realistic structures like the square composite tube. Analyses of bonded and unbonded square tubes are presented. These tubes shows a very uncharacteristic failure mode: the composite material disintegrates on impact, and this has been captured in the analysis. Disadvantages of the interface element approach are well documented in the literature. An alternative method, known as the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM), is implemented here through an eight-noded quadrilateral plane strain element. The method, based on the partition-of-unity, is used to study simple test configuration like the three-point bend problem and a double cantilever beam. Functionally graded materials are also simulated and the results are compared to the experimental results available in the literature.

  6. Bond strength of composites on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

    1999-02-01

    In an in vitro study the bond strength of composite materials on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-radiated enamel was examined. The results achieved on enamel surfaces conditioned conventionally using the acid etching method served as a control. On 80 extracted cariesfree third molars an enamel area of 4 X 4 mm was conditioned with three different systems. The Er:YAG laser was used at pulse frequencies of 8 Hz, 10 Hz, 12 Hz and 15 Hz using an energy of 120 mJ at each setting. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used at the settings of 20 Hz/50 mJ, 20 Hz/100 mJ and 20 Hz/150 mJ. The repetition rate for this device is constantly 20 Hz. In the reference group 10 teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. In order to be able to perform the tensile tests under standard conditions metal brackets were placed on the conditioned surfaces. The 'Orthodontic-Bonding-System' was used as an adhesive system. The brackets were pulled off from the etched surfaces vertically to the tooth using a tensile testing machine. The results confirmed the highest bond strengths in the group of enamel surfaces which have been conditioned with acid etching gel. The bond strength of the Er:YAG laser (8, 10 and 12 Hz)- and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (20 Hz/150 mJ)-conditioned enamel surfaces was not significantly lower.

  7. Spatial orientation of semicircular canals and afferent sensitivity vectors in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Dickman, J D

    1996-09-01

    Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the semicircular canal system, whose innervating primary afferent fibers carry information about movement in specific head planes. The semicircular canals have been qualitatively examined over a number of years, and the canal planes have been quantitatively characterized in several animal species. The present study first determined the geometric relationship between individual semicircular canals and between the canals and the stereotactic head planes in pigeons. Stereotactic measurements of multiple points along the circumference of the bony canals were taken, and the measured points fitted with a three-dimensional planar surface. Direction normals to the plane's surface were calculated and used to define angles between semicircular canal pairs. Because of the unusual shape of the anterior semicircular canals in pigeons, two planes, a major and a minor, were fitted to the canal's course. Calculated angle values for all canals indicated that the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals are nearly orthogonal, but the anterior canals have substantial deviations from orthogonality with other canal planes. Next, the responses of the afferent fibers that innervate each of the semicircular canals to 0.5 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth-vertical axis were obtained. The head orientation relative to the rotation axis was systematically varied so that directions of maximum sensitivity for each canal afferent could be determined. These sensitivity vectors were then compared with the canal plane direction normals. The afferents that innervated specific semicircular canals formed homogeneous clusters of sensitivity vectors in different head planes. The horizontal and posterior afferents had average sensitivity vectors that were largely co-incident with the innervated canal plane direction normals. Anterior canal afferents, however, appeared to synthesize contributions from the major and minor plane components of the

  8. Spatial orientation of semicircular canals and afferent sensitivity vectors in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the semicircular canal system, whose innervating primary afferent fibers carry information about movement in specific head planes. The semicircular canals have been qualitatively examined over a number of years, and the canal planes have been quantitatively characterized in several animal species. The present study first determined the geometric relationship between individual semicircular canals and between the canals and the stereotactic head planes in pigeons. Stereotactic measurements of multiple points along the circumference of the bony canals were taken, and the measured points fitted with a three-dimensional planar surface. Direction normals to the plane's surface were calculated and used to define angles between semicircular canal pairs. Because of the unusual shape of the anterior semicircular canals in pigeons, two planes, a major and a minor, were fitted to the canal's course. Calculated angle values for all canals indicated that the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals are nearly orthogonal, but the anterior canals have substantial deviations from orthogonality with other canal planes. Next, the responses of the afferent fibers that innervate each of the semicircular canals to 0.5 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth-vertical axis were obtained. The head orientation relative to the rotation axis was systematically varied so that directions of maximum sensitivity for each canal afferent could be determined. These sensitivity vectors were then compared with the canal plane direction normals. The afferents that innervated specific semicircular canals formed homogeneous clusters of sensitivity vectors in different head planes. The horizontal and posterior afferents had average sensitivity vectors that were largely co-incident with the innervated canal plane direction normals. Anterior canal afferents, however, appeared to synthesize contributions from the major and minor plane components of the

  9. Numerical studies of fibrous composites from the view point of fiber-matrix interface and fiber-matrix bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Yahya Ilyas

    In the present research, the micromechanics of fibrous composites was studied numerically. The effects of the fiber/matrix interphase region and fiber/matrix bonding were the main goals of this research. Throughout the research NASTRAN finite element analyses were used. First we investigated the effect of the interphase region on the stress field by varying the thickness of the interphase region and the material properties in the interphase region. Second, we numerically simulated the bonding qualities between the fiber and the matrix by the implementation of the fiber/matrix interphase region. The change for bonding between the fiber and the matrix were simulated through a periodic material property change in the interphase region. Third, we developed a bi-dimensional concentric cylindrical model for stress transfer between the fiber and the matrix model in case of a broken fiber or short fiber composites. This model is unique in accounting for the real non-linear stress-strain relationship for the matrix material. The stress transfer between the fiber and the matrix was also analyzed by finite element models. Toward this end finite element analysis proved a useful tool to help us evaluate key model parameters, most importantly the radius of fiber influence. This parameter is also a key parameter of simple models upon which the new model is based. Finally we applied our stress transfer model to analyze single fiber fragmentation test data obtained at Kansas State University.

  10. Micro-oxidation treatment to improve bonding strength of Sr and Na co-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings for carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Yulei; Liu, Shoujie; Guo, Qian; Li, Shaoxian

    2016-08-01

    To improve the bonding strength of Sr and Na co-substituted hydroxyapatite (SNH) coatings for carbon/carbon composites, carbon/carbon composites are surface modified by micro-oxidation treatment. The micro-oxidation treatment could generate large number of pores containing oxygenic functional groups on the surface of carbon/carbon composites. SNH is nucleated on the inwall of the pores and form a flaky shape coating with 10-50 nm in thickness and 200-900 nm in width. The bonding strength between SNH coating and carbon/carbon composites increases from 4.27 ± 0.26 MPa to 10.57 ± 0.38 MPa after the micro-oxidation treatment. The promotion of bonding strength is mainly attributed to the pinning effect caused by the pores and chemical bonding generated by the oxygenic functional groups.

  11. Modeling of fracture and durability of paste-bonded composite joints subjected to hygro-thermal-mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David Lee

    The objective of the research is to characterize the behavior of composite/composite joints with paste adhesive using both experimental testing and analytical modeling. In comparison with the conventional tape adhesive, joining composites using paste adhesive provides several advantages. The carbon fiber laminate material systems employed in this study included IM7 carbon fibers and 977-3 epoxy matrix assembled in prepreg tape, and AS4 carbon fibers and 977-3 epoxy matrix as a five-harness satin weave. The adhesive employed was EA 9394 epoxy. All laminates and test specimens were fabricated and inspected by Boeing using their standard propriety procedures. Three types of test specimens were used in the program. They were bonded double-lap shear (DLS), bonded double cantilever beam (DCB) and bonded interlaminar tension (ILT) specimens. A group of specimens were conditioned at elevated temperature and humidity in an environmental chamber at Boeing's facility and their moisture absorption recorded with time. Specimens were tested at room temperature dry and elevated temperatures. DCB and DLS specimens were tested in fatigue as well as static conditions. Two-dimensional finite element models of the three configurations were developed for determining stresses and strains using the ABAQUS finite element package code. Due to symmetry, only the one-half of the specimen needed to be considered thus reducing computational time. The effect of the test fixture is not taken into account instead equivalent distributed stresses are applied directly on the composite laminates. For each of the specimen, the distribution of Mises stress and the first strain invariant J1 are obtained to identify potential failure locations within a specimen.

  12. Comparative evaluation of effects of different surface treatment methods on bond strength between fiber post and composite core

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei Yazdi, Najmeh

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Debonding of a composite resin core of the fiber post often occurs at the interface between these two materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface treatment methods on bond strength between fiber posts and composite core. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-four fiber posts were picked in two groups (Hetco and Exacto). Each group was further divided into four subgroups using different surface treatments: 1) silanization; 2) sandblasting; 3) Treatment with 24% H2O2, and 4) no treatment (control group). A cylindrical plexiglass matrix was placed around the post and filled with the core resin composite. Specimens were stored in 5000 thermal cycles between 5℃ and 55℃. Tensile bond strength (TBS) test and evaluation using stereomicroscope were performed on the specimen and the data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Post Hoc Scheffe tests and Fisher's Exact Test (α=.05). RESULTS There was a significant difference between the effect of different surface treatments on TBS (P<.001) but different brands of post (P=.743) and interaction between the brand of post and surface treatment (P=.922) had no significant effect on TBS. Both silanization and sandblasting improved the bonding strength of fiber posts to composite resin core, but there were not any significant differences between these groups and control group. CONCLUSION There was not any significant difference between two brands of fiber posts that had been used in this study. Although silanization and sandblasting can improve the TBS, there was not any significant differences between surface treatments used. PMID:22737316

  13. Push-out tests on a new silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtin, William A.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Srinivasan, Gajawalli V.

    1993-01-01

    Fiber push-out tests have been performed on a ceramic matrix composite consisting of carborundum-sintered SiC fibers, with a BN coating, embedded in a reaction-bonded SiC matrix. Analysis of the push-out data, utilizing the most complete theory presently available, shows that one of the fiber/coating/matrix interfaces has a low fracture energy (one-tenth that of the fiber) and a moderate sliding resistance of about 8 MPa. The debonded sliding interface shows some continuous but minor abrasion, which appears to increase the sliding resistance, but overall the system exhibits very clean smooth sliding. The tensile response of a full-scale composite is then modeled using data obtained here and known fiber strengths to demonstrate the good composite behavior predicted for this material.

  14. Push-out tests on a new silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, W.A. ); Eldridge, J.I. ); Srinivasan, G.V. )

    1993-09-01

    Fiber push-out tests have been performed on a ceramic matrix composite consisting of Carborundum sintered SiC fibers, with a BN coating, embedded in a reaction-bonded SiC matrix. Analysis of the push-out data, utilizing the most complete theory presently available, shows that one of the fiber/coating/matrix interfaces has a low fracture energy (one-tenth that of the fiber) and a moderate sliding resistance [tau] [approximately] 8 MPa. The debonded sliding interface shows some continuous but minor abrasion, which appears to increase the sliding resistance, but overall the system exhibits very clean smooth sliding. The tensile response of a full-scale composite is then modeled, using data obtained here and known fiber strengths, to demonstrate the good composite behavior predicted for this material.

  15. Thermal effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fibre reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The elevated temperature four-point flexural strength and the room temperature tensile and flexural strength properties after thermal shock were measured for ceramic composites consisting of 30 vol pct uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The elevated temperature strengths were measured after 15 min of exposure in air at temperatures to 1400 C. Thermal shock treatment was accomplished by heating the composite in air for 15 min at temperatures to 1200 C and then quenching in water at 25 C. The results indicate no significant loss in strength properties either at temperature or after thermal shock when compared with the strength data for composites in the as-fabricated condition.

  16. [Bond strength of etched enamel to direct composite resins, to indirect composite resins and to etched and silanized porcelain].

    PubMed

    Prévost, A P; Desautels, P

    1990-07-01

    The adhesion to enamel of composite resin inlays are not documented as much as porcelain inlays and direct composite resins. This study evaluates the adhesion of a light cured composite resin (P-50) used in an indirect technique and secondarily polymerized by heat. No significant differences were found between adhesion of P-50 used with an indirect technique and adhesion of porcelain (Mirage). P-50 used with the direct technique yield adhesion values significantly lower than the indirect techniques. PMID:2204471

  17. Effectively Exerting the Reinforcement of Dopamine Reduced Graphene Oxide on Epoxy-Based Composites via Strengthened Interfacial Bonding.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Shang, Tinghua; Yang, Wengang; Yang, Huichuan; Lin, Song; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-25

    The effects of dopamine reduced graphene oxide (pDop-rGO) on the curing activity and mechanical properties of epoxy-based composites were evaluated. Taking advantage of self-polymerization of mussel-inspired dopamine, pDop-rGO was prepared through simultaneous functionalization and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) via polydopamine coating. Benefiting from the universal binding ability of polydopamine, good dispersion of pDop-rGO in epoxy matrix was able to be achieved as the content of pDop-rGO being below 0.2 wt %. Curing kinetics of epoxy composites with pDop-rGO were systematically studied by nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Compared to the systems of neat epoxy or epoxy composites containing GO, epoxy composites loaded with pDop-rGO showed lower activation energy (Eα) over the range of cure (α). It revealed that the amino-bearing pDop-rGO was able to react with epoxy matrix and enhance the curing reactions as an amine-type curing agent. The nature of the interactions at GO-epoxy interface was further evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, confirming the occurrence of chemical bonding. The strengthened interfacial adhesion between pDop-rGO and epoxy matrix thus enhanced the effective stress transfer in the composites. Accordingly, the tensile and flexural properties of EP/pDop-rGO composites were enhanced due to both the well dispersion and strong interfacial bonding of pDop-rGO in epoxy matrix. PMID:27159233

  18. CuAl{sub 2} revisited: Composition, crystal structure, chemical bonding, compressibility and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, Yuri . E-mail: grin@cpfs.mpg.de; Wagner, Frank R.; Armbruester, Marc; Kohout, Miroslav; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wedig, Ulrich; Georg von Schnering, Hans

    2006-06-15

    The structure of CuAl{sub 2} is usually described as a framework of base condensed tetragonal antiprisms [CuAl{sub 8/4}]. The appropriate symmetry governed periodic nodal surface (PNS) divides the space of the structure into two labyrinths. All atoms are located in one labyrinth, whereas the second labyrinth seems to be 'empty'. The bonding of the CuAl{sub 2} structure was analyzed by the electron localization function (ELF), crystal orbital Hamiltonian population (COHP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. From the ELF representation it is seen, that the 'empty' labyrinth is in fact the place of important covalent interactions. ELF, COHP in combination with high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the CuAl{sub 2} structure is described best as a network built of interpenetrating graphite-like nets of three-bonded aluminum atoms with the copper atoms inside the tetragonal-antiprismatic cavities. - Graphical abstract: Atomic interactions in the crystal structure of the intermetallic compound CuAl{sub 2}: Three-bonded aluminum atoms form interpenetrating graphite-like nets. The copper atoms are located in the channels of aluminum network by means of three-center bonds. The bonding model is in agreement with the result of polarized Raman spectroscopy and high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction.

  19. A novel dentin bond strength measurement technique using the composite disk in diametral compression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Lian-Shan; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Rob; Aparicio, Conrado; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using the modified Brazilian disk test to measure the post-dentin interfacial bond strength. Advanced nondestructive examination and imaging techniques in the form of acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used innovatively to capture the fracture process in real time. DIC showed strain concentration first appearing at one of the lateral sides of the post-dentin interface. The appearance of the interfacial strain concentration also coincided with the first AE signal detected. The new method has the advantages of simpler specimen preparation, no premature failure, more consistent failure mode and smaller variations in the calculated bond strength. PMID:22266033

  20. Effect of endodontic irrigation and dressing procedures on the shear bond strength of composite to coronal dentin.

    PubMed

    Abo-Hamar, Sahar E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-endodontic irrigation procedures used alone or in combinations with two intermediate dressing materials on bond strengths of two adhesive composite systems to coronal dentin. Surfaces were treated with NaOCl or NaOCl-Glyde-File-Prep (H2O2 and EDTA) with or without chlorhexidine (CHX) as a final rinse. Intermediate dressing materials of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and sodium perborate (SP) were combined with surface treatments. Surface treatment groups (n = 10/group) included (1) distilled water (control), (2) 5.25% NaOCl (30 min), (3) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min), (4) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min) + CHX (2 min), (5) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min) + Ca(OH)2 (5 days) + CHX (2 min), and (6) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min) + SP (9 days) + CHX (2 min). For each surface treatment group, dentin shear bond strengths of two different composite systems (Excite/Tetric Flow Chroma, [EX/TFC], and Clearfil Protect Bond/Protect Liner F [PB/PLF]) were evaluated. Median shear bond strengths (EX/TFC, PB/PLF) for each surface treatment group in MPa were (1) 21, 18; (2) 26, 18; (3) 21, 17; (4) 22, 16; (5) 17, 11; and (6) 14, 11, respectively. NaOCl significantly increased the bond strength of EX/TFC (p < 0.05), but did not significantly affect that of PB/PLF. The use of NaOCl/Glyde with CHX did not significantly affect EX/TFC (p > 0.05), whereas it significantly decreased PB/PLF (p < 0.05). Ca(OH)2 and SP significantly decreased the bond strengths of both adhesive systems (p < 0.05). Adhesion to coronal dentin is dependent upon the irrigation regimen and the type of adhesive. PMID:25685402

  1. Effect of endodontic irrigation and dressing procedures on the shear bond strength of composite to coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Hamar, Sahar E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-endodontic irrigation procedures used alone or in combinations with two intermediate dressing materials on bond strengths of two adhesive composite systems to coronal dentin. Surfaces were treated with NaOCl or NaOCl–Glyde-File-Prep (H2O2 and EDTA) with or without chlorhexidine (CHX) as a final rinse. Intermediate dressing materials of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and sodium perborate (SP) were combined with surface treatments. Surface treatment groups (n = 10/group) included (1) distilled water (control), (2) 5.25% NaOCl (30 min), (3) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min), (4) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min) + CHX (2 min), (5) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min) + Ca(OH)2 (5 days) + CHX (2 min), and (6) NaOCl/Glyde (30 min) + SP (9 days) + CHX (2 min). For each surface treatment group, dentin shear bond strengths of two different composite systems (Excite/Tetric Flow Chroma, [EX/TFC], and Clearfil Protect Bond/Protect Liner F [PB/PLF]) were evaluated. Median shear bond strengths (EX/TFC, PB/PLF) for each surface treatment group in MPa were (1) 21, 18; (2) 26, 18; (3) 21, 17; (4) 22, 16; (5) 17, 11; and (6) 14, 11, respectively. NaOCl significantly increased the bond strength of EX/TFC (p < 0.05), but did not significantly affect that of PB/PLF. The use of NaOCl/Glyde with CHX did not significantly affect EX/TFC (p > 0.05), whereas it significantly decreased PB/PLF (p < 0.05). Ca(OH)2 and SP significantly decreased the bond strengths of both adhesive systems (p < 0.05). Adhesion to coronal dentin is dependent upon the irrigation regimen and the type of adhesive. PMID:25685402

  2. Cyclic debonding of unidirectional composite bonded to aluminum sheet for constant-amplitude loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roderick, G. L.; Everett, R. A., Jr.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Cyclic debonding rates were measured during constant-amplitude loading of specimens made of graphite/epoxy bonded to aluminum and S-glass/epoxy bonded to aluminum. Both room-temperature and elevated-temperature curing adhesives were used. Debonding was monitored with a photoelastic coating technique. The debonding rates were compared with three expressions for strain-energy release rate calculated in terms of the maximum stress, stress range, or a combination of the two. The debonding rates were influenced by both adherent thickness and the cyclic stress ratio. For a given value of maximum stress, lower stress ratios and thicker specimens produced faster debonding. Microscopic examination of the debonded surfaces showed different failure mechanisms both for identical adherends bonded with different adhesive and, indeed, even for different adherends bonded with identical adhesives. The expressions for strain-energy release rate correlated the data for different specimen thicknesses and stress ratios quite well for each material system, but the form of the best correlating expression varied among material systems. Empirical correlating expressions applicable to one material system may not be appropriate for another system.

  3. Semi-circular microgrooves to observe active movements of individual Navicula pavillardii cells.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Kazuo; Haneda, Takahiro; Tanabe, Masashi; Suzuki, Akira; Kumashiro, Yoshikazu; Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Okano, Teruo; Mayama, Shigeki

    2013-03-01

    We performed a trajectory analysis of movements of Navicula pavillardii diatom cells that were confined to semi-circular microgrooves with several different curvature radii. Using the semi-circular micropattern, we succeeded in observing change of velocity of the same cell before and after the stimulation by N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT). Because the looped grooves had longer contour length than straight grooves, it was effective to achieve the long term observation of the stimulated active cells. Although average velocity of 150 cells was significantly increased with DMT, the maximum velocity (19 μm/s) of the cells was not increased after the DMT injection. This may suggest that existence of the mechanical limit of the velocity of the diatom cells. Secondly, trajectories of individual cell movements along the walls of the semi-circular microgrooves were analyzed in detail. As a result, the velocity of the cells was not affected by the curvature radii of the grooves although the trajectories indicated an obvious restriction of area of the cell motion. This suggests that the surface of the diatom is effective in minimizing the frictional force between the cell body and the wall of a groove. Finally, a simple model of cell motion in the semi-circular groove was proposed to clarify the relationships among the forces that determine cell movement. PMID:23337812

  4. Use of Steinhausen's model for describing periodic Coriolis star nystagmus. [biodynamics of semicircular canal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentinuzzi, M.

    1973-01-01

    Phase lag, maximal slow phase velocity, and beat frequency were measured in periodic Coriolis star nystagmus. The results have been described by Steinhausen's model of the semicircular canal system. Estimates of the biophysical constants have been obtained. It is concluded that this model is a good functional approximation for describing, and also for interpreting, the behavior of the system.

  5. Integration of semicircular canal and otolith information for multisensory orientation stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, C. C.; Young, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the perception of dynamic orientation resulting from stimuli which involve both the otoliths and the semicircular canals. The model was applied to several multisensory stimuli and its predictions evaluated. In all cases, the model predictions were in substantial agreement with the known illusions or with the relevant experimental data.

  6. Effects of two erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet lasers and conventional treatments as composite surface abrasives on the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Sobouti, Farhad; Dadgar, Sepideh; Sanikhaatam, Zahra; Nateghian, Nazanin; Saravi, Mahdi Gholamrezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bonding brackets to dental surfaces restored with composites are increasing. No studies to date have assessed the efficacy of laser irradiation in roughening of composite and the resulted shear bond strength (SBS) of the bonded bracket. We assessed, for the 1st time, the efficacy of two laser beams compared with conventional methods. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five discs of light-cured composite resin were stored in deionized distilled water for 7 days. They were divided into five groups of 12 plus a group of five for scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Bur-abrasion followed by phosphoric acid etching (bur-PA), hydrofluoric acid conditioning (HF), sandblasting, 3 W and 2 W erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser irradiation for 12 s. After bracket bonding, specimens were water-stored (24 h) and thermocycled (500 cycles), respectively. SBS was tested at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored under ×10 magnification. SEM was carried out as well. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal–Wallis, Tukey, Dunn, one-sample t-test/Wilcoxon tests, and Weibull analysis (α =0.05). Results: The SBS values (megapascal) were bur-PA (11.07 ± 1.95), HF (19.70 ± 1.91), sandblasting (7.75 ± 1.10), laser 2 W (15.38 ± 1.38), and laser 3 W (20.74 ± 1.73) (compared to SBS = 6, all P = 0.000). These differed significantly (ANOVA P = 0.000) except HF versus 3 W laser (Tukey P > 0.05). ARI scores differed significantly (Kruskal–Wallis P = 0.000), with sandblasting and 2 W lasers having scores inclined to the higher end (safest debonding). Weibull analysis implied successful clinical outcome for all groups, except for sandblasting with borderline results. Conclusion: Considering its high efficacy and the lack of adverse effects bound with other methods, the 3 W laser irradiation is recommended for clinical usage. PMID:26998473

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    D, Krishnakanth Reddy; V, Kishore M S; Safeena, Safeena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine shear bond strength and the effect on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. Materials & Methods: Group I: Brackets bonded with Ultimate cure-on-light Light-cure composite adhesive system. Group II: Brackets bonded with Ortho-one no-mix. Self-cure composite adhesive system. Group III: Brackets bonded with Light-cure glass ionomer adhesive system. Group IV: Brackets bonded with Transbond plus self etching primer. Results: The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength when using Transbond plus self etching primer showed the highest bond strength Group- IV(8.69 2.54 MPa) followed by Ultimate cure-on-light Group-I (8.62 1.84 MPa), Ortho-one no-mix (Bisco Inc. USA)Group-II (8.07 1.72 MPa), and least bond strength was seen in G.C. Fuji Ortho L.C. Group-III (6.01 1.6) MPa Conclusion: Use of self etching primer saves chairside time and satisfactory high bond strength was obtained. Care should be taken during debonding of ceramic brackets How to cite this article: Reddy K D, Kishore M S V, Safeena S. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):73-78. PMID:24155606

  8. Effects of air abrasion with alumina or glass beads on surface characteristics of CAD/CAM composite materials and the bond strength of resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Nobuaki, ARAO; Keiichi, YOSHIDA; Takashi, SAWASE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The study aimed to evaluate effects of air abrasion with alumina or glass beads on bond strengths of resin cements to CAD/CAM composite materials. Material and Methods CAD/CAM composite block materials [Cerasmart (CS) and Block HC (BHC)] were pretreated as follows: (a) no treatment (None), (b) application of a ceramic primer (CP), (c) alumina-blasting at 0.2 MPa (AB), (d) AB followed by CP (AB+CP), and (e) glass-beads blasting at 0.4 MPa (GBB) followed by CP (GBB+CP). The composite specimens were bonded to resin composite disks using resin cements [G-CEM Cerasmart (GCCS) and ResiCem (RC)]. The bond strengths after 24 h (TC 0) and after thermal cycling (TC 10,000 at 4–60°C) were measured by shear tests. Three-way ANOVA and the Tukey compromise post hoc tests were used to analyze statistically significant differences between groups (α=0.05). Results For both CAD/CAM composite materials, the None group exhibited a significant decrease in bond strength after TC 10,000 (p<0.05). AB showed significantly higher bond strength after TC 10,000 than the None group, while CP did not (p<0.05). GBB exhibited smaller surface defects than did AB; however, their surface roughnesses were not significantly different (p>0.05). The AB+CP group showed a significantly higher bond strength after TC 10,000 than did the AB group for RC (p<0.05), but not for GCCS. The GBB+CP group showed the highest bond strength for both thermal cyclings (p<0.05). Conclusions Air abrasion with glass beads was more effective in increasing bond durability between the resin cements and CAD/CAM composite materials than was using an alumina powder and a CP. PMID:26814465

  9. Mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN ceramic matrix composites - Theory and experiment. [Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN (Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride) composites with various fiber contents is evaluated. Both catastrophic and noncatastrophic failures are observed in tensile specimens. Damage and failure mechanisms are identified via in-situ monitoring using NDE (nondestructive evaluation) techniques throughout the loading history. Effects of fiber/matrix interface debonding (splitting) parallel to fibers are discussed. Statistical failure behavior of fibers is also observed, especially when the interface is weak. Micromechanical models incorproating residual stresses to calculate the critical matrix cracking strength, ultimate strength, and work of pull-out are reviewed and used to predict composite response. For selected test problems, experimental measurements are compared to analytical predictions.

  10. COMPOSITE MATERIALS PRODUCED BY PARTICLE-BONDING WITH GLIADIN AS A GLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous report, we introduced a new methodology for the production of biodegradable polymer composites that will potentially replace existing petroleum-based polymers. Unlike conventional techniques that produce polymer composites by mixing the component materials in the extruder at high te...

  11. PROCESSING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WELDED BONDS BETWEEN THERMOSET AND THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assemble complex structures with short cycle times, the feasibility of welding thermoplastic (TP) to thermoset (TS) composites is demonstrated using a phenomenological approach. The effect of the thermal degradation of the TS composite (AS4/3501-6) on its shear strength is ass...

  12. Exploiting Dynamic Bonds in Polymer-grafted Nanoparticle Networks to Create Mechanomutable, Reconfigurable Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Anna C.; Hamer, Matthew J.; Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Yashin, Victor V.

    2015-03-01

    Via a new dynamic, three-dimensional computer model, we simulate the tensile deformation of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) that are cross-linked by labile bonds, which can readily rupture and reform. For a range of relatively high strains, the network does not fail, but rather restructures into a stable, ordered structure. Within this network, the reshuffling of the labile bonds enables the formation of this new morphology. The studies reveal that the appropriate combination of stress-responsive hybrid materials and applied stress can yield distinct opportunities to dynamically switch between different structures, and thus, the properties of the material. Thus, the results provide guidelines for designing mechano-responsive hybrid materials that undergo controllable structural transitions through the application of applied forces.

  13. Advances in the analysis and design of adhesive-bonded joints in composite aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Several aspects of adhesive-bonded joint analysis and design are presented from the reference of size of structure or load intensity. This integrates the individual characterizations of double-lap, single-lap, stepped-lap, tapered-lap and scarf joints. The paper includes an overview of bonded joint selection from the standpoints of design, fabrication, and processing, each bearing in mind the influence of such considerations on the strength of the joint. A case study is presented of the optimization of a specific relatively thick titanium-to-graphite epoxy stepped-lap joint, using the digital computer analysis program A4EG. The factors accounted for are adhesive plasticity, adherend stiffness imbalance, adherend thermal mismatch, and change of material properties within the range of temperature environment and with load direction. The strength increases obtainable by refining the initial design are demonstrated.

  14. Short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases bond strength of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cersosimo, Maria Cecília Pereira; Matos, Adriana Bona; Couto, Roberta Souza D.'Almeida; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser on the adhesion of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin (SD and ED). Forty-six samples of occlusal dentine, obtained from human molars, had half of their surface protected, while the other half was submitted to erosive cycles. Afterward, 23 samples were irradiated with Er:YAG laser, resulting in four experimental groups: SD, sound irradiated dentine (SID-Er:YAG, 50 μs, 2 Hz, 80 mJ, and 12.6 J/cm2), ED, and eroded irradiated dentin (EID-erosion + Er:YAG laser). A self-etching adhesive system was used, and then cylinders of composite resin were prepared. A microshear bond strength test was performed after 24 h storage (n=20). The morphology of SD and ED, with or without Er:YAG laser irradiation, was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (n=3). Bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Statistically significant differences were found among the experimental groups: SD (9.76±3.39 B), SID (12.77±5.09 A), ED (5.12±1.72 D), and EID (7.62±3.39 C). Even though erosion reduces the adhesion to dentin, the surface irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases adhesion to both ED and SD.

  15. Development of a Low-Cost Process for Manufacturing of Ti-Metal Matrix Composite by Roll-Diffusion Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testani, C.; Ferraro, F.

    2010-06-01

    Composite materials with titanium-alloy matrix are currently the class of material with the highest specific resistance at temperatures up to 800 °C. The main hurdle to their application is their final cost. Even if it is clear that the costs of constituent materials are decreasing due to volume production effects, the production processing costs remain high due to the batch production approach. Centro Sviluppo Materiali’s (CSM) efforts have focused on the manufacturing process in order to obtain an innovative solution to reduce the manufacturing costs with respect to the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process that represents the standard production process for this class of materials. The new approach can allow a cost reduction of about 40%; this result was obtained by developing an experimental “diffusion bonding” plant for co-rolling at high temperature in a superplastic rolling regime, sheets of titanium alloy and monofilament silicon carbide fabrics. The experimental pilot plant was proposed for patent with RM2006A000261 in May 2006. This paper describes the manufacturing phases and process results. Moreover, has been shown that the diffusion in the solid state was obtained in a process window that was at least 100 times faster than that of HIP. High-temperature tensile tests were carried out on specimens machined from metallic matrix composite materials produced with the roll-diffusion bonding (RDB) process. The samples produced were also submitted to electrochemical dissolution tests of the metallic matrix in order to verify the geometric integrity of the fibers inside the matrix after the bonding phase. The results achieved as well as the process knowledge acquired with the CSM pilot plant are the base for further development of industrial application of the titanium roll-diffusion bonding.

  16. Effect of various surface preparations on bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite to zirconia framework for implant-supported prostheses.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Koizuka, Mai; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Iwasaki, Taro; Kubochi, Kei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of various surface preparations on shear bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material and zirconia framework. Zirconia disks were prepared with one of nine surface treatments: hydrofluoric acid etching (HF), heating at 1,000°C for 10 min (HT), wet-grinding with 600- and 1500-grit SiC paper (SiC 600 and 1500), alumina-blasting at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa (AB 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6), and no treatment (NT). An indirect composite material was bonded to zirconia. Shear bond strengths were measured. Bond strength was significantly higher in AB 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 groups than in other groups at 0 and 20,000 thermocycles. Post-thermocycling bond strength was lower in NT, HF, and HT groups than in other groups. Alumina-blasting with 0.2 MPa or higher yielded sufficient durable bond strength between gingiva-colored indirect composite and zirconia frameworks. Hydrofluoric acid etching and heat treatment did not achieve durable bond strengths. PMID:26041071

  17. Dynamic modeling and analysis of the PZT-bonded composite Timoshenko beams: Spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Usik; Kim, Daehwan; Park, Ilwook

    2013-03-01

    The health of thin laminated composite beams is often monitored using the ultrasonic guided waves excited by wafer-type piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Thus, for the smart composite beams which consist of a laminated composite base beam and PZT layers, it is very important to develop a very reliable mathematical model and to use a very accurate computational method to predict accurate dynamic characteristics at very high ultrasonic frequency. In this paper, the axial-bending-shear-lateral contraction coupled differential equations of motion are derived first by the Hamilton's principle with Lagrange multipliers. The smart composite beam is represented by a Timoshenko beam model by adopting the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) for the laminated composite base beam. The axial deformation of smart composite beam is improved by taking into account the effects of lateral contraction by adopting the concept of Mindlin-Herrmann rod theory. The spectral element model is then formulated by the variation approach from coupled differential equations of motion transformed into the frequency domain via the discrete Fourier transform. The high accuracy of the present spectral element model is verified by comparing with other solution methods: the finite element model developed in this paper and the commercial FEA package ANSYS. Finally the dynamics and wave characteristics of some example smart composite beams are investigated through the numerical studies.

  18. Ormocer: An aesthetic direct restorative material; An in vitro study comparing the marginal sealing ability of organically modified ceramics and a hybrid composite using an ormocer-based bonding agent and a conventional fifth-generation bonding agent

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sarika; Singh, Arundeep; Gupta, Manish; Chadha, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To compare the marginal sealing ability of ormocer with a hybrid composite using an ormocer based bonding agent and a conventional fifth generation bonding agent. Materials and Methods: Fifty four human premolars were randomly distributed into four test groups of 12 teeth each and two control groups of 3 teeth each. Class I occlusal preparation of 1.5 mm depth were made in each tooth. These were restored using the adhesive and restorative material according to the group. The restorations were finished using a standard composite finishing and polishing kit. Thermocycling between 5° C and 55°C was carried out. Having blocked the root apex and the entire tooth surface except 1 mm around the restoration margin, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue for 48 hours, after which the dye penetration through the margins of each sample was studied under a stereomicroscope. Results and Discussion: Group IV (Admira with Admira Bond) showed the minimum marginal leakage with a mean of 0.200 mm. Four samples in this group showed no microleakage at all and a maximum of 0.400 mm was seen in one sample. Group II (Spectrum TPH with Admira Bond) showed the maximum leakage with a mean of 0.433 mm. One sample showed as much as 1.00 mm of microleakage. Admira when used with Admira Bond showed lesser microleakage than Spectrum TPH used with Prime & Bond NT, the difference being statistically insignificant. PMID:22557897

  19. Design, testing, and damage tolerance study of bonded stiffened composite wing cover panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Ram C.; Sutton, Jason O.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of damage tolerance criteria for composite panels to multistringer composite wing cover panels developed under NASA's Composite Transport Wing Technology Development contract. This conceptual wing design integrated aeroelastic stiffness constraints with an enhanced damage tolerance material system, in order to yield optimized producibility and structural performance. Damage tolerance was demonstrated in a test program using full-sized cover panel subcomponents; panel skins were impacted at midbay between stiffeners, directly over a stiffener, and over the stiffener flange edge. None of the impacts produced visible damage. NASTRAN analyses were performed to simulate NDI-detected invisible damage.

  20. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to three different liners: TheraCal LC, Biodentine, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using universal adhesive: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Balaji, Tandri S

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate the bonding ability of resin composite (RC) to three different liners: TheraCal LC™ (TLC), a novel resin-modified (RM) calcium silicate cement, Biodentine™ (BD), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) using an universal silane-containing adhesive and characterizing their failure modes. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted intact human molars with occlusal cavity (6-mm diameter and 2-mm height) were mounted in acrylic blocks and divided into three groups of 10 samples each based on the liner used as Group A (TLC), Group B (BD), and Group C (RMGIC). Composite post of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm height was then bonded to each sample using universal adhesive. Shear bond strength (SBS) analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: No significant difference was observed between group A and group C (P = 0.573) while group B showed the least bond strength values with a highly significant difference (P = 0.000). The modes of failure were predominantly cohesive in Groups A and B (TLC and BD) while RMGIC showed mixed and adhesive failures. Conclusions: Hence, this present study concludes that the bond strength of composite resin to TLC and RMGIC was similar and significantly higher than that of BD following application of universal adhesive. PMID:27099425

  1. Enhanced molecular level dispersion and interface bonding at low loading of modified graphene oxide to fabricate super nylon 12 composites.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sunanda; Tang, Xiuzhi; Das, Tanya; Zhang, Liying; Li, Yongmei; Ting, Sun; Hu, Xiao; Yue, C Y

    2015-02-11

    Development of advanced graphene based polymer composites is still confronted with severe challenges due to its poor dispersion caused by restacking, weak interface bonding, and incompatibility with polymer matrices which suppress exertion of the actual potential of graphene sheets in composites. Here, we have demonstrated an efficient chemical modification process with polyethylenimine (PEI) to functionalize graphene oxide which can overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks and also can remarkably increase the overall strength of the nylon 12 composites even at very low graphene loading. Chemical modification was analyzed by various surface characterizations including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Addition of only 0.25 and 0.35 wt % modified GO showed 37% and 54% improvement in tensile strength and 65% and 74% in Young's modulus, respectively, compared with that of the neat polymer. The dynamic mechanical analysis showed ∼39% and 63% increment in storage modulus of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited significantly high thermal stability (∼15 °C increment by only 0.35 wt %) as compared to neat polymer. Furthermore, the composites rendered outstanding resistance against various chemicals. PMID:25545112

  2. Evaluation of shear bond strength of two resin-based composites and glass ionomer cement to pure tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine®)

    PubMed Central

    CANTEKİN, Kenan; AVCİ, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength of methacrylate-based (MB) composites, silorane-based (SB) composites, and glass ionomer cement (GIC) to Biodentine® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Acrylic blocks (n=90, 2 mm high, 5 mm diameter central hole) were prepared. In 45 of the samples, the holes were fully filled with Biodentine® and in the other 45 samples, the holes were fully filled with MTA. The Biodentine® and the MTA samples were randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 15 specimens each: Group-1: MB composite; Group-2: SB composite; and Group-3: GIC. For the shear bond strength (SBS) test, each block was secured in a universal testing machine. Results The highest (17.7±6.2 MPa) and the lowest (5.8±3.2 MPa) bond strength values were recorded for the MB composite-Biodentine® and the GIC-MTA, respectively. Although the MB composite showed significantly higher bond strength to Biodentine (17.7±6.2) than it did to MTA (8.9±5.7) (p<0.001), the SB composite (SB and MTA=7.4±3.3; SB and Biodentine®=8.0±3,6) and GIC (GIC and MTA=5.8±3.2; GIC and Biodentine=6.7±2.6) showed similar bond strength performance with MTA compared with Biodentine (p=0.73 and p=0.38, respectively). Conclusions The new pure tricalcium-based pulp capping, repair, and endodontic material showed higher shear bond scores compared to MTA when used with the MB composite. PMID:25141202

  3. A Practical Tool for the Preliminary Design of Bonded Composite Repairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Di Felice, G.; Scaramuzzino, F.; Sellitto, A.

    2014-06-01

    Composite structures are increasingly finding more applications in the aeronautical field as well as the automotive one, thanks to their low weight - performance ratios, in terms of strength and stiffness. However, composite materials, as well known, are characterized by a critical behavior in terms of detectability of damage and performances of damaged components. A critical aspect related to damaged composite structures is, for sure, the repair aimed to restore the original stiffness and strength characteristics of the component depending on the damage typology and location. In this paper, a preliminary repair design tool is presented. The tool is aimed to help the designer by suggesting different repair typologies and proper repair size. This tool, by means of optimization analyses can provide the best repair solution with minimal adhesive shear stress and size of the repair patch. The tool has been tested against a literature case study on multistep composite-metal joints.

  4. A High-Frequency Linear Ultrasonic Array Utilizing an Interdigitally Bonded 2-2 Piezo-Composite

    PubMed Central

    Cannata, Jonathan M.; Williams, Jay A.; Zhang, Lequan; Hu, Chang-Hong; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high-frequency 256-element linear ultrasonic array utilizing an interdigitally bonded (IB) piezo-composite. Several IB composites were fabricated with different commercial and experimental piezoelectric ceramics and evaluated to determine a suitable formulation for use in high-frequency linear arrays. It was found that the fabricated fine-scale 2–2 IB composites outperformed 1–3 IB composites with identical pillar- and kerf-widths. This result was not expected and lead to the conclusion that dicing damage was likely the cause of the discrepancy. Ultimately, a 2–2 composite fabricated using a fine-grain piezoelectric ceramic was chosen for the array. The composite was manufactured using one IB operation in the azimuth direction to produce approximately 19-μm-wide pillars separated by 6-μm-wide kerfs. The array had a 50 μm (one wavelength in water) azimuth pitch, two matching layers, and 2 mm elevation length focused to 7.3 mm using a polymethylpentene (TPX) lens. The measured pulse-echo center frequency for a representative array element was 28 MHz and −6-dB band-width was 61%. The measured single-element transmit −6-dB directivity was estimated to be 50°. The measured insertion loss was 19 dB after compensating for the effects of attenuation and diffraction in the water bath. A fine-wire phantom was used to assess the lateral and axial resolution of the array when paired with a prototype system utilizing a 64-channel analog beamformer. The −6-dB lateral and axial resolutions were estimated to be 125 and 68 μm, respectively. An anechoic cyst phantom was also imaged to determine the minimum detectable spherical inclusion, and thus the 3-D resolution of the array and beamformer. The minimum anechoic cyst detected was approximately 300 μm in diameter. PMID:21989884

  5. Experimental observations of scale effects on bonded and bolted joints in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Glenn C.

    1994-01-01

    The objective is to observe size (scale) effects in (1) fiber dominated laminates and bolted joints, (2) adhesive (matrix) dominated bonded joints with fiber dominated laminate adherends, and (3) matrix dominated laminates. Selected literature on scale effects is reviewed with comments and test data from one source that is analyzed for predicted and actual scale effects utilizing uniaxial loaded static strength, spectrum fatigue residual strength, and spectrum fatigue lifetime test results. Causes of scale effects are discussed, the results are summarized, and conclusions are made.

  6. Assessment of experimental bond dissociation energies using composite ab initio methods and evaluation of the performances of density functional methods in the calculation of bond dissociation energies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jin-Ti; Huang, Hao; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2003-01-01

    Composite ab initio CBS-Q and G3 methods were used to calculate the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of over 200 compounds listed in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (2002 ed.). It was found that these two methods agree with each other excellently in the calculation of BDEs, and they can predict BDEs within 10 kJ/mol of the experimental values. Using these two methods, it was found that among the examined compounds 161 experimental BDEs are valid because the standard deviation between the experimental and theoretical values for them is only 8.6 kJ/mol. Nevertheless, 40 BDEs listed in the Handbook may be highly inaccurate as the experimental and theoretical values for them differ by over 20 kJ/mol. Furthermore, 11 BDEs listed in the Handbook may be seriously flawed as the experimental and theoretical values for them differ by over 40 kJ/mol. Using the 161 cautiously validated experimental BDEs, we then assessed the performances of the standard density functional (DFT) methods including B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91, and BH&HLYP in the calculation of BDEs. It was found that the BH&HLYP method performed poorly for the BDE calculations. B3LYP, B3P86, and B3PW91, however, performed reasonably well for the calculation of BDEs with standard deviations of about 12.1-18.0 kJ/mol. Nonetheless, all the DFT methods underestimated the BDEs by 4-17 kJ/mol in average. Sometimes, the underestimation by the DFT methods could be as high as 40-60 kJ/mol. Therefore, the DFT methods were more reliable for relative BDE calculations than for absolute BDE calculations. Finally, it was observed that the basis set effects on the BDEs calculated by the DFT methods were usually small except for the heteroatom-hydrogen BDEs. PMID:14632451

  7. Ion diffusion at the bonding interface of undoped YAG/Yb:YAG composite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Kana; Sugiyama, Akira; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Kawanaka, Junji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2015-08-01

    Cation diffusion across a boundary between ytterbium (Yb)-doped and undoped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics was examined by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA). Polished Yb:YAG and undoped YAG ceramics were bonded by surface treatment with argon fast atom beam, and then heat-treated at 1400 or 1600 °C for 50 h or at 1400 °C for 10 h under vacuum. We obtained EPMA mapping images of the bonded samples that clearly showed the bulk and grain-boundary diffusion of Y and Yb ions. The number density profiles showed that the total diffusion distances of Yb and Y ions were almost equal and approximately 2 and 15 μm at 1400 and 1600 °C, respectively, and the dependence of diffusion distance on heating time was weak. The diffusion curves were well modeled by Harrison type B kinetics including bulk and grain-boundary diffusion. In addition, it was found that Si ions added to the samples as a sintering aid might be segregated at the grain boundary by heat treatment, and diffused only along grain boundaries.

  8. Use of high and low frequency dielectric measurements in the NDE of adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethrick, R. A.; Hayward, D.; McConnell, B. K.; Crane, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy has been developed as a non-destructive technique for assessment of moisture content and structural integrity of adhesively bonded joints. Knowledge of these parameters is particularly crucial for the aerospace industry, since environmental degradation of adhesive joints presents a major limit on their utilization. High and low frequency measurements have been carried out on joints assembled from CFRP adherend, and a commercially available adhesive (AF 163-2K). The samples have been aged in deionised water at 75oC to chart the effect water ingress has on bond durability. In addition, some joints have been exposed to cryogenic temperatures to mimic the conditions joints experience whilst an aircraft is in flight. In this way it has been possible to determine the extent of degradation caused by freezing of water within the joint structure. Dielectric behaviour of the joints was studied in both the frequency and in the time domain. Frequency domain analysis allows the amount and effects of moisture ingress in the bondline to be assessed, whereas the time domain highlights the onset of joint defects with increasing exposure time. Mechanical testing of the joints has been carried out to enable correlation between changes in strength and failure mechanism due to moisture ingress, with changes in the dielectric data. In addition, dielectric studies of the neat adhesive have been undertaken, as have gravimetric and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. These have helped reveal the effects of ageing upon the adhesive layer itself.

  9. Properties of RBSN and RBSN-SiC composites. [Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightfoot, A.; Ker, H. L.; Haggerty, J. S.; Ritter, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Strengths, fracture toughnesses, hardnesses, and dimensional changes have been measured for RBSN and RBSN/SiC composites. Samples were made from mixtures of Si and either Si- or C-rich SiC powders. For pure, 75 pct dense RBSN dispersed with octanol, strengths up to 858 MPa have been achieved. Improved strengths result from a combination of microstructural perfection and increased fracture toughness. The mechanical properties of the composites were approximately equal to those of methanol processed RBSN but not quite equal to those of the octanol-processed RBSN. Results are discussed in terms of observed microstructural features.

  10. A Study of Influencing Factors on the Tensile Response of a Titanium Matrix Composite With Weak Interfacial Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    The generalized method of cells micromechanics model is utilized to analyze the tensile stress-strain response of a representative titanium matrix composite with weak interfacial bonding. The fiber/matrix interface is modeled through application of a displacement discontinuity between the fiber and matrix once a critical debonding stress has been exceeded. Unidirectional composites with loading parallel and perpendicular to the fibers are examined, as well as a cross-ply laminate. For each of the laminates studied, analytically obtained results are compared to experimental data. The application of residual stresses through a cool-down process was found to have a significant effect on the tensile response. For the unidirectional laminate with loading applied perpendicular to the fibers, fiber packing and fiber shape were shown to have a significant effect on the predicted tensile response. Furthermore, the interface was characterized through the use of semi-emperical parameters including an interfacial compliance and a "debond stress;" defined as the stress level across the interface which activates fiber/matrix debonding. The results in this paper demonstrate that if architectural factors are correctly accounted for and the interface is appropriately characterized, the macro-level composite behavior can be correctly predicted without modifying any of the fiber or matrix constituent properties.

  11. An in vitro evaluation of shear bond strength of silorane and bis-GMA resin-based composite using different curing units

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Manak; Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate shear bond strength of silorane and bis-GMA based composite resins using self-etch and total-etch adhesive systems, and compare the effect of Quartz-tungten-halogen (QTH) and Light emitting diode (LED) on the shear bond strength of the experimental materials. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were exposed on intact extracted molars and composite resin was built 2 mm in diameter. Teeth were divided randomly into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were restored with P90 system adhesive and Filtek P90 and cured with QTH and LED units respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were restored with total etch adhesive and Filtek Z100 and cured with QTH and LED units respectively. Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing using Instrom Universal testing machine. Results: Data was subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Total-etch groups gave significantly higher shear bond strength values than the self-etch groups. No significant difference in shear bond strength was found between Groups 3 and 4, while Group 1 showed significantly higher values than Group 2. Conclusion: Type of light curing unit is not a significant factor affecting shear bond strength for bis-GMA RBCs using total-etch technique; while for curing silorane resin based composite (RBCs), conventional halogen curing units showed better results. PMID:22876019

  12. Evaluation of the effect of concentration and duration of application of sodium ascorbate hydrogel on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel

    PubMed Central

    Dabas, Deepti; Patil, Anand C; Uppin, Veerendra M

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The effect of different concentrations of hydrogel of sodium ascorbate on bond strength of bleached enamel for varying periods of time and the mode of failure was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Seventy enamel surfaces were obtained from 35 human extracted premolars. Specimens were divided into four groups: no bleaching (control), bleaching with carbamide peroxide gel, bleaching and application of 10% / 20% sodium ascorbate hydrogel for 30, 60, 120 min. Surfaces were bonded with a total etch bonding system and composite resin. Specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Mode of failure was determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's post hoc test. Results: Sodium ascorbate hydrogel application following bleaching increased the resin-enamel bond strength and was directly proportional to its duration of application. However, there was no difference in bond strength with an increase in the concentration of sodium ascorbate hydrogel. Conclusion: Immediate bonding of composite resin to bleached enamel is possible after treatment with antioxidant sodium ascorbate hydrogel. PMID:22144802

  13. Optimal tubular adhesive-bonded lap joint of the carbon fiber epoxy composite shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki S.; Kim, Won T.; Lee, Dai G.; Jun, Eui J.

    The effects of the adhesive thickness and the adherend surface roughness on the fatigue strength of a tubular adhesive-bonded single lap joint were investigated using fatigue test specimens whose adherends were made of S45C carbon steel. Results of fatigue tests showed that the optimal arithmetic surface roughness of the adherends is about 2 microns and the optimal adhesive thickness is about 0.15 mm. Using these values, the prototype torsional adhesive joints were manufactured for power transmission shafts of an automotive vehicle or a small helicopter, and static tests under torque were performed on a single-lap joint, a single-lap joint with scarf, a double-lap joint, and a double-lap joint with scarf. It was found that the double-lap joint was superior among the joints, in terms of torque capacity and manufacturing cost.

  14. The effect of smectite composition on the catalysis of peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Bujdák, J; Rode, B M

    1996-10-01

    Clay-catalyzed glycine and diglycine oligomerizations were performed as drying/wetting cycles at 80 degrees C. Two trioctahedral smectites (hectorite and saponite), three pure montmorillonites, a ferruginous smectite, an Fe(II)-rich smectite, and three smectites containing goethite admixture were used as catalysts. Highest peptide bond formation was found with trioctahedral smectites. About 7% of glycine was converted to diglycine and diketopiperazine on hectorite after 7 days. In the case of dioctahedral smectites, highest yields were achieved using clays with a negative-layer charge localized in the octahedral sheets (up to 2% of converted glycine after 7 days). The presence of Fe(II) in clay is reflected in a higher efficiency in catalyzing amino acid dimerization (about 3.5% of converted glycine after 7 days). The possible significance of the results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed. PMID:8798338

  15. EFFECT OF DEPROTEINIZATION AND TUBULAR OCCLUSION ON MICROTENSILE BOND STRENGTH AND MARGINAL MICROLEAKAGE OF RESIN COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baseggio, Wagner; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; de Carvalho, Flávia Lunardelli Negreiros; Ueda, Julio Katuhide; Schmitt, Vera Lucia; Formighieri, Luis Alberto; Naufel, Fabiana Scarparo

    2009-01-01

    Dentin adhesion procedure presents limitations, especially regarding to lifetime stability of formed hybrid layer. Alternative procedures have been studied in order to improve adhesion to dentin. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of deproteinization or dentin tubular occlusion, as well as the combination of both techniques, on microtensile bond strength μTBS) and marginal microleakage of composite resin restorations. Material and Methods: Extracted erupted human third molars were randomly divided into 4 groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with one of the following procedures: (A) 35% phosphoric acid gel (PA) + adhesive system (AS); (B) PA + 10% NaOCl + AS; (C) PA + oxalate + AS and (D) PA + oxalate + 10% NaOCl + AS. Bond strength data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The microleakage scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Significance level was set at 0.05 for all analyses. Results: μTBS data presented statistically lower values for groups D and B, ranking data as A>C>B>D. The use of oxalic acid resulted in microleakage reduction along the tooth/restoration interface, being significant when used alone. On the other hand, the use of 10% NaOCl alone or in combination with oxalic acid, resulted in increased microleakage. Conclusions: Dentin deproteinization with 10% NaOCl or in combination with oxalate significantly compromised both the adhesive bond strength and the microleakage at interface. Tubular occlusion prior to adhesive system application seems to be a useful technique to reduce marginal microleakage. PMID:19936527

  16. Effect of Cementation Technique of Individually Formed Fiber-Reinforced Composite Post on Bond Strength and Microleakage

    PubMed Central

    Makarewicz, Dominika; Le Bell-Rönnlöf, Anna-Maria B; Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different cementation techniques of individually formed E-glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post on bond strength and microleakage. Methods: The crowns of extracted third molars were removed and post preparation was carried out with parapost drills (diameter 1.5 mm). After application of bonding agents individually formed FRC posts (everStick POST, diameter 1.5 mm) were cemented into the post spaces with either ParaCem®Universal or self-adhesive RelyX™Unicem, using two different cementation techniques: 1) an “indirect (traditional) technique” where the post was prepolymerized prior application of luting cement and insertion into the post space or 2) a “direct technique” where the uncured post was inserted to the post space with luting cement and light-polymerized in situ at the same time. After water storage of 48 hours, the roots (n = 10/group) were cut into discs of thickness of 2 mm. A push-out force was applied until specimen fracture or loosening of the post. A microleakage test was carried out on roots which were not subjected to the loading test (n= 32) to evaluate the sealing capacity of the post-canal interface. The microleakage was measured using dye penetration depth under a stereomicroscope. Results: Higher bond strength values (p<0.05) and less microleakage (p<0.05) were obtained with the “direct technique” compared to the “indirect technique”. None of the FRC posts revealed any dye penetration between the post and the cement. Conclusions: The “direct technique” seems to be beneficial when cementing individually formed FRC posts. PMID:23986792

  17. Behavior of the Posterior Semicircular Canal After Dix-Hallpike Maneuver.

    PubMed

    E Maia, Francisco Carlos Zuma; Albernaz, Pedro Luiz Mangabeira; Cal, Renato Valério

    2016-04-20

    The objective of the present study is to analyze the quantitative vestibulo-ocular responses in a group of patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) canalolithiasis and compare these data with the data of the tridimensional biomechanical model. This study was conducted on 70 patients that presented idiopathic posterior semicircular canal canalolithiasis. The diagnosis was obtained by Dix-Hallpike maneuvers recorded by videonystagmograph. The present study demonstrates that there is a significant correlation between the intensity of the nystagmus and its latency in cases of BPPV-idiopathic posterior semicircular canal canalolithiasis type. These findings are in agreement with those obtained in a tridimensional biomechanical model and are not related to the patients' age. PMID:27588161

  18. User manual for semi-circular compact range reflector code: Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Inder J.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code has been developed at the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory to analyze a semi-circular paraboloidal reflector with or without a rolled edge at the top and a skirt at the bottom. The code can be used to compute the total near field of the reflector or its individual components at a given distance from the center of the paraboloid. The code computes the fields along a radial, horizontal, vertical or axial cut at that distance. Thus, it is very effective in computing the size of the sweet spot for a semi-circular compact range reflector. This report describes the operation of the code. Various input and output statements are explained. Some results obtained using the computer code are presented to illustrate the code's capability as well as being samples of input/output sets.

  19. Integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Huang, Lingling; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-03-28

    A semi-circular plasmonic launcher integrated with dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polaritons waveguide (DLSPPW) is proposed and analyzed theoretically, which can focus and efficiently couple the excited surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) into the DLSPPW via the highly matched spatial field distribution with the waveguide mode in the focal plane. By tuning the incident angle or polarization of the illuminating beam, it is shown that the launcher may be conveniently used as a switch or a multiplexer that have potential applications in plasmonic circuitry. Furthermore, from an applicational point of view, it is analyzed how the coupling performance of the launcher can be further improved by employing multiple semi-circular slits. PMID:21451682

  20. Behavior of the Posterior Semicircular Canal After Dix-Hallpike Maneuver

    PubMed Central

    e Maia, Francisco Carlos Zuma; Albernaz, Pedro Luiz Mangabeira; Cal, Renato Valério

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze the quantitative vestibulo-ocular responses in a group of patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) canalolithiasis and compare these data with the data of the tridimensional biomechanical model. This study was conducted on 70 patients that presented idiopathic posterior semicircular canal canalolithiasis. The diagnosis was obtained by Dix-Hallpike maneuvers recorded by videonystagmograph. The present study demonstrates that there is a significant correlation between the intensity of the nystagmus and its latency in cases of BPPV-idiopathic posterior semicircular canal canalolithiasis type. These findings are in agreement with those obtained in a tridimensional biomechanical model and are not related to the patients’ age. PMID:27588161

  1. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  2. The effect of hydrogen bonding propensity and enantiomeric composition on the dynamics of supercooled ketoprofen - dielectric, rheological and NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Adrjanowicz, K; Kaminski, K; Tarnacka, M; Szutkowski, K; Popenda, L; Bartkowiak, G; Paluch, M

    2016-04-21

    The aim of this work is to analyze in detail the effect of small hydrogen bonding (HB) structures and enantiomeric composition on the dynamics of glass-forming liquid ketoprofen. For that purpose dielectric relaxation, rheological and NMR studies were performed. Investigated samples are racemic ketoprofen, a single enantiomer of ketoprofen and a racemic ketoprofen methyl ester with no tendency to form HB dimers. The combination of complementary experimental techniques enables us to show that macroscopic viscosity η and α-relaxation time τα have nearly the same temperature dependencies, whereas the relation between the viscosity (or molecular reorientation) and the translational self-diffusion coefficient violates Stokes-Einstein law already at high temperature. Additionally, based on dielectric relaxation studies performed on increased pressure we were able to identify similarities and key differences in the supercooled liquid dynamics of investigated materials affected by their tendency to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This includes the effect of pressure on the glass transition temperature Tg, changes in the fragility parameter m and activation volume ΔV, the role of thermal energy and density fluctuations in governing the viscous liquid dynamics (Ev/Ep ratio). Finally, we have also demonstrated that the dynamic behaviour of a single enantiomer and the racemic mixture of the same compound are very much alike. Nevertheless, some slight differences were observed, particularly in the τα(T) dependencies measured in the vicinity of glass transition both at ambient and elevated pressure. PMID:27035123

  3. Deformation textures of aluminum in a multilayered Ti/Al/Nb composite severely deformed by accumulative roll bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Peng Zhou, Liming Acoff, Viola L.

    2015-09-15

    The accumulative roll bonding process was carried out to produce multilayered Ti/Al/Nb composites up to four cycles. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy electron backscattered diffraction and nanoindentation were employed to investigate the microstructural and texture evolution. A homogenous distribution of Ti/Nb necking layers in Al matrix was achieved after four ARB cycles. Grain refinement was observed to increase with increasing number of ARB cycles. The fraction of high-angle grain boundaries as also increased. Strong recrystallization texture appeared for high number of ARB cycles due to the adiabatic heat that occurs during ARB processing. The shear band at the Ti/Al interface reduced the intensity of the cold rolling fiber textures of Al. There was no evidence of shear component from the orientation distribution function results.

  4. Microstructure of arc brazed and diffusion bonded joints of stainless steel and SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elßner, M.; Weis, S.; Grund, T.; Wagner, G.; Habisch, S.; Mayr, P.

    2016-03-01

    Joint interfaces of aluminum and stainless steel often exhibit intermetallics of Al-Fe, which limit the joint strength. In order to reduce these brittle phases in joints of aluminum matrix composites (AMC) and stainless steel, diffusion bonding and arc brazing are used. Due to the absence of a liquid phase, diffusion welding can reduce the formation of these critical in- termetallics. For this joining technique, the influence of surface treatments and adjusted time- temperature-surface-pressure-regimes is investigated. On the other hand, arc brazing offers the advantage to combine a localized heat input with the application of a low melting filler and was conducted using the system Al-Ag-Cu. Results of the joining tests using both approaches are described and discussed with regard to the microstructure of the joints and the interfaces.

  5. Lateral Semicircular Canal Asymmetry in Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Early Link between Biomechanical, Hormonal and Neurosensory Theories?

    PubMed Central

    Hitier, Martin; Hamon, Michèle; Denise, Pierre; Lacoudre, Julien; Thenint, Marie-Aude; Mallet, Jean-François; Moreau, Sylvain; Quarck, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite its high incidence and severe morbidity, the physiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is still unknown. Here, we looked for early anomalies in AIS which are likely to be the cause of spinal deformity and could also be targeted by early treatments. We focused on the vestibular system, which is suspected of acting in AIS pathogenesis and which exhibits an end organ with size and shape fixed before birth. We hypothesize that, in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, vestibular morphological anomalies were already present at birth and could possibly have caused other abnormalities. Materials and Methods The vestibular organ of 18 adolescents with AIS and 9 controls were evaluated with MRI in a prospective case controlled study. We studied lateral semicircular canal orientation and the three semicircular canal positions relative to the midline. Lateral semicircular canal function was also evaluated by vestibulonystagmography after bithermal caloric stimulation. Results The left lateral semicircular canal was more vertical and further from the midline in AIS (p = 0.01) and these two parameters were highly correlated (r = -0.6; p = 0.02). These morphological anomalies were associated with functional anomalies in AIS (lower excitability, higher canal paresis), but were not significantly different from controls (p>0.05). Conclusion Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis exhibit morphological vestibular asymmetry, probably determined well before birth. Since the vestibular system influences the vestibulospinal pathway, the hypothalamus, and the cerebellum, this indicates that the vestibular system is a possible cause of later morphological, hormonal and neurosensory anomalies observed in AIS. Moreover, the simple lateral SCC MRI measurement demonstrated here could be used for early detection of AIS, selection of children for close follow-up, and initiation of preventive treatment before spinal deformity occurs. PMID:26186348

  6. Microleakage in Resin Composite Restoration following Antimicrobial Pre-treatments with 2% Chlorhexidine and Clearfil Protect Bond

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Hisham; Babu, Biju P; Sagir, V M Mohammed; Chiriyath, Kennet J; Mathias, Jones; Shaji, A P

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate microleakage in resin composite restorations after antimicrobial pre – treatments Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted non carious human premolars were procured. In all forty premolar specimens, class V preparation of standard dimension were prepared and were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group. In all control and experimental groups the class V preparations were restored with FILTEK Z350 composite restorative material. The experimental groups included different self etching primers and 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate. The control group included Xeno III and no antimicrobial pre-treatment was done for the control group. Thereafter these specimens were thermocycled, dried and sealed with nail varnish, leaving 1mm around the restoration and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then the specimens were subjected for microleakage evaluation. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis Test and Mann Whitney ‘U’ test. Results: Results indicate that group II (2% chlorhexidine gluconate group) had the minimum mean value (15.05) and group III(Clearfil protect Bond group) and IV(control group) had the maximum mean microleakage at the enamel margin (23.00). At the gingival margin the lowest mean microleakage values were obtained with group I (Clearfil SE bond group) and group II (2% chlorhexidine gluconate) (20.25) and highest with group III and group IV (20.85). The difference was not statistically significant both at the enamel margin and the dentin margin (p>0.05). Interpretation & Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, we conclude that: None of the materials tested in this study completely eliminated microleakage at the enamel and at the gingival margin.All of the tested materials provided better sealing at the enamel margin than at the gingival margin. PMID:26229374

  7. SiC-Si interfacial thermal and mechanical properties of reaction bonded SiC/Si ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chun-Yen; Deng, Fei; Karandikar, Prashant; Ni, Chaoying

    Reaction bonded SiC/Si (RBSC) ceramic composites are broadly utilized in military, semiconductor and aerospace industries. RBSC affords advanced specific stiffness, hardness and thermal. Interface is a key region that has to be considered when working with any composites. Both thermal and mechanical behaviors of the RBSC are highly dependent on the SiC-Si interface. The SiC-Si interface had been found to act as a thermal barrier in restricting heat transferring at room temperature and to govern the energy absorption ability of the RBSC. However, up to present, the role of the SiC-Si interface to transport heat at higher temperatures and the interfacial properties in the nanoscale have not been established. This study focuses on these critically important subjects to explore scientific phenomena and underlying mechanisms. The RBSC thermal conductivity with volume percentages of SiC at 80 and 90 vol% was measured up to 1,200 °C, and was found to decrease for both samples with increasing environmental temperature. The RBSC with 90 vol% SiC has a higher thermal conductivity than that of the 80 vol%; however, is still significantly lower than that of the SiC. The interfacial thermal barrier effect was found to decrease at higher temperatures close 1200 °C. A custom-made in-situ tensile testing device which can be accommodated inside a ZEISS Auriga 60 FIB/SEM has been setup successfully. The SiC-Si interfacial bonding strength was measured at 98 MPa. The observation and analysis of crack propagation along the SiC-Si interface was achieved with in-situ TEM.

  8. Biocompatible poly(vinylidene fluoride)/cyanoacrylate composite coatings with tunable hydrophobicity and bonding strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, I. S.; Tiwari, M. K.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2008-10-01

    Biocompatible composite coatings are produced from solution processable poly(vinylidene fluoride)/cyanoacrylate blends prepared in the presence of rosin and ZnO particle fillers, the latter for control of coating surface microstructure. Dispersions are spray coated and cured at 100 °C onto aluminum foils and fiberglass cloths suitable for tissue engineering applications. The elastic modulus of the composite films matches or exceeds that of polyethylene-based orthopedic implant materials. Contact angle measurements on coated fiberglass cloths reveal that wettability of hydrophobic coatings is maintained under strain for applied mechanical stress levels up to ˜15 kN/m2, whereas ultrahydrophobic coatings fail at ˜5 kN/m2.

  9. Long-Term Provisional Bonded Composite Restorations Make Full-Mouth Rehabilitation Possible.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Ronald G

    2016-05-01

    Full-mouth rehabilitation cases frequently require an extended period to complete. In this case involving a patient who presented with a significant amount of lost tooth structure, treatment featured laboratory-fabricated composite provisional restorations aimed at stabilizing the dentition and enabling definitive treatment to be completed in segments. The approach taken allowed occlusal and esthetic issues to be resolved through use of the provisionals while minimizing tooth preparation. The technique provided immediate improvement in esthetics, function, and comfort. PMID:27213778

  10. Adhesively-Bonded Structural Composite Joint Utilizing Shoulder-Centered Sleeves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukowski, Florian P., Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite joint includes a first member having a groove therein, a second member adjacent to the first member, and a connector member disposed between the second member and the first member. The connector member is received in the groove so as to bias a load path between the first member and the second member from a peripheral portion to a central portion of the connector member.

  11. Effects of interfacial bonding on spallation in metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hixson, R.S.; Johnson, J.N.; Gray, G.T. III; Price, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Two metal-matrix composite systems are studied to determine the influence of inclusions on the spallation strength in plate-impact experiments. The first is an aluminum/ceramic system with several volume fractions of ceramic inclusion, and the second is a copper/niobium composite consisting of 15 vol % niobium particles embedded in the copper matrix. Plate-impact experiments produce peak compressive stresses of {approximately}5 GPa in the aluminum/ceramic system and {approximately}10 GPa in the copper/niobium system. The characteristic code CHARADE is used to calculate detailed compression-release profiles in the composite systems, thus accurately quantifying the wave-evolution occurring between the spall plane and the particle velocity (VISAR) measurement at the rear free surface. The aluminum/ceramic system exhibits a strong dependence of the spall strength on inclusion concentration and morphology. In the case of the copper/niobium system, the spall strength remains essentially unchanged by the presence of 15 vol % niobium particles embedded in the copper matrix.

  12. The Effect of Composite Patches on the Failure of Adhesively-Bonded Joints Under Bending Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar, Salih

    2013-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare mechanical behavior of double-strap joints with aluminum (AA2024-T3) or 16-ply laminate of carbon/epoxy composite (T300/934) patches of different orientation angles at their overlap area subjected to bending moment. For this purpose, AA2024-T3 aluminum was used as adherend, while the adhesive was a two-part paste (DP 460). Six different types of joint samples were subjected to bending moment. The effect of patch material on failure load and stress distribution was examined experimentally and numerically. In the numerical analysis, the composite patches were assumed to behave linearly elastic, while adherend and adhesive layers were assumed to be nonlinear. It was found that the data obtained from 3-D finite element analysis were coherent with experimental results. Meanwhile, experiments showed that fiber orientation angles of the patches markedly affected the failure load of joints, failure mode and stress distributions appeared in adhesive and composite.

  13. Stress Intensity Factors of Semi-Circular Bend Specimens with Straight-Through and Chevron Notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, M. R.; Mahdavi, E.; Alborzi, M. J.; Obara, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Semi-circular bend specimen is one of the useful test specimens for determining fracture toughness of rock and geo-materials. Generally, in rock test specimens, initial cracks are produced in two shapes: straight-edge cracks and chevron notches. In this study, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factors of semi-circular bend specimen (SCB) with straight-through and chevron notches are calculated. First, using finite element analysis, a suitable relation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack is presented based on the normalized crack length and half-distance between supports. For evaluating the validity and accuracy of this relation, the obtained results are then compared with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature. Subsequently, by performing some experiments and also finite element analysis of the SCB specimen with chevron notch, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factor of this specimen is obtained. Using the new equation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack and an analytical method, i.e., Bluhm's slice synthesis method, the minimum (critical) dimensionless stress intensity factor of chevron notched semi-circular bend specimens is calculated. Good agreement is observed between the results of two mentioned methods.

  14. Elastic-plastic behavior of a semicircular frame being pressed against a rigid plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. W.; Yang, J. L.; Yu, T. X.

    2008-08-01

    As a simplified structural model, a semicircular frame is used to study the crashworthiness behavior of an aircraft fuselage. The quasi-static large elastic-plastic deformation of a semicircular frame in the process of its being pressed against a rigid ground is analyzed. First, based on the linear elastic assumption, the quasi-static large deformation contact process of the frame can be divided into three phases, i.e., point contact, line contact and post-buckling. By means of a shooting method, the relations between the displacement and contact force as well as the distribution of bending moment in the three phases are obtained. Then, by assuming an elastic, perfectly-plastic moment-curvature relationship for the semi-circular frame, the contact process is analyzed in detail to reveal the plastic collapse mechanism, the traveling of plastic hinge and the force-displacement relationship. In order to verify the analysis, a preliminary experiment was conducted, in which two types of half rings with clamped ends were pressed by a rigid plate. In addition, a numerical simulation is also conducted by employing ABAQUS to analyze both rectangular cross-sectional beam and I-beam. Finally, the theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results and numerical solutions, showing that the elastic-plastic analysis can predict the contact process very well.

  15. Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Presenting with Torsional Downbeating Nystagmus: An Apogeotropic Variant

    PubMed Central

    Vannucchi, Paolo; Pecci, Rudi; Giannoni, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the hypothesis that free-floating particles could sometimes localize into the distal portion of the non ampullary arm of the posterior semicircular canal (PSC) so that assuming the Dix-Hallpike's positions, the clot could move towards the ampulla eliciting a inhibitory torsional-down beating paroxysmal positional nystagmus (PPNy), instead of typical excitatory torsional-up beating PPNy. Among 45 patients with vestibular signs suggesting anterior semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo (PPV), collected from February 2003 to August 2006, we detected a group of 6 subjects whose clinical findings showed a singular behaviour during follow-up. At the first check-up, all patients were submitted to different types of physical manoeuvres for ASC canalolithiasis. Patients were controlled during the same session and after one week. When we found that nystagmus was qualitatively changed we adopted the appropriate physical therapies for that sign. At a next check-up, after having performed some physical therapies, all patients had a typical PSC PPNy of the opposite side, with respect to that of the ASC initially diagnosed. Basing on these observations we conclude that PSC PPV, similarly to lateral semicircular canal PPV, could manifests in a apogeotropic variant. PMID:22969807

  16. Effect of composition on the processing and properties of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.; Montgomery, F.C.; Lin, H.T.; Barker, D.L.; Snodgrass, J.D.; Sabolsky, E.M.; Coffey, D.W.

    1996-04-01

    The type of silicon powder and sintering additive were found to influence the processing and final mechanical properties of sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride. High purity silicon powders produced low {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} content during nitridation. The Si powder type had no apparent effect on densification. More complete nitridation and higher room temperature mechanical properties were observed for the Si powders with higher Fe contents. However, the higher Fe contents resulted in greater high temperature strength degradation and so there was better high temperature strength retention with the higher purity Si. High {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} contents were found after nitridation with {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} seeded materials and with MgO-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the sintering additive. Densification was inhibited by refractory additives, such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. The highest room temperature strength and fracture toughness values correlated to high nitrided {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} contents. The high temperature strength behavior was similar for all additive types.

  17. Effect of adhesive debond on stress-intensity factors in bonded composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Stress-intensity factors are calculated for a cracked infinite sheet adhesively bonded to a stringer, and debonding of the adhesive layer is predicted. The stringer is modeled as a semiinfinite sheet. Adhesive nonlinearity is also included. Both the sheet and stringer are treated as homogeneous, orthotropic materials, a set of integral equations is formulated and solved to obtain the adhesive shear stresses and crack-tip stress-intensity factors. Adhesive debonding is predicted using a rupture criterion based on the combined adhesive stresses. A through-the-thickness crack is located in the infinite sheet perpendicular to the edge of the stringer. When the crack is not under the stringer, the debond extends along the edge of the stringer. When the crack tip is beneath the stringer, the debond extends to the crack tip, then along the edge of the stringer. Stress levels required for debond initiation decrease as the crack tip is moved beneath the stringer. With a nonlinear adhesive, the debond initiates at higher applied stress levels than in linear adhesive cases. Compared with the linear adhesive solution, modeling a nonlinear adhesive causes the stress-intensity factor to decrease when debonding is included.

  18. Assessment of PZT transducer bonding techniques under drop-weight impact loading in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Kyle R.; Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude; Masson, Patrice; Elkoun, Saïd; Quaegebeur, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the robustness of a structural health monitoring system (SHM) that utilizes lead-zirconatetitanate (PZT) transducers tested on carbon fibre composite coupons under drop-weight impact loading. Four PZT transducers are attached to the surface of 10.16 cm x 15.24 cm aerospace grade carbon fibre coupons using four types of adhesives: cyanoacrylate, epoxy, methyl methacrylate, and silicon. Each PZT transducer is tuned to excite preferentially an A0 mode guided wave burst into each composite coupon prior to and following an impact. The output from a PZT transducer, the amplitude of the propagating guided waves measured using a laser vibrometer on the coupon surface and the RMS velocity is plotted. The cycle is repeated for the three remaining transducers. The electrical admittance is also measured using an impedance analyzer prior to and following impact. This paper illustrates how a robustness metric expressed in terms of admittance can be used to infer the ability of the SHM system to generate guided waves and to detect damage following impact. The robustness metric is a measure of the adhesive strength and the mechanism to provide accurate damage detection results. It is shown that transducers attached using silicon provide accurate damage detection results based on pre-attached adhesive yielding difference of <0.5% obtained from electrical admittance measurements before and after impact.

  19. The effect of oxalate desensitizers on the microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded by etch and rinse adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Motamedi, Mehran; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Namvar, Babak

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of an oxalate desensitizer (OX) on the marginal microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded by two three-step and two two-step etch and rinse adhesives. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 126 extracted premolars at the cementoenamel junction and randomly divided into nine groups of 14 each. In the control groups (1-4), four adhesives were applied, respectively, including Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP), Optibond FL (OBFL), One-Step Plus (OS) and Excite (EX). In the experimental groups (5-8), the same adhesives, in combination with OX (BisBlock), were applied. And, in one group, OX was applied without any adhesive, as the negative control group (9). All the groups were restored with a resin composite. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water and thermocycling, the samples were placed in 1% methylene blue dye solution. The dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests. The OX application, in combination with OBFL and EX, resulted in significantly increasing microleakage at the gingival margins (p < 0.05), while it had no effect on OS and SBMP (p > 0.05). At the occlusal margins, no significant difference in microleakage was observed after OX application for each of four adhesives (p > 0.05). PMID:21180008

  20. Adhesive force measurement between HOPG and zinc oxide as an indicator for interfacial bonding of carbon fiber composites.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brendan A; Galan, Ulises; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-07-22

    Vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have recently been utilized as an interphase to increase the interfacial strength of carbon fiber composites. It was shown that the interaction between the carbon fiber and the ZnO nanowires was a critical parameter in adhesion; however, fiber based testing techniques are dominated by local defects and cannot be used to effectively study the bonding interaction directly. Here, the strength of the interface between ZnO and graphitic carbon is directly measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using oxygen plasma treated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and an AFM tip coated with ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis is used to compare the surface chemistry of HOPG and carbon fiber and to quantify the presence of various oxygen functional groups. An indirect measurement of the interfacial strength is then performed through single fiber fragmentation testing (SFF) on functionalized carbon fibers coated with ZnO nanowires to validate the AFM measurements. The SFF and AFM methods showed the same correlation, demonstrating the capacity of the AFM method to study the interfacial properties in composite materials. Additionally, the chemical interactions between oxygen functional groups and the ionic structure of ZnO suggest that intermolecular forces at the interface are responsible for the strong interface. PMID:26107931

  1. Compositional effects on Si–OH bond length in hydrous silicates with implications for trends in the SiOH acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubin, Dmitri P.

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical calculations of the structure and Brønsted acidity of SiOH groups in silica clusters have never addressed the question if these vary with the degree of SiOH deprotonation. In this connection, a statistical analysis is presented of Si–OH bond lengths in crystalline hydrogen silicates with well-determined structures with a special emphasis placed on effects of the silicate composition. It is found that among hydrogen silicates of large cations with low charges the Si–OH bonds are always longer than terminal Si–O bonds in the same anion and correlate in length with the anionic charge per tetrahedron. The findings are explained by steric limitations on charge balancing at oxygen atoms by hydrogen bonds and/or cations. It is suggested that similar limitations and imbalances may underlie the well-known trends in the Brønsted acidity of silicic acids and silicas in aqueous media: decreased acidity with increased SiOH deprotonation and increased acidity with increased tetrahedra connectivity. - Graphical abstract: Si–OH bonds in crystalline silicates lengthen with the anionic charge per tetrahedron, which is in parallel with the well-known trend of decreased acidity of silicic acids and silicas in solution with increased degree of deprotonation. - Highlights: • Si–OH bonds in alkali hydrogen silicates are always longer than terminal Si–O bonds. • Si–OH bonds in silicates lengthen with the anionic charge per tetrahedron. • The Si–OH bond elongation results from inherent underbonding of terminal O atoms. • The longer the Si–OH bond, the less acidic the OH group is.

  2. Composition and application of novel sprayable phosphate cement (grancrete) that bonds to styrofoam

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun S.; Paul, Jr., James W.

    2007-01-09

    A dry mix particulate composition of a calcined oxide of Mg and/or Ca, an acid phosphate, and fly ash or equivalent, wherein the calcined oxide is present in the range of from about 17% to about 40% by weight and the acid phosphate is present in the range of from about 29% to about 52% by weight and the fly ash or equivalent is present in the range of from about 24% to about 39% by weight when sand is added to the dry mix, it is present in the range of from about 39% to about 61% by weight of the combined dry mix and sand. A method of forming a structural member is also disclosed wherein an aqueous slurry of about 8 12 pounds of water is added to dry mix and sand.

  3. A multi-scale model for texture development in Zr/Nb nanolayered composites processed by accumulative roll bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeljan, M.; Knezevic, M.; Nizolek, T.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Zheng, S. J.; Carpenter, J. S.; McCabe, R. J.; Mara, N. A.; Pollock, T. M.

    2014-08-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that nanolayered hcp/bcc Zr/Nb composites can be fabricated with a severe plastic deformation technique called accumulative roll bonding (ARB) [1]. The final layer thickness averaged to approximately 90 nm for both phases. Interestingly, the texture measurements show that the textures in each phase correspond to those of rolled single-phase rolled Zr and Nb for a wide range of layer thickness from the micron to the nanoscales. This is in remarkable contrast to fcc/bcc Cu/Nb layered composites made by the same ARB technique, which developed textures that strongly deviated from theoretical rolling textures of Cu or Nb alone when the layers were refined to submicron and nanoscale dimensions. To model texture evolution and reveal the underlying deformation mechanisms, we developed a 3D multiscale model that combines crystal plasticity finite element with a thermally activated dislocation density based hardening law [2]. For systematic study, the model is applied to a two-phase Zr/Nb polycrystalline laminate and to the same polycrystalline Zr and polycrystalline Nb as single-phase metals. Consistent with the measurement, the model predicts that texture evolution in the phases in the composite and the relative activities of the hcp slip modes are very similar to those in the phases in monolithic form. In addition, the two-phase model also finds that no through-thickness texture gradient develops. This result suggests that neither the nanoscale grain sizes nor the bimetal Zr/Nb interfaces induce deformation mechanisms different from those at the coarse-grain scale.

  4. Comparison of shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel surface with laser etching versus acid etching: An in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hoshing, Upendra A; Patil, Suvarna; Medha, Ashish; Bandekar, Siddhesh Dattatray

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is in vitro evaluation of the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel which is pretreated using acid etchant and Er,Cr:Ysgg. Materials and Methods: 40 extracted human teeth were divided in two groups of 20 each (Groups A and B). In Group A, prepared surface of enamel was etched using 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond, 3M). In Group B, enamel was surface treated by a an Er, Cr: YSGG laser system (Waterlase MD, Biolase Technology Inc., San Clemente, CA, USA) operating at a wavelength of 2,780 nm and having a pulse duration of 140-200 microsecond with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and 40 Hz. Bonding agent ((Scotchbond Multipurpose, 3M) was applied over the test areas on 20 samples of Groups A and B each, and light cured. Composite resin (Ceram X duo Nanoceramic restorative, Densply) was applied onto the test areas as a 3 × 3 mm diameter bid, and light cured. The samples were tested for shear bond strength. Results: Mean shear bond strength for acid-etched enamel (26.41 ± 0.66MPa, range 25.155 to 27.150 MPa) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than for laser-etched enamel (16.23 ± 0.71MPa, range 15.233 to 17.334 MPa). Conclusions: For enamel surface, mean shear bond strength of bonded composite obtained after laser etching were significantly lower than those obtained after acid etching. PMID:25125842

  5. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  6. In vitro evaluation of the fracture resistance and microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth with composite fillings after cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    Sadighpour, Leyla; Fallahi Sichani, Babak; Kharazi Fard, Mohamd Javad

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE There is insufficient data regarding the durability of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to existing composite fillings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth with existing composite fillings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups (for each group, n=10): intact teeth (NP), teeth with class III composite fillings (C3) and teeth with class IV cavities (C4). Porcelain laminate veneers were made using IPS-Empress ceramic and bonded with Panavia F2 resin cement. The microleakage of all of the specimens was tested before and after cyclic loading (1 × 106 cycles, 1.2 Hz). The fracture resistance values (N) were measured using a universal testing machine, and the mode of failure was also examined. The statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (α=.05). RESULTS There was a significant difference in the mean microleakage of group C4 compared with group NT (P=.013). There was no significant difference in the fracture loads among the groups. CONCLUSION The microleakage and failure loads of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to intact teeth and teeth with standard class III composite fillings were not significantly different. PMID:25177471

  7. Effect of preheating of low shrinking resin composite on intrapulpal temperature and microtensile bond strength to dentin

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Heba A.; Abd El-Aziz, Sara; Mobarak, Enas H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of preheating of the silorane-based resin composite on intrapulpal temperature (IPT) and dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was evaluated. For the IPT, teeth (n = 15) were sectioned to obtain discs of 0.5 mm thickness (2 discs/tooth). The discs were divided into three groups (n = 10/group) according to the temperature of the Filtek LS™ silorane-based resin composite during its placement, either at room temperature (23 ± 1 °C) or preheated to 54 °C or 68 °C using a commercial Calset™ device. Discs were subjected to a simulated intrapulpal pressure (IPP) and placed inside a specially constructed incubator adjusted at 37 °C. IPT was measured before, during and after placement and curing of the resin composite using K-type thermocouple. For μTBS testing, flat occlusal middentin surfaces (n = 24) were obtained. P90 System Adhesive was applied according to manufacturer’s instructions then Filtek LS was placed at the tested temperatures (n = 6). Restorative procedures were done while the specimens were connected to IPP simulation. IPP was maintained and the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 24 h before testing. Each specimen was sectioned into sticks (0.9 ± 0.01 mm2). The sticks (24/group) were subjected to μTBS test and their modes of failure were determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). For both preheated groups, IPT increased equally by 1.5–2 °C upon application of the composite. After light curing, IPT increased by 4–5 °C in all tested groups. Nevertheless, the IPT of the preheated groups required a longer time to return to the baseline temperature. One-way ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the μTBS values of all groups. SEM revealed predominately mixed mode of failure. Preheating of silorane-based resin composite increased the IPT but not to the critical level and had no effect on dentin μTBS. PMID:26257945

  8. Effect of preheating of low shrinking resin composite on intrapulpal temperature and microtensile bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Abd El-Aziz, Sara; Mobarak, Enas H

    2015-05-01

    The effect of preheating of the silorane-based resin composite on intrapulpal temperature (IPT) and dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was evaluated. For the IPT, teeth (n = 15) were sectioned to obtain discs of 0.5 mm thickness (2 discs/tooth). The discs were divided into three groups (n = 10/group) according to the temperature of the Filtek LS™ silorane-based resin composite during its placement, either at room temperature (23 ± 1 °C) or preheated to 54 °C or 68 °C using a commercial Calset™ device. Discs were subjected to a simulated intrapulpal pressure (IPP) and placed inside a specially constructed incubator adjusted at 37 °C. IPT was measured before, during and after placement and curing of the resin composite using K-type thermocouple. For μTBS testing, flat occlusal middentin surfaces (n = 24) were obtained. P90 System Adhesive was applied according to manufacturer's instructions then Filtek LS was placed at the tested temperatures (n = 6). Restorative procedures were done while the specimens were connected to IPP simulation. IPP was maintained and the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 24 h before testing. Each specimen was sectioned into sticks (0.9 ± 0.01 mm(2)). The sticks (24/group) were subjected to μTBS test and their modes of failure were determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). For both preheated groups, IPT increased equally by 1.5-2 °C upon application of the composite. After light curing, IPT increased by 4-5 °C in all tested groups. Nevertheless, the IPT of the preheated groups required a longer time to return to the baseline temperature. One-way ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the μTBS values of all groups. SEM revealed predominately mixed mode of failure. Preheating of silorane-based resin composite increased the IPT but not to the critical level and had no effect on dentin μTBS. PMID:26257945

  9. The effect of surface treatment with Er: YAG laser on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to fiber-reinforced composite

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mahboobe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of surface treatment with Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to fiber-reinforced composite (FRC). Study Design: Ninety human premolars were randomly divided into six groups of 15. FRC bars were bonded to the teeth with a flowable composite (FC) and then underwent following treatments. In group 1 no further treatment was performed. In group 2 the FRC surfaces were covered by FC. An Er:YAG laser was employed to treat FRCs in groups 3 ( 200 mJ/10 Hz) and 4 (300 mJ/15 Hz). The FRC strips in groups 5 and 6 were first covered by FC and then irradiated with Er:YAG laser at 200 mJ/10 Hz (group 5) or 300 mJ/15 Hz (group 6). Stainless steel brackets were bonded to FRCs using a light-cure adhesive system. After 24 hours, the samples were tested for SBS and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined. Results: There was a significant difference in SBS among the study groups (P <0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated that SBS was significantly lower in group 1 compared to all other groups (p<0.05) except group 2. Bond strength in group 6 was significantly greater than all the study groups (p<0.05) except group 5. No significant difference was found in ARI scores among the groups. Conclusions: Covering the FRC surface by a layer of flowable composite and then application of Er:YAG laser at 300 mJ/15 Hz could be recommended to increase bond strength of orthodontic attachments to FRC. Key words:Fiber-reinforced composite, orthodontics, Sshear bond strength, laser, Er:YAG, surface treatment, bracket, FRC. PMID:25593660

  10. Shear bond strength of a new self-adhering flowable composite resin for lithium disilicate-reinforced CAD/CAM ceramic material

    PubMed Central

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Sancakli, Erkan; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda; Yucel, Taner; Yildiz, Esra

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface pretreatment techniques on the surface roughness and shear bond strength of a new self-adhering flowable composite resin for use with lithium disilicate-reinforced CAD/CAM ceramic material. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of one hundred thirty lithium disilicate CAD/CAM ceramic plates with dimensions of 6 mm × 4 mm and 3 mm thick were prepared. Specimens were then assigned into five groups (n=26) as follows: untreated control, coating with 30 µm silica oxide particles (Cojet™ Sand), 9.6% hydrofluoric acid etching, Er:YAG laser irradiation, and grinding with a high-speed fine diamond bur. A self-adhering flowable composite resin (Vertise Flow) was applied onto the pre-treated ceramic plates using the Ultradent shear bond Teflon mold system. Surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy. Shear bond strength test were performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Surface roughness data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD tests. Shear bond strength test values were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at α=.05. RESULTS Hydrofluoric acid etching and grinding with high-speed fine diamond bur produced significantly higher surface roughness than the other pretreatment groups (P<.05). Hydrofluoric acid etching and silica coating yielded the highest shear bond strength values (P<.001). CONCLUSION Self-adhering flowable composite resin used as repair composite resin exhibited very low bond strength irrespective of the surface pretreatments used. PMID:25551002

  11. A LASER INTERFERENCE-BASED SURFACE TREATMENT OF AL AND CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR ENHANCED BONDING

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Warren, Charles David; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Daniel, Claus; Skszek, Timothy; Caruso-Dailey, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its increased use in the automotive and aerospace industries, joining of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer matrix Composites (CFPC) to metals demands enhanced surface preparation and control of surface morphology prior to joining. In this study, surfaces of both composite and aluminum were prepared for joining using a new laser based technique, in which the laser interference power profile was created by splitting the beam and guiding those beams to the sample surface by overlapping each other with defined angles to each other. Results were presented for the overlap shear testing of single-lap joints made with Al 5182 and CFPC specimens whose surfaces prepared by (a) surface abrasion and solvent cleaning; and (b) laser-interference structured surfaces by rastering with a 4 mm laser beam at approximately 3.5 W power. CFPC specimens of T700S carbon fiber, Prepreg T70 epoxy, 4 or 5 ply thick, 0/90o plaques were used. Adhesive DP810 was used to bond Al and CFPC. The bondline was 0.25mm and the bond length was consistent among all joints produced. First, the effect of the laser speed on the joint performance was evaluated by laser-interference structure Al and CFPC surfaces with a beam angle of 3o and laser beam speeds of 3, 5, and 10 mm/s. For this sensitivity study, 3 joint specimens were used per each joint type. Based on the results for minimum, maximum, and mean values for the shear lap strength and maximum load for all the 9 joint types, two joint types were selected for further evaluations. Six additional joint specimens were prepared for these two joint types in order to obtain better statistics and the shear test data was presented for the range, mean, and standard deviation. The results for the single-lap shear tests obtained for six joint specimens, indicate that the shear lap strength, maximum load, and displacement at maximum load for those joints made with laser-interference structured surfaces were increased by approximately 14.8%, 16%, and 100

  12. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC) Conformal Shields Composite Bond Structure Qualification Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Calinda; Stephens, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The JWST IEC conformal shields are mounted onto a composite frame structure that must undergo qualification testing to satisfy mission assurance requirements. The composite frame segments are bonded together at the joints using epoxy, EA 9394. The development of a test method to verify the integrity of the bonded structure at its operating environment introduces challenges in terms of requirements definition and the attainment of success criteria. Even though protoflight thermal requirements were not achieved, the first attempt in exposing the structure to cryogenic operating conditions in a thermal vacuum environment resulted in approximately 1 bonded joints failure during mechanical pull tests performed at 1.25 times the flight loads. Failure analysis concluded that the failure mode was due to adhesive cracks that formed and propagated along stress concentrated fillets as a result of poor bond squeeze-out control during fabrication. Bond repairs were made and the structures successfully re-tested with an improved LN2 immersion test method to achieve protoflight thermal requirements.

  13. [Influence of retainer design on fixation strength of resin-bonded glass fiber reinforced composite fixed cantilever dentures].

    PubMed

    Petrikas, O A; Voroshilin, Iu G; Petrikas, I V

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed partial dentures (FPD) have become an accepted part of the restorative dentist's armamentarium. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of retainer design on the strength of two-unit cantilever resin-bonded glass FRC-FPDs. Four retainer designs were tested: a dual wing, a dual wing + horizontal groove, a dual wing + occlusal rest and a step-box. Of each design on 7 human mandibular molars, FRC-FPDs of a premolar size were produced. The FRC framework was made of resin Revolution (Kerr) impregnated glass fibers (GlasSpan, GlasSpan) and veneered with hybrid resin composite (Charisma, Kulzer). Revolution (Kerr) was used as resin luting cement. FRC-FPDs were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine. T (Student's)-test was used to evaluate the data. The four designs were analyzed with finite element analysis (FEA) to reveal the stress distribution within the tooth/restoration complex. Significantly lower fracture strengths were observed with inlay-retained FPDs (step-box: 172±11 N) compared to wing-retained FPDs (p<0.05) (a dual wing + horizontal groove 222±9 N). The highest fracture strengths were observed with dual wing + occlusal rest FPDs: 250±10 N compared to inlay-retained FPDs (p<0.001) and wing-retained FPDs (p<0.001). FEA showed more favorable stress distributions within the tooth/restoration complex for dual wing retainers+ occlusal rest FPDs. There was stress concentration around connectors and retainers near connectors. A dual-wing retainer with occlusal rest is the optimal design for replacement of a single premolar by means of a two-unit cantilever FRC-FPDs. PMID:23715455

  14. The texture-structure relationship in Ti-Al-Nb multilayered composites processed by accumulative roll bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liming

    Multilayered Ti/Al/Nb composites were processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process using elemental foils of titanium, aluminum, and niobium. The rolled multilayered composites (MLCs) were prepared by ARB process up to two ARB cycles. The microstructure and texture evolution of the Ti, Al, and Nb in the MLCs were studied utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The characterizations of crystallographic texture and microstructure were conducted using a creative approach; a layer by layer method on the rolling plane. Texture evolution in the MLCs produced by symmetric rolling and asymmetric rolling was also studied in a layer by layer manner. In addition to studying the texture evolution of the Nb in the MLCs produced by the ARB process, the Bingham distribution was used to model the orientation distribution function (ODF) by employing MTEX, a quantitative texture analysis toolbox for Matlab RTM. This provided a bridge for the gap between experiments and Bingham modeling in terms of the crystallographic texture. As the numbers of ARB cycles increased, the microstructures tended to be heterogeneous through the thickness. Also, the texture development of the mating layers in the MLCs exhibited multiple texture domination rather than random. Furthermore, the developed textures of the layers in the MLCs during the ARB process were significantly different from that produced by conventional rolling. The characteristic textures formed in the MLCs subjected to the ARB process implied that the partial recrystallization and recovery occurred as a result of the adiabatic heat. The shear and compressive strain distributions were inhomogeneous through the thickness. Thus, the texture developments of the layers in the MLCs suggested a strong locational dependence. Where, the surface and the middle layers tended to form textures attributed to the shear, while, the transitory layers

  15. Semicircular Horizontal Approach in Breast Reduction: Clinical Experience in 38 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Su; Jung, Sung Gyun; Lee, Doo Hyung; Roe, Young; Cha, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Various techniques are used for performing breast reduction. Wise-pattern and vertical scar techniques are the most commonly employed approaches. However, a vertical scar in the mid-lower breast is prominent and aesthetically less pleasant. In contrast, a semicircular horizontal approach does not leave a vertical scar in the mid breast and transverse scars can be hidden in the inframammary fold. In this paper, we describe the experiences and results of semicircular horizontal breast reductions performed by a single surgeon. Methods Between September 1996 and October 2013, our senior author used this technique in 38 cases in the US and at our institution. We used a superiorly based semicircular incision, where the upper skin paddle was pulled down to the inframammary fold with the nipple-areola complex pulled through the keyhole. Results The average total reduction per breast was 584 g, ranging from 286 to 794 g. The inferior longitudinal pedicle was used in all the cases. The average reduction of the distance from the sternal notch to the nipple was 13 cm (range, 11-15 cm). The mean decrease in the bra cup size was 1.7 cup sizes (range, a decrease of 1 to 3). We obtained very satisfactory results with a less noticeable scar, no complication such as necrosis of the nipple or the skin flap, wound infection, aseptic necrosis of the breast tissue, or wound dehiscence. One patient had a small hematoma that resolved spontaneously. Conclusions This technique is straightforward and easy to learn, and offers a safe, effective, and predictable way for treating mammary hypertrophy. PMID:26217565

  16. Clinical evaluation of bond failures and survival between mandibular canine-to-canine retainers made of flexible spiral wire and fiber-reinforced composite

    PubMed Central

    Sfondrini, Maria F.; Fraticelli, Danilo; Castellazzi, Linda; Gandini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal prospective randomized study was to evaluate the clinical reliability of two different types of postorthodontic treatment retainers: a silanised-treated glass fibers-reinforced resin composite (FRC) and a directly bonded multistranded stainless steel wire. The hypothesis of the study was to assess if significant differences are present between failure rates of the two retainers. Study Design: This prospective study was based on an assessment of 87 patients (35 men and 52 women),with an average age of 24 years who required a lower arch fixed retainer after orthodontic treatment. Patients were divided in two groups. Assignment was carried out with random tables. A follow-up examination was carried out once a month. The number, cause, and date of single bond adhesive failures were recorded for both retainers over 12 months. Teeth that were rebonded after failure were not included in the success analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by means of a Fisher’s exact test, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and log rank test. Results: Bond failure rate was significantly higher (P=0.0392) for multistranded metallic wire than for FRC. Conclusions: Glass fiber-reinforced resin composite retainers and multistranded metallic wires showed no significant difference in single bond failure rates over a one-year follow up. Key words:Fiber reinforced composite, fixed retention, multistranded wire, orthodontics, retainer, splint. PMID:24790714

  17. Effect of Surface Treatment with Er;Cr:YSSG, Nd:YAG, and CO2 Lasers on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-based Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Mohammadi, Narmin; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Shojaeei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect ofsurface treatment with Er; Cr:YSSG, Nd:YAG, and CO2 lasers on repair shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite resin. Materials and methods. Sixty eight cylindrical samples of a silorane-based composite resin (Filtek Silorane) were pre-pared and randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: group 1: without surface treatment; groups 2, 3 and 4 with surface treatments using Er; Cr:YSSG, Nd:YAG, and CO2 lasers, respectively. A positive control group (group 5) was assigned in order to measure cohesive strength. Repair shear bond strength values were measured and data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of α=0.05. Results. There were statistically significant differences in repair shear bond strength values between group 2 and other groups (P < 0.05); and between group 1and groups 3and 4 (P < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences be-tween groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.91). Conclusion. The repair shear bond strength of silorane-based composite resin was acceptable by surface treatment with lasers PMID:23875082

  18. Surface modification with alumina blasting and H2SO4-HCl etching for bonding two resin-composite veneers to titanium.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yohsuke; Egoshi, Takafumi; Kamada, Kohji; Sawase, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an experimental surface treatment with alumina blasting and acid etching on the bond strengths between each of two resin composites and commercially pure titanium. The titanium surface was blasted with alumina and then etched with 45wt% H2SO4 and 15wt% HCl (H2SO4-HCl). A light- and heat-curing resin composite (Estenia) and a light-curing resin composite (Ceramage) were used with adjunctive metal primers. Veneered specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 4 and 60°C for 50,000 cycles, and the shear bond strengths were determined. The highest bond strengths were obtained for Blasting/H2SO4-HCl/Estenia (30.2 ± 4.5 MPa) and Blasting/Etching/Ceramage (26.0 ± 4.5 MPa), the values of which were not statistically different, followed by Blasting/No etching/Estenia (20.4 ± 2.4 MPa) and Blasting/No etching/Ceramage (0.8 ± 0.3 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that alumina blasting and H2SO4-HCl etching creates a number of micro- and nanoscale cavities on the titanium surface, which contribute to adhesive bonding. PMID:24372961

  19. Formation of stable phosphorus-carbon bond for enhanced performance in black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite composite battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Liu, Nian; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Yang, Wensheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-13

    High specific capacity battery electrode materials have attracted great research attention. Phosphorus as a low-cost abundant material has a high theoretical specific capacity of 2596 mAh/g with most of its capacity at the discharge potential range of 0.4-1.2 V, suitable as anodes. Although numerous research progress have shown other high capacity anodes such as Si, Ge, Sn, and SnO2, there are only a few studies on phosphorus anodes despite its high theoretical capacity. Successful applications of phosphorus anodes have been impeded by rapid capacity fading, mainly caused by large volume change (around 300%) upon lithiation and thus loss of electrical contact. Using the conducting allotrope of phosphorus, "black phosphorus" as starting materials, here we fabricated composites of black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite by mechanochemical reaction in a high energy mechanical milling process. This process produces phosphorus-carbon bonds, which are stable during lithium insertion/extraction, maintaining excellent electrical connection between phosphorus and carbon. We demonstrated high initial discharge capacity of 2786 mAh·g(-1) at 0.2 C and an excellent cycle life of 100 cycles with 80% capacity retention. High specific discharge capacities are maintained at fast C rates (2270, 1750, 1500, and 1240 mAh·g(-1) at C/5, 1, 2, and 4.5 C, respectively). PMID:25019417

  20. Efficacy of Esthetic Retainers: Clinical Comparison between Multistranded Wires and Direct-Bond Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Splints

    PubMed Central

    Scribante, Andrea; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Broggini, Simona; D'Allocco, Marina; Gandini, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal prospective randomized study was to evaluate the reliability of two different types of orthodontic retainers in clinical use: a multistrand stainless steel wire and a polyethylene ribbon-reinforced resin composite. Moreover the level of satisfaction of the patient about the esthetic result was also analyzed by means of a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). 34 patients (9 boys and 25 girls, mean age 14.3), in the finishing phase of orthodontic treatment, were selected for the study. Since splints were applied the number, cause, and date of splint failures were recorded for each single tooth over 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test, Kaplan Meier survival estimates, and the log-rank test. Kruskal Wallis test was performed to analyze VAS recordings. Differences between the bond failure rates were not statistically significant. Esthetic result of VAS was significantly higher for polyethylene ribbon-reinforced resin retainers than for stainless steel wires. PMID:22114597

  1. Acid Hydrolysis and Molecular Density of Phytoglycogen and Liver Glycogen Helps Understand the Bonding in Glycogen α (Composite) Particles

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Prudence O.; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Sheehy, Joshua J.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Warren, Frederick J.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants) and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired. PMID:25799321

  2. Composition and Bonding in Amorphous Carbon Films Grown by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition: Influence of the Assistance Voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Albella, J.M.; Banks, J.C.; Climent-Font, A.; Doyle, B.L.; Gago, R.; Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.

    1998-11-12

    Amorphous carbon films have been grown by evaporation of graphite with concurrent Ar+ ions bombardment assistance. The ion energy has been varied between 0-800 V while keeping a constant ion to carbon atom arrival ratio. Film composition and density were determined by ion scattering techniques (RBS and ERDA), indicating a negligible hydrogen content and a density dependence with the assistance voltage. The bonding structure of the films has been studied by Raman and X-ray Absorption Near-Edge (XANES) spectroscopy. Different qualitative effects have been found depending on the ion energy range. For ion energies below 300 eV, there is a densification of the carbon layer due to the increase in the sp3 content. For ion energies above 300 eV sputtering phenomena dominate over densification, and thinner films are found with increasing assistance voltage until no film is grown over 600 V. The films with the highest SP3 content are grown with intermediate energies between 200-300 V.

  3. Optimizing the Vertebrate Vestibular Semicircular Canal: Could We Balance Any Better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd M.

    2004-11-01

    The fluid-filled semicircular canals (SCCs) of the vestibular system are used by all vertebrates to sense angular rotation. Despite masses spanning seven decades, all mammalian SCCs are nearly the same size. We propose that the SCC represents a sensory organ that evolution has “optimally designed.” Four geometric parameters characterize the SCC, and “building materials” of given physical properties are assumed. Identifying physical and physiological constraints on SCC operation, we find the most sensitive SCC has dimensions consistent with available data. Since natural selection involves optimization, this approach may find broader use in understanding biological structures.

  4. Changes of endolymphatic pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeon by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1994-08-01

    It gets into difficult to explain the mechanism of caloric nystagmus only by convection theory from results of microgravity experiments. One of the other theories is an occurrence of a relative volume change due to a temperature change. Since the volume change must lead to a pressure change after caloric stimulation, we tried to measure the ampulla pressure of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons (Columba livia) using an improved servo micropipette system. The main result was that the ampulla pressure increased by cooling and decreased by heating. The changes of the ampulla pressure depended on the temperature change but were not influenced by the pigeon's head position.

  5. Analysis of intraindividual and intraspecific variation in semicircular canal dimensions using high-resolution x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Welker, Kelli L; Orkin, Joseph D; Ryan, Timothy M

    2009-10-01

    The semicircular canal system tracks head rotation and provides sensory input for the reflexive stabilization of gaze and posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intraspecific and intraindividual variation in the size of the three semicircular canals. The right and left temporal bones were extracted from 31 individuals of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and scanned on a high-resolution x-ray computed tomography system. The radius of curvature was calculated for each of the three semicircular canals for each side. Paired t-tests and independent sample t-tests indicated no significant differences in canal size between the right and left canals of the same individuals or between those of males and females of the same species. Pearson product moment correlation analyses demonstrated that there was no significant correlation between canal size and body mass in this sample. PMID:19619167

  6. A geometric analysis of semicircular canals and induced activity in their peripheral afferents in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisine, H.; Simpson, J. I.; Henn, V.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine anatomically the planes of the semicircular canals of two juvenile rhesus monkeys, using plastic casts of the semicircular canals, and the anatomical measurements were related to the directional coding of neural signals transmitted by primary afferents innervating the same simicircular canals. In the experiments, animals were prepared for monitoring the eye position by the implantation of silver-silver chloride electrodes into the bony orbit. Following the recording of semicircular canal afferent activity, the animals were sacrificed; plastic casting resin was injected into the bony canals; and, when the temporal bone was demineralized and removed, the coordinates of points spaced along the circumference of the canal casts were measured. A comparison of the sensitivity vectors determined in these experiments and the anatomical measures showed that the average difference between a sensitivity vector and its respective normal vector was 6.3 deg.

  7. Effects of temperature and holding time on bonding W and W-Cu composites with an amorphous W-Fe coated copper foil as the interlayer by hot-pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Wang, Song; Guo, Shibin; Chen, Yixiang; Ling, Yunhan; Li, Jiangtao

    2013-07-01

    W and W-Cu composites were bonded with an amorphous W-Fe coated copper foil as the interlayer at different temperature and holding time by hot pressing method. Effects of the bonding temperature and holding time on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of the bonded specimens were investigated. The thermal conductivity of the bonded sample increased with the bonding temperature and reached the maximum at 1000 °C, but essentially unchanged with the holding time. Because at 1000 °C more W-Fe compounds would be formed at the interlayer, which were helpful for tight bonding of W and W-Cu composites, and the grain size was larger which could reduce thermal resistance. The W-Cu FGM bonded by this method showed good resistance to thermal load, and performed well when facing to short pulse plasma in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (the first full superconductive fusion device in the world).

  8. CT detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula: Comparison with surgical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, Takeo; Tada, Yuichiro; Aoyagi, Masaru; Sugai, Yukio

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of high resolution CT (HRCT) in the detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula, the preoperative evaluation of both of which is clinically very important for ear surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 61 patients who underwent mastoidectomy at Yamagata University between 1989 and 1993. The HRCT images were obtained in the axial and semicoronal planes using 1 mm slice thickness and 1 mm intersection gap. In 46 (75%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment of the facial canal dehiscence coincided with the surgical findings. The data for the facial canal revealed sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 84%. For semicircular canal fistula. in 59 (97%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment and the surgical findings coincided. The image-based assessment in the remaining two patients, who both had massive cholesteatoma, was false-positive. HRCT is useful in the diagnosis of facial canal de