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Sample records for bone body composition

  1. Body Composition After Bone Marrow Transplantation in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Kathy; Hayat, Matthew; Stewart, Kerry J.; Chen, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the body composition and fat distribution of childhood bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors at least one year post-transplantation and examine the ability of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria to identify survivors with elevated body fat percentage. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive. Setting Pediatric oncology program at a National Cancer Institute–designated comprehensive cancer center. Sample 48 childhood BMT survivors (27 males and 21 females). Methods Measurements included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, height, weight, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics were reported and mixed-model linear regression models were used to describe findings and associations. Main Research Variables Total body fat percentage and central obesity (defined as a ratio of central to peripheral fat of 1 or greater). Findings Fifty-four percent of survivors had body fat percentages that exceeded recommendations for healthy body composition and 31% qualified as having central obesity. Previous treatment with total body irradiation was associated with higher body fat percentage and central obesity, and graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower body fat percentage. The body mass index (BMI) criteria did not correctly identify the BMT survivors who had elevated body fat percentage. Conclusions Survivors of childhood BMT are at risk for obesity and central obesity that is not readily identified with standard BMI criteria. Implications for Nursing Nurses caring for BMT survivors should include evaluation of general and central obesity in their assessments. Patient education materials and resources for healthy weight and muscle building should be made available to survivors. Research is needed to develop appropriate interventions. PMID:22374492

  2. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  3. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  4. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  5. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  6. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  7. Bone, fat, and body composition: evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-05-01

    Disorders of body composition, including obesity and osteoporosis, have reached record proportions. Coincidentally, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling body mass also has greatly improved. Shared regulation at the hypothalamus and the bone marrow highlight major bone-fat interactions. The hypothalamus modulates fat and bone via the sympathetic nervous system by regulating appetite, insulin sensitivity, energy use, and skeletal remodeling. In the bone marrow, fat and bone cells arise from the same stem cells. Insights from disorders such as anorexia nervosa provide a new rationale for examining the mechanisms that link bone to fat. This article explores these relationships in the context of a new paradigm with implications for obesity and osteoporosis. PMID:19375545

  8. Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El Badri, Dalal; Rostom, Samira; Bouaddi, Ilham; Hassani, Asmae; Chkirate, Bouchra; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The link between bone mass and body composition is widely recognized, but only few works were selectively performed on subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of body composition on bone mineral density (BMD) in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods Thirty three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were included in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the ratio of weight/height2(kg/m2). Pubertal status was determined according to the Tanner criteria. Bone status, body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) were analyzed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at total body in (g/cm2). Total body fat tissue mass (FTM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were also analyzed by DXA and expressed in kilograms. In children, low BMD was defined as a Z-score less than -2 and osteoporosis was defined as a Z-score less than -2 with a fracture history. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 Moroccan patients with JIA aged between 4 and 16 years, Fat mass was not related to bone density; in contrast, BMD was positively associated to LTM in total body(r = =0.41, p= 0.04) but not in lumbar spine (r = 0.29, p= 0.17). There exist significant correlation between BMC and BMD in total body (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the LTM is a determining factor of the BMD during adolescence. Other studies with a broader sample would be useful to confirm this relation. PMID:25120859

  9. Association Between Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Men on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Sandra M S de A; Wahrlich, Vivian; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Studies have revealed complex interactions between bone and fat, however there are few studies about this crosstalk in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study investigated possible relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in patients who underwent hemodialysis. Twenty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (47.0 [42.3-56.8] years, body mass index 26.0 ± 4.2 kg/m, dialysis vintage of 48.5 [26.7-95.7] months). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and parathormone levels were analyzed using Multiplex kits (R&D System Inc). Low bone mass in the femoral neck was reported in 54.8% of patients. Total BMD and total T-score were positively correlated with lean mass (r = 0.46, P = 0.04; r = 0.47, P = 0.04, respectively), but not with leptin or body fat mass. In conclusion, lean body mass is probably important to maintain bone health in male patients who underwent hemodialysis. PMID:26418381

  10. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates. PMID:24149760

  11. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  12. Associations between Body Composition, Hormonal and Lifestyle Factors, Bone Turnover, and BMD

    PubMed Central

    Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A.; Renner, Jordan B.; Rubin, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative importance of body composition, lifestyle factors, bone turnover and hormonal factors in determining bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown. We studied younger postmenopausal women to determine whether modifiable or nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis have stronger associations with BMD. Methods In multivariable linear regression models, we tested associations between non-bone body composition measures, self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary intake, urinary N-telopeptide (NTx), sex hormone concentrations, and BMD in 109 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 years, adjusting for current hormone therapy use and clinical risk factors for low BMD. Lean mass, fat mass and areal BMD (aBMD) at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and distal radius were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Higher body weight and self-reported nonwhite race were independently associated with higher aBMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and distal radius. Lean and fat mass were not independently associated with aBMD. Older age and higher urinary NTx were independently associated with lower aBMD at the distal radius but not at weight-bearing sites. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated lack of an independent association between total daily protein or calorie intake and BMD. Conclusions BMD, weight and race were the most important determinants of aBMD at all sites. Older age and higher bone turnover were independently associated with lower aBMD at the distal radius. In a limited analysis, self-reported physical activity, dietary protein and calorie intake were not associated with aBMD after adjustment for the other variables. PMID:24707468

  13. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  14. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Ignasiak, Zofia; Radwan-Oczko, Malgorzata; Rozek-Piechura, Krystyna; Cholewa, Marta; Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Tomasz; Slawinska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD), and gingival bleeding. Results In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric characteristics and body composition were significantly and positively correlated with PD and bleeding on probing. Conclusion The results suggest that body composition and BMD are not significantly correlated with tooth number and gingival bleeding. PMID:27042033

  15. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity. PMID:27344855

  16. Body Composition During Childhood and Adolescence: Relations to Bone Strength and Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shreyasee; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Achenbach, Sara J.; McCready, Louise K.; Joseph Melton, L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2014-01-01

    Context: Numerous studies have examined the association of body composition with bone development in children and adolescents, but none have used micro-finite element (μFE) analysis of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography images to assess bone strength. Objective: This study sought to examine the relations of appendicular lean mass (ALM) and total body fat mass (TBFM) to bone strength (failure load) at the distal radius and tibia. Design, Participants, and Setting: This was a cross-sectional study of 198 healthy 8- to <15-year-old boys (n = 109) and girls (n = 89) performed in a Clinical Research Unit. Results: After adjusting for bone age, height, fracture history, ALM, and TBFM, multiple linear regression analyses in boys and girls, separately, showed robust positive associations between ALM and failure loads at both the distal radius (boys: β = 0.92, P < .001; girls: β = 0.66, P = .001) and tibia (boys: β = 0.96, P < .001; girls: β = 0.66, P < .001). By contrast, in both boys and girls the relationship between TBFM and failure load at the distal radius was virtually nonexistent (boys: β = −0.07; P = .284; girls: β = −0.03; P = .729). At the distal tibia, positive, albeit weak, associations were observed between TBFM and failure load in both boys (β = 0.09, P = .075) and girls (β = 0.17, P = .033). Conclusions: Our data highlight the importance of lean mass for optimizing bone strength during growth, and suggest that fat mass may have differential relations to bone strength at weight-bearing vs non-weight-bearing sites in children and adolescents. These observations suggest that the strength of the distal radius does not commensurately increase with excess gains in adiposity during growth, which may result in a mismatch between bone strength and the load experienced by the distal forearm during a fall. These findings may explain, in part, why obese children are over-represented among distal forearm fracture cases. PMID:25243571

  17. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  18. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  19. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Kun; Ma, Guansheng; Greenfield, Heather; Fraser, David R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine association between body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical exercise with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) in 283 Chinese adolescent girls aged 15 years in Beijing, China. Body composition, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary intakes were assessed using standard validated protocols. Total body and forearm bone, lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass (FBM) were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out to examine the predictors of BMC and BA, after controlling for potential confounders. The subjects had a mean age of 15.0 (sd 0.9) years and 99.6 % of them had reached menarche. Multivariate analyses showed that LBM, FBM, handgrip muscle strength and milk intake were significant independent determinants of BMC and BA of the total body and/or forearm sites. LBM was found to be a stronger independent determinant than FBM of BMC and BA, whereas handgrip muscle strength was only found as significant determinant of BMC and BA at the forearm sites than in total body BMC and BA. Further, total physical activity level had a significant positive association with handgrip and LBM. This suggested that greater muscle strength and higher LBM may reflect higher levels of physical activity. Therefore, continuous healthy lifestyle practices such as adequate intake of milk and continuous participation in physical activity should be encouraged throughout adolescence to optimise bone growth during this period. PMID:17640423

  20. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  1. Impact + resistance training improves bone health and body composition in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dobek, J.; Nail, L. M.; Bennett, J. A.; Leo, M. C.; Torgrimson-Ojerio, B.; Luoh, S.-W.; Schwartz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Our randomized controlled trial in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors showed that impact + resistance training prevented increases in percentage of body fat compared with controls and also improved BMD at the hip and prevented BMD loss at the spine among exercise-trained women who were menopausal for >1 year. Introduction Cancer treatment-related menopause worsens bone health and body composition in breast cancer survivors (BCS). We investigated whether impact + resistance training could improve bone mineral density (BMD), reduce bone turnover, build muscle, and decrease fat mass in BCS with premature menopause. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 71 BCS (mean age, 46.5 years) within 5 years of treatment-related menopause. Women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) impact + resistance training (prevent osteoporosis with impact + resistance (POWIR)) or (2) exercise placebo (FLEX) 3×/week for 1 year. Outcomes were hip and spine BMD (in grams per square centimeter) and body composition (percent body fat (%BF) and lean and fat mass (in kilograms)) by DXA and bone turnover markers (serum osteocalcin (in nanograms per milliliter) and urinary deoxypryrodinoline (in nanomoles per milliliter). Results There were no significant group × time interactions for bone outcomes when using an intent-to-treat approach on the full sample. In analyses restricted to BCS who were menopausal for ≥1 year, POWIR increased BMD at the hip and slowed BMD loss at the spine compared with FLEX (femoral neck—POWIR, 0.004±0.093 g/cm2 vs. FLEX, −0.010±0.089 g/cm2; p<0.01; spine—POWIR, −0.003±0.114 g/cm2 vs. FLEX, −0.020±0.110 g/cm2; p=0.03). POWIR prevented increases in %BF (POWIR, 0.01 % vs. FLEX, 1.3 %; p<0.04). Women with attendance to POWIR at ≥64 % had better improvements in %BF than women attending less often (p<0.03). Conclusion Impact + resistance training may effectively combat bone loss and worsening body composition

  2. Body Composition Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... more bone and muscle will weigh more in water than a person with less bone and muscle. The volume of the body is calculated and body density and body fat percentage are calculated. This technique ...

  3. Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Whole Body Composition of Bone Tissue in Rheumatoid Arthritis – a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    POPESCU, Claudiu; BOJINCA, Violeta; OPRIS, Daniela; IONESCU, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of bone tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concentrated on regions of interest that were used to diagnose osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the whole body bone tissue (wbBT) of RA patients with healthy subjects and to identify the RA variables which significantly predict wbBT. Methods: The study was cross-sectionally designed to include postmenopausal RA patients and age-matched healthy female controls. All 107 RA patients and all 104 controls underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests and whole body DXA composition, which recorded total and regional bone indices. Non-parametric standard statistical test and regression models after data normalization were used to assess correlations, associations and differences. Results: Compared to controls, RA patients had significantly lower whole body and regional bone mass (14.9 kg compared to 15.5 kg; p = 0.031). Disease duration (r = -0.402 ; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = -0.279; p = 0.015) and inflammation (2.5% wbBT compared to 2.9%; p = 0.043), radiographic damage (14.3 kg compared to 16.2 kg; p < 0.001), disease activity scores (r = -0.275 ; p = 0.018 for HAQ) are significantly correlated/associated with lower wbBT. Clinical structural damage is associated with lower wbBT and it can significantly predict them (R2 = 0.014; p = 0.001), while glucocorticoid treatment, even in low doses, was associated with lower wbBT percent (2.6% compared to 2.8%; p = 0.045). Treatment with biologics was associated with a lower rate of whole body osteoporosis (0% compared to 22.2%; p = 0.013). Conclusions: The main associated factors with the generalized bone loss in female RA patients are disease duration and disease activity. Clinical structural damage is the most powerful predictor of the whole body bone loss. These results suggest a general disturbance of skeletal bone metabolism in RA and could explain a greater risk of fragility fractures of non

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training on body composition, bone density, strength, and selected hematological markers.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Ferreira, Maria P; Greenwood, Michael; Wilson, Michael; Almada, Anthony L

    2002-08-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are essential fatty acids that have been reported in animal studies to decrease catabolism, promote fat loss, increase bone density, enhance immunity, and serve as an antiatherogenic and anticarcinogenic agent. For this reason, CLA has been marketed as a supplement to promote weight loss and general health. CLA has also been heavily marketed to resistance-trained athletes as a supplement that may help lessen catabolism, decrease body fat, and promote greater gains in strength and muscle mass during training. Although basic research is promising, few studies have examined whether CLA supplementation during training enhances training adaptations and/or affects markers of health. This study evaluated whether CLA supplementation during resistance training affects body composition, strength, and/or general markers of catabolism and immunity. In a double-blind and randomized manner, 23 experienced, resistance-trained subjects were matched according to body mass and training volume and randomly assigned to supplement their diet with 9 g;pdd(-1) of an olive oil placebo or 6 g;pdd(-1) of CLA with 3 g;pdd(-1) of fatty acids for 28 days. Prior to and following supplementation, fasting blood samples, total body mass, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined body composition, and isotonic bench press and leg press 1 repetition maximums (1RMs) were determined. Results revealed that although some statistical trends were observed with moderate to large effect sizes, CLA supplementation did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) changes in total body mass, fat-free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, bone mass, strength, serum substrates, or general markers of catabolism and immunity during training. These findings indicate that CLA does not appear to possess significant ergogenic value for experienced resistance-trained athletes. PMID:12173945

  5. Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of complex interrelations between the endocrine functions of bone and fat tissues or organs. Objective: The objective was to describe nonmechanical and mechanical links between metabolic factors, body composition, and bone with the use of graphical Markov models. Methods: Seventy postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 62.3 ± 3.7 y and body mass index (in kg/m2) of 24.9 ± 3.8 were recruited. Bone outcomes were peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of the distal and diaphyseal tibia, cross-sectional area (CSA), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical CSA. Biomarkers of osteoblast and adipocyte function were plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UCOC), and phylloquinone. Body composition measurements were lean and percent fat mass, which were derived with the use of a 4-compartment model. Sequences of Regressions, a subclass of graphical Markov models, were used to describe the direct (nonmechanical) and indirect (mechanical) interrelations between metabolic factors and bone by simultaneously modeling multiple bone outcomes and their relation with biomarker outcomes with lean mass, percent fat mass, and height as intermediate explanatory variables. Results: The graphical Markov models showed both direct and indirect associations linking plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations with CSA and vBMD. At the distal tibia, lean mass, height, and adiponectin-UCOC interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R2 = 0.45); at the diaphysis, lean mass, percent fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age-adiponectin interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R2 = 0.49). The regression models exploring direct associations for vBMD were much weaker, with R2 = 0.15 and 0.18 at the distal and diaphyseal sites, respectively. Lean mass and UCOC were associated, and the global Markov property of the graph indicated that this association was explained by

  6. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses. PMID:26206525

  7. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  8. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  9. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  10. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  11. Relationship of body composition, knee extensor strength, and standing balance to lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276

  12. Relationship of body composition, knee extensor strength, and standing balance to lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276

  13. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health: the childhood health, activity and motor performance school (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J; Klakk, Heidi; Husby, Steffen; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently. Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone accretion in both boys and girls. PMID:25539855

  14. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mengmeng; Gu, Zhaoyan; Pei, Yu; Meng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI) are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD). Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years. Methods The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50–59 (n = 35), 60–69 (n = 123), 70–79 (n = 93), and 80–89 (n = 107) years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21), medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118), overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178), and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), lumbar spine (L1-L4) BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2), LM index (LMI; LM/height2), FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2), percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%), percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%), and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM) × 100%) were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization. Results Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001) whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145). Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined

  15. Body Composition. A Round Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Four experts discuss body composition, what it is, why it is assessed, how it is measured, and how to measure it in children and the aged. Standards of fatness, both overfat and underfat, and bone and muscle assessment are covered in the discussion. (MT)

  16. Relationship of Physical Performance with Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Individuals over 60 Years of Age: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyehyung; Panton, Lynn B.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Ilich, Jasminka Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between physical performance and body composition measurements, including fat/muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in individuals ≥60 years of age. Various measurements used to assess body composition, BMD, and physical performance (PP) were discussed as well. Medline/PubMed, CINAHL, and SCIE were used to identify articles. After limiting the search for age and kind of physical performance measures, 33 articles were evaluated. Higher fat mass was associated with poorer physical performance while higher muscle mass was a predictor of better physical performance, especially in the lower extremities. Additionally, evidence showed that higher muscle fat infiltration was a determinant of poorer physical performance. BMD was shown to be a good predictor of physical performance although the relationship was stronger in women than in men. Developing standardized methods for PP measurements could help in further investigation and conclusions of its relationship with body composition. PMID:21318048

  17. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. PMID:23562363

  18. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p < 0.05) (RT: 64 ± 14 to 80 ± 17 kg; RT+DP: 72 ± 23 to 91 ± 20 kg) and lower (p < 0.05) (RT: 69 ± 20 to 87 ± 28 kg; RT+DP: 78 ± 19 to 100 ± 21 kg) body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p < 0.05) (4.55 ± 1.57 to 4.04 ± 1.63 U/L) and the RT+DP group (p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation. PMID:24869977

  19. Sexual dimorphism of body composition.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2007-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human body composition is evident from fetal life, but emerges primarily during puberty. At birth, males have a similar fat mass to females but are longer and have greater lean mass. Such differences remain detectable during childhood; however, females enter puberty earlier and undergo a more rapid pubertal transition, whereas boys have a substantially longer growth period. After adjusting for dimorphism in size (height), adult males have greater total lean mass and mineral mass, and a lower fat mass than females. These whole-body differences are complemented by major differences in tissue distribution. Adult males have greater arm muscle mass, larger and stronger bones, and reduced limb fat, but a similar degree of central abdominal fat. Females have a more peripheral distribution of fat in early adulthood; however, greater parity and the menopause both induce a more android fat distribution with increasing age. Sex differences in body composition are primarily attributable to the action of sex steroid hormones, which drive the dimorphisms during pubertal development. Oestrogen is important not only in body fat distribution but also in the female pattern of bone development that predisposes to a greater female risk of osteoporosis in old age. Disorders of sex development are associated with significant abnormalities of body composition, attributable largely to their impact on mechanisms of hormonal regulation. PMID:17875489

  20. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  1. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. PMID:24704345

  2. Seven years of follow up of trabecular bone score, bone mineral density, body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency treated with rhGH replacement in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; Serraclara Plá, Alicia; Partida Muñoz, Myriam Lorena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by impaired physical activity, diminished quality of life (QoL), weight and fat mass gain, decreased muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment (7 years) with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), BMD, bone microarchitecture and QoL. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, BMD and BC were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone microarchitecture was assessed with the trabecular bone score (TBS). The QoL-AGHDA test was used to assess QoL. Results: A total of 18 AGHD patients (mean age, 37.39 ± 12.42) were included. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a significant increase after 7 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a significant tendency of body fat mass (BFM) (p = 0.028) and lean body mass (LBM) (p = 0.005) to increase during the 7 years of rhGH treatment. There was a significant increase in lumbar spine (LS) BMD (p = 0.01). TBS showed a nonsignificant decrease after 7 years of treatment, with a change of -0.86% ± 1.95. QoL showed a large and significant improvement (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Long-term rhGH treatment in AGHD patients induces a large and sustained improvement in QoL. Metabolic effects are variable with an increase in LBM as well as in BMI and BFM. There is a positive effect on BMD based on the increase in LS BMD, which stabilizes during long-term therapy and is not associated with a similar increase in bone microarchitecture. PMID:27293538

  3. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal E.; Chiu, Simon; Cernovsky, Zack Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate) related to this increase. Patients and Methods: Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women). Results: Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05) increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI), % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions: Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health. PMID:27162765

  4. Oroesophageal Fish Bone Foreign Body

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Up

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone foreign body (FFB) is the most frequent food-associated foreign body (FB) in adults, especially in Asia, versus meat in Western countries. The esophageal sphincter is the most common lodging site. Esophageal FB disease tends to occur more frequently in men than in women. The first diagnostic method is laryngoscopic examination. Because simple radiography of the neck has low sensitivity, if perforation or severe complications requiring surgery are expected, computed tomography should be used. The risk factors associated with poor prognosis are long time lapse after FB involvement, bone type, and longer FB (>3 cm). Bleeding and perforation are more common in FFB disease than in other FB diseases. Esophageal FB disease requires urgent treatment within 24 hours. However, FFB disease needs emergent treatment, preferably within 2 hours, and definitely within 6 hours. Esophageal FFB disease usually occurs at the physiological stricture of the esophagus. The aortic arch eminence is the second physiological stricture. If the FB penetrates the esophageal wall, a life-threatening aortoesophageal fistula can develop. Therefore, it is better to consult a thoracic surgeon prior to endoscopic removal. PMID:27461891

  5. Oroesophageal Fish Bone Foreign Body.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Up

    2016-07-01

    Fish bone foreign body (FFB) is the most frequent food-associated foreign body (FB) in adults, especially in Asia, versus meat in Western countries. The esophageal sphincter is the most common lodging site. Esophageal FB disease tends to occur more frequently in men than in women. The first diagnostic method is laryngoscopic examination. Because simple radiography of the neck has low sensitivity, if perforation or severe complications requiring surgery are expected, computed tomography should be used. The risk factors associated with poor prognosis are long time lapse after FB involvement, bone type, and longer FB (>3 cm). Bleeding and perforation are more common in FFB disease than in other FB diseases. Esophageal FB disease requires urgent treatment within 24 hours. However, FFB disease needs emergent treatment, preferably within 2 hours, and definitely within 6 hours. Esophageal FFB disease usually occurs at the physiological stricture of the esophagus. The aortic arch eminence is the second physiological stricture. If the FB penetrates the esophageal wall, a life-threatening aortoesophageal fistula can develop. Therefore, it is better to consult a thoracic surgeon prior to endoscopic removal. PMID:27461891

  6. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  7. Increasing the number of unloading/reambulation cycles does not adversely impact body composition and lumbar bone mineral density but reduces tissue sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shikha; Manske, Sarah L.; Judex, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    A single exposure to hindlimb unloading leads to changes in body mass, body composition and bone, but the consequences of multiple exposures are not yet understood. Within a 18 week period, adult C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 1 (1x-HLU), 2 (2x-HLU) or 3 (3x-HLU) cycles of 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (HLU) followed by 4 weeks of reambulation (RA), or served as ambulatory age-matched controls. In vivo μCT longitudinally tracked changes in abdominal adipose and lean tissues, lumbar vertebral apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area before and after the final HLU and RA cycle. During the final HLU cycle, significant decreases in total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD in the three experimental groups occurred such that there were no significant between-group differences at the beginning of the final RA cycle. However, the magnitude of the HLU induced losses diminished in mice undergoing their 2nd or 3rd HLU cycle. Irrespective of the number of HLU/RA cycles, total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD recovered and were no different from age-matched controls after the final RA period. In contrast, upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area was significantly lower than controls in all unloaded groups after the final RA period. These results suggest that tissues in the abdominal region are more resilient to multiple bouts of unloading and more amenable to recovery during reambulation than the peripheral musculoskeletal system.

  8. The Multicomponent Anthropometric Model for Assessing Body Composition in a Male Pediatric Population: A Simultaneous Prediction of Fat Mass, Bone Mineral Content, and Lean Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dalmo; Oikawa, Sérgio; Barbanti, Valdir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and cross-validate an anthropometric model for the simultaneous estimation of fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean soft tissue (LST) using DXA as the reference method. A total of 408 boys (8–18 years) were included in this sample. Whole-body FM, BMC, and LST were measured by DXA and considered as dependent variables. Independent variables included thirty-two anthropometrics measurements and maturity offset determined by the Mirwald equation. From a multivariate regression model (Ymn = x(r + 1)(r + 1)nβm + εnm), a matrix analysis was performed resulting in a multicomponent anthropometric model. The cross-validation was executed through the sum of squares of residuals (PRESS) method. Five anthropometric variables predicted simultaneously FM, BMC, and LST. Cross-validation parameters indicated that the new model is accurate with high RPRESS2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard error of estimate ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. The newly proposed model represents an alternative to accurately assess the body composition in male pediatric ages. PMID:23555052

  9. Impact of age, anthropometric data and body composition on calcaneal bone characteristics, as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in an older German population.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Christiane; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The impact of fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), body mass index (BMI), body mass and body height on calcaneal bone characteristics as measured with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was investigated in 137 women and 85 men aged 62-92 years, considering age, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and physical activity level (PAL). In regression analyses using various models, in women, age was a negative predictor of speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) and smoking was a negative predictor of SOS; positive predictors of SOS, BUA, and SI were BMI, body mass and FFM. In men, smoking was a negative predictor and BMI, body mass and FFM were positive predictors of BUA and SI. In both sexes, PAL, body height, WHR and FM had no effect on QUS parameters. The influence of BMI on calcaneal bone characteristics in elderly people depends on FFM rather than on FM. PMID:22036641

  10. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on changes in height, bone mineral density, and body composition over 1-2 years in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Lynda E; Thomas, William; Orchard, Paul J; Whitley, Chester B; Miller, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Hurler or Hunter syndrome typically have moderate to severe growth deficiencies despite therapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy. It is unknown whether treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) can improve growth in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hGH on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome enrolled in a longitudinal observational study. The difference in annual change in outcomes between hGH treated and untreated subjects was estimated by longitudinal regression models that adjusted for age, Tanner stage, and sex where appropriate. We report on 23 participants who completed at least 2 annual study visits (10 [43%] treated with hGH): Hurler syndrome (n=13) average age of 9.8 ± 3.1 years (range 5.3-13.6 years; 54% female) and Hunter syndrome (n=10) average age of 12.0 ± 2.7 years (range 7.0-17.0 years; 0% female). As a group, children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome treated with hGH had no difference in annual change in height (growth velocity) compared to those untreated with hGH. Growth velocity in hGH treated individuals ranged from -0.4 to 8.1cm/year and from 0.3 to 6.6 cm/year in the untreated individuals. Among children with Hunter syndrome, 100% (N=4) of those treated but only 50% of those untreated with hGH had an annual increase in height standard deviation score (SDS). Of the individuals treated with hGH, those with GHD had a trend towards higher annualized growth velocity compared to those without GHD (6.5 ± 1.9 cm/year vs. 3.5 ± 2.1cm/year; p=.050). Children treated with hGH had greater annual gains in BMD and lean body mass. In conclusion, although as a group we found no significant difference in growth between individuals treated versus not treated with hGH, individual response was highly variable and we are unable to predict who will respond to treatment. Thus

  11. Body composition analysis in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Weber, David R; Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S

    2012-11-01

    Body composition analysis has become a useful tool in both clinical and research settings. Its use in the pediatric population is complicated by the rapid periods of growth and physical development that are characteristic of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. A thorough understanding of the changing nature of body composition during this time is essential for choosing the most appropriate measurement technique for a given individual, population, or clinical question. Growing evidence suggests that tissues such as fat, muscle, and bone are intimately involved in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism. This knowledge, when coupled with advancements in imaging techniques such as MRI and PET-CT, offers the possibility of developing new models of "functional" body composition. These models may prove to be especially important when assessing malnutrition and metabolic risk in patients with chronic disease. PMID:23469390

  12. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  13. Body composition measurements during infancy.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W

    2000-05-01

    Infancy is the period of most rapid postnatal growth and is accompanied by major changes in body composition (BC). There are many challenges to successfully measuring BC of infants in vivo, which include the inherent limitations in the underlying assumptions for each technique. The small body mass and rapid nonuniform changes in body parts, that is, the components of BC during infancy, can strain the technical limits of all methods. Many techniques for in vivo BC measurement used in older people have been applied to infants. However, the vast majority of them either are difficult to adapt for widespread use in infants, or the roles and limitations for using them during infancy are ill-defined because of limited or no critical validation and cross-calibration studies. Based on validation data from animals, well-defined methodological issues in data acquisition and analyses, availability of normative data, and pertinent accuracy and precision of the technique to allow us to determinate clinically relevant changes in BC within a reasonable time interval, three techniques appear to be most suitable for in vivo BC measurement in infants. Anthropometric measurements can be used in field studies or for group comparisons, and total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and selected dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements can be used to compare BC in individual infants. DXA has the advantages of being able to measure bone mass and the potential to be adaptable to the widely available existing instruments. However, regardless of the techniques used in measuring BC in infants, meticulous attention to details in data acquisition and data analysis, and a knowledge of the limitations of the particular technique are the prerequisites for generating valid data. PMID:10865776

  14. Influence of body weight on bone mass, architecture and turnover.

    PubMed

    Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2016-09-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating the development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. Although the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  15. Whole body bone scan. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.E.; Morayati, S.J.; Carichner, S.; Winkes, B.; Cassisi, R.; McGraw, R.; Schane, E.

    1988-03-01

    The authors present the case example of a patient whose bone scan did not reveal an ulnar abnormality because the ulnae were not included on the whole body scan image. This interesting case demonstrates the importance of positioning the patient for the whole body scan to include the entire skeleton or obtaining additional spot views of the appendicular or axial skeleton not included on whole body images.

  16. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. PMID:26914513

  17. Body Composition and Skeletal Health: Too Heavy? Too Thin?

    PubMed Central

    Faje, Alexander; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between body composition and skeletal metabolism has received growing recognition. Low body weight is an established risk factor for fracture. The effect of obesity on skeletal health is less well defined. Extensive studies in patients with anorexia nervosa and obesity have illuminated many of the underlying biologic mechanisms by which body composition modulates bone mass. This review examines the relationship between body composition and bone mass through data from recent research studies throughout the weight spectrum ranging from anorexia nervosa to obesity. PMID:22644889

  18. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  19. [Body composition and comorbidity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, Marc; Gilbert, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and excess in fat versus lean mass is well known to enhance the risk of mortality and morbidity. Several recent works have pointed the importance of analysing more precisely body composition for the assessment of prognosis of patients in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The body mass index (BMI), commonly used for defining obese patients, does not give sufficient indication on the body composition and distribution of fat mass. In the elderly population, relative excess in fat mass associated with a decrease in lean mass is frequently observed. In such situations of sarcopenic obesity, the relative weight stability can be misleading. Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging public health problem in the geriatric population. It appears to be the situation with the worst prognosis for cardiovascular risk. In addition, recent works have highlighted the major impact of visceral fat, clearly linked with cardiovascular events. Body composition has also an impact on other pathologic conditions such as dementia, sleep apnoea or cancer. The links between body composition and morbidity in the elderly population are presented in this review, with emphasis on adipokines and their interactions with other organs such as the heart, liver, skeletal muscle or bones. More precise measurements of body composition, rather than BMI alone, should be developed in the elderly population. PMID:26345585

  20. Body composition in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

  1. Bone fragments a body can make

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, S.D.; Ross, L.M. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    Data obtained from various analytical techniques applied to a number of small bone fragments recovered from a crime scene were used to provide evidence for the occurrence of a fatality. Microscopic and histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the fragments were from a human skull. X-ray microanalysis of darkened areas on the bone fragments revealed a chemical signature that matched the chemical signature of a shotgun pellet recovered at the scene of the crime. The above findings supported the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprint evidence which, along with other evidence, was used to convict a man for the murder of his wife, even though her body was never recovered.

  2. Chitosan Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering—An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Bone contains considerable amounts of minerals and proteins. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is one of the most stable forms of calcium phosphate and it occurs in bones as major component (60 to 65%), along with other materials including collagen, chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate and lipids. In recent years, significant progress has been made in organ transplantation, surgical reconstruction and the use of artificial protheses to treat the loss or failure of an organ or bone tissue. Chitosan has played a major role in bone tissue engineering over the last two decades, being a natural polymer obtained from chitin, which forms a major component of crustacean exoskeleton. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to chitosan composite materials and their applications in the field of bone tissue engineering due to its minimal foreign body reactions, an intrinsic antibacterial nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and the ability to be molded into various geometries and forms such as porous structures, suitable for cell ingrowth and osteoconduction. The composite of chitosan including hydroxyapatite is very popular because of the biodegradability and biocompatibility in nature. Recently, grafted chitosan natural polymer with carbon nanotubes has been incorporated to increase the mechanical strength of these composites. Chitosan composites are thus emerging as potential materials for artificial bone and bone regeneration in tissue engineering. Herein, the preparation, mechanical properties, chemical interactions and in vitro activity of chitosan composites for bone tissue engineering will be discussed. PMID:20948907

  3. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular, and the way they can alter the composition. As bone is a heterogeneous tissue, its composition must be discussed in terms of the chemical makeup, properties of its chemical constituents and their distributions in the ever-changing bone matrix. Emphasis, in this review, is placed on changes in composition as a function of age and various diseases of bone, particularly osteoporosis. It is suggested that while some of the antiosteoporotic drugs can and do modify composition, their positive effects on bone strength may be balanced by negative ones. PMID:24501681

  4. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular, and the way they can alter the composition. As bone is a heterogeneous tissue, its composition must be discussed in terms of the chemical makeup, properties of its chemical constituents and their distributions in the ever-changing bone matrix. Emphasis, in this review, is placed on changes in composition as a function of age and various diseases of bone, particularly osteoporosis. It is suggested that while some of the antiosteoporotic drugs can and do modify composition, their positive effects on bone strength may be balanced by negative ones. PMID:24501681

  5. A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. Methods/design The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6–8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary

  6. Body composition: Where and when.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. PMID:26564096

  7. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  8. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:27142740

  9. Evaluation of body composition. Current issues.

    PubMed

    Heyward, V H

    1996-09-01

    In the selection of body composition field methods and prediction equations, exercise and health practitioners must consider their clients' demographics. Factors, such as age, gender, level of adiposity, physical activity and ethnicity influence the choice of method and equation. Also, it is important to evaluate the relative worth of prediction equations in terms of the criterion method used to derive reference measures of body composition for equation development. Given that hydrodensitometry, hydrometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are subject to measurement error and violation of basic assumptions underlying their use, none of these should be considered as a 'gold standard' method for in vivo body composition assessment. Reference methods, based on whole-body, 2-component body composition models, are limited, particularly for individuals whose fat-free body (FFB) density and hydration differ from values assumed for 2-component models. Use of field method prediction equations developed from 2-component model (Siri equation) reference measures of body composition will systematically underestimate relative body fatness of American Indian women, Black men and women, and Hispanic women because the average FFB density of these ethnic groups exceeds the assumed value (1.1 g/ml). Thus, some researchers have developed prediction equations based on multicomponent model estimates of body composition that take into account interindividual variability in the water, mineral, and protein content of the FFB. One multicomponent model approach adjusts body density (measured via hydrodensitometry) for total body water (measured by hydrometry) and/or total body mineral estimated from bone mineral (measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Skinfold (SKF), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) are 3 body composition methods used in clinical settings. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of field method prediction equations

  10. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  11. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  12. Observational study of caloric and nutrient intake, bone density, and body composition in infants and children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I

    PubMed Central

    Poruk, Katherine E; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Smart, Abby L; Chisum, Benjamin S; LaSalle, Bernie A; Chan, Gary M; Gill, Gurmail; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2012-01-01

    Clinical experience supports a critical role for nutrition in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three-day dietary intake records were analyzed for 156 visits in 47 SMA type I patients, 25 males and 22 females, ages 1 month-13 years (median 9.8 months) and compared to dietary reference intakes for gender and age along with anthropometric measures and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) data. Using standardized growth curves, twelve patients met criteria for failure to thrive (FTT) with weight for age < 3rd percentile; eight met criteria based on weight for height. Percentage of body fat mass was not correlated with weight for height and weight for age across percentile categories. DEXA analysis further demonstrated that SMA type I children have higher fat mass and lower fat free mass than healthy peers (p<0.001). DEXA and dietary analysis indicates a strong correlation with magnesium intake and bone mineral density (r=0.65, p<0.001). Average caloric intake for 1–3 year olds was 68.8 ±15.8 kcal/kg - 67% of peers’ recommended intake. Children with SMA type I may have lower caloric requirements than healthy age-matched peers, increasing risk for over and undernourished states and deficiencies of critical nutrients. Standardized growth charts may overestimate FTT status in SMA type I. PMID:22832342

  13. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João.; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario.

    2015-05-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  14. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  15. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition.

    PubMed

    Laskey, M A

    1996-01-01

    This review describes the advantages and limitations of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), a technique that is widely used clinically to assess a patient's risk of osteoporosis and to monitor the effects of therapy. DXA is also increasingly used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. There are three commercial manufacturers of DXA instruments: Lunar, Hologic, and Norland. All systems generate X-rays at two different energies and make use of the differential attenuation of the X-ray beam at these two energies to calculate the bone mineral content and soft tissue composition in the scanned region. Most DXA instruments measure bone mineral in the clinically important sites of the spine, hip, and forearm. More specialized systems also perform whole-body scans and can be used to determine the bone and soft tissue composition of the whole body and subregions such as arms, legs, and trunk. The effective dose incurred during DXA scanning is very small, and, consequently, DXA is a simple and safe technique that can be used for children and the old and frail. Precision of all DXA measurements is excellent but varies with the region under investigation. Precision is best for young healthy subjects (coefficient of variation is about 1% for the spine and whole body bone measurements) but is less good for osteoporotic and obese subjects. The accuracy of DXA measurements, however, can be problematic. Marked systematic differences in bone and soft tissue values are found between the three commercial systems due to differences in calibration, bone edge detection, and other factors. In addition, differences in reference data provided by each manufacturer can lead to an individual appearing normal on one machine but at risk of osteoporosis on another. At present, DXA cannot be regarded as a "gold standard" for body composition. However, the continuing development of DXA and the introduction of new software is greatly improving the performance of this

  16. Asymmetry in body composition in female hockey players.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Leszczyński, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups. Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes. The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players. PMID:26077573

  17. Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoe Y.

    A variety of ceramics and polymers exists that can be used as bone substitute materials with desirable properties such as biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. A key feature missing in these bone substitutes, or scaffolds, is the ability to bear loads. This work explored two methods for solving this problem. The first used cancellous bone taken from bovine femoral bone to create a natural scaffold through a heat treating process that eliminated the organic components and sintered the bone minerals, known as hydroxyapatite, together. The strength and Young's modulus of the natural scaffold were greatly improved after polymer infiltration with polymethylmethacrylate. Unfortunately, compression testing revealed that there was not a good interfacial bond between the mineral and polymer phases. The second method employed a freeze-casting technique to create synthetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds that have an aligned lamellar microstructure. By varying the amount of hydroxyapatite in the initial slurry mixture and the cooling rate, synthetic scaffolds with a range of porosities and strengths was produced. The highest solid loading and fastest cooling rate produced a scaffold with a strength and modulus approaching that of cortical bone. Further study is required to produce a two phase composite that is chemically bonded together for optimal performance. The synthetic scaffolds, with their tunable mechanical properties and ease of fabrication, make them a promising material for a load-bearing bone substitute.

  18. Photoacoustic and ultrasound characterization of bone composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Yang, Lifeng; Liu, Lixian; Tan, Joel W. Y.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the sensitivity and specificity of backscattered ultrasound (US) and backscattering photoacoustic (PA) signals for bone composition variation assessment. The conventional approach in the evaluation of bone health relies on measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Although, a crucial and probably the most important parameter, BMD is not the only factor defining the bone health. New trends in osteoporosis research, also pursue the changes in collagen content and cross-links with bone diseases and aging. Therefore, any non-invasive method that can assess any of these parameters can improve the diagnostic tools and also can help with the biomedical studies on the diseases themselves. Our previous studies show that both US and PA are responsive to changes in the BMD, PA is, in addition, sensitive to changes in the collagen content of the bone. Measurements were performed on bone samples before and after mild demineralization and decollagenization at the exact same points. Results show that combining both modalities can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tool.

  19. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  20. Novel tricalcium silicate/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate composite bone cement.

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhiguang; Chang, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we obtained a novel bone cement composed of tricalcium silicate (Ca(3)SiO(5); C(3)S) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM). The weight ratio of MCPM in the cement is 0, 10, 20, and 30%. The initial setting time was dramatically reduced from 90 min to 30 min as the content of MCPM reached 20%. The workable paste with a liquid/powder (L/P) ratio of 0.8 mL/g could be injected for 2-20 min (nozzle diameter 2.0 mm). The pH variation of the composite cement in simulated body environment was obviously lowered. The compressive strength of the composite cement after setting for 4-28 days was slightly lower than that of the tricalcium silicate paste. The in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid for 7 days. The result showed that the novel bone cement had good bioactivity and could degrade in tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane-hydrochloric-acid (Tris-HCl) solution. Our result indicated that the Ca(3)SiO(5)/MCPM paste had good hydraulic properties, bioactivity, and degradability. The novel bone cement could be a potential candidate as bone substitute. PMID:17238165

  1. Gravitational effects on body composition in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Sanchez P., O.; Burton, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Gallinaceous birds, presenting a wide range of body size, were adapted physiologically to hyperdynamic environments, provided by chronic centrifugation. Chemical composition was measured directly on prepared carcasses, which were anatomically comparable, and more amenable to analysis than the intact body. Body mass and body fat decreased arithmetically with increasing field strength and also with increasing body mass. Water content of lean tissue increased in hyperdynamic environments, but irrespectively of body size.

  2. Bone Composition Diagnostics: Photoacoustics Versus Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lifeng; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Tan, Joel W. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) backscatter from bones depends on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the interrogated bone. On the other hand, photoacoustics (PA) is sensitive to optical properties of tissue and can detect composition variation. Therefore, PA can provide complementary information about bone health and integrity. In this work, a comparative study of US backscattering and PA back-propagating signals from animal trabecular bones was performed. Both methods were applied using a linear frequency modulation chirp and matched filtering. A 2.2 MHz ultrasonic transducer was employed to detect both signals. The use of the frequency domain facilitates spectral analysis. The variation of signals shows that in addition to sensitivity to mineral changes, PA exhibits sensitivity to changes in the organic part of the bone. It is, therefore, concluded that the combination of both modalities can provide complementary detailed information on bone health than either method separately. In addition, comparison of PA and US depthwise images shows the higher penetration of US. Surface scan images exhibit very weak correlation between US and PA which could be caused by the different signal generation origins in mechanical versus optical properties, respectively.

  3. Mechanics of bone/PMMA composite structures: an in vitro study of human vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Race, Amos; Mann, Kenneth A; Edidin, Avram A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide material property data for the cement/bone composite resulting from the introduction of PMMA bone cement into human vertebral bodies. A series of quasistatic tensile and compressive mechanical tests were conducted using cement/bone composite structures machined from cement-infiltrated vertebral bodies. Experiments were performed both at room temperature and at body temperature. We found that the modulus of the composite structures was lower than bulk cement (p<0.0001). For compression at 37( composite function)C: composite =2.3+/-0.5GPa, cement =3.1+/-0.2GPa; at 23( composite function)C: composite =3.0+/-0.3GPa, cement =3.4+/-0.2GPa. Specimens tested at room temperature were stiffer than those tested at body temperature (p=0.0004). Yield and ultimate strength factors for the composite were all diminished (55-87%) when compared to cement properties. In general, computational models have assumed that cement/bone composite had the same modulus as cement. The results of this study suggest that computational models of cement infiltrated vertebrae and cemented arthroplasties could be improved by specifying different material properties for cement and cement/bone composite. PMID:16797554

  4. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  5. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes.

  6. Evaluation of Body Composition: Why and How?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of human body composition in vivo remains a critical component in the assessment of nutritional status of an individual.Whereas traditional measurements of standing height and body weight provide information on body mass index and, hence, the risk of some chronic diseases, advanced techno...

  7. Developing bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films were fabricated using the method of dissolving and evaporation. PLLA scaffold was prepared by solid-liquid phase separation of polymer solutions and subsequent sublimation of solvent. Bonelike apatite coating was formed on PLLA films, PLLA scaffolds and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) scaffolds in 24 hours through an accelerated biomimetic process. The ion concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were nearly 5 times of those in human blood plasma. The apatite formed was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apatite formed in 5SBF was similar in morphology and composition to that formed in the classical biomimetic process employing SBF or 1.5SBF, and similar to that of natural bone. This indicated that the biomimetic apatite coating process could be accelerated by using concentrated simulated body fluid at 37°C. Besides saving time, the accelerated biomimetic process is particularly significant to biodegradable polymers. Some polymers which degrade too fast to be coated with apatite by a classical biomimetic process, for example PGA, could be coated with bone-like apatite in an accelerated biomimetic process. Collagen and apatite were co-precipitated as a composite coating on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in an accelerated biomimetic process. The incubation solution contained collagen (1g/L) and simulated body fluid (SBF) with 5 times inorganic ionic concentrations as human blood plasma. The coating formed on PLLA films and scaffolds after 24 hours incubation was characterized using EDX, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. It was shown that the coating contained carbonated bone-like apatite and collagen, the primary constituents of natural bone. SEM showed a complex composite coating of submicron bone-like apatite particulates combined with collagen fibrils. This work provided an efficient process to obtain

  8. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  9. Box-modeling of bone and tooth phosphate oxygen isotope compositions as a function of environmental and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Langlois, C; Simon, L; Lécuyer, Ch

    2003-12-01

    A time-dependent box model is developed to calculate oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate as a function of environmental and physiological parameters. Input and output oxygen fluxes related to body water and bone reservoirs are scaled to the body mass. The oxygen fluxes are evaluated by stoichiometric scaling to the calcium accretion and resorption rates, assuming a pure hydroxylapatite composition for the bone and tooth mineral. The model shows how the diet composition, body mass, ambient relative humidity and temperature may control the oxygen isotope composition of bone phosphate. The model also computes how bones and teeth record short-term variations in relative humidity, air temperature and delta18O of drinking water, depending on body mass. The documented diversity of oxygen isotope fractionation equations for vertebrates is accounted for by our model when for each specimen the physiological and diet parameters are adjusted in the living range of environmental conditions. PMID:14711171

  10. Hierarchically biomimetic scaffold of a collagen-mesoporous bioactive glass nanofiber composite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fu-Yin; Lu, Meng-Ru; Weng, Ru-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-04-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glass nanofibers (MBGNFs) were prepared by a sol-gel/electrospinning technique. Subsequently, a collagen-MBGNF (CM) composite scaffold that simultaneously possessed a macroporous structure and collagen nanofibers was fabricated by a gelation and freeze-drying process. Additionally, immersing the CM scaffold in a simulated body fluid resulted in the formation of bone-like apatite minerals on the surface. The CM scaffold provided a suitable environment for attachment to the cytoskeleton. Based on the measured alkaline phosphatase activity and protein expression levels of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, the CM scaffold promoted the differentiation and mineralization of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, the bone regeneration ability of the CM scaffold was examined using a rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The results revealed that CM is biodegradable and could promote bone regeneration. Therefore, a CM composite scaffold is a potential bone graft for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25805665

  11. Measurement of Body Composition in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Identification and treatment of obesity in children is believed to be an important factor in its control during the adult years. Laboratory and field methods for body composition measurement are described along with estimates of body fat content from anthropometric dimensions. (CJ)

  12. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  13. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  14. Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Assadi, Majid; Saghari, Mohsen; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Gholami, Amir; Ghasemikhah, Reza; Assadi, Sakineh

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas. PMID:17880713

  15. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  16. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-05

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  17. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    PubMed Central

    Falsarella, Gláucia Regina; Gasparotto, Lívia Pimenta Renó; Barcelos, Caroline Coutinho; Coimbra, Ibsen Bellini; Moretto, Maria Clara; Pascoa, Mauro Alexandre; Ferreira, Talita C B Rezende; Coimbra, Arlete Maria Valente

    2015-01-01

    Background Body composition (BC) in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly. Objective To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people. Methods A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males) aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (%) data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05. Results The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001), and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001). Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038) and fat % (P=0.002). The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022). The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001), bone mass (P=0.009), fat mass (P=0.018), and BMI (P=0.003). There was a negative association between fatigue and bone mass (P=0.008). Discussion: Frailty in the elderly was characterized by a BC profile/phenotype with lower muscle mass and lower bone mass and with a higher fat %. The BMI was not effective in evaluating the relationship between BC and frailty. The importance of evaluating the fat % was verified when considering the tissue distribution in the elderly BC. PMID:26527868

  18. Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.

  19. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:24735332

  20. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  1. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  2. Vacuum-sintered body of a novel apatite for artificial bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Kenichi; Fujita, Tatsushi; Morisaki, Yuriko

    2013-12-01

    We produced regenerative artificial bone material and bone parts using vacuum-sintered bodies of a novel apatite called "Titanium medical apatite (TMA®)" for biomedical applications. TMA was formed by chemically connecting a Ti oxide molecule with the reactive [Ca10(PO4)6] group of Hydroxyapatite (HAp). The TMA powders were kneaded with distilled water, and solid cylinders of compacted TMA were made by compression molding at 10 MPa using a stainless-steel vessel. The TMA compacts were dried and then sintered in vacuum (about 10-3 Pa) or in air using a resistance heating furnace in the temperature range 1073-1773 K. TMA compacts were sintered at temperatures greater than 1073 K, thus resulting in recrystallization. The TMA compact bodies sintered in the range 1273-1773 K were converted into mixtures composed of three crystalline materials: α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), β-TCP, and Perovskite-CaTiO3. The Perovskite crystals were stable and hard. In vacuum-sintering, the Perovskite crystals were transformed into fibers (approximately 1 µm in diameter × 8 µm in length), and the fiber distribution was uniform in various directions. We refer to the TMA vacuum-sintered bodies as a "reinforced composite material with Perovskite crystal fibers." However, in atmospheric sintering, the Perovskite crystals were of various sizes and were irregularly distributed as a result of the effect of oxygen. After sintering temperature at 1573 K, the following results were obtained: the obtained TMA vacuum-sintered bodies (1) were white, (2) had a density of approximately 2300 kg/m3 (corresponding to that of a compact bone or a tooth), and had a thermal conductivity of approximately 31.3 W/(m·K) (corresponding to those of metal or ceramic implants). Further, it was possible to cut the TMA bodies into various forms with a cutting machine. An implant made of TMA and inserted into a rabbit jaw bone was covered by new bone tissues after just one month because of the high

  3. Skeletal and body composition evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry analysis of errors affecting single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques, cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals, studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis, organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement, and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  4. Gamma-ray backscatter for body composition measurement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, H M; Shakeshaft, J T; Lillicrap, S C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using backscatter information to assess regional body composition at selected sites. Two measurement techniques are examined: the measurement of the ratio of coherent to Compton scatter, and the measurement of the Compton scatter profile. Two possible applications are considered: the measurement of trabecular bone mineral density, and the measurement of the average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume. The results presented indicate that the analysis of coherent and Compton backscattered gamma-ray spectra from an 241Am source has the potential for measuring both trabecular bone mineral density and average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume, with a low absorbed dose to the subject. PMID:9569541

  5. Elastic properties of a porous titanium-bone tissue composite.

    PubMed

    Rubshtein, A P; Makarova, E B; Rinkevich, A B; Medvedeva, D S; Yakovenkova, L I; Vladimirov, A B

    2015-01-01

    The porous titanium implants were introduced into the condyles of tibias and femurs of sheep. New bone tissue fills the pore, and the porous titanium-new bone tissue composite is formed. The duration of composite formation was 4, 8, 24 and 52 weeks. The formed composites were extracted from the bone and subjected to a compression test. The Young's modulus was calculated using the measured stress-strain curve. The time dependence of the Young's modulus of the composite was obtained. After 4 weeks the new bone tissue that filled the pores does not affect the elastic properties of implants. After 24 and 52 weeks the Young's modulus increases by 21-34% and 62-136%, respectively. The numerical calculations of the elasticity of porous titanium-new bone tissue composite were conducted using a simple polydisperse model that is based on the consideration of heterogeneous structure as a continuous medium with spherical inclusions of different sizes. The kinetics of the change in the elasticity of the new bone tissue is presented via the intermediate characteristics, namely the relative ultimate tensile strength or proportion of mature bone tissue in the bone tissue. The calculated and experimentally measured values of the Young's modulus of the composite are in good agreement after 8 weeks of composite formation. The properties of the porous titanium-new bone tissue composites can only be predicted when data on the properties of new bone tissue are available after 8 weeks of contact between the implant and the native bone. PMID:25953540

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  7. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  8. Comparison of Some Secondary Body Composition Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Robert A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Body composition measurements vary greatly in degree of measurement difficulty and accuracy. Hydrostatic weighing, chemical dilution or their equivalents were the accepted "gold" standards for assessing fat mass. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is fast replacing these techniques as the preferred standard. However, these direct measurement…

  9. A Novel Injectable Magnesium/Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Composite Cement for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A novel injectable magnesium/calcium sulfate hemihydrate (Mg/CSH) composite with improved properties was reported here. Methods. Composition, setting time, injectability, compressive strength, and bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) of the Mg/CSH composite were evaluated. Furthermore, the cellular responses of canine bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs) and bone formation capacity after the implantation of Mg/CSH in tibia defects of canine were investigated. Results. Mg/CSH possessed a prolonged setting time and markedly improved injectability and mechanical property (p < 0.05). Mg/CSH samples showed better degradability than CSH in SBF after 21 days of soaking (p < 0.05). Moreover, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation, and capability of osteogenic differentiation on the Mg/CSH specimens were higher than those on CSH, without significant cytotoxicity and with the increased proliferation index, ALP activity, and expression levels of integrin β1 and Coll I in cBMSCs (p < 0.05). Mg/CSH enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation at the tibia defect area, including the significantly elevated bone mineral density, bone area fraction, and Coll I expression level (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold exhibited promising prospects for bone repair and had a great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26114102

  10. Feasibility of a Braided Composite for Orthopedic Bone Cast

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Katherine R; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    A tubular braided composite bone cast for improving the efficiency and quality of bone fracture treatment is investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate stress concentrations in fracture sites supported with plate and tubular casts. The stress in a plated bone is 768 % of that in a whole bone at the same location, while it is only 47 % in a bone with a tubular cast. Three unbroken synthetic humeri were mechanically tested using an in-vitro long bone testing procedure developed in-house to find their stiffness at 20° and 60° abduction; these were found to be 116.8 ± 1.5 N/mm and 20.63 ± 0.02 N/mm, respectively. A 2 cm gap osteotomy was cut through the diaphysis in each bone. The bones were casted with a Kevlar/Cold cure composite, with calculated braid angles and thicknesses that Closely matched bone propoerties. The stiffness tests were repeated, and the results were within 10 % of the unbroken bone. This novel method of bone casting is promising if other clinical challenges can be minimized. PMID:23459455

  11. Feasibility of a braided composite for orthopedic bone cast.

    PubMed

    Evans, Katherine R; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    A tubular braided composite bone cast for improving the efficiency and quality of bone fracture treatment is investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate stress concentrations in fracture sites supported with plate and tubular casts. The stress in a plated bone is 768 % of that in a whole bone at the same location, while it is only 47 % in a bone with a tubular cast. Three unbroken synthetic humeri were mechanically tested using an in-vitro long bone testing procedure developed in-house to find their stiffness at 20° and 60° abduction; these were found to be 116.8 ± 1.5 N/mm and 20.63 ± 0.02 N/mm, respectively. A 2 cm gap osteotomy was cut through the diaphysis in each bone. The bones were casted with a Kevlar/Cold cure composite, with calculated braid angles and thicknesses that Closely matched bone propoerties. The stiffness tests were repeated, and the results were within 10 % of the unbroken bone. This novel method of bone casting is promising if other clinical challenges can be minimized. PMID:23459455

  12. Alginate composites for bone tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Bhatnagar, Ira; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a complex and hierarchical tissue consisting of nano hydroxyapatite and collagen as major portion. Several attempts have been made to prepare the artificial bone so as to replace the autograft and allograft treatment. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to solve the several issues and is also useful in the construction of artificial bone with materials including polymer, ceramics, metals, cells and growth factors. Composites consisting of polymer-ceramics, best mimic the natural functions of bone. Alginate, an anionic polymer owing enormous biomedical applications, is gaining importance particularly in bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and gel forming properties. Several composites such as alginate-polymer (PLGA, PEG and chitosan), alginate-protein (collagen and gelatin), alginate-ceramic, alginate-bioglass, alginate-biosilica, alginate-bone morphogenetic protein-2 and RGD peptides composite have been investigated till date. These alginate composites show enhanced biochemical significance in terms of porosity, mechanical strength, cell adhesion, biocompatibility, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase increase, excellent mineralization and osteogenic differentiation. Hence, alginate based composite biomaterials will be promising for bone tissue regeneration. This review will provide a broad overview of alginate preparation and its applications towards bone tissue engineering. PMID:25020082

  13. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  14. Composite Bone Models in Orthopaedic Surgery Research and Education

    PubMed Central

    Elfar, John; Stanbury, Spencer; Menorca, Ron Martin Garcia; Reed, Jeffrey Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Composite bone models are increasingly used in orthopaedic biomechanics research and surgical education—applications that traditionally relied on cadavers. Cadaver bones are suboptimal for myriad reasons, including issues of cost, availability, preservation, and inconsistency between specimens. Further, cadaver samples disproportionately represent the elderly, whose bone quality may not be representative of the greater orthopaedic population. The current fourth-generation composite bone models provide an accurate reproduction of the biomechanical properties of human bone when placed under bending, axial, and torsional loads. The combination of glass fiber and epoxy resin components into a single phase has enabled manufacturing by injection molding. The high anatomic fidelity of the cadaver-based molds and negligible shrinkage properties of the epoxy resin results in a process that allows for excellent definition of anatomic detail in the cortical wall and optimized consistency of features between models. Recent biomechanical studies of composites have validated their use as a suitable substitute for cadaver specimens. PMID:24486757

  15. Composite bone models in orthopaedic surgery research and education.

    PubMed

    Elfar, John; Menorca, Ron Martin Garcia; Reed, Jeffrey Douglas; Stanbury, Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Composite bone models are increasingly used in orthopaedic biomechanics research and surgical education-applications that traditionally relied on cadavers. Cadaver bones are suboptimal for many reasons, including issues of cost, availability, preservation, and inconsistency between specimens. Further, cadaver samples disproportionately represent the elderly, whose bone quality may not be representative of the greater orthopaedic population. The current fourth-generation composite bone models provide an accurate reproduction of the biomechanical properties of human bone when placed under bending, axial, and torsional loads. The combination of glass fiber and epoxy resin components into a single phase has enabled manufacturing by injection molding. The high level of anatomic fidelity of the cadaver-based molds and negligible shrinkage properties of the epoxy resin results in a process that allows for excellent definition of anatomic detail in the cortical wall and optimized consistency of features between models. Recent biomechanical studies of composites have validated their use as a suitable substitute for cadaver specimens. PMID:24486757

  16. Osteocalcin enhances bone remodeling around hydroxyapatite/collagen composites.

    PubMed

    Rammelt, Stefan; Neumann, Mirjam; Hanisch, Uwe; Reinstorf, Antje; Pompe, Wolfgang; Zwipp, Hans; Biewener, Achim

    2005-06-01

    The effect of osteocalcin (OC), an extracellular bone matrix protein, on bone healing around hydroxyapatite/collagen composites was investigated. Cylindrical nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite implants of 2.5-mm diameter containing 2.5% biomimetically mineralized collagen type I were inserted press-fit into the tibial head of adult Wistar rats. To one implant group, 10 mug/g OC was added. Six specimens per group were analyzed at 2, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days. After 14 days, newly formed woven bone had reached the implant surface of the OC implants whereas a broad fibrous interface could still be observed around controls. Woven bone was formed directly around both implant groups after 28 days and had been replaced partially by lamellar bone around the OC implants only. No significant differences in total bone contact were seen between both groups after 56 days. The higher number of phagocytosing cells and osteoclasts characterized immunohistochemically with ED1, cathepsin D, and tartate-resistant alkaline phosphatase around the OC implants at the early stages of bone healing suggests an earlier onset of bone remodeling. The earlier and increased expression of bone-specific matrix proteins and multifunctional adhesion proteins (osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, CD44) at the interface around the OC implants indicates that OC may accelerate bone formation and regeneration. This study supports the observations from in vitro studies that OC activates both osteoclasts and osteoblasts during early bone formation. PMID:15800855

  17. Sarcopenia and the analysis of body composition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra M L; Kehayias, Joseph J

    2014-05-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as "age-related sarcopenia," "dynapenia," "myopenia," "sarcopenic obesity," or simply "sarcopenia." There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the "quality of lean" criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  18. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass and bone mass in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Melinda L.; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T.; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2010-01-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/wk of supervised gym- and home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6-months via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry by one radiologist blinded to the intervention group of the participants. On average, exercisers increased moderate-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 min/wk over and above baseline levels compared with 45 min/wk among usual care participants (p < .001). Exercisers experienced decreases in percent body fat (p = .0022) and increases in lean mass (p = .047) compared with increases in body fat and decreases in lean mass in usual care participants. BMD was also maintained among exercisers compared with a loss among usual care participants (p = .043). In summary, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, produces favorable changes in body composition that may improve breast cancer prognosis. PMID:19629060

  19. Methods for nurses to measure body composition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jose Maria; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus Maria; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego

    2011-01-01

    Among the methods available for assessing body composition, traditional methods like hydrodensitometry and skin-fold measurements are well known. In this review, we focus on the impedance and interactance methods, which use systems that are usually inexpensive, easily transportable and simple to operate. We also discuss the usefulness of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, particularly for the measurement of fat distribution. Nurses need to be skilled in the use of the equipment and familiar with the techniques. PMID:21876958

  20. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H/sub 2/O and /sup 82/Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support.

  1. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  2. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification. PMID:24940922

  3. Large defect-tailored composite scaffolds for in vivo bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ronca, Alfredo; Guarino, Vincenzo; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Salamanna, Francesca; Martini, Lucia; Zeppetelli, Stefania; Fini, Milena; Kon, Elisaveta; Filardo, G; Marcacci, Maurilio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of new strategies to repair large segmental bone defects is currently an open challenge for worldwide clinicians. In the treatment of critical-sized bone defects, an alternative strategy to traditional bone grafting is always more frequently the use of tailor-made scaffolds modelled on the final size and shape of the implant site. Here, poly-ε-caprolactone-based composite scaffolds including poly-L-lactic acid continuous fibres and hyaluronan derivates (i.e. HYAFF11®) have been investigated for the peculiar 3D architecture characterized by interconnected macroporous networks and tunable mechanical properties. Composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid solution in order to support in vivo tissue in-growth. Scaffolds loaded with autologous cells (bone marrow stromal cells) plus platelet-rich plasma and osteoconductive protein such bone morphogenetic protein-7 were also tested to evaluate eventual enhancement in bone regeneration. The morphological and mechanical properties of poly-L-lactic acid-reinforced composite scaffolds have been studied to identify the optimal scaffold design to match the implant-site requirements of sheep metatarsal defects. Dynamic mechanical tests allowed to underline the viscoelastic response of the scaffold - resulting in elastic moduli from 2.5 to 1.3 MPa, suitable to temporarily support the structural function of damaged bone tissue. In vivo preliminary investigations in a sheep model of metatarsus shaft defect also showed the attitude of the scaffold to promote osteogenesis, preferentially in association with bone marrow stromal cell and platelet-rich plasma, even if the highest amount of mature bone was reached in the case of scaffold loaded with human bone morphogenetic protein-7 released via hydrolytic degradation of HYAFF11® phases in the implant site. PMID:24951457

  4. Optimisation of composite bone plates for ulnar transverse fractures.

    PubMed

    Chakladar, N D; Harper, L T; Parsons, A J

    2016-04-01

    Metallic bone plates are commonly used for arm bone fractures where conservative treatment (casts) cannot provide adequate support and compression at the fracture site. These plates, made of stainless steel or titanium alloys, tend to shield stress transfer at the fracture site and delay the bone healing rate. This study investigates the feasibility of adopting advanced composite materials to overcome stress shielding effects by optimising the geometry and mechanical properties of the plate to match more closely to the bone. An ulnar transverse fracture is characterised and finite element techniques are employed to investigate the feasibility of a composite-plated fractured bone construct over a stainless steel equivalent. Numerical models of intact and fractured bones are analysed and the mechanical behaviour is found to agree with experimental data. The mechanical properties are tailored to produce an optimised composite plate, offering a 25% reduction in length and a 70% reduction in mass. The optimised design may help to reduce stress shielding and increase bone healing rates. PMID:26875147

  5. Ultrasound: Which role in body composition?

    PubMed

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Filonzi, Giacomo; Ponti, Federico; Albisinni, Ugo; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Battista, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, fast, relatively inexpensive and available tool for estimating adiposity in clinical practice, and in several research settings. It does not expose patients to ionizing radiation risks, making the method ideal for the evaluation, and for follow-up studies. Several parameters and indexes based on adipose tissue thickness have been introduced and tested, and these have been correlated with clinical and laboratoristic parameters. Moreover, ultrasound can also be directed to the estimation of adipose tissue and intracellular fat indirectly, at cellular-molecular level: an opportunity for many radiologists who already and sometimes unconsciously perform "body composition" assessment when looking at the liver, at muscle as well as at other organs. However, standardized procedure and parameters are needing to improve accuracy and reproducibility. The purposes of this review are: 1) to provide a complete overview of the most used and shared measurements of adiposity; 2) to analyze technical conditions, accuracy, and clinical meaning of ultrasound in the study of body composition; 3) to provide some elements for the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of intra-cellular lipids accumulation, in two hot spots: liver and skeletal muscle. PMID:27235340

  6. Nanobioengineered electrospun composite nanofibers and osteoblasts for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Low, Sharon; Choon, Aw Tar; Kumar, A Bharath; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2008-05-01

    Bone defects represent a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Engineering bioartificial bone tissues may help to solve problems related to donor site morbidity and size limitations. Nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun into a blend of synthetic biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) with hydroxyapatite (HA) and natural polymer gelatin (Gel) at a ratio of 1:1:2 (PCL/HA/Gel) compared to PCL (9%), PCL/HA (1:1), and PCL/Gel (1:2) nanofibers. These fiber diameters were around 411 +/- 158 to 856 +/- 157 nm, and the pore size and porosity around 5-35 microm and 76-93%, respectively. The interconnecting porous structure of the nanofibrous scaffolds provides large surface area for cell attachment and sufficient space for nutrient transportation. The tensile property of composite nanofibrous scaffold (PCL/HA/Gel) was highly flexible and allows penetrating osteoblasts inside the scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the composite nanofiber contains an amino group, a phosphate group, and carboxyl groups for inducing proliferation and mineralization of osteoblasts for in vitro bone formation. The cell proliferation (88%), alkaline phosphatase activity (77%), and mineralization (66%) of osteoblasts were significantly (P < 0.001) increased in composite nanofibrous scaffold compared to PCL nanofibrous scaffolds. Field emission scanning electron microscopic images showed that the composite nanofibers supported the proliferation and mineralization of osteoblast cells. These results show that the fabrication of electrospun PCL/HA/Gel composite nanofibrous scaffolds has potential for the proliferation and mineralization of osteoblasts for bone regeneration. PMID:18471168

  7. Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting. PMID:12567137

  8. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  9. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  10. Maternal body composition is related to infant body composition, but only in males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that maternal obesity at conception programs obesity of offspring in a rodent model. To begin to translate these findings to humans, we assessed the relationship between maternal obesity and offspring body composition (%Fat) in human infants. %Fat was measured with air displa...

  11. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. PMID:27048946

  12. No association between body composition and cognition in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Pilutti, Lara A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that body fat is inversely associated with cognitive functioning in adults from the general population, and this has been associated with systemic inflammation. The association between body fat and cognition might further be augmented in the presence of an immune-mediated, inflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS). This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between objective measures of body composition and cognitive function in 60 persons with MS. Participants underwent a neurological examination for generating Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, followed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis neuropsychological battery for measurement of cognitive processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory. Whole-body fat mass, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole-body fat mass and percent body fat were not associated with any cognitive outcome (all p > 0.41). However, lean body mass was associated with cognitive processing speed (p < 0.03), and bone mineral density was associated with cognitive processing speed and verbal learning and memory. Those associations were attenuated and nonsignificant after controlling for age and Expanded Disability Status Scale scores (p > 0.13). Body composition might not represent a target of interventions for improving cognitive processing speed or learning and memory in MS. PMID:26230584

  13. The effect of soluble salt in bone ash and other factors on the rheological properties of bone china bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shifan

    A dynamic stress rheometric technique was developed to determine the plasticity of bone china bodies. In addition, the effect of natural variations of commercial bone ash on the rheology and processability of bone china was examined. The plasticity was then related to the floc characteristics of the body. In carrying out this study the physical and colloidal characteristics of a wide range of commercial bone ash batches were determined. The effect of washing bone ash on the properties of bone ash was also determined. The preparation of bone china body followed accepted industrial processing. The extent of flocculation of the bone china body was determined using the Carmen-Kozeny model for filter pressed cakes. Dynamic mechanical analyses were conducted on all samples using a dynamic stress rheometer using a of parallel plate geometery. Stress sweep analyses were used to determine the linear viscoelastic range for other tests and the loss factor of the sample. Frequency sweep analyses were run to obtain the instantaneous modulus as the measurement of plasticity. Creep test analyses were carried out to find the steady viscosity. Mean relaxation time was calculated out from the measured instantaneous modulus and steady viscosity.

  14. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  15. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  16. Composite body for gas discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Driessen, A. J. G. C.; Geertsema, E. B.; Oomen, J. J. C.; Rouwendal, J. W.

    1985-02-26

    Composite body, a gas discharge lamp having a sodium pressure from 300-600 torr in particular, having an envelope of densely sintered aluminium oxide or of other sodium vapor-resistant materials and a feed-through member of tantalum, niobium or other metals equivalent thereto, The bonding material consisting of a finely dispersed polycrystalline product having a composition in mole % between the following limits: Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-5-70 at least one oxide chosen from Sc/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ti/sub 2/O /SUB x/ , wherein 2

  17. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  18. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  19. Bone formation: The rules for fabricating a composite ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, A.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Bone, teeth and shells are complex composite ceramics which are fabricated at low temperature by living organisms. The detailed understanding of this fabrication process is required if we are to attempt to mimic this low temperature assembly process. The guiding principles and major components are outlined with the intent of establishing non-vital fabrication schemes to form a complex composite ceramic consisting of an organix matrix inorganic crystalline phase. 19 refs.

  20. Strontium and zoledronate hydroxyapatites graded composite coatings for bone prostheses.

    PubMed

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Sima, Felix; Axente, Emanuel; Fini, Milena; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-06-15

    Both strontium and zoledronate (ZOL) are known to be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated to the loss of bone substance. In this work, we applied an innovative technique, Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (C-MAPLE), to deposit gradient thin films with variable compositions of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) and ZOL modified hydroxyapatite (ZOLHA) on Titanium substrates. Compositional gradients were obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of the two distinct material targets. The coatings display good crystallinity and granular morphology, which do not vary with composition. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells and human osteoclasts were co-cultured on the thin films up to 21 days. The results show that Sr counteracts the negative effect of relatively high concentration of ZOL on osteoblast viability, whereas both Sr and ZOL enhance extracellular matrix deposition. In particular, ZOL promotes type I collagen production, whereas Sr increases the production of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, ZOL exerts a greater effect than Sr on osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio and, as a consequence, on the reduction of osteoclast proliferation and activity. The deposition method allows to modulate the composition of the thin films and hence the promotion of bone growth and the inhibition of bone resorption. PMID:25706198

  1. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  2. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  3. The computation of body composition data using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T

    1986-01-01

    A body composition programme has been developed for the Texas Instruments TI 59 programmable calculator and printer. The methodology involves the determination of body density by underwater weighing with the ventilated residual volume being measured by helium dilution. Some of the labelled output variables included on the printout are: body density, percent body fat, fat mass and fat free mass. PMID:3755094

  4. A Novel Injectable Calcium Phosphate Cement-Bioactive Glass Composite for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kang; Tang, Yufei; Cheng, Zhe; Chen, Jun; Zang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwei; Kong, Liang; Liu, Shuai; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) can be molded or injected to form a scaffold in situ, which intimately conforms to complex bone defects. Bioactive glass (BG) is known for its unique ability to bond to living bone and promote bone growth. However, it was not until recently that literature was available regarding CPC-BG applied as an injectable graft. In this paper, we reported a novel injectable CPC-BG composite with improved properties caused by the incorporation of BG into CPC. Materials and Methods The novel injectable bioactive cement was evaluated to determine its composition, microstructure, setting time, injectability, compressive strength and behavior in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The in vitro cellular responses of osteoblasts and in vivo tissue responses after the implantation of CPC-BG in femoral condyle defects of rabbits were also investigated. Results CPC-BG possessed a retarded setting time and markedly better injectability and mechanical properties than CPC. Moreover, a new Ca-deficient apatite layer was deposited on the composite surface after immersing immersion in SBF for 7 days. CPC-BG samples showed significantly improved degradability and bioactivity compared to CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on CPC-BG were higher than those on CPC. Macroscopic evaluation, histological evaluation, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis showed that CPC-BG enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation in comparison with CPC. Conclusions A novel CPC-BG composite has been synthesized with improved properties exhibiting promising prospects for bone regeneration. PMID:23638115

  5. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sontam, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.; O'Sullivan, J. M.; Watson, M.; Firth, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON), bipedal stance (BPS), or wheel exercise (WEX) groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality. PMID:25695074

  6. Rat body size, composition and growth at hypo- and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hypergravity (centrifugation) on body composition were investigated. Hypogravitational and hypergravitational aspects were reflected in the research effort. A list of publications is provided.

  7. Body composition in MesoAmerica.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Mazariegos, M

    1995-03-01

    The fundamental paradigm for the region is short stature. Adult height is on the order of 160 cm for men and 140 cm for women. The timing of this delayed growth has been fixed to the first two years of life, when as much as 2 Z-scores of stature may be loss to the median of the NCHS reference. In the elderly of the region, we have the issue of being initially short and then suffering further loss of stature with age. The height/armspan ratio has proven instructive for exploring that change in height with age. It appears to be less than in Europeans. Demands of a rigorous agricultural lifestyle, the energy content and density of the diet, and the ravages of recurrent infection and parasitism comprise the environmental determinants of body composition in poor MesoAmerican population. They are conducive to a low storage of fat, with lean body mass being subject to response to infections. Because of the basic short stature but muscular maturity of children and adults, one questions whether the assumptions of proportionality of weight for height from the NCHS reference data apply, or whether MesoAmericans should be normally greater in weight for height than a comparably short North American. For some at the lower end of the stature scale, no international reference standards actually exist for adults. All than can be measured with microtoise, calliper, flexible tape and balance has long been recorded in MesoAmerican populations. Certain high-cost and facility- dependent technologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body neutron activation analysis, are beyond the scientific economies of any part of the region. Dual energy x-ray absorbitometry instruments are available for clinical diagnosis in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, and could be turned to research ends. Underwater weighing has been practiced variously in MesoAmerica. Researchers in Guatemala have pioneered in the investigative use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to all ages from low

  8. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  9. Single walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashim; Woods, Mia D; Illingworth, Kenneth David; Niemeier, Ryan; Schafer, Isaac; Cady, Craig; Filip, Peter; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA) composites for orthopedic applications and to evaluate the interaction of human stem cells (hBMSCs) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) via cell growth, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix production and mineralization. PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA composites were fabricated with various amounts of SWCNT (5, 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg), characterized and degradation studies were performed. Cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated uniform incorporation of SWCNT into the PLAGA matrix and addition of SWCNT did not affect the degradation rate. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 and hBMSCs cells exhibited normal, non-stressed morphology on the composites and all were biocompatible. Composites with 10 mg SWCNT resulted in highest rate of cell proliferation (p < 0.05) among all composites. Gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, collagen I, osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runx-2, and Bone Sialoprotein was observed on all composites. In conclusion, SWCNT/PLAGA composites imparted beneficial cellular growth capabilities and gene expression, and mineralization abilities were well established. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration and bone tissue engineering (BTE) and are promising for orthopedic applications. PMID:23629922

  10. Total body bone mineral density in young children: influence of head bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Konrad, P T; Norman, M E; Harcke, H T

    1997-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy have made this technique particularly suitable for measuring total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in children. Other published reports have related TBMD to age in children 2-18 years of age. However, in young normal children aged 2-9 years (51 girls, 43 boys), we found that regression equations for TBMD with age as the predictor did not explain enough of the variance to warrant their use for predicting TBMD (adjusted R2 0.47, females; 0.41, males). Subtotal BMD (TBMD-head BMD) is predicted better by age because of a possibly invalid adult algorithm for head BMD (adjusted R2 0.73, females; 0.71, males). PMID:9101377

  11. Bone and body mass changes during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, V.; Oganov, V.; LeBlanc, A.; Rakmonov, A.; Taggart, L.; Bakulin, A.; Huntoon, C.; Grigoriev, A.; Varonin, L.

    Long duration space flight has shown us that humans have significant bone loss and mineral changes because they are living in microgravity. Skylab and the longer Salyut and Mir missions, are providing us useful data and allowing us to explore the mechanism involved in skeletal turnover. Bone redistribution occurs throughout space flight with bone loss predominately in the weight bearing bones of posture and locomotion. The primary health hazards which may occur during space flight induced by skeletal changes include signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia, and the risk of kidney stones and metastatic calcification. After flight lengthy recovery of bone mass and the possible increase in the risk of bone fracture should be considered. Continued research studies are being directed toward determining the mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures by both the US (Schneider and McDonald, 1984 and Schneider, LeBlanc & Huntoon, 1993) and Russian (Grigoriev et. al., 1989) space programs.

  12. Osteogenic Embryoid Body-Derived Material Induces Bone Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sutha, Ken; Schwartz, Zvi; Wang, Yun; Hyzy, Sharon; Boyan, Barbara D.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The progressive loss of endogenous regenerative capacity that accompanies mammalian aging has been attributed at least in part to alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of adult tissues. Thus, creation of a more regenerative microenvironment, analogous to embryonic morphogenesis, may be achieved via pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and derivation of devitalized materials as an alternative to decellularized adult tissues, such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Transplantation of devitalized ESC materials represents a novel approach to promote functional tissue regeneration and reduce the inherent batch-to-batch variability of allograft-derived materials. In this study, the osteoinductivity of embryoid body-derived material (EBM) was compared to DBM in a standard in vivo ectopic osteoinduction assay in nude mice. EBM derived from EBs differentiated for 10 days with osteogenic media (+β-glycerophosphate) exhibited similar osteoinductivity to active DBM (osteoinduction score = 2.50 ± 0.27 vs. 2.75 ± 0.16) based on histological scoring, and exceeded inactive DBM (1.13 ± 0.13, p < 0.005). Moreover, EBM stimulated formation of new bone, ossicles, and marrow spaces, similar to active DBM. The potent osteoinductivity of EBM demonstrates that morphogenic factors expressed by ESCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation yield a novel devitalized material capable of stimulating de novo bone formation in vivo. PMID:25961152

  13. Long-term antibiotic delivery by chitosan-based composite coatings with bone regenerative potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordikhani, F.; Simchi, A.

    2014-10-01

    Composite coatings with bone-bioactivity and drug-eluting capacity are considered as promising materials for titanium bone implants. In this work, drug-eluting chitosan-bioactive glass coatings were fabricated by a single-step electrophoretic deposition technique. Drug-loading and -releasing capacity of the composite coatings were carried out using the vancomycin antibiotic. Uniform coatings with a thickness of ∼55 μm containing 23.7 wt% bioactive glass particles and various amounts of the antibiotic (380-630 μg/cm2) were produced. The coatings were bioactive in terms of apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid and showed favorable cell adhesion and growth. In vitro biological tests also indicated that the composite coatings had better cellular affinity than pristine chitosan coatings. The in vitro elution kinetics of the composite coating revealed an initial burst release of around 40% of the drug within the first elution step of 1 h and following by a continuous eluting over 4 weeks, revealing long-term drug-delivering potential. Antibacterial tests using survival assay against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria determined the effect of vancomycin release on reduction of infection risk. Almost no bacteria were survived on the coatings prepared from the EPD suspension containing ≥0.5 g/l vancomycin. The developed chitosan-based composite coatings with bone bioactivity and long-term drug-delivery ability may be potentially useful for metallic implants to reduce infection risk.

  14. Novel bioactive composite bone cements based on the beta-tricalcium phosphate-monocalcium phosphate monohydrate composite cement system.

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhiguang; Chang, Jiang

    2009-05-01

    Bioactive composite bone cements were obtained by incorporation of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5, C3S) into a brushite bone cement composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate [beta-Ca3(PO4)2, beta-TCP] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, MCPM], and the properties of the new cements were studied and compared with pure brushite cement. The results indicated that the injectability, setting time and short- and long-term mechanical strength of the material are higher than those of pure brushite cement, and the compressive strength of the TCP/MCPM/C3S composite paste increased with increasing aging time. Moreover, the TCP/MCPM/C3S specimens showed significantly improved in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid and similar degradability in phosphate-buffered saline as compared with brushite cement. Additionally, the reacted TCP/MCPM/C3S paste possesses the ability to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and promote osteoblastic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells. The results indicated that the TCP/MCPM/C3S cements may be used as a bioactive material for bone regeneration, and might have significant clinical advantage over the traditional beta-TCP/MCPM brushite cement. PMID:18996779

  15. Fabrication of Bone like Composites Material and Evaluation of its Ossiferous Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisamori, Noriyuki; Kimura, Megumi; Morisue, Hikaru; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    Many kinds of materials are currently used as artificial bone substitutes. Hydroxyapatite (HA), the same as the main inorganic component of bone, is one of commonly used bio-ceramics and has excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility with hard tissues. However, it has problems as the bone filler or bone tissue-engineering scaffold due to low fracture toughness and low degradation rate. Recently, biodegradable materials for bone tissue have been developed to respond the requirement. Collagen, the same as the main organic component of bone, is biocompatible, biodegradable and promotes cell adhesion. A composites associated with HA is expected to have early osteoconduction and bone replacement ability. The present study was to fabricate bone-like composites consist of HA and collagen. Besides the ossiferous ability of the material in vivo is evaluated by using rabbits. Bone-like composites were successfully fabricated in this study, associating the collagen with HA. And the composites presented good osteoconductive and bone replacement potential.

  16. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  17. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  18. Validation of QMR body composition analysis for infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to validate the use of a quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) device for measuring the body composition of infants and neonates weighing less than 12 kg using the pig as a model. A total of 25 piglets weighing between 2 and 12 kg were studied. Body composition was assessed by ...

  19. In vivo experimental study on bone regeneration in critical bone defects using PIB nanogels/boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass composite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yanbing; Geng, Shinan; Miron, Richard J; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Chengtie; Zhang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, the fabrication of novel p(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butyl methylacrylate) (PIB) nanogels was combined with boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (B-MBG) scaffolds in order to improve the mechanical properties of PIB nanogels alone. Scaffolds were tested for mechanical strength and the ability to promote new bone formation in vivo. Patients and methods To evaluate the potential of each scaffold in bone regeneration, ovariectomized rats were chosen as a study model to determine the ability of PIB nanogels to stimulate bone formation in a complicated anatomical bone defect. PIB nanogels and PIB nanogels/B-MBG composites were respectively implanted into ovariectomized rats with critical-sized femur defects following treatment periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-implantation. Results Results from the present study demonstrate that PIB nanogels/B-MBG composites showed greater improvement in mechanical strength when compared to PIB nanogels alone. In vivo, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed significantly more newly formed bone in defects containing PIB nanogels/B-MBG composite scaffolds when compared to PIB nanogels alone. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive staining demonstrated that both scaffolds were degraded over time and bone remodeling occurred in the surrounding bone defect as early as 4 weeks post-implantation. Conclusion The results from the present study indicate that PIB nanogels are a potential bone tissue engineering biomaterial able to treat defects of irregular shapes and deformities as an injectable, thermoresponsive, biocompatible hydrogel which undergoes rapid thermal gelation once body temperature is reached. Furthermore, its combination with B-MBG scaffolds improves the mechanical properties and ability to promote new bone formation when compared to PIB nanogels alone. PMID:25653525

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting body composition in a mouse intercross

    PubMed Central

    Vitarius, James A.; Sehayek, Ephraim; Breslow, Jan L.

    2006-01-01

    Gravimetric analysis and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry were used to determine lean, fat, and bone tissue traits in a F2 mouse population from a C57BL/6J and CASA/Rk intercross (B6CASAF2). These traits were used in a linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci that affect body composition. Linkage mapping showed that body weight (BW) loci on proximal chromosome 2 occurred in the same region as body length, lean tissue mass, and bone mineral content and on chromosome 13 in the same region as lean tissue mass, bone mineral density, and bone mineral content. Fat-related loci occurring on mid-chromosome 2 near 60 cM, proximal chromosome 6, and mid-chromosome 10 were distinct from BW, lean tissue, and bone tissue loci. In B6CASAF2 females, heterozygotes and CASA/Rk homozygotes at the chromosome 6 locus marker had higher body fat percentages, and this locus was responsible for 11% of the variance for body fat percentage. Female heterozygotes and C57BL/6J homozygotes at the chromosome 15 locus marker had higher bone mineral densities, and this locus could explain 8% of that trait's variance. A survey of the literature did not reveal any previous reports of fat-specific loci in the chromosomal 10 region near 42 cM reported in this study. The results of this study indicate that BW and BMI have limited usefulness as phenotypes in linkage or association studies when used as obesity phenotypes. PMID:17179051

  1. Biocompatibility of artificial bone based on vancomycin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and calcium sulfate composites.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jisheng; Wang, Teng; Fan, Guoxin; Ma, Junhua; Hu, Wei; Cai, Xiaobing

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of artificial bone based on vancomycin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and calcium sulfate composites. In vitro cytotoxicity tests by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) assay showed that the 5 %Van-MSN-CaSO4 and Van-CaSO4 bone cements were cytocompatible for mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. The microscopic observation confirmed that MC3T3-E1cells incubated with Van-CaSO4 group and 5 %Van-MSN-CaSO4 group exhibited clear spindle-shaped changes, volume increase and maturation, showing that these cements supported adhesion of osteoblastic cells on their surfaces. In addition, the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity revealed the osteoconductive property of these biomaterials. In order to assess in vivo biocompatibility, synthesized cements were implanted into the distal femur of twelve adult male and female New Zealand rabbits. After implantation in artificial defects of the distal femur, 5 %Van-MSN-CaSO4 and Van-CaSO4 bone cements did not damage the function of main organs of rabbits. In addition, the Van-MSN-CaSO4 composite allowed complete repair of bone defects with new bone formation 3 months after implantation. These results show potential application of Van-MSN-CaSO4 composites as bone graft materials for the treatment of open fracture in human due to its mechanical, osteoconductive and potential sustained drug release characteristics and the absence of adverse effects on the body. PMID:26883948

  2. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  3. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  4. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. PMID:26042695

  5. Probable phase composition of the mineral in bone.

    PubMed

    Driessens, F C

    1980-01-01

    Formulas proposed for the mineral of bone were reviewed. Literature data were collected where Ca, P, Na, Mg and CO3 are determined in the same samples. These data were analyzed for their conformity to the above mentioned formulas. According to this analysis Mg is contained in a phase having the Ca/P of magnesium whitlockite within the limites of error. Na is contained in a carbonated calcium phosphate phase which is analogy with synthetic systems must have the apatite structure. The Ca/P ratio of the remaining "rest phase" is 2. This is based on the composition of 101 bone mineral samples taken from fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. The CO3 content of the bone samples agrees with the formula Ca8 (PO4)4 (CO3) (OH)2 . X H2O for the "rest phase" within the limits of experimental error. Such a compound has, however, not been found in synthetic systems. Human bone contains about 15% magnesium whitlockite, 25% of the Na and CO3 containing apatite and the rest is the carbonated calcium phosphate with Ca/P = 2. It is presumed that this compound has a structure similar to that of octo calcium phosphate and that most of the citrate ions which always occur in bone mineral samples are incorporated in that phase. PMID:6773257

  6. From Milk to Bones, Moving Calcium Through the Body: Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Did you know that when astronauts are in space, their height increases about two inches? This happens because the weightlessness of space allows the spine, usually compressed in Earth's gravity, to expand. While this change is relatively harmless, other more serious things can happen with extended stays in weightlessness, notably bone loss. From previous experiments, scientists have observed that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of about one percent per month during flight. Scientists know that bone is a dynamic tissue - continually being made and repaired by specialized bone cells throughout life. Certain cells produce new bone, while other cells are responsible for removing and replacing old bone. Research on the mechanisms of bone metabolism and the effects of space flight on its formation and repair are part of the exciting studies that will be performed during STS-107. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. Ninety-nine percent of calcium in the body is stored in the skeleton. However, calcium may be released, or resorbed, from bone to provide for other tissues when you are not eating. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts will participate in a study of calcium kinetics - that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  7. Functional adaptation of long bone extremities involves the localized ``tuning'' of the cortical bone composition; evidence from Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Birch, Helen L.; Gikas, Panagiotis D.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E.

    2014-11-01

    In long bones, the functional adaptation of shape and structure occurs along the whole length of the organ. This study explores the hypothesis that adaptation of bone composition is also site-specific and that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of bone (and, thus, its mechanical properties) varies along the organ's length. Raman spectroscopy was used to map the chemical composition of long bones along their entire length in fine spatial resolution (1 mm), and then biochemical analysis was used to measure the mineral, collagen, water, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content where site-specific differences were seen. The results show that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of the bone material in human tibiae varies by <5% along the mid-shaft but decreases by >10% toward the flared extremities of the bone. Comparisons with long bones from other large animals (horses, sheep, and deer) gave similar results with bone material composition changing across tens of centimeters. The composition of the bone apatite also varied with the phosphate-to-carbonate ratio decreasing toward the ends of the tibia. The data highlight the complexity of adaptive changes and raise interesting questions about the biochemical control mechanisms involved. In addition to their biological interest, the data provide timely information to researchers developing Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool for measuring bone composition in vivo (particularly with regard to sampling and measurement protocol).

  8. Changes in body composition of neonatal piglets during growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of neonatal piglet growth it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) provides precise and accurate measurements of total body fat mass, lean mass and total body water in non...

  9. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  10. Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

    2014-03-01

    Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

  11. Repairing Fractured Bones by Use of Bioabsorbable Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed method of surgical repair of fractured bones would incorporate recent and future advances in the art of composite materials. The composite materials used in this method would be biocompatible and at least partly bioabsorbable: that is, during the healing process following surgery, they would be wholly or at least partly absorbed into the bones and other tissues in which they were implanted. Relative to the traditional method, the proposed method would involve less surgery, pose less of a risk of infection, provide for better transfer of loads across fracture sites, and thereby promote better healing while reducing the need for immobilization by casts and other external devices. One requirement that both the traditional and proposed methods must satisfy is to fix the multiple segments of a broken bone in the correct relative positions. Mechanical fixing techniques used in the traditional method include the use of plates spanning the fracture site and secured to the bone by screws, serving of wire along the bone across the fracture site, insertion of metallic intramedullary rods through the hollow portion of the fractured bone, and/or inserting transverse rods through the bone, muscle, and skin to stabilize the fractured members. After the bone heals, a second surgical operation is needed to remove the mechanical fixture(s). In the proposed method, there would be no need for a second surgical operation. The proposed method is based partly on the observation that in the fabrication of a structural member, it is generally more efficient and reliable to use multiple small fasteners to transfer load across a joint than to use a single or smaller number of larger fasteners, provided that the stress fields of neighboring small fasteners do not overlap or interact. Also, multiple smaller fasteners are more reliable than are larger and fewer fasteners. However, there is a trade-off between structural efficiency and the cost of insertion time and materials. The

  12. Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Gelatin-PEG and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Thuy Duong; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Nguyen, Dai Hai; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Phuong Thi

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have recently attracted much attention for tissue regeneration because of their biocompatibility. In this study, we introduce poly-ethylene glycol (PEG)—grafted gelatin containing tyramine moieties which have been utilized for in situ enzyme-mediated hydrogel preparation. The hydrogel can be used to load nanoparticles of biphasic calcium phosphate, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, and forming injectable bio-composites. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra indicated that tyramine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-nitrophenyl carbonate ester was conjugated to the gelatin. The hydrogel composite was rapidly formed in situ (within a few seconds) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. In vitro experiments with bio-mineralization on the hydrogel composite surfaces was well-observed after 2 weeks soaking in simulated body fluid solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be a potential injectable material for bone regeneration.

  13. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted. PMID:23075559

  14. Body composition of piglets exhibiting different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and composition of the neonatal pig is of interest because of potential impact on subsequent growth and finally, composition at market weight. The purpose of this study was to compare at weaning the growth and body composition of the largest and smallest pigs (excluding runts) from each o...

  15. Body composition changes in elite male bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T; Noell, C J; Whittingham, N O; Chatterton, B E; Schultz, C G; Keeves, J P

    1997-03-01

    Anthropometric profiles together with a 4 compartment criterion model of body composition analysis (total body water, bone mineral, fat and residual masses via a combination of deuterium dilution, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and hydrodensitometry) were conducted on 3 elite male bodybuilders 10 wk and then 5 d before competition. A mean body mass reduction from 99.70 (Quetelet's Index = 31.6 kg/m2) to 92.79 kg (Quetelet's Index = 29.2 kg/m2) was accompanied by a decline in the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, biceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf) from 51.1 to 36.7 mm. The 4 compartment body composition model indicated that there were reductions of: percent body fat (%BF) from 9.1 to 5.0%, fat free mass (FFM) from 90.60 to 88.14 kg and fat mass (FM) from 9.10 to 4.65 kg. Sixty-four percent of the 6.91 kg loss in body mass therefore came from the FM. The 2 compartment hydrodensitometric model yielded higher %BFs (initial = 11.2; final = 7.1) than the 4 compartment model (initial = 9.1; final = 5.0) which is theoretically more valid because it controls for biological variability in the percentages of water and bone mineral in the FFM. Nevertheless, both models registered decreases of 4.1%BF. PMID:9127683

  16. Mechanical validation of whole bone composite femur models.

    PubMed

    Cristofolini, L; Viceconti, M; Cappello, A; Toni, A

    1996-04-01

    Composite synthetic models of the human femur have recently become commercially available as substitutes for cadaveric specimens. Their quick diffusion was justified by the advantages they offer as a substitute for real femurs. The present investigation concentrated on an extensive experimental validation of the mechanical behaviour of the whole bone composite model, compared to human fresh-frozen and dried-rehydrated specimens for different loading conditions. First, the viscoelastic behaviour of the models was investigated under simulated single leg stance loading, showing that the little time dependent phenomena observed tend to extinguish within a few minutes of the load application. The behaviour under axial loading was then studied by comparing the vertical displacement of the head as well as the axial strains, by application of a parametric descriptive model of the strain distribution. Finally, a four point bending test and a torsional test were performed to characterize the whole bone stiffness of the femur. In all these tests, the composite femurs were shown to fall well within the range for cadaveric specimens, with no significant differences being detected between the synthetic femurs and the two groups of cadaveric femurs. Moreover, the interfemur variability for the composite femurs was 20-200 times lower than that for the cadaveric specimens, thus allowing smaller differences to be characterized as significant using the same simple size, if the composite femurs are employed. PMID:8964782

  17. High-acceleration whole body vibration stimulates cortical bone accrual and increases bone mineral content in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Gnyubkin, Vasily; Guignandon, Alain; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Malaval, Luc; Vico, Laurence

    2016-06-14

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a promising tool for counteracting bone loss. Most WBV studies on animals have been performed at acceleration <1g and frequency between 30 and 90Hz. Such WBV conditions trigger bone growth in osteopenia models, but not in healthy animals. In order to test the ability of WBV to promote osteogenesis in young animals, we exposed seven-week-old male mice to vibration at 90Hz and 2g peak acceleration for 15min/day, 5 days/week. We examined the effects on skeletal tissues with micro-computed tomography and histology. We also quantified bone vascularization and mechanosensitive osteocyte proteins, sclerostin and DMP1. Three weeks of WBV resulted in an increase of femur cortical thickness (+5%) and area (+6%), associated with a 25% decrease of sclerostin expression, and 35% increase of DMP1 expression in cortical osteocytes. Mass-structural parameters of trabecular bone were unaltered in femur or vertebra, while osteoclastic parameters and bone formation rate were increased at both sites. Three weeks of WBV resulted in higher blood vessel numbers (+23%) in the distal femoral metaphysis. After 9-week WBV, we have not observed the difference in structural cortical or trabecular parameters. However, the tissue mineral density of cortical bone was increased by 2.5%. Three or nine weeks of 2g/90Hz WBV treatment did not affect longitudinal growth rate or body weight increase under our experimental conditions, indicating that these are safe to use. These results validate a potential of 2g/90Hz WBV to stimulate trabecular bone cellular activity, accelerate cortical bone growth, and increase bone mineral density. PMID:27178020

  18. USE OF A NOVEL PEDIATRIC BODY COMPOSITION TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESING BODY FATNESS IN INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The assessment of body composition provides key information for assessing infant growth and for the administration of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of body composition methods in infants is limited due to practical considerations, accuracy, and safety. This study ev...

  19. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  20. Biological evaluation of porous aliphatic polyurethane/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanxun; Both, Sanne K; Zuo, Yi; Birgani, Zeinab Tahmasebi; Habibovic, Pamela; Li, Yubao; Jansen, John A; Yang, Fang

    2015-07-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds meant to function as supporting structures to osteogenic cells play a pivotal role in bone tissue engineering. Recently, we synthesized an aliphatic polyurethane (PU) scaffold via a foaming method using non-toxic components. Through this procedure a uniform interconnected porous structure was created. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were introduced into this process to increase the bioactivity of the PU matrix. To evaluate the biological performances of these PU-based scaffolds, their influence on in vitro cellular behavior and in vivo bone forming capacity of the engineered cell-scaffold constructs was investigated in this study. A simulated body fluid test demonstrated that the incorporation of 40 wt % HA particles significantly promoted the biomineralization ability of the PU scaffolds. Enhanced in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the seeded mesenchymal stem cells were also observed on the PU/HA composite. Next, the cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously in a nude mice model. After 8 weeks, a considerable amount of vascularized bone tissue with initial marrow stroma development was generated in both PU and PU/HA40 scaffold. In conclusion, the PU/HA composite is a potential scaffold for bone regeneration applications. PMID:25370308

  1. Behavior of plaster of Paris-calcium carbonate composite as bone substitute. A study in rats.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Anne Handrini; Ana, Ika Dewi; Wolke, Joop; Jansen, John

    2013-08-01

    Calcium sulfate, also known as plaster of Paris (POP), is probably the oldest biomaterial used for bone grafting and considered to be a fast degradable material that allows complete resorption before the bone defect area is completely filled by new bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to combine POP with calcium carbonate in order to increase the the osteoconductivity of this material. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats, 5-months-old and weighing 300-350 g, were used in the study. Various treatment groups were created by the implantation of cylindrical samples of POP-100, POP-075 and POP-050 into the femoral condyles. After 1 and 4 weeks of implantation, rats were sacrificed and the implanted areas and the surrounding tissue were retrieved for histological analysis. The study was completed by an in vitro experiment, which included the soaking of the experimental materials into simulated body fluid. The results indicated that the composites were appropriate to be used as bone grafting material. The incorporation of CaCO3 into POP did decrease the degradation rate of the cements and induced faster bone formation, thus provides promising properties to this material. PMID:23239628

  2. Bone architectural and structural properties after 56Fe26+ radiation-induced changes in body mass.

    PubMed

    Willey, J S; Grilly, L G; Howard, S H; Pecaut, M J; Obenaus, A; Gridley, D S; Nelson, G A; Bateman, T A

    2008-08-01

    High-energy, high-charge (HZE) radiation, including iron ions ((56)Fe(26+)), is a component of the space environment. We recently observed a profound loss of trabecular bone in mice after whole-body HZE irradiation. The goal of this study was to examine morphology in bones that were excluded from a (56)Fe(26+) beam used to irradiate the body. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and excluding the hind limbs and pelvis, we irradiated animals with 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy (56)Fe(26+) ions and killed them humanely after 9 months. Animals grew throughout the experiment. Trabecular bone volume, connectivity and thickness within the proximal tibiae were significantly lower than control in a dose-dependent manner. Irradiated animals generally had less body mass than controls, which largely accounted for the variability in bone parameters as determined by ANCOVA. Likewise, lower cortical parameters were associated with reduced mass. However, lesser trabecular thickness in the 4-Gy group could not be attributed to body mass alone. Indicators of bone metabolism were generally unchanged, suggesting stabilized turnover. Exposure to (56)Fe(26+) ions can alter trabecular microarchitecture in shielded bones. Reduced body mass seems to be correlated with these deficits of trabecular and cortical bone. PMID:18666808

  3. Poly-ε-caprolactone composite scaffolds for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Di Liddo, R; Paganin, P; Lora, S; Dalzoppo, D; Giraudo, C; Miotto, D; Tasso, A; Barbon, S; Artico, M; Bianchi, E; Parnigotto, P P; Conconi, M T; Grandi, C

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic biomaterials combined with cells and osteogenic factors represent a promising approach for the treatment of a number of orthopedic diseases, such as bone trauma and congenital malformations. To guarantee optimal biological properties, bone substitutes are prepared with a 3D structure and porosity grade functional to drive cell migration and proliferation, diffusion of factors, vascularization and cell waste expulsion. In this study, synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) or rat bone extracellular matrix (BP) were examined in an effort to optimize the mechanical properties and osteogenic activity of poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds prepared with alginate threads (PCL-AT). Using rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs), the effects of PCL composite substrates on cell adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Micro-CT analysis and scanning electron microscopy evidenced that porous PCL scaffolds containing HA or BP acquire a trabecular bone-like structure with interconnected pores homogenously distributed and are characterized by a pore diameter of approximately 10 µm (PCL-AT-BP) or ranging from 10 to 100 µm. Although the porosity grade of both PCL-AT-HA and PCL-AT-BP promoted optimal conditions for the cell growth of rMSCs at the early phase, the presence of BP was crucial to prolong the cell viability at the late phase. Moreover, a precocious expression of Runx2 (at 7 days) was observed in PCL-AT-BP in combination with osteogenic soluble factors suggesting that BP controls better than HA the osteogenic maturation process in bone substitutes. PMID:25319350

  4. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  5. Validation of dual x-ray absorptiometry for body-composition assessment of rats exposed to dietary stressors.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Hall, C B; Marchello, M J; Siders, W A

    2001-01-01

    Evidence of the validity and accuracy of dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure soft-tissue composition of laboratory rats with altered body composition associated with nutritional perturbations is lacking. We compared DXA determinations made in prone and supine positions with measurements of chemical composition of 49 male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed the basal AIN-93 growth diet, were fed the basal diet modified to contain 30% fat, were fasted for 2 d, were limit fed 6 g of the basal diet daily for 1 wk, or were treated with furosemide (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 h before DXA). DXA produced similar estimates of body mass and soft-tissue composition in the prone and supine positions. DXA estimates of body composition were significantly correlated with reference composition values (R(2) = 0.371-0.999). DXA discriminated treatment effects on body mass, fat-free and bone-free mass, fat mass, and body fatness; it significantly underestimated body mass (1% to 2%) and fat-free and bone-free mass (3%) and significantly overestimated fat mass and body fatness (3% to 25%). The greatest errors occurred in treatment groups in which body mass was diminished and body hydration was decreased. These findings suggest that DXA can determine small changes in fat-free, bone-free mass in response to obesity and weight loss. Errors in DXA determination of fat mass and body fatness associated with extra corporeal fluid and dehydration indicate the need for revision of calculation algorithms for soft-tissue determination. PMID:11448581

  6. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues. PMID:26454048

  7. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights.

  8. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ∼1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (∼0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  9. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  10. Hydroxyapatite-titanium bulk composites for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-01

    The research work on bulk hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composites are driven by the need to develop biomaterials with better mechanical properties without compromising its bioactivity and biocompatibility properties. Despite several years of research, the mechanical properties of the HA-based composites still need to be enhanced to match the properties of natural cortical bone. In this regard, the scope of this review on the HA-based bulk biomaterials is limited to the processing and the mechanical as well as biocompatibility properties for bone tissue engineering applications of a model system that is hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) bulk composites. It will be discussed in this review how HA-Ti based bulk composites can be processed to have better fracture toughness and strength without compromising biocompatibility. The advantages of the functionally gradient materials to integrate the mechanical and biocompatibility properties is a promising approach in hard tissue engineering and has been emphasized here in reference to the limited literature reports. On the biomaterials fabrication aspect, the recent results are discussed to demonstrate that advanced manufacturing techniques, like spark plasma sintering can be adopted as a processing route to restrict the sintering reactions, while enhancing the mechanical properties. Various toughening mechanisms related to careful tailoring of microstructure are discussed. The in vitro cytocompatibilty, cell fate processes as well as in vivo biocompatibility results are also reviewed and the use of flow cytometry to quantify in vitro cell fate processes is being emphasized. PMID:24737723

  11. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, C M; Ambrus, J L

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colonyforming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls. PMID:124758

  12. The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes. PMID:24914773

  13. Bone growth and composition in weanling and mature rats exposed to chronic centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Evans, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary objective of the study is to determine the effect of continuous exposure to hypergravity on the development and composition of weight-bearing bone. The experimental results are seen to suggest that many, if not all, of the changes observed in bone growth and composition derive from the retarded growth rate of the centrifuged rats. Both centrifuged weanling and mature rats exhibit a significant reduction in femur length and mass. The changes in femur size are more apparent in the weanlings since they are exposed to hypergravity during their most rapid phase of skeletal development. In addition to a slower growth rate, the body mass of the mature and weanling animals is reduced even further by the depletion of body fat. The rapid loss of body fat observed in rats and mice during centrifugation, it is found, can produce a prompt and significant rise in relative femur mass after two weeks of exposure. After adaptation to centrifugation, however, relative femur mass is similar to that of controls at four and eight weeks. At 18 weeks, the centrifuged rats again exhibit an increase in relative femur mass. It is thought that this increase in relative femur mass may be generated by the difference in fat deposition between the 1-G controls and the high-G rats.

  14. Biodegradable composite scaffolds of bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for hemostatic and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Hong; Pan, Jianfeng; Yan, Zuoqin; Yao, Zhenjun; Fan, Wenshuai; Guo, Changan

    2015-02-01

    Hemostasis in orthopedic osteotomy or bone cutting requires different methods and materials. The bleeding of bone marrow can be mostly stopped by bone wax. However, the wax cannot be absorbed, which leads to artificial prosthesis loosening, foreign matter reaction, and infection. Here, a bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose (BG/CS/CMC) composite scaffold was designed to replace traditional wax. WST-1 assay indicated the BG/CS/CMC composite resulted in excellent biocompatibility with no cytotoxicity. In vivo osteogenesis assessment revealed that the BG/CS/CMC composite played a dominant role in bone regeneration and hemostasis. The BG/CS/CMC composite had the same hemostasis effect as bone wax; in addition its biodegradation also led to the functional reconstruction of bone defects. Thus, BG/CS/CMC scaffolds can serve as a potential material for bone repair and hemostasis in critical-sized bone defects. PMID:25326173

  15. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  16. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  17. Relationships between body composition analysis measures in Greek women and US white women.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Stavroula J; Theodorou, Daphne J; Kalef-Ezra, John; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Agnantis, Niki; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Tsampoulas, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the regional changes in body composition relative to age, in healthy Caucasian women living in the Mediterranean area. Body composition of total and subtotal body was measured, and fat mass (FM) ratios along with FM and lean mass (LM) indices were calculated in 330 women aged 20-85 years, using DXA. Data were compared with the NHANES reference database. Peak bone mineral density and bone mineral content of total body were 1.149 g/cm(2) and 2,209 g and were achieved between ages 41 and 50. Peak %FM of total body, FM index (FMI; FM/height(2)), FM of trunk to legs, and FM of trunk to limbs were 41.5%, 13.69 kg/m(2), 1.623, and 1.14, respectively. Peak %FM and FMI were achieved between 61 and 70 years. Unlike US counterparts, in our series, both FM ratios showed a propensity for women to accrue fat in the trunk following the android pattern of fat distribution. Peak LM index for total body (LMI; LM/height(2)) and limbs (ASMMI; appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2)) was 18.08 kg/m(2) and 7.33 kg/m(2), respectively, and was achieved between 61 and 70 years. For Greeks, the ASMMI was greater from 55 years onwards. Greek women have increasing bone mass in early adulthood followed by significant decline during fifties and onwards. Compared with US white women, Greek women have significantly greater truncal fat for all ages, implying a greater risk of obesity-associated diseases. Middle-aged and older Greek women have greater appendicular skeletal muscle mass, which may eliminate the overall risk of sarcopenic obesity. PMID:25366468

  18. Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

  19. Body composition data from the rat subjects of Cosmos 1129 experiment K-316

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 18.5 days of weightlessness on the body composition of young, growing, male laboratory rats were examined. Three groups of 5 rats each were examined. It is indicated that exposure of young, growing, male rats to 18.5 days of weightlessness produces: (1) no effect on the quantity of fat stored by the body; (2) a slight reduction in the quantity of fat free tissue laid down by the body; (3) a small reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free body mass; (4) a similar reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free skin and fat free carcass; (5) a shift in relative distribution of the total body water from skin to viscera; (6) a diminution in the fraction of extracellular water contained by the fat free body; (7) no effect on the fraction of total skeletal musculature contained by the fat free body, as indicated by body creatine content; (8) a sizeable reduction in the fraction of bone mineral contained by the fat free body, as calculated from body calcium content. The nature of the physiological changes induced by unloading from Earth gravity in the mammalian organism are illustrated.

  20. The Effects of Body Composition, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity on Calcaneus Quantitative Ultrasound in Spanish Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Rio-Valle, Jacqueline Schmidt; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2016-07-01

    Identifying modifiable factors that influence bone gain during early adulthood in order to maximize peak bone mass (PBM) is a potential primary strategy in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. The present study examined the relationships between body composition, dietary intake and physical activity (PA), and bone health measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the right calcaneus. The study population consisted of 781 Spanish men and women (age 19.1 ± 3.6). Body composition, dietary intake, PA, and bone strength were assessed. Calcaneus QUS was significantly correlated with age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, protein intake, and moderate and high PA. No significant correlation between calcium intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) was detected. Linear regression analyses revealed that independent variables accounted for 18.8% of the total variance of calcaneus BUA (p = .000). Lean mass and high PA were significant predictors of BUA variance in young adults (p = .000 and p = .045, respectively). Results indicate that lifestyle choices and their consequences during early adulthood could influence bone mass, particularly PA and lean mass. Furthermore, this study provides novel data about bone mass as indicated by the QUS measurements at the time of PBM acquisition. PMID:26933147

  1. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age

    PubMed Central

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M.

    2015-01-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone’s microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal and tissue age dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further supports the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  2. Calcium phosphate cement - gelatin powder composite testing in canine models: Clinical implications for treatment of bone defects.

    PubMed

    Yomoda, Mitsuhiro; Sobajima, Satoshi; Kasuya, Akihiro; Neo, Masashi

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported the excellent biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cement. However, calcium phosphate cement needs further improvement in order for it to promote bone replacement and eventual bone substitution, as it exhibits slow biodegradability and thus remains in the body over an extended period of time. In this study, we mixed calcium phosphate cement with gelatin powder in order to create a composite containing macropores with interconnectivity, and we then implanted it into canine femurs from the diaphysis to the distal metaphysis. Eight dogs were divided into the sham group, the control (C0) group with 100 wt% calcium phosphate cement, the C10 group with 90 wt% calcium phosphate cement and 10 wt% gelatin powder, and the C15 group with 85 wt% calcium phosphate cement and 15 wt% gelatin powder. Bone replaceability in C10 and C15 at 3 and 6 months was evaluated by radiography, micro-CT, histomorphometry, and mineral apposition rate. New bone formation was seen in C10 and C15 although that was not seen in C0 at six months. The mineral apposition rate was significantly higher in C15 than in C10 in both the diaphysis and metaphysis, and the composite was found to have excellent biodegradability and bone replaceability in canine subjects. As the composite is easily and rapidly prepared, it is likely to become a new bone substitute for use in clinical settings. PMID:25550332

  3. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic. PMID:24755526

  4. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  5. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  6. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R; Beck, Kathryn L; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C; O'Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16-45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm². Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  7. Effects of diet containing flaxseed flour (Linum usitatissimum) on body adiposity and bone health in young male rats.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; da Silva, Paula Cristina Alves; Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, Letícia Rozeno; Boueri, Bianca Ferolla da Camara; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-02-01

    Flaxseed flour has been described as an excellent alpha-linolenic acid source. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour on body adiposity and bone health in rats fed a flaxseed flour diet during lactation until 90 days. At birth, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) and experimental (FF) groups, whose dams were treated with a control or flaxseed flour diet, respectively, during lactation. At 21 days, pups were weaned and fed a control and experimental diet until 90 days. Food intake, body mass and length were evaluated during a 21-90 day period. At 90 days, composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum hormonal profile, intra-abdominal fat mass, and lumbar vertebra and femur analyses was determined. Differences were deemed significant at p < 0.05. The FF group displayed the following (P < 0.05): a higher total lean mass (+7%), a lower total (-16%) and intra-abdominal (-24%) fat mass, a smaller adipocyte area (-30%), a higher femoral mass (+5%), bone mineral density (+5%) and radiodensity (+20%), and a higher maximum force (+10%) and breaking strength (+11%). The flaxseed flour diet displayed functional properties related to body growth maintenance associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic alterations, obesity and bone fragility. PMID:26822538

  8. Application of standards and models in body composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making. PMID:26541411

  9. The Head Bone's Connected to the Neck Bone: When Do Toddlers Represent Their Own Body Topography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Celia A.; Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Zerwas, Stephanie; Ramani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Developments in very young children's topographic representations of their own bodies were examined. Sixty-one 20- and 30-month-old children were administered tasks that indexed the ability to locate specific body parts on oneself and knowledge of how one's body parts are spatially organized, as well as body-size knowledge and self-awareness. Age…

  10. Calcium phosphate porous composites and ceramics prospective as bone implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabadjieva, D.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Gergulova, R.; Sezanova, K.; Ilieva, R.; Gabrashanska, M.; Alexandrov, M.

    2013-12-01

    Two types of calcium phosphate materials prospective as bone implants were prepared in the shape of granules and their biochemical behavior was tested by in vivo studies: (i) composite materials consisting of gelatin and bi-phase ion modified calcium phosphate Mg,Zn-(HA + β-TCP); and (ii) ceramics of ion modified calcium phosphate Mg,Zn-(HA + β-TCP). The starting fine powders were prepared by the method of biomimetic precipitation of the precursors followed by hightemperature treatment. Then granules were prepared by dispersion in liquid paraffin of a thick suspension containing 20% of gelatin gel and thus prepared calcium phosphate powders (1:1 ratios). The composite granules were obtained by subsequent hardening in a glutaraldehyde solution, while the highly porous ceramic granules - by further sintering at 1100°C. The in vivo behavior of both types of granules was tested in experimental rat models. Bone defects were created in rat tibia and were filled with the implants. Biochemical studies were performed. Three months after operation both bio-materials displayed analogous behavior.

  11. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  12. UREA SPACE AND BODY CONDITION SCORE TO PREDICT BODY COMPOSITION OF MEAT GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (n=40) were used to develop and compare body composition prediction equations for mature meat goats based on urea space (US) and body condition score (BCS). Before the experiment, one-half of the animals were managed to have high BW and BCS (1-5, with 1 being extreme...

  13. A bone composition model for Monte Carlo x-ray transport simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hu; Keall, Paul J.; Graves, Edward E.

    2009-03-15

    In the megavoltage energy range although the mass attenuation coefficients of different bones do not vary by more than 10%, it has been estimated that a simple tissue model containing a single-bone composition could cause errors of up to 10% in the calculated dose distribution. In the kilovoltage energy range, the variation in mass attenuation coefficients of the bones is several times greater, and the expected error from applying this type of model could be as high as several hundred percent. Based on the observation that the calcium and phosphorus compositions of bones are strongly correlated with the bone density, the authors propose an analytical formulation of bone composition for Monte Carlo computations. Elemental compositions and densities of homogeneous adult human bones from the literature were used as references, from which the calcium and phosphorus compositions were fitted as polynomial functions of bone density and assigned to model bones together with the averaged compositions of other elements. To test this model using the Monte Carlo package DOSXYZnrc, a series of discrete model bones was generated from this formula and the radiation-tissue interaction cross-section data were calculated. The total energy released per unit mass of primary photons (terma) and Monte Carlo calculations performed using this model and the single-bone model were compared, which demonstrated that at kilovoltage energies the discrepancy could be more than 100% in bony dose and 30% in soft tissue dose. Percentage terma computed with the model agrees with that calculated on the published compositions to within 2.2% for kV spectra and 1.5% for MV spectra studied. This new bone model for Monte Carlo dose calculation may be of particular importance for dosimetry of kilovoltage radiation beams as well as for dosimetry of pediatric or animal subjects whose bone composition may differ substantially from that of adult human bones.

  14. The Head Bone's Connected to the Neck Bone: When do Toddlers Represent Their Own Body Topography?

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Celia A.; Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Zerwas, Stephanie; Ramani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Developments in very young children's topographic representations of their own bodies were examined. Sixty one 20- and 30-month old children were administered tasks that indexed the ability to locate specific body parts on oneself and knowledge of how one's body parts are spatially organized, as well as body-size knowledge and self-awareness. Age differences in performance emerged for every task. Body-part localization and body spatial configuration knowledge were associated; however, body topography knowledge was not associated with body-size knowledge. Both were related to traditional measures of self-awareness, mediated by their common associations with age. It is concluded that children possess an explicit, if rudimentary, topographic representation of their own body's shape, structure, and size by 30 months of age. PMID:20573105

  15. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  16. Top 10 research questions related to body composition.

    PubMed

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-03-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges ranging from illness to planned interventions. Each focus is significant, and in a sense, they are interdependent, because technological advances allow more sophisticated questions to be addressed, which in turn drives the development of better methods. Significant advances have been made in each area, although perhaps surprisingly basic questions remain. For example, growth trajectories are often estimated from cross-sectional data, given the resources needed for long-term observational studies, and thus, longitudinal descriptive data are still needed. Along with advances in laboratory methods, development of field methods remains relevant for screening and clinical practice. Despite recognition of wide interindividual differences in intervention response, average outcomes continue to be emphasized. With technological advances, it is now possible to examine genetic along with nongenetic factors that underlie changes in body composition, and these techniques need to be applied in long-term, well-controlled trials. In this article, we review 10 key questions in related areas in which research is needed to continue to advance the field. PMID:24749235

  17. History of the U.S. Navy Body Composition program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, David D

    2015-01-01

    The Navy currently employs maximum weight-for-height tables and body fat prediction equations based on circumference measurements to assess body composition. However, many Sailors believe the current method fails to accurately predict body fat percentage. As a result, the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) conducted numerous studies in an attempt to improve the accuracy and reliability of the Navy's Body Composition Analysis program. In 2012, NHRC conducted a study that researched the feasibility of using a single abdominal circumference (AC) measurement in lieu of circumference measurements. The Air Force and National Institutes of Health (NIH) employ a single AC measurement taken at the superior border of the iliac crest to assess body composition and all-cause mortality risk. Although the Air Force and NIH use the iliac crest, NHRC is proposing the Navy use the umbilicus as the AC site since it is less invasive and easier to identify. If implemented, the Navy would use cutoff values of 40 in. and 36 in. for males and females, respectively. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of the Navy's Body Composition Analysis program as well as propose the transition from circumference measurements to a single AC measurement. PMID:25562863

  18. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  19. Synthesis and mechanical behavior of β-tricalcium phosphate/titania composites addressed to regeneration of long bone segments.

    PubMed

    Sprio, Simone; Guicciardi, Stefano; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Melandri, Cesare; Tampieri, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive tricalcium phosphate/titania ceramic composites were synthesized by pressureless air sintering of mixed hydroxyapatite and titania (TiO2) powders. The sintering process was optimized to achieve dense ceramic bodies consisting in a bioactive/bioresorbable matrix (β-tricalcium phosphate) reinforced with defined amounts of sub-micron sized titania particles. Extensive chemico-physical and mechanical characterization was carried out on the resulting composites, which displayed values of flexural strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus in the range or above the typical ranges of values manifested by human cortical bone. It was shown that titania particles provided a toughening effect to the calcium-phosphate matrix and a reinforcement in fracture strength, in comparison with sintered hydroxyapatite bodies characterized by similar relative density. The characteristics of the resulting composites, i.e. bioactivity/bioresorbability and ability of manifesting biomimetic mechanical behavior, are features that can promote processes of bone regeneration in load-bearing sites. Hence, in the perspective of developing porous bone scaffolds with high bioactivity and improved biomechanical behavior, TCP/TiO2 composites with controlled composition can be considered as very promising biomaterials for application in a field of orthopedics where no acceptable clinical solutions still exist. PMID:23122887

  20. Increased Gs Signaling in Osteoblasts Reduces Bone Marrow and Whole-Body Adiposity in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Valencia, Joel T; Ho, Samantha; Jordan, Kate; Mattingly, Aaron; Morales, Blanca M; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-04-01

    Bone is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ that can regulate systemic hormones and metabolism through secreted factors. Although bone loss and increased adiposity appear to be linked clinically, whether conditions of increased bone formation can also change systemic metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we examined how increased osteogenesis affects metabolism by using an engineered G protein-coupled receptor, Rs1, to activate Gs signaling in osteoblastic cells in ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) transgenic mice. We previously showed that these mice have dramatically increased bone formation resembling fibrous dysplasia of the bone. We found that total body fat was significantly reduced starting at 3 weeks of age. Furthermore, ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) mice showed reduced O2 consumption and respiratory quotient measures without effects on food intake and energy expenditure. The mice had significantly decreased serum triacylglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin. Resting glucose and insulin levels were unchanged; however, glucose and insulin tolerance tests revealed increased sensitivity to insulin. The mice showed resistance to fat accumulation from a high-fat diet. Furthermore, ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) mouse bones had dramatically reduced mature adipocyte differentiation, increased Wingless/Int-1 (Wnt) signaling, and higher osteoblastic glucose utilization than controls. These findings suggest that osteoblasts can influence both local and peripheral adiposity in conditions of increased bone formation and suggest a role for osteoblasts in the regulation of whole-body adiposity and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26901092

  1. Body Composition in Individuals with Asymptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-02-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with a greater risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study sought to investigate whether the association is mediated by fat mass or lean mass. The study involved 170 men and 488 women aged between 20 and 90 (average age: 55) who were randomly recruited from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The presence of knee OA was radiographically diagnosed based on the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were obtained from the DXA whole body scan (Hologic QDR-4500). The relationship between OA, LM, and FM was analyzed by a series of multiple linear regression models which take into account the effects of gender and age. As expected, men and women with knee OA were older than those without OA (65 vs 51 year in men, and 64 vs 52 year in women). After adjusting for age, OA was associated with greater FM and percent body fat (PBF), but the association was only observed in women, not in men. There was no statistically significant difference in LM between OA and non-OA individuals. Moreover, after adjusting for age and BMI or PBF, bone density in OA patients was not significantly different from non-OA individuals. Women with OA of the knee have greater fat mass than non-OA individuals, and that there is no significant difference in bone density between OA and non-OA individuals. Thus, the association between body mass index and OA is mainly mediated by fat mass. PMID:26590808

  2. Bone engineering by phosphorylated-pullulan and β-TCP composite.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Tomohiro; Okihara, Takumi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Shiozaki, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Aki; Yamane, Kentaro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Masahide; Nakamura, Mariko; Irie, Masao; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Tanaka, Masato; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    A multifunctional biomaterial with the capacity bond to hard tissues, such as bones and teeth, is a real need for medical and dental applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we created phosphorylated-pullulan (PPL), capable of binding to hydroxyapatite in bones and teeth. In the present study, we employed PPL as a novel biocompatible material for bone engineering. First, an in vitro evaluation of the mechanical properties of PPL demonstrated both PPL and PPL/β-TCP composites have higher shear bond strength than materials in current clinical use, including polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement and α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cement, Biopex-R. Further, the compressive strength of PPL/β-TCP composite was significantly higher than Biopex-R. Next, in vivo osteoconductivity of PPL/β-TCP composite was investigated in a murine intramedular injection model. Bone formation was observed 5 weeks after injection of PPL/β-TCP composite, which was even more evident at 8 weeks; whereas, no bone formation was detected after injection of PPL alone. We then applied PPL/β-TCP composite to a rabbit ulnar bone defect model and observed bone formation comparable to that induced by Biopex-R. Implantation of PPL/β-TCP composite induced new bone formation at 4 weeks, which was remarkably evident at 8 weeks. In contrast, Biopex-R remained isolated from the surrounding bone at 8 weeks. In a pig vertebral bone defect model, defects treated with PPL/β-TCP composite were almost completely replaced by new bone; whereas, PPL alone failed to induce bone formation. Collectively, our results suggest PPL/β-TCP composite may be useful for bone engineering. PMID:26586655

  3. Antibacterial and bioactive composite bone cements containing surface silver-doped glass particles.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Fucale, Giacomo; Maina, Giovanni; Verné, Enrica

    2015-09-01

    A bioactive silica-based glass powder (SBA2) was doped with silver (Ag(+)) ions by means of an ion-exchange process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced that the glass powder was enriched with Ag(+) ions. However, a small amount of Ag2CO3 precipitated with increased Ag concentrations in the exchange solution. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Ag-SBA2 towards Staphylococcus aureus were also evaluated and were respectively 0.05 mg ml(-1) and 0.2 mg ml(-1). Subsequently, Ag-SBA2 glass was used as filler (30%wt) in a commercial formulation of bone cement (Simplex(™) P) in order to impart both antibacterial and bioactive properties. The composite bone cement was investigated in terms of morphology (using SEM) and composition (using EDS); the glass powder was well dispersed and exposed on the cement surface. Bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) evidenced the precipitation of hydroxyapatite on sample surfaces. Composite cement demonstrated antibacterial properties and a compressive strength comparable to the commercial formulation. PMID:26481324

  4. Two-body wear resistance of some indirect composite resins.

    PubMed

    Savabi, Omid; Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Shabanian, Mitra; Anbari, Zahra

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two-body wear of five indirect composites and compare them with enamel. Signum, belleGlass HP, SR Adoro, Dialog, GC Gradia and enamel were formed into cylinders (n = 10). Two-body abrasive wear rates were determined using a porcelain disk and a pin on disk apparatus. The height and weight loss of the specimens were measured by stereomicroscope and digital scale. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests to determine significant differences (alpha = 0.05). GC Gradia showed significantly less wear resistance than the other materials. Enamel was more resistant than any of the tested composites. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that the type of resin, filler size and method of polymerization could have affect the two-body abrasion resistance of indirect composites. PMID:21780731

  5. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

  6. Bioactive ceramic-reinforced composites for bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials have been used to repair the human body for millennia, but it is only since the 1970s that man-made composites have been used. Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polyethylene (PE) is the first of the ‘second-generation’ biomaterials that have been developed to be bioactive rather than bioinert. The mechanical properties have been characterized using quasi-static, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness testing, and these studies have allowed optimization of the production method. The in vitro and in vivo biological properties have been investigated with a range of filler content and have shown that the presence of sufficient bioactive filler leads to a bioactive composite. Finally, the material has been applied clinically, initially in the orbital floor and later in the middle ear. From this initial combination of HA in PE other bioactive ceramic polymer composites have been developed. PMID:20591846

  7. Relationships among Fitness, Body Composition, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    LOHMAN, TIMOTHY G.; RING, KIMBERLY; PFEIFFER, KARIN; CAMHI, SARAH; ARREDONDO, ELVA; PRATT, CHARLOTTE; PATE, RUSS; WEBBER, LARRY S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the associations of physical activity and body composition with cardiorespiratory fitness in eighth grade girls. Methods A random sample of 1440 eighth grade girls at 36 schools participated in this cross-sectional investigation, which represented an ethnically and geographically diverse group. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a modified physical work capacity test on a cycle ergometer that predicted workload at a heart rate of 170 beats·min−1. Physical activity was assessed over 6 d in each girl using an accelerometer and body composition was estimated from body mass index and triceps skinfolds using a previously validated equation. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine the relationships among fitness, physical activity, and body composition. Results Significant linear relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and physical activity were found. The combination of fat and fat-free mass along with racial group and a race by fat-free-mass interaction accounted for 18% (R2) of the variation in physical fitness. Adding moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to the regression model increased the R2 to 22%. Black girls had somewhat lower fitness levels (P < 0.05) especially at higher levels of fat and fat-free mass than other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Physical activity, fat-free mass, and the interaction between fat-free mass and racial group are significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescent girls. PMID:18460987

  8. Study of bone mineral metabolism. [during body immobilization, bed rest, and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Sr-85 as an indicator of the skeletal location and relative amount of bone demineralization which occurs during immobilization of the body or body parts, bed-rest or space flight was studied. The bone mineral replacement which occurs after immobilization was measured rather than the bone loss which occurs during immobilization. In a study with two adult beagle dogs, the Sr-85 uptake in a leg which had been immobilized for two months was 400 percent higher than the uptake in the legs in regular use. This increased uptake probably resulted from only a few percent loss in bone mineral and indicates that losses less than one percent can be easily detected and located. The sensitivity, simplicity, and low radiation dose associated with the use of this method indicates that it should receive consideration for use on humans in bed-rest and space flight studies. Methods for measuring changes in total body nitrogen and in assisting the Johnson Space Center in calibrating a whole body counter for total body potassium measurements were also investigated.

  9. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  10. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752

  11. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  12. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height2. Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental

  13. The Distribution of the Magnetic Field in the Spine Depends on the Composition of Bone Marrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.

    1995-07-01

    Although the composition of bone marrow with hemopoietic cells, fat cells, and extracellular fluid can be roughly assessed by standard MR-imaging techniques and especially water and lipid-selective chemical-shift-imaging methods, a new approach to the characterization of the magnetic properties of marrow was performed by special field-mapping techniques. The distribution of the magnetic field inside and outside vertebral bodies containing paramagnetic substances was systematically studied for phantoms and by measurements in vivo. Nineteen healthy volunteers and 26 patients with alterations of the bone marrow due to hematologic diseases were examined. The amount of paramagnetic substances in the marrow was estimated by measuring steps of Larmor frequency of the water resonances at the transition between vertebral bodies and adjacent intervertebral disks. These frequency steps were exhibited by MAGSUS imaging on a 1.5 Tesla whole-body imager. Additional volume-localized H-1 spectroscopy allowed a more quantitative assessment of the spectral components. The measured frequency steps of the water resonances ranged between 0 and 26 Hz for the healthy volunteers examined. In contrast, patients with pathologically altered marrow and high amount of paramagnetic substances revealed frequency steps of up to 85 Hz. The frequency steps in 8 patients after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with slow reconstitution (mean 48.9 Hz, standard deviation (s.d.) 21.7 Hz) were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than in normal volunteers. Seven BMT patients with good reconstitution (frequency steps: mean 16.7 Hz, s.d. 13.9 Hz) were not clearly different from the healthy subjects. Six patients with acute leukemia showed significantly (p < 0.01) increasing frequency steps during initial cytotoxic treatment: The frequency steps increased from a mean of 4.7 Hz (s.d, 2.7 Hz) before treatment to a mean of 30.2 Hz (s.d. 14.6 Hz) after a few months of therapy.

  14. Fractionated sublethal total body irradiation and donor bone marrow infusion for induction of specific allograft tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Kimler, B.F.; Thomas, J.H.; Watts, L.M.; Kinnaman, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FT-lymphoid-I) plus donor bone marrow (BM) can induce tolerance to skin allografts. In the present study, fractionated total body irradiation (FT-body-I) was studied as an alternative to FT-lymphoid-I. FT-body-I produces less pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury than does single exposure total body irradiation, but because of the decreased capacity of lymphoid tissues to recover from the effects of irradiation between fractions, the effect of FT-body-I on lymphoid cells, when delivered within 24 h, is approximately the same as an equivalent single exposure of total body irradiation. Therefore, FT-body-I, like FT-lymphoid-I, has some selectivity for lymphoid tissues and has the advantage that it can be delivered within the time constraints of ex vivo organ preservation.

  15. Bayesian Analyses of Multiple Epistatic QTL Models for Body Weight and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTL. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity. PMID:16545150

  16. Seasonal DXA-measured body composition changes in professional male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Milanese, Chiara; Cavedon, Valentina; Corradini, Giuliano; De Vita, Francesco; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated changes in body composition of professional soccer players attending an Italian Serie A club across the competitive season; it is original insofar as body composition was assessed at multiple time points across the season using the accurate three-compartment model provided by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Thirty-one players (4 goalkeepers, 13 defenders, 8 midfielders, 6 forwards) underwent DXA and anthropometry at pre-, mid- and end-season. One operator measured whole body and regional body composition (fat mass, FM; fat-free soft tissue mass, FFSTM; mineral mass). Two players were excluded from analysis due to serious injury. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA; factors were season time point and playing position. Results showed that whole-body FM and %FM significantly (P < 0.001) decrease at mid-season (-11.9%; -1.3%, respectively) and end-season (-8.3%; -0.8%, respectively) whereas FFSTM significantly (P < 0.001) increase at mid-season (+1.3%) and end-season (+1.5%). Limited, but significant changes took place in bone mineral content. Some regional (upper and lower limbs, trunk) differences in the pattern of body composition changes across the season were also found. Changes were similar for all playing positions. It was concluded that professional soccer players undergo changes in their FM, FFSTM, and mineral mass across the season with some regional variations, irrespective of the playing position. Changes are mostly positive at mid-season, possibly due to difference in training between the first and second phase of the season. PMID:25773172

  17. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  18. Study of body composition in small animals by a multifrequency impedancemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribbe, E.; Khider, N.; Moreno, M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance is essentially used today to study the body composition in the human body but not really in small animals. The aim of this paper is to develop a model for body composition in rats to help pharmaceutical labs assessing effects of medicine on rats. We propose a non invasive, rapid and scientific method. With a multifrequency impedancemeter, Z-Métrix® (BioparHom© Company France), resistances and reactances are measured at 55 frequencies for a population of 40 rats (males and females). With our model, derived from Cole-Cole model, resistances of extracellular (Re) and total body (Rinf) compartment are extrapolated. Three methods were applied: posterior to posterior leg, anterior to posterior leg on the left and on the right side. Measurements by CT imaging were performed on the anesthetized population to determine Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC), as our reference measurements. With electrical data, age, sex and weight, equations are created to calculate FM, LBM and BMC with the three methods. Graphs of correlation, between tissue masses calculated by bioimpedance and obtained with scanner, indicate that measurements with posterior to posterior leg are better. Moreover, there is no significantly difference between tissue masses measured by bioimpedance and with the scanner.

  19. Physique and Body Composition in Soccer Players across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Vassilios Karydis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although the contribution of physique and body composition in soccer performance was recognized, these parameters of physical fitness were not well-studied in adolescent players. Aim of this study was to investigate physique and body composition across adolescence. Methods Male adolescents (N=297 aged 12.01–20.98 y), classified into nine one-year age-groups, child (control group, N=16 aged 7.34–11.97 y) and adult players (control group, N=29 aged 21.01–31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed a series of anthropometric measures (body mass, height, skinfolds, circumferences and girths), from which body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and somatotype (Heath-Carter method) were calculated. Results Age had a positive association with FM (r=0.2, P<0.001) and FFM (r=0.68, P<0.001), and a negative association with BF (r=−0.12, P=0.047). Somatotype components changed across adolescence as well; age was linked to endomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.005), mesomorphy (r=0.14, P=0.019) and ectomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.004). Compared with age-matched general population, participants exhibited equal body mass, higher stature, lower body mass index and lower BF. Conclusion During adolescence, soccer players presented significant differences in terms of body composition and physique. Thus, these findings could be employed by coaches and fitness trainers engaged in soccer training in the context of physical fitness assessment and talent identification. PMID:22375222

  20. Body Composition Reference Data for Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited data are available on the body composition (BC) of infants. BC reference data are needed to estimate energy and nutrient requirements; to evaluate normal growth and nutritional status of pediatric populations; for clinical research studies of the relationship between early diet and risk of c...

  1. Assessment and Interpretation of Body Composition in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat; Hager, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The physical educator's role is evolving into that of a teacher who is well educated in the areas of teaching, skill acquisition and development, motor learning, exercise physiology, physical conditioning, weight management, health, and lifestyle management. In an era when childhood obesity is at an all-time high, body composition can be one…

  2. Second quantization techniques in the scattering of nonidentical composite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Second quantization techniques for describing elastic and inelastic interactions between nonidentical composite bodies are presented and are applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions involving ground-state and one-particle-one-hole excitations. Evaluations of the resultant collision matrix elements are made through use of Wick's theorem.

  3. Design for manufacturability evaluation: Composite NIF Pockel Cell body

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, W.A.; Spellman, G.P.

    1994-04-01

    A survey of composite materials and processes for the NIF Optical Switch Body is described. Mechanical and physical criterion set upon the part are used as guidelines for the selection of materials and processes for manufacturing. Benefits, costs, and risks associated with selected processes, as well as a recommendation for prototype fabrication is presented.

  4. Effect of chronic centrifugation on body composition in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.

  5. Antibiotic-free composite bone cements with antibacterial and bioactive properties. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Bruno, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Fucale, Giacomo; Lucchetta, Giovanni; Vernè, Enrica

    2014-10-01

    Two bone cements (Palacos R® and Palacos LV®) based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), clinically used in several cemented prosthetic devices, have been enriched with silver containing bioactive glass powders and compared with the plain commercial ones. The obtained composite cements have been subjected to a preliminary characterization by means of morphological and compositional analyses, compression mechanical tests, bioactivity test (by soaking into simulated body fluids), leaching tests and in vitro antibacterial test (count of colonies forming units, McFarland index evaluation, inhibition zone evaluation). The glass powders appeared uniformly dispersed inside the PMMA matrix and good mechanical properties (in compression) have been reached. The composite cements showed a bioactive behavior (since they developed hydroxyapatite on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid) and a good antibacterial performance. The release of silver ions, which is the principal reason of antibacterial properties, is mainly reached after the first hours of contact with the leaching solution, as it is expected for a reasonable prevention of bacterial colonization during in vivo applications. PMID:25175189

  6. Longitudinal Body Composition Changes in NCAA Division I College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Eric T.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Mann, J. Bryan; Ivey, Pat A.; Hirsch, Katie R.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Many athletes seek to optimize body composition to fit the physical demands of their sport. American football requires a unique combination of size, speed, and power. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in body composition in Division I collegiate football players. For 57 players (Mean ± SD; Age=19.5 ± 0.9 yrs; Height=186.9 ± 5.7 cm; Weight=107.7 ± 19.1 kg), body composition was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the off-season (March-Pre), end of off-season (May), mid-July (Pre-Season), and the following March (March-Post). Outcome variables included weight, body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), android (AND) and gynoid (GYN) fat, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone density (BMD). For a subset of athletes (n=13 out of 57), changes over a 4-year playing career were evaluated with measurements taken every March. Throughout a single year, favorable changes were observed for BF% (Δ=−1.3 ± 2.5%), LM (Δ=2.8 ± 2.8 kg), GYN (Δ=−1.5 ± 3.0%), BMC (Δ=0.06 ± 0.14 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.015 ± 0.027g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Across four years, weight increased significantly (Δ=6.6 ± 4.1kg), and favorable changes were observed for LM (Δ=4.3 ± 3.0 kg), BMC (Δ=0.18 ± 0.17 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.033 ± 0.039 g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Similar patterns in body composition changes were observed for linemen and non-linemen. Results indicate that well-trained collegiate football players at high levels of competition can achieve favorable changes in body composition, even late in the career, which may confer benefits for performance and injury prevention. PMID:11834106

  7. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Results: Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Conclusion: Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life. PMID:26543419

  8. Comparison of total and regional body composition in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa and pair-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P; Biko, J; Schlamp, D; Trott, G E; Badura, F; Warnke, A; Reiners, C

    1998-12-01

    Body composition in 31 adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) was measured at the time of hospitalization in order to assess the muscle/bone relationship as a potential source of the development of osteopenia. Differences in lean tissue, fat and bone mass in total body, weight bearing and non weight bearing limbs were estimated in AN and pair-matched controls aged 14.2 +/- 1.8 years (range: 9-17 years). Further, it was investigated if bone mineral density (BMD) better reflects the muscle/bone relationship than bone mineral content (BMC). At the distal radius parameters measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were used to estimate the association of volumetric bone density to bone strength and lean body mass. The correspondence to the same and different body regions was assessed. Total lean mass in the controls was closely related to total body bone mineral content (TBBMC), as was lean tissue and bone mass of the limb subregions (r = 0.82 to 0.93). In contrast, the correlation was significantly lower in AN (r = 0.33 to 0.77). In the controls, the pQCT-derived bone strength was correlated with muscle mass of the forearm (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), but only moderately in AN (r = 0.47, n.s.). Regional lean tissue was 11-20% and fat mass was 56-66% lower in AN (p < 0.01). After adjustment for height, TBBMC was different at p = 0.01. Within the limbs subregions, BMC (but not BMD) was different in both groups only in the upper arm and the thigh. BMC reflected the bone/muscle relationship better than BMD. Intra- and between group regressions gave no significant differences between weight bearing and non weight bearing limbs. In conclusion, the assessment of musculoskeletal factors may be a useful tool to develop individual preventive measures for therapy after recovery of our patients. PMID:10728169

  9. Process for preparing ceramic-metal composite bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, M.C.

    1993-05-25

    A process for forming an aluminum/ceramic composite is described comprising the non-vapor phase oxidation of molten aluminum achieved by contacting the molten aluminum to a sacrificial ceramic body, wherein the molten aluminum is at a temperature at least 300 degrees above the melting point of aluminum but below the softening point of the ceramic body, wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is a material selected from the group consisting of silica, quartz, sand, wollastonite, mullite, silicate glass, fluorosilicate glass, fluoroborosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, calcium silicate glass, calcium aluminum silicate glass, calcium aluminum fluorosilicate glass, titanium dioxide, titanium carbide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, metal sulfides, and mixtures thereof, whereby the sacrificial ceramic body at least partially oxidizes the aluminum to form an aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein molten aluminum flows into the aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is at least partially reduced, whereby an aluminum/ceramic composite is produced possessing a near net shape relative to the shape of the sacrificial ceramic body.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and mineralization of polyamide-6/calcium lactate composite nanofibers for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Risal, Prabodh; Park, Chan Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Jeong, Yeon Jun; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-02-01

    Polyamide-6 nanofibers containing calcium lactate (CL) on their surface were prepared by neutralization of lactic acid (LA) in core-shell structured polyamide-6/LA electrospun fibers. First, simple blending of LA with polyamide-6 solution was used for electrospinning which interestingly formed a thin LA layer around polyamide-6 nanofibers (core-shell structure) and then subsequent conversion of this LA into calcium lactate via neutralization using calcium base. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed that plasticizer capacity of LA led the formation of point-bonded structure due to the formation of shell layer of LA and core of polyamide-6. The bone formation ability of polyamide-6/calcium lactate composite fibers was evaluated by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid (SBF). The SBF incubation test confirmed the faster deposition of large amount of calcium phosphate around the composite polyamide-6/calcium lactate fibers compared to pristine polyamide-6. This study demonstrated a simple post electrospinning calcium compound coating technique of polymeric nanofibers for enhancing the bone biocompatibility of polyamide-6 fibers. PMID:23006560

  11. Effects of Levothyroxine Replacement or Suppressive Therapy on Energy Expenditure and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kolobova, Irina; Smeraglio, Anne; Peters, Dawn; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether metabolic function is also affected. The objective of this study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive LT4 doses have alterations in energy expenditure or body composition. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional comparison between three groups of women: 26 women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive LT4 doses, 80 women receiving chronic replacement LT4 doses, and 16 untreated euthyroid control women. Subjects underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation, and thermic effect of food by indirect calorimetry; physical activity energy expenditure by accelerometer; caloric intake by 24-hour diet recall; and body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: REE per kilogram lean body mass in the LT4 euthyroid women was 6% lower than that of the LT4-suppressed group, and 4% lower than that of the healthy control group (p = 0.04). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were directly correlated with REE, and were 10% lower in the LT4 euthyroid women compared with the other two groups (p = 0.007). The groups of subjects did not differ in other measures of energy expenditure, caloric intake, or body composition. Conclusions: LT4 suppression therapy does not adversely affect energy expenditure or body composition in women. However, LT4 replacement therapy is associated with a lower REE, despite TSH levels within the reference range. This may be due to lower fT3 levels, suggesting relative tissue hypothyroidism may contribute to impaired energy expenditure in LT4 therapy. PMID:26700485

  12. Gamma resonance absorption. New approach in human body composition studies.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, D; Pierson, R; Goldberg, M; Heymsfield, S; Yasumura, S; Melnychuk, S T; Sredniawski, J

    2000-05-01

    The main stream of body elemental analysis is based on the delayed, prompt, and inelastic neutron interactions with the main elements found in the human body, and subsequent analysis of the measured delayed or prompt gamma ray spectra. This methodology traditionally was, and still is, applied for whole body analysis and requires relatively high radiation doses. A new method, based on gamma nuclear resonance absorption (GNRA), is being established at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of its body composition program. The method is element specific with a high tomographic spatial-resolution capability, at a small fraction of the radiation dose used in the current system. The new system, with its components and capabilities, is described below. PMID:10865747

  13. Bone scintigraphy in evaluating the viability of composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and free non-revascularized periosteal grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, A.; Weiland, A.J.; Ostrup, L.T.

    1982-07-01

    Researchers studied the value of bone scintigraphy in the assessment of anastomotic patency and bone-cell viability in free bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses in twenty-seven dogs. The dogs were divided into three different groups, and scintigraphy was carried out using technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate in composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and periosteal grafts placed in different recipient beds. The viability of the grafts were evaluated by histological examination and fluorescence microscopy after triple labeling with oxytetracycline on the first postoperative day, alizarin complexone on the fourth postoperative day, and DCAF on the eleventh postoperative day. A positive scintiscan within the first week following surgery indicated patent microvascular anastomoses, and histological study and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that bone throughout the graft was viable. A positive scintiscan one week after surgery or later does not necessarily indicate microvascular patency or bone-cell survival, because new bone formed by creeping substitution on the surface of a dead bone graft can result in this finding.

  14. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Nicholas, J Skye; Ernst, Kacey C; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D; Cauley, Jane A; Lewis, Cora E; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50-59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4-69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70-79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  15. Multi-Component Molecular-Level Body Composition Reference Methods: Evolving Concepts and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Zheng, Jolene; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Strauss, Boyd J.; Silva, Analiza M.; Ludwig, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted “reference” approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multicomponent body-volume class of “reference” models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein, and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes “adjustment” or measurement system approaches for model-required labeled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small but under some circumstances important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multicomponent body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

  16. Multi-component molecular-level body composition reference methods: evolving concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Ebbeling, C B; Zheng, J; Pietrobelli, A; Strauss, B J; Silva, A M; Ludwig, D S

    2015-04-01

    Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted 'reference' approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multi-component body volume class of 'reference' models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes 'adjustment' or measurement system approaches for model-required labelled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small, but under some circumstances, important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multi-component body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

  17. Retrospective clinical study on sinus bone graft and tapered-body implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Young-Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated implant success rate, survival rate, marginal bone resorption of implants, and material resorption of sinus bone graft in cases wherein tapered body implants were installed. Materials and Methods From September 2003 to January 2006, 20 patients from Seoul National University Bundong Hospital, with a mean age of 54.7 years, were considered. The mean follow-up period was 19 months. This study covered 50 implants; 14 implants were placed in the maxillary premolar area, and 36 in the maxillary molar area; 24 sinuses were included. Results The success rate was 92%, and the survival rate was 96.0%. The mean amount of sinus augmentation was 12.35±3.27 mm. The bone graft resorption rate one year after surgery was 0.97±0.84 mm; that for the immediate implantation group was 0.91±0.86 mm, and that for the delayed implantation group was 1.16±0.77 mm. However, the difference was not statistically significant. The mean marginal bone resorption one year after restoration was 0.17±0.27 mm (immediate group: 0.12±0.23 mm; delayed group 0.40±0.33 mm); statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Conclusion Tapered body implant can be available in the maxillary posterior edentulous ridge which sinus bone graft is necessary. PMID:24471022

  18. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC. PMID:25929363

  19. Evidence of associations between feto-maternal vitamin D status, cord parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and newborn whole body bone mineral content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose...

  20. Trabecular domain factor and its influence on the strength of cancellous bone of the vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Kokubun, S; Sato, T; Iwamoto, M; Sato

    2001-11-01

    The effects of architectural differences on the strength of cancellous bone of the vertebral body have not been clarified. This study was aimed at determining the influence of trabecular domain factor (TDF), a new histomorphometric parameter, on the maximum compressive strength (MCS) in vertebral cancellous bone. TDF is a variation coefficient representing the ratio dispersion of the area of each trabecula (Sd) to the area of its domain (D). A Voronoi diagram was used to determine trabecular domains. The materials comprised 35 lumbar vertebral bodies obtained at autopsy from 35 subjects aged 25-83 years. A mechanical test sample (12 x 12 x 16 mm) was cut out from each right half, and two large, undecalcified, horizontal sections from each left half. The fields (144 mm2 x 2) for image analyses were symmetrical with those for mechanical test samples in the other half of the same vertebral body. Bone volume (BV/TV), Sd, and D were semiautomatically measured. BV/TV correlated negatively with TDF (r = -0.73). Multiple regression analysis revealed the contributions of BV/TV (partial r = 0.75, p < 0.001) and TDF (partial r = -0.42, p < 0.02) to MCS. The model with BV/TV and TDF predicted MCS, 1.50 +0.15 BV/TV -0.03 TDF, more accurately (R2 = 0.83) than that with BV/TV alone (r2 = 0.79). We conclude that the bone volume primarily contributes to the MCS of vertebral cancellous bones but that the influence of TDF on the fragility becomes increasingly important as the bone volume decreases. PMID:11768199

  1. Lifetime physical activity, neuromuscular performance and body composition in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Weeda, J; Horan, S; Beck, B; Weeks, B K

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the relationships between lifetime physical activity participation, neuromuscular performance and body composition in men at musculoskeletal maturity. 50 healthy men (age 25.2±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. Lifetime physical activity was determined from the Bone-specific Physical Activity Questionnaire. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was calculated as an index of neuromuscular performance. Bone mineral density (BMD), lean and fat mass were determined from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR800, Norland). A subsample of participants (n=13) additionally underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, XCT3000, Stratec) measures. Results demonstrated that those in the highest tertile for lifetime physical activity exhibited the greatest lumbar spine BMD (µdiff=0.12 g/cm2, p=0.005) and lean body mass index (LBMI) (p=0.04). Those in the highest tertile for impulse also exhibited the highest whole body (µdiff=0.08 g/cm2), lumbar spine (µdiff=0.14 g/cm2), and femoral neck BMD (µdiff=0.15 g/cm2) (p≤0.05). All BMD differences exceeded the least significant change. Childhood physical activity was positively related to LBMI (r=0.28, p=0.05), whereas sedentary activity was inversely related to femoral neck BMD (r=-0.33, p=0.02). Results support recommendations for sustained physical activity participation during the growing years. PMID:24886922

  2. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial

  3. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  4. Body composition and performance in cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; Henriksson-Larsén, K

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between body composition and performance in cross-country skiing. Ten male college-aged elite cross-country skiers (17.9 yrs; S 1.0 yrs) participated in a 5.6-km cross-country skiing time trial and in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar DPX-L, Madison, WI, USA) body composition measurements. A differential global positioning system (dGPS, GPS 12 CX, Garmin Int. Inc., Olathe, KS, USA; RXMAR 2, Aztec SA, Strasbourg, France) was used to compute speed in different sections of the course. Spearman correlation analyses were applied. Total body weight and absolute lean body mass were significantly related to final time (r = - 0.721; p < 0.05 and - 0.830; p < 0.01, respectively). Absolute lean arm mass (kg) was negatively correlated to final time (r = - 0.648; p < 0.05) and the relative lean arm mass was significantly related to speed mainly in uphill sections (r = 0.636 to 0.867; p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). We suggest that large amounts of lean body mass, especially in the arms, seem to be of great importance for cross-country skiing performance. PMID:18600606

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate composite membrane for guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Liang, Jie; Wen, Yong; Sun, Xiaoning; Li, Tiejun; Zhang, Gairong; Sun, Kangning; Xu, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chitosan and β-glycerol phosphate (CS/β-GP) composite, with a thermosensitive sol-gel transition behavior, has been tested as one of the viable materials for barrier membrane fabrication. These studies have provided us with a new concept for a guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane design. The composition, porous structure of the membrane, and the neutral mild preparation procedures make the CS/β-GP membrane a potentially active guide for bone regeneration. In this study, the CS/β-GP composite membrane, with different concentrations of β-GP, was studied to assess their potential utility in GBR application. The initial attachment of the ST2 stromal cell line to the CS/β-GP composite membrane was better than their attachment to the pure CS membrane. The proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of the cells were much higher on the CS/β-GP composite membrane as compared to the pure CS membrane (p < 0.05). A mild inflammatory response was observed around the implanted CS/β-GP composite membrane without any foreign body reaction that continued up to 4 weeks of postsurgery. This primary study indicated that the in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of the CS/β-GP composite membrane fulfilled the requirements for GBR technique. PMID:23894020

  6. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover. PMID:26487675

  7. Inferences from other bodies for the earth's composition and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of the earth are considered in the light of the earth's presumed status as an end member of the class of predominantly silicate solar system bodies. Bulk composition data for the inner planets are presented and processes which may account for compositional variations are discussed. Problems posed by Viking findings on Mars and Pioneer findings on Venus are mentioned. Prominent evolutionary patterns of the inner planets are discussed, including the inverse correlation of lithospheric and crustal thickness with planetary size, and the thermotectonics of Venus, Mars, and earth are compared.

  8. Chemical compositions of the moon, earth, and eucrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Model compositions of the moon and earth were calculated on the assumption that these planets had experienced chondrite-like nebular fractionation processes. The model correctly predicts the abundance ratios of certain volatile/refractory element pairs (e.g., Cd/Ba, Ga/La, Sn/Th, and Pb/U), the density of the moon, and the major rock types. The model is also used to reconstruct the composition of the parent eucrite body, which resembles the moon except for a lower content of refractory elements.

  9. Assessment of body composition in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Munday, H S

    1994-06-01

    The assessment of body composition in any species is important to the understanding of subjects such as the control of obesity, the realimentation of sick animals and the evaluation of energy requirements. In most cases our requirement is to assess the chemical constituents of the body by the measurement of the fat and fat-free mass (FFM) of the subject. There may also be a requirement to break down the FFM mass into its component parts and measure the tissue distribution within the body. Clearly in the understanding of the causes and effects of obesity in companion animals, the evaluation of the actual level of obesity is fundamental. Similarly, whilst classifying the effectiveness of a weight loss programme it is vital that the reduction in weight loss and the distribution of tissue types can be accurately recorded by the veterinary surgeon or clinician. This review covers the theory of body composition measurement and the techniques which have been developed, together with their relevance to studies with companion animals. Most techniques are based on indirect methods which use the model of the body being at least two chemically distinct compartments, the fat and the FFM. In more complex analyses four and even six compartment models are considered which include concepts such as protein content, cell and osseous mineral content. The techniques to be covered include the measurement of total body water (for example by the use of isotope dilution), anthropometric techniques (skinfold thickness and dimensional evaluation), densitometry, total body potassium, muscle metabolite markers, absorptiometry, neutron activation analysis, electrical conductance, ultrasound, near infrared interactance, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8087160

  10. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B.; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L.; Sander, P. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>105 kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (<103 kg) and conflicts with the idea that all sauropods were massive. The diminutive M. dacus was a classical example of island dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size. PMID:20435913

  11. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of biodegradable bone plates in the treatment of mandibular body fractures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalawany, Sherin Kamal; Tarakji, Bassel; Azzeghaiby, SN; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many different systems are available for the treatment of fractures ranging from the heavy compression plates for mandibular reconstruction to low profile plates for mid-facial fixation, and are made either from stainless steel, titanium or vitallium. Recently, biodegradable, self-reinforced polylactide plates and screws have been used for the internal fixation of fractures of the mandible with good results. Aim of this study: This study evaluated clinically the biodegradable bone plates for treatment of mandibular body fracture and to evaluate bone healing during the follow-up period using digital radiography. Materials and Methods: Eight patients had been suffered from mandibular body fractures were treated using Inion CPSTM bioresorbable fixation system and the healing process were followed up using digitised panoramic radiography at first week and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Results: Clinical examination of fractured segments revealed stable fixation across the fracture sites while visual and quantitative assessment of radiograph showed healing process was comparable with results previously reported by titanium bone plates. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures using bioresorbable fixation system with a brief period of inter-maxillary fixation have evolved to the point where the physical properties are sufficient to withstand the post-operative loads required for fracture repair of mandibular body fractures. The foreign body reaction is a major material-related problem which requires further studies. PMID:25657494

  12. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (p<0.034) and carbohydrate consumption in the objects with euriplastic and subathletic somatotypes (p<0.046). The most significant of the findings is the absence of veracious differences in daily energy consumption between the cohorts with different somatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes. PMID:27455598

  13. Techniques for the measurement of body composition: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Jebb, S A; Elia, M

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the practical aspects of both reference body composition methods (densitometry, isotope dilution methods, in vivo neutron activation analysis, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging) and bedsides or field techniques (weight and height indices, skinfold thicknesses impedance/resistance, near infra-red interactance and 24 hour creatinine excretion). Some techniques measure gross composition, in terms of fat and fat-free mass, or the components of fat-free tissue, such as water, mineral and protein, while other methods measure the mass of individual tissues, organs or body segments. The choice of a specific method for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost, radiation exposure, and the need for observer training. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:8281219

  14. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  15. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  16. Comminuted olecranon fracture fixation with pre-contoured plate: Comparison of composite and cadaver bones

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton Jr, David A; Reilly, Danielle; Wipf, Felix; Kamineni, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether use of a precontoured olecranon plate provides adequate fixation to withstand supraphysiologic force in a comminuted olecranon fracture model. METHODS: Five samples of fourth generation composite bones and five samples of fresh frozen human cadaveric left ulnae were utilized for this study. The cadaveric specimens underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning to quantify the bone quality. The composite and cadaveric bones were prepared by creating a comminuted olecranon fracture and fixed with a pre-contoured olecranon plate with locking screws. Construct stiffness and failure load were measured by subjecting specimens to cantilever bending moments until failure. Fracture site motion was measured with differential variable resistance transducer spanning the fracture. Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed Mann-Whitney-U test with Monte Carlo Exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the composite bones and human cadaver bones. Failure modes differed in cadaveric and composite specimens. The load to failure for the composite bones (n = 5) and human cadaver bones (n = 5) specimens were 10.67 nm (range 9.40-11.91 nm) and 13.05 nm (range 12.59-15.38 nm) respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P ˂ 0.007, 97% power). Median stiffness for composite bones and human cadaver bones specimens were 5.69 nm/mm (range 4.69-6.80 nm/mm) and 7.55 nm/mm (range 6.31-7.72 nm/mm). There was a significant difference for stiffness (P ˂ 0.033, 79% power) between composite bones and cadaveric bones. No correlation was found between the DEXA results and stiffness. All cadaveric specimens withstood the physiologic load anticipated postoperatively. Catastrophic failure occurred in all composite specimens. All failures resulted from composite bone failure at the distal screw site and not hardware failure. There were no catastrophic fracture failures in the cadaveric

  17. In vitro investigation of nanohydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactic acid) spindle composites used for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Zhang, C Y; Xia, L L; Zhang, T; Fang, Q F

    2016-08-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics such as synthetic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate are widely used in the clinic, but they stimulate less bone regeneration. In this paper, nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactic acid) (nano-HA/PLLA) spindle composites with good mechanical performance were fabricated by a modified in situ precipitation method. The HA part of composite, distributing homogenously in PLLA matrix, is spindle shape with size of 10-30 nm in diameter and 60-100 nm in length. The molar ratio of Ca/P in the synthesized nano-HA spindles was deduced as 1.52 from the EDS spectra, which is close to the stoichiometric composition of HA (Ca/P & 1.67). The compress strength is up to 150 MPa when the HA content increase to 20 %. The in vitro tests indicate that HA/PLLA bio-composites have good biodegradability and bioactivity when immersed in simulated body fluid solutions. All the results suggested that HA/PLLA nano-biocomposites are appropriate to be applied as bone substitute in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27379628

  18. The Effect of Potassium Bicarbonate on Bone and Several Physiological Systems During Immobilisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-01-10

    Bone Metabolism; Acid- Base Balance; Muscle Metabolism; Muscle Strenght, Muscle Power and Muscle Volume; Protein Metabolim; Body Weight and Body Composition; Cardiovascular System; Neuro- Vestibular System

  19. Heterogeneous composite bodies with isolated lenticular shaped cermet regions

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Andrew J.

    2009-12-22

    A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Chemically Synthesized Hybrid Composites for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raucci, M. G.; Guarino, V.; Ambrosio, L.

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study concerns the development of bioresorbable composite materials for bone repair and regeneration. Hydroxyapatite loaded composites were synthesized by a colloidal non-aqueous chemical precipitation technique at room temperature. This study describes the synthesis and characterization of HA/PCL composite material, in order to verify the interaction between the ceramic and the polymer phases by a morphological investigation.

  1. In vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessment of a polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Danoux, Charlène B; Barbieri, Davide; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic bone graft substitutes based on composites consisting of a polymer and a calcium-phosphate (CaP) ceramic are developed with the aim to satisfy both mechanical and bioactivity requirements for successful bone regeneration. In the present study, we have employed extrusion to produce a composite consisting of 50 wt.% poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) and 50 wt.% nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, achieving homogeneous distribution of the ceramic within the polymeric phase. In vitro, in both a simulated physiological saline (SPS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF), a greater weight loss was observed for PLA/HA than for PLA particles upon 12-week immersion. Furthermore, in SPS, a continuous release of calcium and phosphate from the composite was measured, whereas in SBF, decrease of the amount of the two ions in the solution was observed both for PLA and PLA/HA accompanied with the formation of a CaP layer on the surface. In vitro characterization of the composite bioactivity was performed by culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and assessing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, with PLA as a control. Both PLA/HA composite and PLA control were shown to support hMSCs proliferation over a period of two weeks. In addition, the composite significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hMSCs in osteogenic medium as compared with the polymer control. A novel implant design was employed to develop implants from dense, extruded materials, suitable for testing osteoinductivity in vivo. In a preliminary study in dogs, PLA/HA composite implants induced heterotopic bone formation upon 12-week intramuscular implantation in all animals, in contrast to PLA control, which was not osteoinductive. Unlike in vitro, a more pronounced degradation of PLA was observed in vivo as compared with PLA/HA composite. PMID:24441389

  2. In vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessment of a polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Danoux, Charlène B; Barbieri, Davide; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic bone graft substitutes based on composites consisting of a polymer and a calcium-phosphate (CaP) ceramic are developed with the aim to satisfy both mechanical and bioactivity requirements for successful bone regeneration. In the present study, we have employed extrusion to produce a composite consisting of 50 wt.% poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) and 50 wt.% nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, achieving homogeneous distribution of the ceramic within the polymeric phase. In vitro, in both a simulated physiological saline (SPS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF), a greater weight loss was observed for PLA/HA than for PLA particles upon 12-week immersion. Furthermore, in SPS, a continuous release of calcium and phosphate from the composite was measured, whereas in SBF, decrease of the amount of the two ions in the solution was observed both for PLA and PLA/HA accompanied with the formation of a CaP layer on the surface. In vitro characterization of the composite bioactivity was performed by culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and assessing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, with PLA as a control. Both PLA/HA composite and PLA control were shown to support hMSCs proliferation over a period of two weeks. In addition, the composite significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hMSCs in osteogenic medium as compared with the polymer control. A novel implant design was employed to develop implants from dense, extruded materials, suitable for testing osteoinductivity in vivo. In a preliminary study in dogs, PLA/HA composite implants induced heterotopic bone formation upon 12-week intramuscular implantation in all animals, in contrast to PLA control, which was not osteoinductive. Unlike in vitro, a more pronounced degradation of PLA was observed in vivo as compared with PLA/HA composite. PMID:24441389

  3. Hybrid composites of calcium phosphate granules, fibrin glue, and bone marrow for skeletal repair.

    PubMed

    Le Nihouannen, Damien; Goyenvalle, Eric; Aguado, Eric; Pilet, Paul; Bilban, Melitta; Daculsi, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Synthetic bone substitutes, such as calcium phosphate ceramics, give good results in clinical applications. In order to adapt to surgical sites, bioceramics come in the form of blocks or granules, and are either dense or porous. Combining these bioceramics with fibrin glue provides a mouldable and self-hardening composite biomaterial with the biochemical properties of each component. Critical-sized defects in the femoral condyle of rabbits were filled with TricOs/fibrin glue/bone marrow hybrid/composite material. The TricOs granules (1-2 mm) were composed of hydroxyapatite and beta tricalcium phosphate (60/40 in weight). The fibrin glue was composed of fibrinogen, thrombin and other biological factors and mixed with MBCP granules either simultaneously or sequentially. Bone marrow was also added to the MBCP/fibrin composite prior to filling the defects. After 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks of implantation, the newly-formed bone was analysed with histology, histomorphometry and mechanical tests. The newly-formed bone had grown centripetally. Simultaneous application of fibrin glue showed better results for mechanical properties than sequential application after 6 weeks. Around 40% of bone had formed after 24 weeks in the three groups. Although the addition of bone marrow did not improve bone formation, the MBCP/fibrin material could be used in clinical bone filling applications. PMID:17117470

  4. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416518

  5. Is there a role of whole-body bone scan in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Correct detection of bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is pivotal for prognosis and selection of an appropriate treatment regimen. Whole-body bone scan for staging is not routinely recommended in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bone scan in detecting bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the radiographic and scintigraphic images of 360 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients between 1999 and 2008. Of these 360 patients, 288 patients received bone scan during pretreatment staging, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of bone scan were determined. Of these 360 patients, surgery was performed in 161 patients including 119 patients with preoperative bone scan and 42 patients without preoperative bone scan. Among these 161 patients receiving surgery, 133 patients had stages II + III disease, including 99 patients with preoperative bone scan and 34 patients without preoperative bone scan. Bone recurrence-free survival and overall survival were compared in all 161 patients and 133 stages II + III patients, respectively. Results The diagnostic performance for bone metastasis was as follows: sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 90.1%; positive predictive value, 43.5%; and negative predictive value, 97.9%. In all 161 patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0.009, univariately). In multivariate comparison, absence of preoperative bone scan (P = 0.012, odds ratio: 5.053) represented the independent adverse prognosticator for bone recurrence-free survival. In 133 stages II + III patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0

  6. Effects of supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon immunologic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, N.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Sato, T.; Rapaport, F.T.

    1981-03-01

    The transplantation of bone marrow from prospectively selected genotypically and pedigree DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated littermate and nonlittermate recipients within the Copperstown beagle colony has regularly resulted in the establishment of long-term chimerism, with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in the recipients. It has been demonstrated that irradiated recipients exhibit significant decreases in their ability to muster primary immunological responses during the first months after reconstitution with bone marrow. Beyond the documented capacity of preirradiation blood transfusions to interfere with subsequent engraftment of allogeneic marrow, however, there have been no systematic studies of the possible effects of irradiation and bone marrow transplantation upon immunologic memory. The present study was designed in order to assess this question in greater detail, with particular regard to the effects of irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon host sensitization to skin allografts. The results indicate that, within the experimental limitations described, the state of sensitivity produced by first set skin allograft rejection is not affected significantly by supralethal total body irradiation and reconstitution of the recipient with allogeneic bone marrow.

  7. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

  8. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Danish; Kiamehr, Mostafa; Yang, Xuebin; Su, Bo

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol-gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO2, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. PMID:23623083

  9. Method for palliation of pain in human bone cancer using therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Atkins, Harold L.

    1998-12-29

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients.

  10. Method for palliation of pain in human bone cancer using therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1998-12-29

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients. 5 figs.

  11. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Picavet, Daisy I.; Davison, Noel L.; de Vries, Teun J.; Everts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body multinucleated giant cells (FBGCs) and osteoclasts share several characteristics, like a common myeloid precursor cell, multinuclearity, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). However, there is an important difference: osteoclasts form and reside in the vicinity of bone, while FBGCs form only under pathological conditions or at the surface of foreign materials, like medical implants. Despite similarities, an important distinction between these cell types is that osteoclasts can resorb bone, but it is unknown whether FBGCs are capable of such an activity. To investigate this, we differentiated FBGCs and osteoclasts in vitro from their common CD14+ monocyte precursor cells, using different sets of cytokines. Both cell types were cultured on bovine bone slices and analyzed for typical osteoclast features, such as bone resorption, presence of actin rings, formation of a ruffled border, and characteristic gene expression over time. Additionally, both cell types were cultured on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating to discriminate between bone resorption and mineral dissolution independent of organic matrix proteolysis. Both cell types differentiated into multinucleated cells on bone, but FBGCs were larger and had a higher number of nuclei compared to osteoclasts. FBGCs were not able to resorb bone, yet they were able to dissolve the mineral fraction of bone at the surface. Remarkably, FBGCs also expressed actin rings, podosome belts and sealing zones—cytoskeletal organization that is considered to be osteoclast-specific. However, they did not form a ruffled border. At the gene expression level, FBGCs and osteoclasts expressed similar levels of mRNAs that are associated with the dissolution of mineral (e.g., anion exchange protein 2 (AE2), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII), chloride channel 7 (CIC7), and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase)), in contrast the matrix degrading enzyme

  12. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration increased biomechanical bone strength of rats' vertebral body

    PubMed Central

    Najar, Azam; Fridoni, Mohammadjavad; Rezaei, Fatemesadat; Bayat, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of different glucocorticoid administration protocols on biomechanical properties of the first lumbar vertebral body in rats. We divided 40 male rats into the following groups: control, dexamethasone (7 mg/week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg three times per week, and low-level laser treated rats. Lumbar vertebrae in rats were exposed to the pulsed laser. We conducted a biomechanical test to examine the mechanical properties of vertebral body in rats' lumbar bone. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration protocols did not impair the biomechanical properties of rats' vertebral bodies compared to control and laser-treated rats. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration caused an anabolic effect on the vertebral bodies. PMID:26755921

  13. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  14. Body composition analysis of inter-county Gaelic athletic association players measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Davies, Robert W; Toomey, Clodagh; McCormack, William; Hughes, Katie; Cremona, Alexandra; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Gaelic Football and Hurling are two sporting codes within the Gaelic Athletic Association. The purpose of this study was to report the body composition phenotype of inter-county Gaelic athletic association players, comparing groups by code and field position. 190 senior, male, outfield inter-county players (144 hurlers and 46 Gaelic footballers) were recruited. Stature and body mass was measured, estimates of three components of body composition, i.e. lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content was obtained by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and normative data for Gaelic athletic association athletes by code and position was compared. Other than in the midfield, there was limited difference in body composition between codes or playing position. Stature-corrected indices nullified any existing group differences between midfielders for both codes. Further comparisons with a non-athletic control group (n = 431) showed no difference for body mass index (BMI); however, the athletic group has a lower fat mass index, with a greater lean mass in accounting for the matched BMI between groups. In addition to providing previously unknown normative data for the Gaelic athletic association athlete, a proportional and independent tissue evaluation of body composition is given. PMID:26343788

  15. Effects of structure and composition of the CaP composite coatings on apatite formation and bioactivity in simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Changjian; Hu, Ren

    2009-01-01

    The surface properties of biomaterials determine the interactions between biomedical devices and the surrounding biological environment. The surface modification of biomaterials is extensively recognized as a key strategy in the design of the next generation of bone implants and tissue engineering. In this study, the highly ordered octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating and OCP/protein coating with hierarchically porous structure in nano-micro scale were constructed on titanium substrate by electrochemically-induced deposition (ED). The formation behavior of apatite on OCP and OCP/protein coatings immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated in physicochemical aspects. It is indicated that soaked in SBF, the OCP and OCP/protein coatings are possible to induce relevant apatite formation on their surface, and the apatite-forming behavior in body environment is depended on the chemical composition and structure of the coatings. The apatite formed on OCP/protein composite coating possesses carbonated structure, needle-like crystals in nano scale, lower Ca/P ratio and higher degree of the preferred c-axis orientation, which are similar to the mineral composition and structure in natural bone, and hence called as bone-like apatite.

  16. Innovative Composites Through Reinforcement Morphology Design - a Bone-Shaped-Short-Fiber Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.T.; Valdez, J.A.; Beyerlain, I.J.; Stout, M.G.; Zhou, S.; Shi, N.; Lowe, T.C.

    1999-06-29

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project is to improve the strength and toughness of conventional short-fiber composites by using innovative bone-shaped-short (BSS) fibers as reinforcement. We fabricated a model polyethylene BSS fiber-reinforced polyester-matrix composite to prove that fiber morphology, instead of interfacial strength, solves the problem. Experimental tensile and fracture toughness test results show that BSS fibers can bridge matrix cracks more effectively, and consume many times more energy when pulled out, than conventional-straight-short (CSS) fibers. This leads to both higher strength and fracture toughness for the BSS-fiber composites. A computational model was developed to simulate crack propagation in both BSS- and CSS-fiber composites, accounting for stress concentrations, interface debonding, and fiber pullout. Model predictions were validated by experimental results and will be useful in optimizing BSS-fiber morphology and other material system parameters.

  17. Bone mineral density, microarchitectural and mechanical alterations of osteoporotic rat bone under long-term whole-body vibration therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pengfei; Tang, Zhurong; Qing, Fangzhu; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    Low-magnitude, high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as a non-pharmacological anti-osteoporosis approach. However, the long-term effect of WBV therapy is seldom studied. In this study, the efficacy of 16-week WBV (0.3g, 30 Hz) on bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitectural parameters and mechanical properties of ovariectomized rat femur were examined by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and fracture test. To the best of our knowledge, 16 weeks of WBV administration (20 min/day) is currently the longest duration on rodent. The longitudinal BMD change showed that positive effect of WBV on ovariectomized rat femoral neck diminished with prolonged administration duration. In addition, 16-week of WBV treatment was found to cause significantly reduction in the mean BMD, trabecular BMD (Tb.BMD), trabecular bone volume ration (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and maximum load in femoral neck of ovariectomized rat. Metaphyseal Tb.BMD and BV/TV were also significantly decreased in WBV treated ovariectomized group than non-treated controls. Whole-femur DMA was demonstrated as a sensitive tool in distinguishing osteoporotic femur from healthy aged-matched controls, in terms of decreased storage modulus (E') and loss factor (tan δ). However, E' and tan δ are not enhanced by 16-week WBV treatment. Together, these findings indicate that administration duration played an important role in the effect of WBV. 16-week WBV may exacerbate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rat femur, especially in trabecular-rich femoral neck region. An optimal WBV protocol including administration duration should be established prior to long-term clinical practice. PMID:26398779

  18. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M.-V.; Chaset, L.; Bittner, P. A.; Barthod, C.; Passard, M.

    2013-04-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  20. Nutritional Markers and Body Composition in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valtuille, Rodolfo; Casos, Maria Elisa; Fernandez, Elmer Andres; Guinsburg, Adrian; Marelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse body composition, to detect the presence of undernutrition, and to establish a relationship between undernutrition and the biological markers routinely used as indicators of nutritional status in hemodialysis (HD) patients (pts). We used a body composition monitor (BCM) that expresses body weight in terms of lean tissue mass (LTM) and fat tissue mass (FTM) independent of hydration status. From nine HD units, 934 pts were included. Undernutrition was defined as having a lean tissue index (LTI = LTM/height2) below the 10th percentile of a reference population. Biochemical markers and parameters delivered by BCM were used to compare low LTI and normal LTI groups. Undernutrition prevalence was 58.8% of the population studied. Low LTI pts were older, were significantly more frequently overhydrated, and had been on HD for a longer period of time than the normal LTI group. FTI (FTI = FTM/ height2) was significantly higher in low LTI pts and increased according to BMI. LTI was not influenced by different BMI levels. Albumin and C-reactive protein correlated inversely (r = −0.28). However neither of them was statistically different when considering undernourished and normal LTI pts. Our BCM study was able to show a high prevalence of undernutrition, as expressed by low LTI. In our study, BMI and other common markers, such as albumin, failed to predict malnutrition as determined by BCM. PMID:27347538

  1. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-01-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests. PMID:3435817

  2. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of long term betaine supplementation on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) in experienced strength trained men. Methods Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 ± 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 ± 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles. Bench press and back squat training volumes were recorded and changes in training volume were assessed at each micro-cycle. Fasting urine was collected at baseline (BL), weeks 2, 4 and 6, and assayed for HCTL. Subjects were tested prior to and following 6 weeks of treatment. Arm and thigh cross sectional area (CSA) was estimated via girth and skin fold measurements. Body density was estimated via skin fold calipers and used to estimate BF%, fat mass (FM), and lean body mass (LBM). Performance was assessed via vertical jump (VJ), bench press 1 RM (BP), and back squat 1 RM (BS). Results Arm CSA increased significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences existed between group and time for changes in thigh CSA. Back squat training volume increased significantly (p < .05) for both groups throughout training. Bench press training volume was significantly (p < .05) improved for BET compared to PL at microcycles one and three. Body composition (BF%, FM, LBM) improved significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences were found in performance variables (BP, BS, VJ) between groups, except there was a trend (p = .07) for increased VJ power in BET versus PL. A significant interaction (p < .05) existed for HCTL, with increases from BL to week 2 in PL, but not BET. Additionally, HCTL remained elevated at week 4 in PL, but not BET. Conclusion Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press

  3. Efficiency of energy utilization: effects of diet composition on body composition and mammary neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Boissonneault, G.A.; Elson, C.E.; Pariza, M.W.

    1986-03-05

    Multiple interactions between the efficiency of utilization of dietary fat and carbohydrate energy, energy intake changes in body composition and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis were examined using female F-344 rats. The rats were fed ad libitum a semipurified diet containing 5% corn oil (LF) from weaning to 50 d of age at which each was given, by gavage, 65 mg DMBA/kg body weight. The rats were randomly assigned to diets containing 5% 17.5% (MF) and 30% (HF) corn oil. All diets were balanced with respect per unit of energy in terms of protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. For 28 d post-DMBA, the rats were fed 40 or 42 kcal daily and thereafter, diet was provided ad libitium. Daily energy intakes were recorded throughout the study. The mean energy intakes during the first 35 wk were: LF, 240 +/- 12.3 kcal/wk; MF, 237 +/- 11.7 kcal/wk; and HF, 237 +/- 11.1 kcal/wk. Body weight at 35 wk were: LF, 196 +/- 9.5 g; MF, 206 +/- 13.9 g; and HF, 210 +/- 20.6 g. No differences in tumor incidence (LF, 55%; MF, 46%; HF, 51%), tumors/group (LF, 24; MF, 28; HF, 25) and tumors/tumor-bearing rat (LF, 1.3 +/- 0.7; MF 1.6 +/- 1.0;p HF, 1.2 +/- 0.4) were noted. Within dietary groups tumor incidence was positively correlated with energy intake. However, there were no differences among the various parameters between dietary groups at any energy intake level. Body compositions were monitored during this study. The body fat mass and % carcass weight increased in parallel with the % dietary fat. Concomitantly, % lean body and, to a lesser extent lean body mass decreased. Both body size and body composition, influenced by energy intake and retention, affected the response to DMBA.

  4. Volumetric stability of autogenous bone graft with mandibular body bone: cone-beam computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to estimate the volumetric change of augmented autobone harvested from mandibular body cortical bone, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and three-dimensional reconstruction. In addition, the clinical success of dental implants placed 4 to 6 months after bone grafting was also evaluated. Materials and Methods Ninety-five patients (48 men and 47 women) aged 19 to 72 years were included in this study. A total of 128 graft sites were evaluated. The graft sites were divided into three parts: anterior and both posterior regions of one jaw. All patients included in the study were scheduled for an onlay graft and implantation using a two-stage procedure. The dental implants were inserted 4 to 6 months after the bone graft. Volumetric stability was evaluated by serial CBCT images. Results No major complications were observed for the donor sites. A total of 128 block bones were used to augment severely resorbed alveolar bone. Only 1 of the 128 bone grafts was resorbed by more than half, and that was due to infection. In total, the average amount of residual grafted bone after resorption at the recipient sites was 74.6%±8.4%. Conclusion Volumetric stability of mandibular body autogenous block grafts is predictable. The procedure is satisfactory for patients who want dental implants regardless of atrophic alveolar bone. PMID:26568924

  5. Preparation, characterization, in vitro bioactivity, and cellular responses to a polyetheretherketone bioactive composite containing nanocalcium silicate for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Songchao; Tan, Honglue; Qian, Jun; Lin, Wentao; Wang, Yugang; Liu, Changsheng; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    2014-08-13

    In this study, a nanocalcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bioactive composite was prepared using a process of compounding and injection-molding. The mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells (attachment, proliferation, spreading, and differentiation) to the composite, were investigated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the composites were significantly improved by the addition of n-CS to PEEK. In addition, an apatite-layer formed on the composite surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. In cell culture tests, the results revealed that the n-CS/PEEK composite significantly promoted cell attachment, proliferation, and spreading compared with PEEK or ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Moreover, cells grown on the composite exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, more calcium nodule-formation, and higher expression levels of osteogenic differentiation-related genes than cells grown on PEEK or UHMWPE. These results indicated that the incorporation of n-CS to PEEK could greatly improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite. Thus, the n-CS/PEEK composite may be a promising bone repair material for use in orthopedic clinics. PMID:25013988

  6. Bio-mimetic composite scaffold from mussel shells, squid pen and crab chitosan for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Amin; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Ali, M Azam; Sun, Zhifa

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, chitosan/hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tircalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composites were produced using squid pen derived chitosan (CHS) and commercial crab derived chitosan (CHC). CHS was prepared from squid pens by alkaline N-deacetylation. HA and β-TCP were extracted from mussel shells using a microwave irradiation method. Two different composites were prepared by incorporating 50% (w/w) HA/(β-TCP) in CHS or CHC followed by lyophilization and cross-linking of composites by tripolyphosphate (TPP). The effect of different freezing temperatures of -20, -80 and -196 °C on the physicochemical characteristics of composites was investigated. A simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was used for preliminary in vitro study for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days and the composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM, μ-CT and ICP-MS. Porosity, pore size, water uptake; water retention abilities and in vitro degradations of the prepared composites were evaluated. The CHS composites were found to have higher porosity (62%) compared to the CHC composites (porosity 42%) and better mechanical properties. The results of this study indicated that composites produced at -20 °C had higher mechanical properties and lower degradation rate compared with -80 °C. Chitosan from the squid pen is an excellent biomaterial candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26187191

  7. [Study on the preparation and application of individual artificial bone with carbon/carbon composites].

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinye; Qian, Nong; Zhou, Dong; Miao, Yunliang; Xiong, Xinbo; Lin, Tao; Chen, Da; Zhao, Gongyin; Zhong, Ping

    2013-12-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the preparation and application of individual artificial bone of carbon/carbon composites. Using computer tomography images (CT), we acquired a three-dimensional image. Firstly, we described bone contour line outlined with manual and automatic method by the binary volume data. Secondly, we created 3D object surface information by marching cubes. Finally, we converted this information to non-uniform rational B-spine (NURBS) by using geomagic software. Individual artificial bone with carbon/carbon composite was prepared through the CNC Machining Center. We replaced the humeral head of the tested rabbit, and then observed the effects of implantation in neuroimaging and pathological section. Using this method, we found that the bone shape processed and bone shape replaced was consistent. After implantation, the implant and the surrounding bone tissue bound closely, and bone tissue grew well on the surface of the implant. It has laid a sound foundation of the preparation using this method for individual artificial bone of carbon/carbon composite material. PMID:24645609

  8. Nano-hydroxyapatite composite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering--a review.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, significant development has been achieved in the construction of artificial bone with ceramics, polymers and metals. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is widely used bioceramic material for bone graft substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. nHA with chitin, chitosan, collagen, gelatin, fibrin, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, polyamide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane and polyhydroxybutyrate based composite scaffolds have been explored in the present review for bone graft substitute. This article further reviews the preparative methods, chemical interaction, biocompatibiity, biodegradation, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization effect, mechanical properties and delivery of nHA-based nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. The nHA based composite biomaterials proved to be promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25992432

  9. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  10. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  11. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  12. Iron status and body composition of competitive female ice skaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, P.J.; Caldwell, M.J.; Gerber, L.E.; Rand, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of training and competition on iron status and body composition of ice skaters were evaluated pre-season (PS), during competitive season (CS), and out of season (OS). Eighteen females, aged 14 to 16, with mean heights and weights of 158.2 +/- 4.1cm, and 50.9 +/- 5.2 kg, respectively, participated. During each season, fasted, cenous blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Mg), serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and serum ferritin (F). Percent body fat was estimated from skinfolds (SF) and from underwater weighting (UW). Mean percent PS body fat was 20% by both UW and SF. UW values did not change significantly with seasons. In contrast, percent SF body fat were significantly higher OS than PS and CS. Heights and weights did not differ significantly during the year. Mean Hcts were normal throughout the seasons, however mean Hbs were significantly lower during CS than OS (14.5 vs. 15.5gm/dl, respectively). Mean F did not vary significantly PS and OS. Mean SI and TIBC were in normal ranges although OS means were significantly higher than PS and CS. The results indicate that the iron status of the ice skaters in the study varied with the training seasons and was lower during CS.

  13. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  14. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  15. Foreign body impact event damage formation in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses a methodology that can be used to assess the effect of foreign body impacts on composite structural integrity. The described effort focuses on modeling the effect of a central impact on a 5 3/4 inch filament wound test article. The discussion will commence with details of the material modeling that was used to establish the input properties for the analytical model. This discussion is followed by an overview of the impact assessment methodology. The progress on this effort to date is reviewed along with a discussion of tasks that have yet to be completed.

  16. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  17. Hydrogel/bioactive glass composites for bone regeneration applications: synthesis and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Killion, John A; Kehoe, Sharon; Geever, Luke M; Devine, Declan M; Sheehan, Eoin; Boyd, Daniel; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2013-10-01

    Due to the deficiencies of current commercially available biological bone grafts, alternative bone graft substitutes have come to the forefront of tissue engineering in recent times. The main challenge for scientists in manufacturing bone graft substitutes is to obtain a scaffold that has sufficient mechanical strength and bioactive properties to promote formation of new tissue. The ability to synthesise hydrogel based composite scaffolds using photopolymerisation has been demonstrated in this study. The prepared hydrogel based composites were characterised using techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), rheological studies and compression testing. In addition, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), porosity and swelling studies of the composites were carried out. It was found that these novel hydrogel bioglass composite formulations did not display the inherent brittleness that is typically associated with bioactive glass based bone graft materials and exhibited enhanced biomechanical properties compared to the polyethylene glycol hydrogel scaffolds along. Together, the combination of enhanced mechanical properties and the deposition of apatite on the surface of these hydrogel based composites make them an ideal candidate as bone graft substitutes in cancellous bone defects or low load bearing applications. PMID:23910334

  18. Experimental posterolateral spinal fusion with beta tricalcium phosphate ceramic and bone marrow aspirate composite graft

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Vijendra; Chauhan, Neena; Sharma, Sansar; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Agarwal, Atul

    2010-01-01

    Background: Beta tricalcium phosphate is commonly used in metaphyseal defects but its use in posterolateral spinal fusion remains controversial. There are very few published animal studies in which use of beta tricalcium phosphate has been evaluated in the posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis model. Hence we conducted a study to evaluate the potential of composite graft of beta tricalcium phosphate and bone marrow aspirate in comparison to autologous bone graft, when used for posterolateral spinal fusion. Materials and Methods: Single level posterolateral lumbar fusion was performed in 40 adult male Indian rabbits, which were assigned randomly into one of the four groups based on graft materials implanted; a) 3 gm beta tricalcium phosphate plus 3 ml bone marrow aspirate (Group I); b) 3 ml bone marrow aspirate alone (Group II); c) 3 gm beta tricalcium phosphate (Group III) and d) 3 gm autologous bone graft (Group IV). Each group had 10 rabbits. Half of the rabbits were sacrificed by injecting Phenobarbitone intraperitoneally after eight weeks and the remaining after 24 weeks, and were evaluated for fusion by X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, manual palpation test and histology. Results: Beta tricalcium phosphate used with bone marrow aspirate produced best results when compared to other groups (P =.0001). When beta tricalcium phosphate was used alone, fusion rates were better as compared to fusion achieved with autologous iliac crest bone graft though statistically not significant (P =0.07). Autologous bone graft showed signs of new bone formation. However, the rate of new bone formation was comparatively slow. Conclusion: Composite graft of beta tricalcium phosphate and bone marrow aspirate can be used as an alternative to autologous iliac crest bone graft. PMID:20924481

  19. The bones of the body politic: thoughts on the Savorgnan de Brazza Mausoleum.

    PubMed

    Bazenguissa-Ganga, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines three examples of political treatment of the dead (specifically their bones) in the Republic of the Congo: the return of the remains of its capital's founder, Savorgnan de Brazza; the disappearance of the body of André Matswa, hailed by the people as their messianic ‘saviour’ guardian; and finally, the treatment of unidentified victims of the various armed conflicts that occurred during the years 1990–2002. These events can be analysed through the prism of two different historical perspectives: in terms of the moyenne durée, the treatment of Matswa's bones paved the way for the subsequent occurrences by creating a precedent; in the context of the ‘present of history’, the construction of a Brazza mausoleum is contemporaneous with official denial of the presence of human remains scattered across the capital city of Brazzaville as a result of armed conflicts. The comparative analysis of these historical configurations posits a set of circumstances whereby the bones become a symbolic buttress of the capital. The historical puzzle here is to understand how that which came together in claiming Matswa's bones becomes, in the context of democratization of the regime, an aesthetic sense of the ‘beauty of death’ as expressed by people when they see the shrine as their country's finest architectural accomplishment. Through the splendour of the monument, this aesthetic sense articulates the denial of the presence of the nameless dead. PMID:21542207

  20. Natural composite of wood as replacement material for ostechondral bone defects.

    PubMed

    Aho, Allan J; Rekola, Jami; Matinlinna, Jukka; Gunn, Jarmo; Tirri, Teemu; Viitaniemi, Pertti; Vallittu, Pekka

    2007-10-01

    Deciduous wood, birch, pretreated by a technique combining heat and water vapor was applied for the reconstruction of bone defects in the knee joint of rabbits. It was observed that wood showed characteristic properties to be incorporated by the host bone during observation time of 4, 8, and 20 weeks. The natural channel structure of wood served as a porous scaffold, allowing host bone growth as small islets into the wood implants. The other properties of heat-treated wood, such as bioactivity, good handling properties, and sufficient biomechanical properties, might be additional favorable factors for the application of wood as a natural composite material for bone and cartilage repair. At the interface of the surfaces of wood and living bone, bonding occurred. The Chemical Interface Model for bonding bone to wood consists of the reactive ions, such as hydroxyl groups --OH, and covalent bonding as well as hydrogen bonding, which originate from both wood and bone. The bone tissue trauma, with its reactive Ca(2+) and PO(4) (3-) ions, proteins, and collagen, available for interaction at ionic and nanolevel, are associated with the complicated chemistry in the cellular response of the early bone healing process. It was concluded that heat-treated wood acted like a porous biomaterial scaffold, allowing ongrowth and ingrowth of bone and cartilage differentiation on its surface, and demonstrating osteoconductive contact, bonding at the interface. PMID:17318823

  1. Changes in the body image of bone sarcoma survivors following surgical treatment—A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lorem, Geir; Grov, Ellen K.; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Among several long‐term effects, people treated for cancer may experience an altered appearance. Our study aims to identify how visible body changes following surgical treatment affect the life and identity of primary bone sarcoma survivors 3–10 years after diagnosis. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods Sarcoma survivors (n = 18) who were previously treated at Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, participated in the study. In‐depth and semi‐structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The main finding of this study concerned how altered appearance after bone cancer treatment in the hip/pelvis or lower extremities affected the participants’ self‐esteem. Half of the participants expressed concerns about their visible differences, particularly those with functional impairment. They felt that it is important to hide the bodily signs of changes to appear as normal as possible, as well as attractive and healthy. They describe, with specific examples, how these changes influence their self‐realization, especially their social life. Conclusions Healthcare providers who guide bone sarcoma survivors during follow‐up should develop a comprehensive understanding of what it means to cope with a changed and challenging body. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:229–234. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Surgical Oncology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26714610

  2. On optimization of a composite bone plate using the selective stress shielding approach.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-02-01

    Bone fracture plates are used to stabilize fractures while allowing for adequate compressive force on the fracture ends. Yet the high stiffness of conventional bone plates significantly reduces compression at the fracture site, and can lead to subsequent bone loss upon healing. Fibre-reinforced composite bone plates have been introduced to address this drawback. However, no studies have optimized their configurations to fulfill the requirements of proper healing. In the present study, classical laminate theory and the finite element method were employed for optimization of a composite bone plate. A hybrid composite made of carbon fibre/epoxy with a flax/epoxy core, which was introduced previously, was optimized by varying the laminate stacking sequence and the contribution of each material, in order to minimize the axial stiffness and maximize the torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffness. The initial 14×4(14) possible configurations were reduced to 13 after applying various design criteria. A comprehensive finite element model, validated against a previous experimental study, was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of each composite configuration in terms of its fracture stability, load sharing, and strength in transverse and oblique Vancouver B1 fracture configurations at immediately post-operative, post-operative, and healed bone stages. It was found that a carbon fibre/epoxy plate with an axial stiffness of 4.6 MN, and bending and torsional stiffness of 13 and 14 N·m(2), respectively, showed an overall superiority compared with other laminate configurations. It increased the compressive force at the fracture site up to 14% when compared to a conventional metallic plate, and maintained fracture stability by ensuring the fracture fragments' relative motions were comparable to those found during metallic plate fixation. The healed stage results revealed that implantation of the titanium plate caused a 40.3% reduction in bone stiffness

  3. Measurement precision of body composition variables in elite wheelchair athletes, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Keil, Mhairi; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 12 elite male wheelchair basketball players (age 31 ± 7 years, BMI 21 ± 2 kg/m(2) and onset of disability 25 ± 9 years). Two whole body scans were performed on each participant in the supine position on the same day, using Lunar Prodigy Advance DXA (GE Lunar, Madison, WI, USA). Participants dismounted from the scanning table and were repositioned in-between the first and second scan. Whole body coefficient of variation (CV) values for bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and soft tissue lean mass (LTM) were all <2.0%. With the exclusion of arm FM (CV = 7.8%), CV values ranged from 0.1 to 3.7% for all total body and segmental measurements of BMC, FM and LTM. The least significant change that can be attributed to the effect of treatment intervention in an individual is 1.0 kg, 1.1 kg, 0.12 kg for FM, LTM, and BMC, respectively. This information can be used to determine meaningful changes in body composition when assessed using the same methods longitudinally. Whilst there may be challenges in the correct positioning of an individual with disability that can introduce greater measurement error, DXA is a highly reproducible technique in the estimation of total and regional body composition of elite wheelchair basketball athletes. PMID:25307741

  4. A modeling approach for compounds affecting body composition.

    PubMed

    Gennemark, Peter; Jansson-Löfmark, Rasmus; Hyberg, Gina; Wigstrand, Maria; Kakol-Palm, Dorota; Håkansson, Pernilla; Hovdal, Daniel; Brodin, Peter; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Antonsson, Madeleine; Ploj, Karolina; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Body composition and body mass are pivotal clinical endpoints in studies of welfare diseases. We present a combined effort of established and new mathematical models based on rigorous monitoring of energy intake (EI) and body mass in mice. Specifically, we parameterize a mechanistic turnover model based on the law of energy conservation coupled to a drug mechanism model. Key model variables are fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), governed by EI and energy expenditure (EE). An empirical Forbes curve relating FFM to FM was derived experimentally for female C57BL/6 mice. The Forbes curve differs from a previously reported curve for male C57BL/6 mice, and we thoroughly analyse how the choice of Forbes curve impacts model predictions. The drug mechanism function acts on EI or EE, or both. Drug mechanism parameters (two to three parameters) and system parameters (up to six free parameters) could be estimated with good precision (coefficients of variation typically <20 % and not greater than 40 % in our analyses). Model simulations were done to predict the EE and FM change at different drug provocations in mice. In addition, we simulated body mass and FM changes at different drug provocations using a similar model for man. Surprisingly, model simulations indicate that an increase in EI (e.g. 10 %) was more efficient than an equal lowering of EI. Also, the relative change in body mass and FM is greater in man than in mouse at the same relative change in either EI or EE. We acknowledge that this assumes the same drug mechanism impact across the two species. A set of recommendations regarding the Forbes curve, vehicle control groups, dual action on EI and loss, and translational aspects are discussed. This quantitative approach significantly improves data interpretation, disease system understanding, safety assessment and translation across species. PMID:24158456

  5. New techniques in nutritional assessment: body composition methods.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Ward, L C

    1999-02-01

    New techniques in air-displacement plethysmography seem to have overcome many of the previous problems of poor reproducibility and validity. These have made body-density measurements available to a larger range of individuals, including children, elderly and sick patients who often have difficulties in being submerged underwater in hydrodensitometry systems. The BOD POD air-displacement system (BOD POD body composition system; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA, USA) is more precise than hydrodensitometry, is simple and rapid to operate (approximately 1 min measurements) and the results agree closely with those of hydrodensitometry (e.g. +/- 3.4% for estimation of body fat). Body line scanners employing the principles of three-dimensional photography are potentially able to measure the surface area and volume of the body and its segments even more rapidly (approximately 10 s), but the validity of the measurements needs to be established. Advances in i.r. spectroscopy and mathematical modelling for calculating the area under the curve have improved precision for measuring enrichment of 2H2O in studies of water dilution (CV 0.1-0.9% within the range of 400-1000 microliters/l) in saliva, plasma and urine. The technique is rapid and compares closely with mass spectrometry (bias 1 (SD 2) %). Advances in bedside bioelectrical-impedance techniques are making possible potential measurements of skinfold thicknesses and limb muscle mass electronically. Preliminary results suggest that the electronic method is more reproducible (intra- and inter-individual reproducibility for measuring skinfold thicknesses) and associated with less bias (+12%), than anthropometry (+40%). In addition to these selected examples, the 'mobility' or transfer of reference methods between centres has made the distinction between reference and bedside or field techniques less distinct than in the past. PMID:10343337

  6. Long-term in vitro degradation of PDLLA/bioglass bone scaffolds in acellular simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Blaker, J J; Nazhat, S N; Maquet, V; Boccaccini, A R

    2011-02-01

    The long-term (600days) in vitro degradation of highly porous poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)/Bioglass-filled composite foams developed for bone tissue engineering scaffolds has been investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Foams of ∼93% porosity were produced by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). The degradation profile for foams of neat PDLLA and the influence of Bioglass addition were comprehensively assessed in terms of changes in dimensional stability, pore morphology, weight loss, molecular weight and mechanical properties (dry and wet states). It is shown that the degradation process proceeded in several stages: (a) a quasi-stable stage, where water absorption and plasticization occurred together with weight loss due to Bioglass particle loss and dissolution, resulting in decreased wet mechanical properties; (b) a stage showing a slight increase in the wet mechanical properties and a moderate decrease in dimensions, with the properties remaining moderately constant until the onset of significant weight loss, whilst molecular weight continued to decrease; (c) an end stage of massive weight loss, disruption of the pore structure and the formation of blisters and embrittlement of the scaffold (evident on handling). The findings from this long-term in vitro degradation investigation underpin studies that have been and continue to be performed on highly porous poly(α-hydroxyesters) scaffolds filled with bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20849987

  7. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlloef, G.B.; Barr, M.; Bolme, P.; Modeer, T.; Loennqvist, B.R.; Ringden, O.; Heimdahl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dental status of 16 children who had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for serious bone marrow diseases was followed for up to 6 years. Several types of disturbances in dental development were observed in children who had been conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI) at 10 Gy before BMT. Thus, impaired root development that caused short V-shaped roots was found in all patients, a complete failure of root development and premature apical closure were found in five patients, enamel hypoplasia was observed in four patients, and microdontia was observed in three patients conditioned with TBI. Patients younger than 6 years of age at BMT exhibited the most severe and extensive dental aberrations. The TBI at 10 Gy appeared to be the major cause of the disturbances found.

  8. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  9. EFFECT OF INITIAL BODY CONDITION OF BOER X SPANISH YEARLING WETHERS AND LEVEL OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON BODY COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of initial body condition and level of feed intake on body composition. Before the experiment, 27 wethers were fed to achieve high body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5, with 1 = extremely thin and 5 = extremely fat) and BW (I-F) and 27 were f...

  10. Body composition and somatotype of the elite of Polish fencers.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in epée (n = 10), foil (n = 10) and sabre (n = 10). They were aged 23.3 +/- 2.9; their length of training was 12.6 +/- 2.5 years, with the frequency of training 15.9 +/- 3.1 hours per week. In each weapon style there were champions and vice-champions of Poland from the year 2004. Twelve of them were classified among the first fifty contestants according to the D'Escrime International Federation (FIE) ranking. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Sabre fencers (weight = 84.4 kg, somatotype = 3.4-5.4-1.8) were heavier than both epée fencers (77.9 kg, 3.6-4.9-2.5) and foil fencers (74.9 kg, 2.9-4.2-2.8). Sabre specialists had higher mesomorphy than foil fencers (ANOVA and Bonferroni's multi comparison test). Sabre fencers were characterized by higher fat free mass and a higher BMI and fat free mass index than fencers of the other two weapons. Discriminant analysis result was significant (p < 0.01) with a relative percentage with a 72.4 and a canonical correlation coefficient 0.692, and Wilks' lambda = 0.385. Amongst the 30 observations used to fit the model, 22 (73.3%) were correctly classified. Against the background of non-training men, fencers were distinguished by a higher body weight (79.0 vs. 72.1 kg, t = 3.97, p < 0.001) and a higher height-weight ratio (43.21 vs. 42.46, t = 2.24, p < 0.05). Fencers' somatotypes differed from the somatotypes of the untrained (3.3-4.8-2.3 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were characterized by their higher mesomorphy (t = 2.10, p < 0

  11. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  12. Sesamol attenuates genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of whole-body γ-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Selvan, Tamizh G; Tripathi, Akanchha M; Choudhary, Sandeep; Khan, Shahanshah; Adhikari, Jawahar S; Chaudhury, Nabo K

    2015-09-01

    Ionising radiation causes free radical-mediated damage in cellular DNA. This damage is manifested as chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MN) in proliferating cells. Sesamol, present in sesame seeds, has the potential to scavenge free radicals; therefore, it can reduce radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective potential of sesamol in bone marrow cells of mice and related haematopoietic system against radiation-induced genotoxicity. A comparative study with melatonin was designed for assessing the radioprotective potential of sesamol. C57BL/6 mice were administered intraperitoneally with either sesamol or melatonin (10 and 20mg/kg body weight) 30 min prior to 2-Gy whole-body irradiation (WBI) and sacrificed after 24h. Total chromosomal aberrations (TCA), MN and cell cycle analyses were performed using bone marrow cells. The comet assay was performed on bone marrow cells, splenocytes and lymphocytes. Blood was drawn to study haematological parameters. Prophylactic doses of sesamol (10 and 20mg/kg) in irradiated mice reduced TCA and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte frequency in bone marrow cells by 57% and 50%, respectively, in comparison with radiation-only groups. Sesamol-reduced radiation-induced apoptosis and facilitated cell proliferation. In the comet assay, sesamol (20mg/kg) treatment reduced radiation-induced comets (% DNA in tail) compared with radiation only (P < 0.05). Sesamol also increased granulocyte populations in peripheral blood similar to melatonin. Overall, the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol was found to be similar to that of melatonin. Sesamol treatment also showed recovery of relative spleen weight at 24h of WBI. The results strongly suggest the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol in the haematopoietic system of mice. PMID:25863274

  13. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  14. How Effective Is Sun Salutation in Improving Muscle Strength, General Body Endurance and Body Composition?

    PubMed Central

    Bhutkar, Milind V.; Bhutkar, Pratima M.; Taware, Govind B.; Surdi, Anil D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of regular practice of sun salutation on muscle strength, general body endurance and body composition. Methods Subjects (49 male and 30 female) performed 24 cycles of sun salutation, 6 days a week for 24 weeks. Upper body muscle strength was determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for bench press and shoulder press technique. Back and leg dynamometry was used to assess strength of back and leg muscles. General body endurance was evaluated by push-up and sit-up tests. Body composition was assessed by noting% body fat by using bioelectric impedance analysis. Perceived intensity of exercise by subjects was noted by Borg scale. Results Muscle strength by bench press showed significant increase in male (29.49±9.70 to 36.12±9.09 Kg, P<0.001) and female (10.5±4.42 to 13.16±4.44 Kg, P<0.001) subjects. Strength by shoulder press also increased (males; 22.96±9.57 Kg to 26.53±11.05 Kg, P<0.001, females; 6.83±2.78 to 8.83±3.87, P<0.001). Endurance by push-ups & sit-ups showed similar findings in male (19.0±9.58 to 21.98±8.98, P<0.001 and 24.92±10.41 to 29.84±12.64, P<0.001 respectively) and female (14.66±6.80 to 18.56±6.97 and 13.16±7.75 to 19.23±8.25, P<0.001 respectively) subjects. A significant decrease in body fat percent was observed only in female (27.68±5.46 to 25.76±4.72, P<0.001) but not in male subjects. BMI significantly decreased in both the groups (z=4.37, P<001 and t=5.41, P<0.001 respectively). Conclusion From our observations we conclude that sun salutation can be an ideal exercise to keep oneself in optimum level of fitness. PMID:22375247

  15. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. Results The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Conclusions Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI. PMID:26098769

  16. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    PubMed

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders. PMID:15700636

  17. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  18. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888

  19. Proliferative and Glycolytic Assessment of the Whole-Body Bone Marrow Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Adjoua, Malek; Güleç, Seza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Quantitative assessment of active bone marrow (BM) in vivo is yet to be well-defined. This study aims to compare total body BM volume estimations obtained from use of both18F-FLT PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT in order to consolidate higher cellular proliferation rates with imaging the highly active red BM in pancreatic cancer. Methods: This phase I pilot study includes seven patients with pancreatic cancers who underwent both 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG imaging each acquired within a week’s duration. A CT-based classifier is used for segmenting bone into cortical and trabecular regions. The total BM volume is determined through statistical thresholding on PET activity found within the trabecular bone. Results: Results showed that 18F-FLT measures of red BM volume (RBV) were higher than those obtained from 18F-FDG (∆=89.21 ml). RBV obtained using 18F-FLT in males were found to have high correlation with measured weight (R2=0.61) and BMI (R2=0.70). The red BM fraction obtained from 18F-FLT was significantly different between males and females, with females showing much higher red bone matter within the trabecular bone (p<0.05). In contrast to 18F-FLT, 18F-FDG BM measurements showed that RBV was significantly different between males and females (p<0.05). Results also show that spinal activity SUV threshold for red BM segmentation is significantly different between 18F-FLT PET and 18F-FDG PET (p<0.05). Conclusion: By combining 18F-FLT-PET and 18F-FDG-PET, this study provides useful insights for in vivo BM estimation through its proliferative and glycolytic activities. PMID:26316472

  20. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P < 10−4, and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1 mm, P < 10−8. Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential. PMID:25553057

  1. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  2. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    Prokop, NW, Reid, RER, and Andersen, RE. Seasonal changes in whole body and regional body composition profiles of elite collegiate ice-hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 684-692, 2016-The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes. PMID:26907839

  3. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: the relationship with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, T.J.; Van Dyk, J.; Rider, W.D.

    1981-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is a frequent and often fatal complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Thirty to 40 percent of such cases are of unknown etiology and have been labelled as cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Idiopathic cases are more commonly associated with the use of total body irradiation; their occurrence appears to be independent of immunosupression or graft versus host disease. Evidence is presented from the literature suggesting that the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is related to the absolute absorbed dose of radiation to lung. The similarity of idiopathic pneumonia to radiation pneumonitis seen in a different clinical setting is described.

  4. Effects of Hypergravity and Adrenalectomy on Total Body Bone Mineral Content in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, Beverly; Moran, Megan; Baer, Lisa; Pruitt, Sean; O'Brien, Cheryl; Arnaud, Sara; Wade, Charles; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of 14 days of increased gravitational load, and the absence of adrenal stress hormones on total body bone mineral content (BMC) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Centrifugation at 2 Gs (2G) was used to increase the gravitational load, and bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) was used to eliminate the production of adrenal stress hormones. Stationary groups at 1 G (1G) and sham operated (SHAM) animals served as controls. Thirty rats (n=6 or 8) made up the four experimental groups (1G SHAM, 1G ADX, 2G SHAM and 2G ADX). BMC was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and activity was determined through biotelemetry. Body mass and food intake were also measured. Multi-factorial analysis of variance (MANCOVA) and Newman Keuls post hoc tests were used to analyze significant effects (p less than 0.05) for the primary variables. Results indicated that BMC decreased significantly with increased G for both the SHAM and ADX groups. The BMC for the 1 G ADX group was also significantly lower than the 1G SHAM group, however the 2G SHAM and ADX groups were not significantly different. There was a significant decrease in body mass with increased G and there was no ADX effect on body mass. When BMC was normalized for body mass changes, there were no significant group differences. Activity level decreased with body mass, and food intake data showed there was significant hypophagia during the first few days of centrifugation. These results suggest that the decrease in total body BMC seen with hypergravity may be based to a large extent on the differences in body mass induced by the 2 G load.

  5. Siliceous mesostructured cellular foams/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) composite biomaterials for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengbing; Xu, Shuogui; Zhou, Panyu; Wang, Jing; Tan, Honglue; Liu, Yang; Tang, TingTing; Liu, ChangSheng

    2014-01-01

    Osteoinductive and biodegradable composite biomaterials for bone regeneration were prepared by combining poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) with siliceous mesostructured cellular foams (SMC), using the porogen leaching method. Surface hydrophilicity, morphology, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 adsorption/release behavior of the SMC/PHBHHx scaffolds were analyzed. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that the SMC was uniformly dispersed in the PHBHHx scaffolds, and SMC modification scaffolds have an interconnected porous architecture with pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 μm. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of SMC into PHBHHx improves the hydrophilicity of the composite. In vitro studies with simulated body fluid show great improvements to bioactivity and biodegradability versus pure PHBHHx scaffolds. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation on the scaffolds was also evaluated, and the new tools provide a better environment for human mesenchymal stem cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation on PHBHHx scaffolds. Moreover, micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation confirmed that the SMC/PHBHHx scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability and faster and more effective osteogenesis in vivo. PMID:25364243

  6. Assessment of bone formation and bone resorption in osteoporosis: a comparison between tetracycline-based iliac histomorphometry and whole body /sup 85/Sr kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.E.; Chavassieux, P.M.; Edouard, C.; Green, J.R.; Hesp, R.; Tellez, M.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    Bone formation and resorption have been measured in patients with idiopathic osteoporosis by histomorphometry of 7.5-mm trephine biopsies and in the whole body by 85Sr radiotracer methodology and calcium balances. The studies were synchronized and most were preceded by double in vivo tetracycline labeling. Correlations between histological and kinetic bone formation indices were better when better when based on the extent of double tetracycline labels than on measurements of osteoid by visible light microscopy. Correction of the kinetic data for long-term exchange, using 5 months' serial whole body counting of retained 85Sr, improved the fit of the kinetic to the histological data. A statistical analysis of the measurement uncertainties showed that the residual scatter in the best correlations (between exchange-corrected bone formation rates and double-labeled osteoid surface indices) could be attributed to measurement imprecision alone. The exchange-corrected resorption rate correlated fairly well with iliac trabecular resorption surfaces, and using a volume referent rather than a surface referent for the histological index improved the statistical fit when patients with therapeutically accelerated bone turnover were included. A much better correlation was obtained by including osteoid volume acting as an independent predictor of bone resorption in a bivariate regression with a resorption surface index. The residual errors could then be accounted for by known measurement uncertainties. Whereas osteoid taking a double label closely predicted the kinetic rate of bone formation, further analysis suggested that osteoid that took no label or a single label was more closely related to bone resorption, presumably as a secondary result of the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption.

  7. Autonomic modulation and its relation with body composition in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Ricci-Vitor, Ana L; Sabino, João P J; Vanderlei, Luiz C M; Freitas, Ismael F

    2014-07-01

    This study compared autonomic modulation in swimmers and non-athletes in relation to body composition. A total of 28 athletes with a mean age of 19.7 ± 2.9 years were evaluated who had at least 2 years of swimming training, trained approximately 7,000 m per day, with a frequency of 5 days per week, and who competed at national level. The control group was made up of 21 volunteers (23.0 ± 2.5 years), who did not practice regular physical activity (<2 hours per week). Body composition was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and autonomic modulation was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). The results show that there were significant differences in autonomic modulation and body composition between the groups, and that the athletes had a higher overall variability (standard deviation of all normal intervals between consecutive heart beats [SDNN]: 78.1 [72.5-93.5] × 61.1 [56.4-75.7], p = 0.022) and greater autonomic balance (LF/HF: 0.96 [0.88-1.35] × 0.71 [0.56-0.93], p = 0.023), compared with the non-athletes, respectively. In addition, a moderate and positive relation was obtained between fat-free mass and the square root of the squared differences between consecutive heartbeat intervals (RMSSD: r = 0.526, p = 0.004 × r = 0.456, p = 0.038), (SDNN: r = 0.617, p = 0.001 × r = 0.571, p = 0.007) and low frequency (LFms: r = 0.517, p = 0.005 × r = 0.600, p = 0.004) in the athletes and non-athletes, respectively, without a correlation between fat mass (FM). The conclusion is that young highly trained swimmers had lower FM, increased fat-free mass, and better HRV than young adult non-athletes and suggests that a lower quantity of FM and, especially, a greater fat-free mass (FFM) are linked to better autonomic modulation. Thus, this study could contribute to coaches and trainers establishing greater performance by better autonomic modulation and greater quantity of FFM. PMID:24345973

  8. A new biphasic osteoinductive calcium composite material with a negative Zeta potential for bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Ralf; Kolk, Andreas; Gerressen, Marcus; Driemel, Oliver; Maciejewski, Oliver; Hermanns-Sachweh, Benita; Riediger, Dieter; Stein, Jamal M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC) with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential) which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:19523239

  9. Measurement of Body Composition: is there a Gold Standard?

    PubMed Central

    Branski, Ludwik K; Norbury, William B; Herndon, David N; Chinkes, David L; Cochran, Amalia; Suman, Oscar; Benjamin, Deb; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintaining lean body mass (LBM) after a severe burn is an essential goal of modern burn treatment. An accurate determination of LBM is necessary for short- and longterm therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to compare 2 measurement methods for body composition, wholebody potassium counting (K count) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), in a large prospective clinical trial in severely burned pediatric patients. Methods Two-hundred seventy-nine patients admitted with burns covering 40% of total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in the study. Patients enrolled were controls or received long-term treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Near-simultaneous measurements of LBM with DEXA and fat-free mass (FFM) with K count were performed at hospital discharge and at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months post injury. Results were correlated using Pearson’s regression analysis. Agreement between the 2 methods was analyzed with the Bland-Altman method. Results Age, gender distribution, weight, burn size, and admission time from injury were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. rhGH and control patients at all time points postburn showed a good correlation between LBM and FFM measurements (R2 between 0.9 and 0.95). Bland-Altman revealed that the mean bias and 95% limits of agreement depended only on patient weight and not on treatment or time postburn. The 95% limits ranged from 0.1 ± 2.9 kg for LBM or FFM in 7- to 18-kg patients to 16.3 ± 17.8 kg for LBM or FFM in patients >60 kg. Conclusions DEXA can provide a sufficiently accurate determination of LBM and changes in body composition, but a correction factor must be included for older children and adolescents with more LBM. DEXA scans are easier, cheaper, and less stressful for the patient, and this method should be used rather than the K count. PMID:19884353

  10. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT.

  11. The fate of cells with chromosome aberrations after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F.; Ganser, A.; Fliedner, T.M.; Arnold, R.; Kubanek, B.

    1983-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies were done on bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes of four patients (three with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, one with aplastic anemia) at various intervals up to 861 days after total-body X irradiation (TBI) at doses between 4.5 and 10 Gy (450-1000 rad) followed by syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Whereas no radiation-induced aberrations could be found in the bone marrow, apart from a transient finding in the patient with the lowest radiation dose, aberrant metaphases were seen in the peripheral lymphocytes of three patients in the range from 2.5 to 46% even at 861 days after the exposure. There were no demonstrable aberrations related to TBI in the only patient developing graft-versus-host disease. The dicentric yield as determined in the aberrant metaphases with 46 centromeres ranged between 3.4 +/- 1.3 and 4.9 +/- 0.4. In one patient it was demonstrated by BUdR-labeling that after 10 Gy (1000 rad) TBI the surviving and heavily damaged lymphocytes can go into cell cycle and reach at least the third mitosis. The percentage of aberrant cells diminished by about 25% at each mitotic division.

  12. Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.

    1983-11-01

    Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

  13. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  14. Technical modifications in hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Barber-Derus, S.; Murray, K.J.; Casper, J.T.; Ash, R.C.; Gillin, M.T.; Wilson, J.F. )

    1989-08-01

    The Medical College of Wisconsin implemented a major bone marrow transplant (BMT) program in July 1985. The type of transplants to be focused on were allogeneic T-lymphocyte deplete. Total body irradiation (TBI) was initially patterned after the Memorial method. Patients received total body irradiation in a sitting position at a dose rate of 20-25 cGy/minute with 50% attenuation lung blocks used both anterior/posterior and posterior/anterior. Electron boosting was utilized for the ribs beneath the lung blocks. Occasionally, lower extremity boosting was required because of the sitting position. A dose of 14 Gy was chosen since T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant data suggest the need for higher total doses to consistently obtain engraftment. This dose was given in 3 equal daily fractions over 3 days following conditioning chemotherapy. Six of 11 patients treated in this manner developed lethal pulmonary events. In response to the pulmonary toxicity, partial lung shielding was increased to 60% attenuation. In the next 107 patients receiving this program of total body irradiation there was a reduced incidence of fatal pulmonary events (10 cases of fatal idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and 12 cases of fatal pulmonary infections) after a median follow-up of 9 months. This was an obvious improvement over the initial group. A significant level of hepato-renal toxicity was also observed with 14 Gy total body irradiation when no liver or kidney blocking was used. Of the first 20 patients treated, three cases of fatal veno-occlusive disease resulted. Subsequently, a 10% attenuation right sided liver block was added. Five of 98 patients treated with this block have developed fatal hepatic dysfunction, (median follow-up of 7.2 months).

  15. Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity.

    PubMed

    Debevec, Tadej; McDonnell, Adam C; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg·m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mm Hg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest. PMID:24552383

  16. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  17. Development of three-dimensional tissue engineered bone-oral mucosal composite models.

    PubMed

    Almela, Thafar; Brook, Ian M; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering of bone and oral mucosa have been extensively studied independently. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate a novel combination of bone and oral mucosa in a single 3D in vitro composite tissue mimicking the natural structure of alveolar bone with an overlying oral mucosa. Rat osteosarcoma (ROS) cells were seeded into a hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate scaffold and bone constructs were cultured in a spinner bioreactor for 3 months. An engineered oral mucosa was fabricated by air/liquid interface culture of immortalized OKF6/TERET-2 oral keratinocytes on collagen gel-embedded fibroblasts. EOM was incorporated into the engineered bone using a tissue adhesive and further cultured prior to qualitative and quantitative assessments. Presto Blue assay revealed that ROS cells remained vital throughout the experiment. The histological and scanning electron microscope examinations showed that the cells proliferated and densely populated the scaffold construct. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning revealed an increase in closed porosity and a decrease in open and total porosity at the end of the culture period. Histological examination of bone-oral mucosa model showed a relatively differentiated parakeratinized epithelium, evenly distributed fibroblasts in the connective tissue layer and widely spread ROS cells within the bone scaffold. The feasibility of fabricating a novel bone-oral mucosa model using cell lines is demonstrated. Generating human 'normal' cell-based models with further characterization is required to optimize the model for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:26883949

  18. Biodegradable nanofibers-reinforced microfibrous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Martins, Albino; Pinho, Elisabete D; Correlo, Vítor M; Faria, Susana; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L; Neves, Nuno M

    2010-12-01

    Native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex hierarchical fibrous composite structure, resulting from the assembling of collagen fibrils at several length scales, ranging from the macro to the nanoscale. The combination of nanofibers within microfibers after conventional reinforcement methodologies seems to be a feasible solution to the rational design of highly functional synthetic ECM substitutes. The present work aims at the development of bone ECM inspired structures, conjugating electrospun chitosan (Cht) nanofibers within biodegradable polymeric microfibers [poly(butylene succinate)-PBS and PBS/Cht], assembled in a fiber mesh structure. The nanofibers-reinforced composite fiber mesh scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and cultured under osteogenic differentiation conditions. These nanofibers-reinforced composite scaffolds sustained ECM deposition and mineralization, mainly in the PBS/Cht-based fiber meshes, as depicted by the increased amount of calcium phosphates produced by the osteogenic differentiated hBMSCs. The osteogenic genotype of the cultured hBMSCs was confirmed by the expression of osteoblastic genes, namely Alkaline Phosphatase, Osteopontin, Bone Sialoprotein and Osteocalcin, and the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix, all involved in different stages of the osteogenesis. These data represent the first report on the biological functionality of nanofibers-reinforced composite scaffolds, envisaging the applicability of the developed structures for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20666612

  19. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  20. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  1. The effect of implant angulation and splinting on stress distribution in implant body and supporting bone: A finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behnaz, Ebadian; Ramin, Mosharraf; Abbasi, Samaneh; Pouya, Memar Ardestani; Mahmood, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of implant crown splinting and the use of angulated abutment on stress distribution in implant body and surrounding bone by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: For this study, three models with two implants at the site of mandibular right second premolar and first molar were designed (1): Both implants, parallel to adjacent teeth, with straight abutments (2): Anterior implant with 15 mesial angulations and posterior implant were placed parallel to adjacent tooth, (3): Both implants with 15 mesial angulations and parallel to each other with 15° angulated abutments. Restorations were modeled in two shapes (splinted and nonsplinted). Loading in tripod manner as each point 50 N and totally 300 N was applied. Stress distribution in relation to splinting or nonsplinting restorations and angulations was done with ABAQUS6.13. Results: Splinting the restorations in all situations, led to lower stresses in all implant bodies, cortical bone and spongy bone except for the spongy bone around angulated first molar. Angulated implant in nonsplinted restoration cause lower stresses in implant body and bone but in splinted models more stresses were seen in implant body in comparison with straight abutment (model 2). Stresses in nonsplinted and splinted restorations in cortical bone of angulated molar region were more than what was observed in straight molar implant (model 3). Conclusion: Implant restorations splinting lead to a better distribution of stresses in implant bodies and bone in comparison with nonsplinted restorations, especially when the load is applied off center to implant body. Angulations of implant can reduce stresses when the application of the load is in the same direction as the implant angulation. PMID:26430356

  2. Use of a bioactive scaffold for the repair of bone defects in a novel reproducible vertebral body defect model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haixiang; Wang, Kun; Shimer, Adam L; Li, Xudong; Balian, Gary; Shen, Francis H

    2010-08-01

    Bone defects in vertebral bodies (VB) usually occur after the reduction of fractures or are caused by bone disease. Besides the treatment of original disease, repair of the bone defect can restore the structure of VB and improve stabilization of the spine to protect the spinal cord nerves. To aid studies of the efficacy of bioengineering techniques for repair of VB, we developed a rat model with a critical size bone defect in VB. Air-motivated burrs were used to create two sizes of bone defect (2 x 3 x 1.5 mm; 2 x 3 x 3 mm) in the anterior part of VB in 6-month-old Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative CT analyses and histological assays demonstrated that neither defects self-repaired by 8 weeks post surgery. Moreover, the tendency of bone formation was monitored in the same animal by serial CT image evaluations, allowing us to demonstrate that there was significant bone growth during the 4- to 6-week period after the creation of the bone defect. We then implanted sintered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds loaded with Matrigel with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2; 2.0 microg rhBMP2/10 microL Matrigel/scaffold) into the bone defect (2 x 3 x 3 mm) in the VB. Bone formation was detected by quantitative analyses of serial CT images, which demonstrated bone growth in rats that received the rhBMP2 implant, in both surrounding areas and inside area of the scaffold. In addition to a rapid increase within 2 weeks of the operation, another significant bone formation period was found between 4 and 8 weeks after the implantation. By contrast, the control group that received the implant without rhBMP2 did not show similar bone formation tendencies. The results of CT analyses were confirmed by histological studies. This study suggests that a critical size bone defect of the anterior VB can be developed in a rat model. Characterization of this model demonstrated that 4 to 6 weeks after creation of the defect was a significant

  3. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be at risk for suture cutting through osteopenic bone

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y.; Woodmass, J. M.; Nelson, A. A.; Boorman, R. S.; Thornton, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the mechanical performance, under low-load cyclic loading, of two different knotless suture anchor designs: sutures completely internal to the anchor body (SpeedScrew) and sutures external to the anchor body and adjacent to bone (MultiFIX P). Methods Using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the rotator cuff (approximately 60°), anchors were tested in cadaveric bone and foam blocks representing normal to osteopenic bone. Mechanical testing included preloading to 10 N and cyclic loading for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min. The parameters evaluated were initial displacement, cyclic displacement and number of cycles and load at 3 mm displacement relative to preload. Video recording throughout testing documented the predominant source of suture displacement and the distance of ‘suture cutting through bone’. Results In cadaveric bone and foam blocks, MultiFIX P anchors had significantly greater initial displacement, and lower number of cycles and lower load at 3 mm displacement than SpeedScrew anchors. Video analysis revealed ‘suture cutting through bone’ as the predominant source of suture displacement in cadaveric bone (qualitative) and greater ‘suture cutting through bone’ comparing MultiFIX P with SpeedScrew anchors in foam blocks (quantitative). The greater suture displacement in MultiFIX P anchors was predominantly from suture cutting through bone, which was enhanced in an osteopenic bone model. Conclusions Anchors with sutures external to the anchor body are at risk for suture cutting through bone since the suture eyelet is at the distal tip of the implant and the suture directly abrades against the bone edge during cyclic loading. Suture cutting through bone may be a significant source of fixation failure, particularly in osteopenic bone. Cite this article: Y. Ono, J. M. Woodmass, A. A. Nelson, R. S. Boorman, G. M. Thornton, I. K. Y. Lo. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be

  4. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-20

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications. PMID:23975041

  5. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  6. Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nilesh M.; Raphael, Bram; Guteirrez, Ivan; Quinn, Nicolle; Mitchell, Paul D.; Litman, Heather J.; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the agreement of multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry with reference methods for body composition assessment in children with intestinal failure (IF). Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study in children 14 years of age or younger with IF resulting from either short bowel syndrome (SBS) or motility disorders. Bland Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between BIA and deuterium dilution in measuring total body water (TBW) and lean body mass (LBM); and between BIA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) techniques in measuring LBM and FM. Fat mass (FM) and percent body fat (%BF) measurements by BIA and anthropometry, were also compared in relation to those measured by deuterium dilution. Results Fifteen children with IF, median (IQR) age 7.2 (5.0, 10.0) years, 10 (67%) male, were studied. BIA and deuterium dilution were in good agreement with a mean bias (limits of agreement) of 0.9 (-3.2, 5.0) for TBW (L) and 0.1 (-5.4 to 5.6) for LBM (kg) measurements. The mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF measurements were 0.4 (-3.8, 4.6) kg and 1.7 (-16.9, 20.3)% respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 12/14 (86%) subjects for TBW and LBM, and in 11/14 (79%) for FM and %BF measurements. Mean bias (limits) for LBM (kg) and FM (kg) between BIA and DXA were 1.6 (-3.0 to 6.3) kg and -0.1 (-3.2 to 3.1) kg, respectively. Mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF between anthropometry and deuterium dilution were 0.2 (-4.2, 4.6) and -0.2 (-19.5 to 19.1), respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 10/14 (71%) subjects. Conclusions In children with intestinal failure, TBW and LBM measurements by multifrequency BIA method were in agreement with isotope dilution and DXA methods, with small mean bias. In comparison to deuterium dilution, BIA was comparable to anthropometry for FM and %BF assessments with small mean bias. However, the limits of agreement

  7. Efficacy of guided bone regeneration using composite bone graft and resorbable collagen membrane in Seibert's Class I ridge defects: radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Pushparajan; Ramakrishnan, T; Ambalavanan, N; Emmadi, Pamela; John, Thomas Libby

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate radiologically the efficacy of guided bone regeneration using composite bone graft (autogenous bone graft and anorganic bovine bone graft [Bio-Oss]) along with resorbable collagen membrane (BioMend Extend) in the augmentation of Seibert's class I ridge defects in maxilla. Bone width was evaluated using computerized tomography at day 0 and at day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. There was a statistically significant increase in bone width between day 0 and day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. The results of the study demonstrated an increase in bone width of Seibert's class I ridge defects in the maxilla of the study patients. PMID:23964779

  8. Bioactive composite bone cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate/tricalcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Morejón-Alonso, Loreley; Ferreira, Oscar Jacinto Bareiro; Carrodeguas, Raúl Garcia; dos Santos, Luis Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Silicon compounds are known as bioactive materials that are able to bond to the living bone tissue by inducing an osteogenic response through the stimulation and activation of osteoblasts. To improve the bioactive and mechanical properties of an α-Ca(3)PO(4)-based cement, the effects of the addition of Ca(3 SiO(5) (C(3)S) on physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The morphological and structural changes of the material during immersion were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that it is possible to increase the compressive strength of the cement by adding 5% of C(3)S. Higher C(3)S contents enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility by the formation of a dense and homogeneous hydroxyapatite layer within 7 days; however, compressive strength decreases drastically as a consequence of delayed hydrolysis of α-Ca(3)(PO(4) (2). An increment in setting times and degradation rate of composites containing C(3)S was also observed. PMID:22006674

  9. Changes in chemical composition of bone matrix in ovariectomized (OVX) rats detected by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Iimura, Tadahiro; Saitou, Takashi; Imamura, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a major bone disease that connotes the risk of fragility fractures resulting from alterations to bone quantity and/or quality to mechanical competence. Bone strength arises from both bone quantity and quality. Assessment of bone quality and bone quantity is important for prediction of fracture risk. In spite of the two factors contribute to maintain the bone strength, only one factor, bone mineral density is used to determine the bone strength in the current diagnosis of osteoporosis. On the other hand, there is no practical method to measure chemical composition of bone tissue including hydroxyapatite and collagen non-invasively. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to analyze chemical composition and material properties of bone matrix non-invasively. Here we demonstrated Raman spectroscopic analysis of the bone matrix in osteoporosis model rat. Ovariectomized (OVX) rat was made and the decalcified sections of tibias were analyzed by a Raman microscope. In the results, Raman bands of typical collagen appeared in the obtained spectra. Although the typical mineral bands at 960 cm-1 (Phosphate) was absent due to decalcified processing, we found that Raman peak intensities of amide I and C-C stretching bands were significantly different between OVX and sham-operated specimens. These differences on the Raman spectra were statistically compared by multivariate analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discrimination analysis (LDA). Our analyses suggest that amide I and C-C stretching bands can be related to stability of bone matrix which reflects bone quality.

  10. Biodegradable and semi-biodegradable composite hydrogels as bone substitutes: morphology and mechanical characterization.

    PubMed

    Sanginario, V; Ginebra, M P; Tanner, K E; Planell, J A; Ambrosio, L

    2006-05-01

    Biodegradable and semi-biodegradable composite hydrogels are proposed as bone substitutes. They consist of an hydrophilic biodegradable polymer (HYAFF 11) as matrix and two ceramic powders (alpha-TCP and HA) as reinforcement. Both components of these composites have been of great interest in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility and tissue interactions, however they have never been investigated as bone substitute composites. Morphological and mechanical analysis have shown that the two fillers behave in a very different way. In the HYAFF 11/alpha-TCP composite, alpha-TCP is able to hydrolyze in contact with water while in the HYAFF 11 matrix. As a result, the composite sets and hardens, and entangled CDHA crystals are formed in the hydrogel phase and increases in the mechanical properties are obtained. In the HYAFF11/HA composite the ceramic reinforcement acts as inert phase leading to lower mechanical properties. Both mechanical properties and microstructure analysis have demonstrated the possibility to design hydrophilic biodegradable composite structures for bone tissue substitution applications. PMID:16688585

  11. Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone composites for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lanlan; Pei, Xibo; He, Rui; Wan, Qianbing; Wang, Jian

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/polycaprolactone composite scaffolds were fabricated by the solution evaporation technique. The morphology, phase composition and the mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were characterized and the cellular bioactivity of the scaffolds was assessed by using rat bone-marrow-derived stroma cells (BMSCs). The attachment, proliferation and differentiation of the BMSCs on the composite scaffolds were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) nuclear staining and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) live/dead staining, methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, respectively. Results showed that mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were improved with the addition of MWNTs (0.25-2 wt%). BMSCs on the composite scaffolds differentiated down the osteogenic lineage and expressed high levels of bone marker ALP. The scaffolds with low concentration (0.5 wt%) of MWNTs can enhance the proliferation and differentiation of the BMSCs more than that with higher concentration of MWNTs. It is concluded that MWNTs/PCL composite scaffolds have the potential for bone tissue engineering and the relatively low concentration of MWNTs (0.5 wt%) is preferred. PMID:22305638

  12. Artifacts and thresholding in X-ray CT of a cortical bone and titanium composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, C.J.; Gayou, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    X-Ray CT has the potential to provide precise and accurate data from which the mechanical properties of bone can be calculated. Such data would be useful in understanding the response of bone tissue to implants. Various artifacts can, however, degrade accuracy of the data. The aim of this study was to measure the artifactual errors produced in CT of a simulated femoral bone-titanium composite and to propose a method to correct for them. A composite phantom that simulates cortical bone and a titanium implant was designed and constructed. The phantom was scanned and the image data were analyzed over a range of thresholds with image analysis software developed for this study. The outer (OD) and inner (ID) diameter and the CT number of the cortical bone, with and without titanium, were measured over a range of cortical thicknesses. While ID can be accurately measured by choosing the proper threshold (800 HU), OD, even at optimal threshold, will be underestimated by {approx}2%. If a proper threshold is selected, CT number can also be accurately determined. Errors of tip to 5%, however, are produced by titanium unless corrected by proper threshold selection. Intramedullary titanium is not a deterrent to obtaining accurate measurements of cortical bone dimensions and properties. Proper choice of thresholds for image analysis of CT scan data can yield accuracy and precision of 2%. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Optimal sample volumes of human trabecular bone in μCT analysis within vertebral body and femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin-Xin; Zong, Chun-Lin; Xu, Chao; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Fa-Qi; Feng, Ya-Fei; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Trabecular bones of different skeletal sites have different bone morphologies. How to select an appropriate volume of region of interest (ROI) to reflect the microarchitecture of trabecular bone in different skeletal sites was an interesting problem. Therefore, in this study, the optimal volumes of ROI within vertebral body and femoral head, and if the relationships between volumes of ROI and microarchitectural parameters were affected by trabecular bone morphology were studied. Within vertebral body and femoral head, different cubic volumes of ROI (from (1 mm)3 to (20 mm)3) were set to compare with control groups(whole volume of trabecular bone). Five microarchitectural parameters (BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, and BS/BV) were obtained. Nonlinear curve fitting functions were used to explore the relationships between the microarchitectural parameters and the volumes of ROI. The volumes of ROI could affect the microarchitectural parameters when the volume was smaller than (8 mm)3 within the vertebral body and smaller than (13 mm)3 within the femoral head. As the volume increased, the variable tendencies of BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp were different between these two skeletal sites. The curve fitting functions between these two sites were also different. The relationships between volumes of ROI and microarchitectural parameters were affected by the different trabecular bone morphologies within lumbar vertebral body and femoral head. When depicting the microarchitecture of human trabecular bone within lumbar vertebral body and femoral head, the volume of ROI would be larger than (8 mm)3 and (13 mm)3. PMID:26770381

  14. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  15. Premixed rapid-setting calcium phosphate composites for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lisa E; Xu, Hockin H K; Simon, Carl G; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C

    2005-08-01

    Although calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for bone repair, its clinical use requires on site powder-liquid mixing. To shorten surgical time and improve graft properties, it is desirable to develop premixed CPC in which the paste remains stable during storage and hardens only after placement into the defect. The objective of this study was to develop premixed CPC with rapid setting when immersed in a physiological solution. Premixed CPCs were formulated using the following approach: Premixed CPC = CPC powder + nonaqueous liquid + gelling agent + hardening accelerator. Three premixed CPCs were developed: CPC-monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), CPC-chitosan, and CPC-tartaric. Setting time for these new premixed CPCs ranged from 5.3 to 7.9 min, significantly faster than 61.7 min for a premixed control CPC reported previously (p < 0.05). SEM revealed the formation of nano-sized needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals after 1 d immersion and crystal growth after 7 d. Diametral tensile strength for premixed CPCs at 7 d ranged from 2.8 to 6.4 MPa, comparable to reported strengths for cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants. Osteoblast cells attained a normal polygonal morphology on CPC-MCPM and CPC-chitosan with cytoplasmic extensions adhering to the nano-hydroxyapatite crystals. In summary, fast-setting premixed CPCs were developed to avoid the powder-liquid mixing in surgery. The pastes hardened rapidly once immersed in physiological solution and formed hydroxyapatite. The cements had strengths matching those of cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite and non-cytotoxicity similar to conventional non-premixed CPC. PMID:15769536

  16. Premixed rapid-setting calcium phosphate composites for bone repair✩

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lisa E.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Simon, Carl G.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.

    2009-01-01

    Although calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for bone repair, its clinical use requires on site powder–liquid mixing. To shorten surgical time and improve graft properties, it is desirable to develop premixed CPC in which the paste remains stable during storage and hardens only after placement into the defect. The objective of this study was to develop premixed CPC with rapid setting when immersed in a physiological solution. Premixed CPCs were formulated using the following approach: Premixed CPC = CPC powder+nonaqueous liquid+gelling agent+hardening accelerator. Three premixed CPCs were developed: CPC–monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), CPC–chitosan, and CPC–tartaric. Setting time for these new premixed CPCs ranged from 5.3 to 7.9 min, significantly faster than 61.7 min for a premixed control CPC reported previously (p<05). SEM revealed the formation of nano-sized needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals after 1 d immersion and crystal growth after 7 d. Diametral tensile strength for premixed CPCs at 7 d ranged from 2.8 to 6.4 MPa, comparable to reported strengths for cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants. Osteoblast cells attained a normal polygonal morphology on CPC–MCPM and CPC–chitosan with cytoplasmic extensions adhering to the nano-hydroxyapatite crystals. In summary, fast-setting premixed CPCs were developed to avoid the powder–liquid mixing in surgery. The pastes hardened rapidly once immersed in physiological solution and formed hydroxyapatite. The cements had strengths matching those of cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite and non-cytotoxicity similar to conventional non-premixed CPC. PMID:15769536

  17. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  18. A composite graft material containing bone particles and collagen in osteoinduction in mouse.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chou, Ming-Yung; Jonas, Mecrehild; Tien, Yung-Tico; Chi, Emily Y

    2002-01-01

    Demineralized allogenic bone matrices (DABM) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) have been successfully used as bone-graft materials in the treatment of acquired and congenital cranio-maxillofacial defects and in some orthopedic surgery. However, these bone-graft "powders" have many shortcomings. For example, placement of particulate graft material in a hemorrhaging site can result in inadequacies or inaccurate attachment as well as loss of the graft materials. To minimize the inadequacies of powderlike graft materials, xenogenic collagen isolated from human tendon, skin, or bone was added to the bone-graft particles to form a composite spongelike implant. This material is commercially available and consists of 60% collagen and 40% DFDBA (DynaGraft, GenSci Co., Irvine, CA). The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of composite graft implants in the mineralization process in an animal model in comparison with DFDBA powder and pure collagen. Seventy-two Swiss Webster mice were divided into three groups: an experimental group implanted with DynaGraft, two comparison groups implanted with either DFDBA or collagen only. All the graft materials were surgically implanted and inserted into the left thigh muscle. Mice were humanely killed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks. Then the muscle tissues in the vicinity of the implants were excised and processed for histology. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), the Von Kossa method, and Masson's trichrome. Some selected specimens were processed for transmission electron microscopic observation. After 1 week of implantation, the DynaGraft group showed calcium deposition on the collagen material and on the periphery of the DFDBA particles. Increased calcification and bone-forming cells were observed at 4-6 weeks. After 8 weeks, the implant formed a calcified nodule and only heavily mineralized connective tissue was observed at the implanted site. The group implanted

  19. Relative bone mass decreased in mice fed high dietary fat despite an increase in body mass and bone formation markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and obesity are interrelated health disorders. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common mesenchymal stem cells and age-related osteoporosis is associated with increased bone marrow adipogenesis. To determine whether bone mass and osteoblast number and activity are affected by ...

  20. Effect of Si and Fe doping on calcium phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone bone analogous composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M Shah; Ahmed, I; Muja, N; Almeida, S; Rudd, C D; Bureau, M N; Nazhat, S N

    2012-04-01

    Reinforcing biodegradable polymers with phosphate-based glass fibres (PGF) is of interest for bone repair and regeneration. In addition to increasing the mechanical properties, PGF can also release bioinorganics, as they are water soluble, a property that may be controllably translated into a fully degradable composite. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the solubility of calcium-containing phosphate-based glasses (PG) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x=0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. On replacing SiO(2) with Fe(2)O(3), there was an increase in the glass transition temperature and density of the PG, suggesting greater crosslinking of the phosphate chains. This significantly reduced the dissolution rates of degradation and ion release. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL). Initially, the flexural strength and modulus significantly increased with PGF incorporation. In deionized water, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) displayed a significantly greater weight loss and ion release compared with PCL-Fe10. In simulated body fluid, brushite was formed only on the surface of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5). Dynamic mechanical analysis in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C revealed that the PCL-Fe10 storage modulus (E') was unchanged up to day 7, whereas the onset of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5)E' decrease occurred at day 4. At longer-term ageing in PBS, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) flexural strength and modulus decreased significantly. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PCL-PGF grew up to day 7 in culture. PGF can be used to control the properties of biodegradable composites for potential application as bone fracture fixation devices. PMID:22248526

  1. Development of graded hydroxyapatite/CaCO(3) composite structures for bone ingrowth.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, F; Standard, O C; Müller, F A; Hoffman, M

    2007-09-01

    Ceramic composites composed of constituents with different bone cell reactions present an interesting consideration for a new bone replacement material. The first component of the composite used in this study, hydroxyapatite, is known to be replaced by natural tissue significantly slower than the second, calcium carbonate, which has limited structural stability. A graded hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate composite with bimodal component distribution was developed using a combined slip infiltration and dip-coating technique from a porous polyurethane sponge replica. A graded hydroxyapatite scaffold with porosities from 5 to 90% was produced and then infiltrated with a calcium carbonate slip and sintered. The resultant composite had improved mechanical properties compared with the monolith as measured by crushing and moduli tests. PMID:17483903

  2. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  3. Compositions of Oceans on Icy Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features [1] suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2] implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction [3]. Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters [3] are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in

  4. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 μm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

  5. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400-500 μm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

  6. Bone attachment to glass-fibre-reinforced composite implant with porous surface.

    PubMed

    Mattila, R H; Laurila, P; Rekola, J; Gunn, J; Lassila, L V J; Mäntylä, T; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2009-06-01

    A method has recently been developed for producing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC) with porous surfaces, intended for use as load-bearing orthopaedic implants. This study focuses on evaluation of the bone-bonding behaviour of FRC implants. Three types of cylindrical implants, i.e. FRC implants with a porous surface, solid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) implants and titanium (Ti) implants, were inserted in a transverse direction into the intercondular trabeculous bone area of distal femurs and proximal tibias of New Zealand White rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post operation, and push-out tests (n=5-6 per implant type per time point) were then carried out. At 12 weeks the shear force at the porous FRC-bone interface was significantly higher (283.3+/-55.3N) than the shear force at interfaces of solid PMMA/bone (14.4+/-11.0 N; p<0.001) and Ti/bone (130.6+/-22.2N; p=0.001). Histological observation revealed new bone growth into the porous surface structure of FRC implants. Solid PMMA and Ti implants were encapsulated mostly with fibrous connective tissue. Finite element analysis (FEA) revealed that porous FRC implants had mechanical properties which could be tailored to smooth the shear stress distribution at the bone-implant interface and reduce the stress-shielding effect. PMID:19268643

  7. Differences in Urinary Stone Composition according to Body Habitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Doo, Seung Whan; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Jun Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed differences in urinary stone composition according to body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, 505 ureteral or renal stones were collected from 505 patients who underwent surgical intervention. Data on patient age, gender, BMI, urinary pH, and stone composition were collected. Results The patients' mean age was 49.2 years (range, 20 to 83 years). Of the 505 patients, 196 (38.7%) had calcium oxalate (CO) stones, 172 (33.9%) had mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (COP) stones, 72 (14.2%) had calcium phosphate (CP) stones, 50 (9.8%) had uric acid (UA) stones, and 15 (2.9%) had struvite stones. We excluded struvite stones in the statistical analysis because of the small number of patients; a total of 490 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be associated with UA stones compared with COP stones (odds ratio [OR] 3.488; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.732-7.025; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.765; 95% CI 1.222-6.259; p=0.015). Similar results were observed for CO stones compared with COP stones (OR 2.682; 95% CI 1.727-4.164; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.176-3.843; p<0.013). Conclusions Obesity was associated with UA and CO stones compared with the occurrence of COP and CP stones. PMID:22025958

  8. Repeatability of digital image correlation for measurement of surface strains in composite long bones.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Sami P; Amin Yavari, Saber; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

    2013-07-26

    Digital image correlation (DIC) can measure full-field surface strains during mechanical testing of hard and soft tissues. When compared to traditional methods, such as strain gauges, DIC offers larger validation data (∼50,000 points) for, e.g., finite element models. Our main aim was to evaluate the repeatability of surface strain measurements with DIC during compressive testing of composite femurs mimicking human bones. We also studied the similarity of the composite femur samples using CT. Composite femurs were chosen as test material to minimize the uncertainties associated with the use of cadaveric tissues and to understand the variability of the DIC measurement itself. Six medium-sized fourth generation composite human proximal femora (Sawbones) were CT imaged and mechanically tested in stance configuration. The force-displacement curves were recorded and the 3D surface strains were measured with DIC on the anterior surface of the femurs. Five femurs fractured at the neck-trochanter junction and one at the site below the minor trochanter. CT image of this bone showed an air cavity at the initial fracture site. All femurs fractured through a sudden brittle crack. The fracture force for the composite bones was 5751±650N (mean±SD). The maximum von Mises strain during the fractures was 2.4±0.8%. Noise in one experiment was 5-30µε. When applied loads were equalized the variation in strains between the bones was 20-25%, and when the maximum strains were equalized, variation in the other regions was 5-10%. DIC showed that the ability of nominally identical composite bones to bear high strains and loads before fracturing may vary between the samples. PMID:23791085

  9. Evaluation of dose homogenization and radiation carcinogenesis risk in total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oysul, K; Dirican, B; Beyzadeoglu, M; Sürenkok, S; Arpaci, F; Pak, Y

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the dose homogeneity in total body irradiated patients undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT), and carcinogenic risk in surviving patients. Between 1987 and 2001, 105 patients received hyperfractionated (6 fractions in 3 days) 12 Gy Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in our institution with lateral opposed fields. All the patients had measurements with thermoluminiscence dosimetry (TLD100) placed on seven bilateral body sites in vivo, controlled by the randophantom measurements to verify reasonable dose homogeneity achievement. The comorbid effects in the whole TBI conditioning group with at least three months post BMT follow-up were noted and surviving patients who had a minimum 5-year and maximum 14-year follow-up (median 7.8 years) have been evaluated for carcinogenic radiation risk on the basis of tissue weighting factors as defined by ICRP 60. Reasonable dose homogeneity by lateral opposed beam TBI has been obtained in all 105 patients in whom lateral TLD100 measurement means were within +5% of the planned doses. Calculated carcinogenesis risk factor was 11.34% for males and 12.40% for females, and no second-cancer has been detected whilst radiation-induced 5 cataracts and 10 interstitial pneumonia comorbidities were noted. Dose homogenization can be well achieved for hyperfractionated lateral-beam TBI with acceptable comorbidities and estimated second-cancer risk is significant but relatively low compared to the risk from the clinical indications for TBI. PMID:14628091

  10. Magnetic responsive hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds construction for bone defect reparation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiao Bo; Hu, Hao; Xie, Li Qin; Lan, Fang; Jiang, Wen; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhong Wei

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. A type of magnetic scaffold composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for bone repair has been developed by our research group. Aim and methods In this study, to investigate the influence of the MNP content (in the scaffolds) on the cell behaviors and the interactions between the magnetic scaffold and the exterior magnetic field, a series of MNP-HA magnetic scaffolds with different MNP contents (from 0.2% to 2%) were fabricated by immersing HA scaffold into MNP colloid. ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro, with and without an exterior magnetic field, respectively. The cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy; confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein activity tests. Results The results demonstrated the positive influence of the magnetic scaffolds on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, a higher amount of MNPs on the magnetic scaffolds led to more significant stimulation. Conclusion The magnetic scaffold can respond to the exterior magnetic field and engender some synergistic effect to intensify the stimulating effect of a magnetic field to the proliferation and differentiation of cells. PMID:22848165

  11. Relationships between tissue composition and viscoelastic properties in human trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, X; Isaksson, H; Töyräs, J; Turunen, M J; Malo, M K H; Halvari, A; Jurvelin, J S

    2015-01-21

    Trabecular bone is a metabolically active tissue with a high surface to volume ratio. It exhibits viscoelastic properties that may change during aging. Changes in bone properties due to altered metabolism are sensitively revealed in trabecular bone. However, the relationships between material composition and viscoelastic properties of bone, and their changes during aging have not yet been elucidated. In this study, trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck of male cadavers (n=21) aged 17-82 years were collected and the tissue level composition and its associations with the tissue viscoelastic properties were evaluated by using Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. For composition, collagen content, mineralization, carbonate substitution and mineral crystallinity were evaluated. The calculated mechanical properties included reduced modulus (Er), hardness (H) and the creep parameters (E1, E2, η1and η2), as obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Burgers model. The results indicated that the creep parameters, E1, E2, η1and η2, were linearly correlated with mineral crystallinity (r=0.769-0.924, p<0.001). Creep time constant (η2/E2) tended to increase with crystallinity (r=0.422, p=0.057). With age, the mineralization decreased (r=-0.587, p=0.005) while the carbonate substitution increased (r=0.728, p<0.001). Age showed no significant associations with nanoindentation parameters. The present findings suggest that, at the tissue-level, the viscoelastic properties of trabecular bone are related to the changes in characteristics of bone mineral. This association may be independent of human age. PMID:25498367

  12. Discrimination of human bodies from bones and teeth remains by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Ugidos, T.; Navarro-Villoslada, F.; Caceres, J. O.

    2014-11-01

    A fast and minimally destructive method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the classification and discrimination of human bones and teeth fragments. The methodology can be useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) tasks. The elemental compositions of bone and teeth samples provided enough information to achieve a correct discrimination and reassembling of different human remains. Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95%, regardless of the type of bone or tooth sample analyzed. No false positive or false negative was observed, demonstrating the high robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  13. Collagen/chitosan porous bone tissue engineering composite scaffold incorporated with Ginseng compound K.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Aravinthan, Adithan; Sharmila, Judith; Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    In this study, suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering were successfully prepared using fish scale collagen, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Porous composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method. The Korean traditional medicinal ginseng compound K, a therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that reduces inflammation and enhances production of bone morphogenetic protein-2, was incorporated into the composite scaffold. The scaffold was characterized for pore size, swelling, density, degradation, mineralization, cell viability and attachment, and its morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy. This characterization and in vitro analysis showed that the prepared scaffold was biocompatible and supported the growth of MG-63 cells, and therefore has potential as an alternative approach for bone regeneration. PMID:27516305

  14. Longitudinal relationships between whole body and central adiposity on weight-bearing bone geometry, density, and bone strength: a pQCT study in young girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Laudermilk, Monica J.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Stump, Craig; Houtkooper, Linda; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal relationships between adiposity (total body and central) and bone development were assessed in young girls. Total body and android fat masses were positively associated with bone strength and density parameters of the femur and tibia. These results suggest adiposity may have site-specific stimulating effects on the developing bone. Introduction Childhood obesity may impair bone development, but the relationships between adiposity and bone remain unclear. Failure to account for fat pattern may explain the conflicting results. Purpose Longitudinal associations of total body fat mass (TBFM) and android fat mass (AFM) with 2-year changes in weight-bearing bone parameters were examined in 260 girls aged 8–13 years at baseline. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure bone strength index (BSI, square milligrams per quartic millimeter), strength–strain index (SSI, cubic millimeters), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, milligrams per cubic centimeter) at distal metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia. TBFM and AFM were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline TBFM and AFM were positively associated with the change in femur BSI (r =0.20, r =0.17, respectively) and femur trabecular vBMD (r =0.19, r =0.19, respectively). Similarly, positive associations were found between TBFM and change in tibia BSI and SSI (r =0.16, r =0.15, respectively), and femur total and trabecular vBMD (r =0.12, r =0.14, respectively). Analysis of covariance showed that girls in the middle thirds of AFM had significantly lower femur trabecular vBMD and significantly higher tibia cortical vBMD than girls in the highest thirds of AFM. All results were significant at p <0.05. Conclusions Whereas baseline levels of TBFM and AFM are positive predictors of bone strength and density at the femur and tibia, higher levels of AFM above a certain level may impair cortical vBMD growth at weight-bearing sites. Future

  15. Ultrastructure of regenerated bone mineral surrounding hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andre L; Barreto, Isabela C; Maciel, William Q; Rosa, Fabiana P; Rocha-Leão, Maria H; Werckmann, Jacques; Rossi, Alexandre M; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    We report the ultrastructure of regenerated bone surrounding two types of biomaterials: hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite. Critical defects in the calvaria of Wistar rats were filled with micrometer-sized spherical biomaterials and analyzed after 90 and 120 days of implantation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance microscopy, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that hydroxyapatite of both biomaterials became more disordered after implantation in the rat calvaria, indicating that the biological environment induced modifications in biomaterials structure. We observed that the regenerated bone surrounding both biomaterials had a lamellar structure with type I collagen fibers alternating in adjacent lamella with angles of approximately 90°. In each lamella, plate-like apatite crystals were aligned in the c-axis direction, although a rotation around the c-axis could be present. Bone plate-like crystal dimensions were similar in regenerated bone around biomaterials and pre-existing bone in the rat calvaria. No epitaxial growth was observed around any of the biomaterials. A distinct mineralized layer was observed between new bone and hydroxyapatite-alginate biomaterial. This region presented a particular ultrastructure with crystallites smaller than those of the bulk of the biomaterial, and was possibly formed during the synthesis of alginate-containing composite or in the biological environment after implantation. Round nanoparticles were observed in regions of newly formed bone. The findings of this work contribute to a better understanding of the role of hydroxyapatite based biomaterials in bone regeneration processes at the nanoscale. PMID:22057083

  16. Reconstructive Effects of Percutaneous Electrical Stimulation Combined with GGT Composite on Large Bone Defect in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzung-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the electromagnetic stimulation improves bone remodeling and bone healing. However, the effect of percutaneous electrical stimulation (ES) was not directly explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of ES on improvement of bone repair. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for cranial implantation. We used a composite comprising genipin cross-linked gelatin mixed with tricalcium phosphate (GGT). Bone defects of all rats were filled with the GGT composites, and the rats were assigned into six groups after operation. The first three groups underwent 4, 8, and 12 weeks of ES, and the anode was connected to the backward of the defect on the neck; the cathode was connected to the front of the defect on the head. Rats were under inhalation anesthesia during the stimulation. The other three groups only received inhalation anesthesia without ES, as control groups. All the rats were examined afterward at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Radiographic examinations including X-ray and micro-CT showed the progressive bone regeneration in the both ES and non-ES groups. The amount of the newly formed bone increased with the time between implantation and examination in the ES and non-ES groups and was higher in the ES groups. Besides, the new bone growth trended on bilateral sides in ES groups and accumulated in U-shape in non-ES groups. The results indicated that ES could improve bone repair, and the effect is higher around the cathode. PMID:23818928

  17. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and body composition abnormalities are common in advanced intensively-treated (transplanted) multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, D M; Boland, E; Ezaydi, Y; Ross, R J M; Ahmedzai, S H; Snowden, J A

    2014-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have increased life expectancy in multiple myeloma, but little is known about the endocrine, metabolic and nutritional status of long-term survivors. We performed endocrine, metabolic, bone, body composition and nutritional evaluations in 32 patients with intensively-treated, advanced but stable, myeloma a median duration of 6 years from diagnosis and three lines of intensive treatment, including at least one haematopoietic SCT procedure. All patients were off active treatment. There was a high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction: hypothyroidism (9%), hypogonadism (65% males) and elevated prolactin (19%). Adrenocortical function was preserved despite large cumulative corticosteroid pretreatment. Biochemical markers were consistent with postmenopausal status in all females and infertility in males. Nutritionally, 59% were vitamin D insufficient/deficient, reduced serum folate in 25% and vitamin B12 in 6%. Total body DEXA scanning confirmed 'sarcopenic-obesity' in 65%, but reduced bone density was seen in a minority. We conclude that potentially correctable endocrine, metabolic and nutritional abnormalities are prevalent in heavily-treated patients with stable multiple myeloma. Preservation of bone supports the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment from diagnosis, but sarcopenic-obesity may contribute to frailty. Ultimately, multi-system screening and appropriate interventions may optimise quality of long-term survival and further studies are warranted. PMID:24710566

  18. In vitro bioactivity assessment of composite membrane containing antimicrobial lauric acid for guided bone regeneration in dental application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Muhammad Jabir; Kalitheertha, Jamuna Thevi; Sabri, Siti Noorzidah

    2015-07-01

    The manuscript reflect research work in fabrication of a triple layered composite membrane and to perform an in vitro bioactivity evaluation on composite membrane containing antimicrobial lauric acid. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrix was incorporated with various amounts of nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) to form a triple-layered composite membrane. This membrane was prepared using a single step fabrication technique comprising of solvent casting, thermally induced phase separation and solvent leaching processes. Apatite mineralization was detected on the composite membranes within 30 days of exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) and showed increased apatite formation at 30-60wt% of NAp content in the PLGA matrix on layer 3 (L3), that has the highest amount of NAp compared with layer 1 (L1) and layer 2 (L2) of the membrane. However, apatite mineralization was not detected on pure PLGA membrane. In addition, incorporation of LA on L1 and L2 has no influence on apatite mineral formation as none detected on these surfaces. The presence of NAp determines the formation of apatite crystals on the composite membrane. These membranes with triple layered design and bioactive properties showed potential use for guided bone regeneration purposes in dental application.

  19. The effect of body composition and BMI on 25(OH)D response in vitamin D-supplemented athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassity, Evan P; Redzic, Maja; Teager, Cassidy R; Thomas, D Travis

    2016-10-01

    Fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D status, and athletes with the most adipose tissue may have the greatest risk for insufficient (25(OH)D 20-32 ng mL(-1)) or deficient (25(OH)D < 20 ng ml(-1)) status. The effects of fat and lean mass on 25(OH)D change in response to vitamin D supplementation have yet to be elucidated in athletes. In addition, vitamin D has a known role in bone health yet a link between short-term changes in 25(OH)D and bone turnover in indoor athletes have not yet been described. Thirty-two collegiate swimmers and divers (19 male, 13 female; 19 (1) years) participated in a 6-month randomized controlled trial and consumed either 4000 IU d(-1) of vitamin D3 (n = 19) or placebo (PLA; n = 13). Anthropometry and blood collection of 25(OH)D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) occurred at three time points. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured body composition analysis at baseline and endpoint. In the vitamin D group, BMI was negatively correlated with 6-month 25(OH)D change (R = -0.496; P = .03) and a stronger predictor of 25(OH)D change (P = .04) than ultraviolet B exposure and fat mass change. Athletes in the high bone turnover group showed significantly greater losses of 25(OH)D over 6-months compared to athletes in the low bone turnover group (P = .03). These results suggest athletes within the normal BMI category experience a diminished response to 4000 IU d(-1) of vitamin D3 supplementation, and periods of high bone turnover may be an additional risk factor for developing compromised vitamin D status in athletes. PMID:26698109

  20. [Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density in a sample population of Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Aranda-Gallegos, J E; Río de la Loza-Cava, M F; Ortíz-Luna, G; Mendoza-Torres, L J; Santos-González, J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that a women with high body mass index (BMI > or = 28) has greater bone mineral density (BMD) from that with lower BMI. We studied 922 healthy women who met the inclusion criteria. They were classified into four groups according to their BMI (> or = 28 and < 28) and age (> or = 35 and < 35 years). Bone mineral measurement was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the hip and at the lumbar region. BMD in overweight women older than 35 years was significantly higher in comparison with that of women with lower BMI, both in the hip and the lumbar spine. In overweight women younger than 35 years, we found greater BMD in the hip reaching statistical significance, but not at the lumbar spine. We conclude that obesity is associated with greater BMD (4% at the lumbar spine; 11% at the hip) probably due to both greater physical stress and higher estrogen levels. PMID:9737066

  1. Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women. PMID:22902255

  2. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  3. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  4. Successful pregnancy after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Giri, N; Vowels, M R; Barr, A L; Mameghan, H

    1992-07-01

    We report successful pregnancies in two young women (aged 24 and 20 years) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia. Conditioning therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (TBI, 12 Gy) in 2 Gy fractions once daily for 6 days or twice daily for 3 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was with methotrexate alone. Both women were amenorrhoeic after BMT and gonadal testing indicated hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Both women had normal pregnancies (2 years and 5 years after BMT) resulting in normal healthy infants. Previously successful pregnancy has been reported after TBI in three women in whom the TBI dose was less than 8 Gy. Our cases illustrate that normal outcome of pregnancy is possible at even higher doses of TBI. PMID:1515886

  5. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect of dietary intake of macronutrient: results from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Asmae; Rostom, Samira; Hassani, Asmae; El Badri, Dalal; Bouaadi, Ilham; Barakat, Amina; Chkirat, Bouchra; Elkari, Khalid; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering out patient with JIA. The characteristics of patients were collected. The nutritional status was assessed by a food questionnaire including data of food intake during 7 consecutive days using 24-hour dietary recall. Food intake was quantified using the software Bilnut (Bilnut version 2.01, 1991). Dietary intake of macronutrients was expressed as percentage contribution to total energy. Body composition was evaluated with DXA total-body measurements (bone mineral content BMC expressed in g, lean body mass LBM and fat mass FM expressed in kg). Results 33 patients were included. The mean age was 10.4 ± 4.3 years. The median disease duration was 2 (1-4.5) years. The median of LBM, FM and BMC were 19 kg (13.82-33.14), 5 kg (3.38-9.14) and 1044.90 g (630.40-1808.90) respectively. We found a positive correlation between LBM and dietary intake of carbohydrate (r= 0.4; p = 0.03). There were no significant association between LBM and intake of lipids, or protein. Moreover, no association was found between FM, BMC and intake of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a positive correlation between carbohydrates intake and LBM; however, dietary intake does not influence FM and BMC. Prospective studies with larger numbers of patients appear to be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26161167

  6. Serum Albumin and Body Weight as Biomarkers for the Antemortem Identification of Bone and Gastrointestinal Disease in the Common Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Victoria K.; Shaw, Gillian C.; Sotuyo, Nathaniel P.; Carlson, Cathy S.; Olson, Erik J.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Adams, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in research makes it important to diagnose spontaneous disease that may confound experimental studies. Bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are two major causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, but currently no effective antemortem tests are available to identify affected animals prior to the terminal stage of disease. In this study we propose that bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are associated disease entities in marmosets and aim to establish the efficacy of several economical antemortem tests in identifying and predicting disease. Tissues from marmosets were examined to define affected animals and unaffected controls. Complete blood count, serum chemistry values, body weight, quantitative radiographs, and tissue-specific biochemical markers were evaluated as candidate biomarkers for disease. Bone and gastrointestinal disease were associated, with marmosets being over seven times more likely to have either concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease or neither disease as opposed to lesions in only one organ system. When used in tandem, serum albumin <3.5 g/dL and body weight <325 g identified 100% of the marmosets affected with concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease. Progressive body weight loss of 0.05% of peak body weight per day predicted which marmosets would develop disease prior to the terminal stage. Bone tissue-specific tests, such as quantitative analysis of radiographs and serum parathyroid hormone levels, were effective for distinguishing between marmosets with bone disease and those without. These results provide an avenue for making informed decisions regarding the removal of affected marmosets from studies in a timely manner, preserving the integrity of research results. PMID:24324827

  7. Evaluating apatite formation and osteogenic activity of electrospun composites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Ajitha; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2014-05-01

    Significant interest has been in examining calcium phosphate ceramics, specifically β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (Ca3 (PO4)2 ) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2 ), in composites and more recently, in fibrous composites formed using the electrospinning technique for bone tissue engineering applications. Calcium phosphate ceramics are sought because they can be bone bioactive, which means an apatite forms on their surface that facilitates bonding to bone tissue, and are osteoconductive. However, studies examining the bioactivity of electrospun composites containing calcium phosphates and their corresponding osteogenic activity have been limited. In this study, electrospun composites consisting of (20/80) HA/TCP nanoceramics and poly (ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) were fabricated. Solvent and solvent combinations were evaluated to form scaffolds with a maximum concentration and dispersion of ceramic and pore sizes large enough for cell infiltration and tissue growth. PCL was dissolved in either methylene chloride (Composite-MC) or a combination of methylene chloride (80%) and dimethylformamide (20%; Composite-MC + DMF). Composites were evaluated in vitro for degradation, apatite formation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with an emphasis on temporal gene expression of osteogenic markers and the pluripotent gene Sox-2. Apatite formation and the osteogenic differentiation was the greatest for Composite-MC as determined by gene expression, protein production and biochemical markers, even without the presence of osteoinductive factors in the media, in comparison to Composite-MC + DMF and unfilled PCL mats. Sox-2 levels also reduced over time. The results of this study demonstrate that the solvent or solvent combination used in preparing the electrospun composite mats plays a critical role in determining their bioactivity which may, in turn, affect cell behavior. PMID:24264603

  8. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  9. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  10. Technical modifications in hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Lawton, C A; Barber-Derus, S; Murray, K J; Casper, J T; Ash, R C; Gillin, M T; Wilson, J F

    1989-08-01

    The Medical College of Wisconsin implemented a major bone marrow transplant (BMT) program in July 1985. The type of transplants to be focused on were allogeneic T-lymphocyte deplete. Total body irradiation (TBI) was initially patterned after the Memorial method. Patients received total body irradiation in a sitting position at a dose rate of 20-25 cGy/minute with 50% attenuation lung blocks used both anterior/posterior and posterior/anterior. Electron boosting was utilized for the ribs beneath the lung blocks. Occasionally, lower extremity boosting was required because of the sitting position. A dose of 14 Gy was chosen since T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant data suggest the need for higher total doses to consistently obtain engraftment. This dose was given in 3 equal daily fractions over 3 days following conditioning chemotherapy. Six of 11 patients treated in this manner developed lethal pulmonary events. In response to the pulmonary toxicity, partial lung shielding was increased to 60% attenuation. In the next 107 patients receiving this program of total body irradiation there was a reduced incidence of fatal pulmonary events (10 cases of fatal idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and 12 cases of fatal pulmonary infections) after a median follow-up of 9 months. This was an obvious improvement over the initial group. A significant level of hepato-renal toxicity was also observed with 14 Gy total body irradiation when no liver or kidney blocking was used. Of the first 20 patients treated, three cases of fatal veno-occlusive disease resulted. Subsequently, a 10% attenuation right sided liver block was added. Five of 98 patients treated with this block have developed fatal hepatic dysfunction, (median follow-up of 7.2 months). This incidence is not statistically different from the initial group but favors the use of the liver block. Some renal toxicity was also detected with the earlier regimen, especially in pediatric patients. Partial kidney blocking has

  11. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  12. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  13. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition123

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joseph P; Mulligan, Kathleen; Fan, Bo; Sherman, Jennifer L; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tai, Viva W; Powers, Cassidy L; Marquez, Lorena; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total body volume (TBV), with the exclusion of internal air voids, is necessary to quantify body composition in Lohman's 4-compartment (4C) model. Objective: This investigation sought to derive a novel, TBV measure with the use of only dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) attenuation values for use in Lohman's 4C body composition model. Design: Pixel-specific masses and volumes were calculated from low- and high-energy attenuation values with the use of first principle conversions of mass attenuation coefficients. Pixel masses and volumes were summed to derive body mass and total body volume. As proof of concept, 11 participants were recruited to have 4C measures taken: DXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and total body water (TBW). TBV measures with the use of only DXA (DXA-volume) and ADP-volume measures were compared for each participant. To see how body composition estimates were affected by these 2 methods, we used Lohman's 4C model to quantify percentage fat measures for each participant and compared them with conventional DXA measures. Results: DXA-volume and ADP-volume measures were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99) and showed no statistically significant bias. Percentage fat by DXA volume was highly correlated with ADP-volume percentage fat measures and DXA software-reported percentage fat measures (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.98, respectively) but were slightly biased. Conclusions: A novel method to calculate TBV with the use of a clinical DXA system was developed, compared against ADP as proof of principle, and used in Lohman's 4C body composition model. The DXA-volume approach eliminates many of the inherent inaccuracies associated with displacement measures for volume and, if validated in larger groups of participants, would simplify the acquisition of 4C body composition to a single DXA scan and TBW measure. PMID:22134952

  14. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting. (JMT)

  15. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of flaxseed lignan complex on metabolic syndrome composite score and bone mineral in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Stephen M; Chilibeck, Philip D; Paus-Jennsen, Lisa; Biem, H Jay; Khozani, Talaei; Senanayake, Vijitha; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Little, Jonathan P; Whiting, Susan J; Pahwa, Punam

    2009-04-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo controlled study design was used to assess the effects of flaxseed lignan complex supplementation during exercise training on a metabolic syndrome composite score and osteoporosis risk in older adults. A total of 100 subjects (>or=50 years) were randomized to receive flaxseed lignan (543 mg.day-1 in a 4050 mg complex) or placebo while completing a 6 month walking program (30-60 min.day-1, 5-6 days.week-1). Fasting serum glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured every 2 months, while body composition, bone mineral density, and resting blood pressure were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. A composite Z score of 6 risk factors for metabolic syndrome (fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, TAG, abdominal adiposity, blood pressure, and inflammatory cytokines) was calculated at baseline and at 6 months. Men taking placebo increased metabolic syndrome composite Z score (p < 0.05), but there were no changes in the other groups. A significant group x sex x time interaction was noted for TAG (p = 0.017) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with men taking flaxseed lignan decreasing diastolic blood pressure relative to men taking placebo, and men taking placebo increasing TAG relative to men taking flax lignan. There were no differences between groups for change in bone measures, body composition, lipoproteins, or cytokines. Males taking the flaxseed lignan complex reduced metabolic syndrome score relative to men taking placebo, but a similar trend was not seen in females. Flaxseed lignan had no effect on bone mineral density or content, body composition, lipoproteins, glucose, or inflammation. PMID:19370038

  16. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  17. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  18. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  19. A Periosteum-Inspired 3D Hydrogel-Bioceramic Composite for Enhanced Bone Regeneration .

    PubMed

    Chun, Yong Yao; Wang, Jun Kit; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Peggy Puk Yik; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Choong, Cleo

    2016-02-01

    A 3D injectable hydrogel-bioceramic composite consisting of gelatin-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (Gtn-HPA) and carboxymethyl cellulose-tyramine (CMC-Tyr), incorporated with fish scale-derived calcium phosphate (CaP), is developed for bone applications. The hydrogel-bioceramic composite has significantly improved the elastic modulus compared to the non-filled hydrogel, of which the addition of 10 w/v% CaP showed zero order fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran release profile and a significantly higher proliferation rate of encapsulated cells. All the samples promote the nucleation and growth of CaP minerals when exposed to 1× SBF. Overall, the hydrogel-bioceramic composite with 10 w/v% CaP can potentially be used as a periosteum-mimicking membrane to facilitate bone regeneration. PMID:26445013

  20. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  1. Body Composition Changes Resulting from Fluid Ingestion and Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girandola, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    It is recommended that when obtaining measures of body density by hydrostatic weighing, the subjects normal level of hydration be ascertained, since variance in body fat calculation from the hyperhydrated to the hydrated state can amount to twenty percent (two percent in actual body fat). (MB)

  2. Boron and silicon: Effects on growth, plasma lipids, urinary cyclic AMP and bone and brain mineral composition of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborn, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H. . Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Because boron resembles silicon in its chemical properties, an experiment was performed to determine if excessive dietary boron would affect the response to silicon deprivation and, conversely, if silicon would influence the effects of an excessive intake of boron. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 6 or 12 in a two-by-two factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein diet containing 1.2 [mu]g silicon and 3 [mu]g boron per gram were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 50 [mu]g/g and boron as orthoboric acid at 0 or 500 [mu]g/g diet. At nine weeks, animals fed high dietary boron had significantly decreased final body weights, liver-weight-to-body-weight ratios, urinary cAMP concentrations, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glycine, valine, leucine, and lysine concentrations and skull copper, sodium, and manganese concentrations. High dietary boron also significantly increased brain-weight-to-body-weight ratios, magnesium concentrations of femur, brain, and plasma, zinc concentration of femur, and iron concentration of skull. The bone mineral findings suggest that excess dietary boron exerts subtle effects on bone composition. Dietary silicon affected blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the concentrations of plasma threonine and aspartic acid in animals fed excess boron. Depression of the testes-weight-to-body-weight ratio of animals fed 500 [mu]g boron per gram diet was most marked in animals not fed silicon. Although excessive dietary boron did not markedly enhanced the response of rats to silicon deprivation, dietary silicon affected their response to high dietary boron. Thus, dietary silicon apparently can influence boron toxicity.

  3. PREDICTORS OF BODY COMPOSITION AND BODY ENERGY CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO CHRONIC OVERFEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Claude; Tchernof, Andre; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have previously shown that 24 young lean men (12 pairs of identical twins) subjected to a standardized 353 MJ (84 000 kcal) overfeeding protocol over 100 days exhibited individual differences in body weight and composition gains. The mean (+SD) gains in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were 5.4+1.9 kg and 2.7+1.5 kg for a total body energy (BE) gain of 221+75 MJ representing 63% of the energy surplus consumed. We report here on the most important baseline correlates of these overfeeding-induced changes with the aim of identifying biomarkers of the response. Results Baseline maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass was negatively correlated with gains in weight, FM, and BE (all p<0.05). Enzyme activities indicative of skeletal muscle oxidative potential correlated with gains in FM and BE (all p<0.05). Baseline TSH levels in response to a TRH stimulation correlated positively with changes in FM-to-FFM ratio (p<0.05). Plasma concentrations of androstenediol-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 17-hydroxy pregnenolone were negatively correlated with gains in FM and BE (0.01

  4. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  5. Bone Matrix Composition Following PTH Treatment is Not Dependent on Sclerostin Status.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ryan D; Mashiatulla, Maleeha; Robling, Alexander G; Miller, Lisa M; Sumner, D Rick

    2016-02-01

    Sclerostin and parathyroid hormones are strong negative and positive regulators of bone formation, respectively. The anabolic response induced by intermittent (iPTH) treatment is sclerostin status-dependent. However, the interaction between sclerostin and iPTH at the matrix level is unknown. The goal of the current study was to determine if iPTH treatment affects matrix composition and, if so, whether these effects are dependent on sclerostin status. Humeral trabecular and cortical bone sites from 16 week old male wild-type (WT) and sclerostin knockout (KO) mice, which had been treated with vehicle or iPTH from age 10-16 weeks, were examined by micro-computed tomography (µCT) to measure bone volume, backscatter scanning electron microscopy (bSEM) to assess global mineralization, and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to examine matrix composition (mineral-to-matrix ratio, crystallinity, collagen cross-link ratio, and carbonate substitution). The FTIRM measurements were restricted to the tissue formed during the 6-week treatment period. iPTH treatment led to increased trabecular bone volume (p < 0.001) and this effect was much greater in KO mice than WT mice (interaction effect, p < 0.001). iPTH treatment led to reduced trabecular crystallinity (p = 0.047), increased cortical bone area (p < 0.001), decreased cortical bone crystallinity (p = 0.002) and increased cortical bone collagen cross-linking (p = 0.028) to similar degrees in both WT and KO mice. Compared to WT mice, sclerostin KO mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass (p < 0.001) and lower mineral-to-matrix ratio in the trabecular (p = 0.010) and cortical (p = 0.016) compartments. Thus, iPTH-induced changes in bone mass are dependent upon sclerostin status in the trabecular compartment, but not in the cortical compartment. In contrast, iPTH-induced changes in matrix composition are sclerostin-independent in both trabecular and cortical compartments. PMID:26514840

  6. Does Upper Extremity Training Influence Body Composition after Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Justin A.; McNelis, Meredith A.; Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Goetz, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious body composition adaptations characterized by increasing whole body fat mass and decreased soft tissue lean mass (LM). These adaptations in body composition may lead to several cardio-metabolic disorders that reduce the quality of life, increase patients’ and caregivers’ burden and eventually leads to mortality. Exercise, an appropriate dietary regimen, and an active lifestyle may alleviate several of the negative effects on body composition after a SCI. Today however, there is no established consensus on the recommended dose, frequency or type of exercise to ameliorate several of the body composition sequelae after an acute SCI. Resistance training has been previously recommended as an effective strategy to restore soft tissue LM and decrease fat mass (FM). The strategy can be simply implemented as a routine home-based training program using free weights or resistance bands after a SCI. Additionally, upper extremity (UE) circuit resistance training has been previously used to improve cardiovascular and metabolic parameters after a SCI; however compared to the vast knowledge regarding the able-bodied (AB) population, the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition after a SCI is not well established. In summary, the available evidence does not support the rationale that UE circuit resistance training can lead to positive adaptations in body composition after a SCI. Further studies are suggested to examine the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition. PMID:26236549

  7. Effect or ractopamine on growth and body composition of pigs during compensatory growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to measure the growth and body composition of pigs during normal or compensatory growth from 60 to 100 kg, without (cont) or with ractopamine (rac) supplementation (20 mg/kg of diet). Thirty-four pigs were scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for body composition...

  8. Yearly Changes in the Body Composition and Muscular Strength of High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Changes in body composition as well as absolute and relative isokinetic forearm flexion and extension strength of high school wrestlers were studied. Increase in weight and improved wrestling performance were found to be, in part, a function of yearly changes in body composition and muscular strength. (JD)

  9. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  10. QMR: Validation of an infant and children body composition instrument using piglets against chemical analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet's body composition was ass...

  11. Validation of a new body composition method for infant and children using piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet’s body composition was ass...

  12. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  13. Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

  14. A new QMR-based technique for body composition analysis in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate assessment and tracking of infant body composition is useful in evaluation of the amount and quality of weight gain, which can provide key information in both clinical and research settings. Thus, body composition analysis (BCA) results can be used to monitor and evaluate infant growth patt...

  15. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  16. Three-dimensional chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein-Han, W. W.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2009-09-01

    We describe the structure of biodegradable chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composites scaffolds and their interaction with pre-osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds were fabricated via freezing and lyophilization. The nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized by a highly porous structure and pore size of ˜50-125 μm, irrespective of nHA content. The observed significant enhancement in the biological response of pre-osteoblast on nanocomposite scaffolds expressed in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and widespread morphology in relation to pure chitosan points toward their potential use as scaffold material for bone regeneration.

  17. Youth substance use and body composition: does risk in one area predict risk in the other?

    PubMed

    Pasch, Keryn E; Velazquez, Cayley E; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G; Lytle, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal relationships between substance use and body composition. Participants (N = 704; 50.7% female) were mostly white (86.4%) with a baseline mean age of 14.7 years. Objectively measured body composition was used to calculate body mass index z-scores (BMI z-score) and percent body fat. Cross-lagged structural equation models, accounting for clustering at the school level, were run to determine the longitudinal association between body composition and self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status, and weight satisfaction. Baseline alcohol use predicted decreased BMI z-score at follow-up and a similar association with percent body fat approached significance. Baseline cigarette use predicted increased percent body fat. No longitudinal associations were seen between baseline body composition and future substance use. Our results suggest that substance use contributes to subsequent body composition; however, body composition does not contribute to subsequent substance use. Continued research that explores these relationships longitudinally is greatly needed. PMID:21853355

  18. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal relationships between substance use and body composition. Participants (N = 704; 50.7% female) were mostly white (86.4%) with a baseline mean age of 14.7 years. Objectively measured body composition was used to calculate body mass index z-scores (BMI z-score) and percent body fat. Cross-lagged structural equation models, accounting for clustering at the school level, were run to determine the longitudinal association between body composition and self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status, and weight satisfaction. Baseline alcohol use predicted decreased BMI z-score at follow-up and a similar association with percent body fat approached significance. Baseline cigarette use predicted increased percent body fat. No longitudinal associations were seen between baseline body composition and future substance use. Our results suggest that substance use contributes to subsequent body composition; however, body composition does not contribute to subsequent substance use. Continued research that explores these relationships longitudinally is greatly needed. PMID:21853355

  19. Feto-maternal vitamin D status and infant whole-body bone mineral content in the first weeks of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Compromised vitamin D status is common in pregnancy and may have adverse impacts on fetal development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of infant whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC) at 8–21 days of age with feto-maternal vitamin D status in a mu...

  20. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  1. Osseous healing with a composite of allograft and demineralized bone matrix: adverse effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce H; Hendi, Pooneh; Smith, Wade R; Westerheide, Kenneth; Agudelo, Juan F

    2007-04-01

    We report on our use of a composite graft of lyophilized cancellous allogenic chips and demineralized bone matrix (DBM; Grafton; Osteotech, Eatontown, NJ) to manage traumatic osseous defects and nonunions. Data were prospectively collected from all patients who received this composite bone graft between 1996 and 2000. Only acute fractures with bone loss resulting in a uncontained defect and atrophic non-unions were included in the present study. Demographic data and complications related to composite use, tobacco use, and other comorbidities that could affect healing were evaluated. One hundred seven patients (112 bone graft sites) were followed up for a mean of 32 months (range, 12-60 months). Graft sites included the forearm, femur and tibia. Of the 112 patients, there were 56 smokers (25 non-unions and 31 fractures) and 56 non-smokers (28 fractures and 28 non-unions). Healing occured in 38/56 smokers compared with 49/56 non-smokers. In failed cases, smoking was characteristic in 7/9 non-unions and 11/16 fractures. There were 26 acute uncontained injuries, 29 acute contained defects, and 67 nonunions. Grafting sites were radius/ulna (13 cases), humerus (17), femur (31), and tibia/fibula (51). Significant comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (4 cases), fungal osteomyelitis (1), and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (1). Eight (73%) of the 11 patients with graft failure had a significant smoking history. This composite graft is an option for managing osseous defects and nonunions traditionally treated with autologous bone grafting but should be used with caution when treating patients who are smokers. PMID:17515188

  2. Dissociation between peripheral blood chimerism and tolerance to hindlimb composite tissue transplants: preferential localization of chimerism in donor bone

    PubMed Central

    Rahhal, Dina N.; Xu, Hong; Huang, Wei-Chao; Wu, Shengli; Wen, Yujie; Huang, Yiming; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed chimerism induces donor-specific tolerance to composite tissue allotransplants (CTA). In the present studies, we used a nonmyeloablative conditioning approach to establish chimerism and promote CTA acceptance. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were conditioned with 600-300 cGy total body irradiation (TBI, day-1), 100 × 106 T cell-depleted ACI (RT1Aabl) bone marrow cells were transplanted day 0, followed by a 11-day course of tacrolimus and one dose of anti-lymphocyte serum (day 10). Heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flap transplantation was performed 4-6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation. Results Mixed chimerism was initially achieved in almost all recipients, but long-term acceptance of CTA was only achieved in rats treated with 600 cGy TBI. When anti-αβ-TCR mAb (day-3) was added into the regimens, donor chimerism was similar to recipients preconditioned without anti-αβ-TCR mAb. However, the long-term CTA survival was significantly improved in chimeras receiving ≥ 300 cGy TBI plus anti-αβ-TCR mAb. Higher levels of donor chimerism were associated with CTA acceptance. The majority of flap-acceptors lost peripheral blood (PB) chimerism within 6 months. However, donor chimerism persisted in transplanted bone at significantly higher levels compared to other hematopoietic compartments. The compartment donor chimerism may be responsible for the maintenance of tolerance to CTA. Long-term acceptors were tolerant to a donor skin graft challenge even in the absence of PB chimerism. Conclusions Mixed chimerism established by nonmyeloablative conditioning induces long-term acceptance of CTA which is associated with persistent chimerism preferentially in transplanted donor bone. PMID:19920776

  3. Symmetry considerations in the scattering of identical composite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies of the interactions between composite particles were extended to the case in which the composites are identical. The form of the total interaction potential matrix elements was obtained, and guidelines for their explicit evaluation were given. For the case of elastic scattering of identical composites, the matrix element approach was shown to be equivalent to the scattering amplitude method.

  4. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Leszek; Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P; Bieńko, Marek; Polkowska, Izabela; Belcarz, Anna; Karpiński, Mirosław; Słowik, Tymoteusz; Matuszewski, Łukasz; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Ginalska, Grażyna

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4mm in diameter and 6mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP-glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. PMID:26042691

  5. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-15

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-{epsilon}-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  6. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  7. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  8. Simultaneous bone marrow and composite tissue transplantation in rats treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning promotes tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Wu, Shengli; Bozulic, Larry D.; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approaches to safely induce tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) with chimerism through bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are currently being pursued. However, the VCA were historically performed sequentially after donor chimerism was established. Delayed VCA is not clinically applicable due to the time constraints associated with procurement from deceased donors. A more clinically relevant approach to perform both the BMT and VCA simultaneously was evaluated. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were treated with a short course of immunosuppressive therapy (anti-αβ-TCR mAb, FK-506, and anti-lymphocyte serum). One day prior to BMT, rats were treated with varying doses of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by transplantation of heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flaps from hind limbs of ACI (RT1Aabl) rats. Results 80% of rats conditioned with 300 cGy TBI and 40% of rats receiving 400 cGy TBI accepted the VCA. Mixed chimerism was detected in peripheral blood at one month post-VCA, but chimerism was lost in all transplant recipients by 4 months. The majority of peripheral donor cells originated from the BMT and not the VCA. Acceptors of VCA were tolerant of a donor skin graft challenge and no anti-donor antibodies were detectable, suggesting a central deletional mechanism for tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from spleens of acceptors more potently suppressed lymphocyte proliferation than Treg from rejectors in the presence of donor stimulator cells. Conclusions These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells. PMID:23250336

  9. Bi-layered calcium phosphate cement-based composite scaffold mimicking natural bone structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a core/shell bi-layered calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-based composite scaffold with adjustable compressive strength, which mimicked the structure of natural cortical/cancellous bone, was fabricated. The dense tubular CPC shell was prepared by isostatic pressing CPC powder with a specially designed mould. A porous CPC core with unidirectional lamellar pore structure was fabricated inside the cavity of dense tubular CPC shell by unidirectional freeze casting, followed by infiltration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and immobilization of collagen. The compressive strength of bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold can be controlled by varying thickness ratio of dense layer to porous layer. Compared to the scaffold without dense shell, the pore interconnection of bi-layered scaffold was not obviously compromised because of its high unidirectional interconnectivity but poor three dimensional interconnectivity. The in vitro results showed that the rat bone marrow stromal cells attached and proliferated well on the bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold. This novel bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold is promising for bone repair.

  10. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  11. Cytocompatibility and osteogenesis evaluation of HA/GCPU composite as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Zou, Qin; Zuo, Yi; Li, Yubao

    2014-01-01

    Porous scaffolds for bone repair were prepared from newly designed segmented aliphatic polyurethane based on glyceride of castor oil and isophorone diisocyanate. To promote the scaffolds' biological and mechanical properties, hydroxyapatite powder was incorporated into the polymer matrix. The scaffold (named as HA/GCPU) with 40 wt% HA had an average pore size of 500 μm and a compressive strength of 4.6 MPa. The in vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that the HA/GCPU scaffold owned good cytocompatibility. The scaffold and cell-seeded scaffold were implanted in defects (Ф3 mm × 3 mm) of femoral condyle of Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. New bone could extensively form in both the scaffold and cell-seeded scaffold. It indicates that the HA/GCPU composite scaffold has good prospect for bone repair and regeneration. PMID:24657710

  12. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase. PMID:25958462

  13. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation rate of short fiber reinforced epoxy composites for analogue cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Miller, Forrest; Buxton, McKee; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2007-08-01

    Third-generation mechanical analogue bone models and synthetic analogue cortical bone materials manufactured by Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc. (PRL) are popular tools for use in mechanical testing of various orthopedic implants and biomaterials. A major issue with these models is that the current third-generation epoxy-short fiberglass based composite used as the cortical bone substitute is prone to crack formation and failure in fatigue or repeated quasistatic loading of the model. The purpose of the present study was to compare the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the current baseline (established PRL "third-generation" E-glass-fiber-epoxy) composite analogue for cortical bone to a new composite material formulation proposed for use as an enhanced fourth-generation cortical bone analogue material. Standard tensile, plane strain fracture toughness, and fatigue crack propagation rate tests were performed on both the third- and fourth-generation composite material formulations using standard ASTM test techniques. Injection molding techniques were used to create random fiber orientation in all test specimens. Standard dog-bone style tensile specimens were tested to obtain ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Compact tension fracture toughness specimens were utilized to determine plane strain fracture toughness values. Reduced thickness compact tension specimens were also used to determine fatigue crack propagation rate behavior for the two material groups. Literature values for the same parameters for human cortical bone were compared to results from the third- and fourth-generation cortical analogue bone materials. Tensile properties of the fourth-generation material were closer to that of average human cortical bone than the third-generation material. Fracture toughness was significantly increased by 48% in the fourth-generation composite as compared to the third-generation analogue bone. The threshold stress intensity to propagate the crack

  14. Body composition and grip strength are improved in transgenic sickle mice fed a high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Capers, Patrice L; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Cue, Shayla; Chappa, Prasanthi; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Weitzmann, M Neale; Archer, David R; Newman, Gale W; Quarshie, Alexander; Stiles, Jonathan K; Hibbert, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Key pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia includes compensatory erythropoiesis, vascular injury and chronic inflammation, which divert amino acids from tissue deposition for growth/weight gain and muscle formation. We hypothesised that sickle mice maintained on an isoenergetic diet with a high percentage of energy derived from protein (35 %), as opposed to a standard diet with 20 % of energy derived from protein, would improve body composition, bone mass and grip strength. Male Berkeley transgenic sickle mice (S; n 8-12) were fed either 20 % (S20) or 35 % (S35) diets for 3 months. Grip strength (BIOSEB meter) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) were measured. After 3 months, control mice had the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) (P < 0·005). S35 mice had the largest increase in grip strength. A two-way ANOVA of change in grip strength (P = 0·043) attributed this difference to genotype (P = 0·025) and a trend in type of diet (P = 0·067). l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation of the 20 % diet was explored, as a possible mechanism for improvement obtained with the 35 % diet. Townes transgenic sickle mice (TS; n 6-9) received 0·8, 1·6, 3·2 or 6·4 % l-Arg based on the same protocol and outcome measures used for the S mice. TS mice fed 1·6 % l-Arg for 3 months (TS1.6) had the highest weight gain, BMD, BMC and lean body mass compared with other groups. TS3.2 mice showed significantly more improvement in grip strength than TS0·8 and TS1.6 mice (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the high-protein diet improved body composition and grip strength. Outcomes observed with TS1.6 and TS3.2 mice, respectively, confirm the hypothesis and reveal l-Arg as part of the mechanism. PMID:26090102

  15. Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, Mest). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Porous magnesium/PLGA composite scaffolds for enhanced bone regeneration following tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew; Zaky, Samer; Ray, Herbert; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of implant-supported dental prostheses require bone grafting to enhance bone quantity and quality prior to implant placement. We have developed a metallic magnesium particle/PLGA composite scaffold to overcome the limitations of currently used dental bone grafting materials. This is the first report of porous metallic magnesium/PLGA scaffolds synthesized using a solvent casting, salt leaching method. We found that incorporation of varying amounts of magnesium into the PLGA scaffolds increased the compressive strength and modulus, as well as provided a porous structure suitable for cell infiltration, as measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Additionally, combining basic-degrading magnesium with acidic-degrading PLGA led to an overall pH buffering effect and long-term release of magnesium over the course of a 10-week degradation assay, as measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Using an indirect proliferation assay adapted from ISO 10993:5, it was found that extracts of medium from degrading magnesium/PLGA scaffolds increased bone marrow stromal cell proliferation in vitro, a phenomenon observed by other groups investigating magnesium's impact on cells. Finally, magnesium/PLGA scaffold biocompatibility was assessed in a canine socket preservation model. Micro-computed tomography and histological analysis showed the magnesium/PLGA scaffolds to be safer and more effective at preserving bone height than empty controls. Three-dimensional magnesium/PLGA composite scaffolds show promise for dental socket preservation and also, potentially, orthopedic bone regeneration. These scaffolds could decrease inflammation observed with clinically used PLGA devices, as well as enhance osteogenesis, as observed with previously studied magnesium devices. PMID:25234156

  17. Bone marrow fat composition as a novel imaging biomarker in postmenopausal women with prevalent fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Patsch, Janina M; Li, Xiaojuan; Baum, Thomas; Yap, Samuel P; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Schwartz, Ann V; Link, Thomas M

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition in diabetic and nondiabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures and to compare them with nonfracture controls with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty-nine postmenopausal women (mean age 63 ± 5 years) were recruited. Thirty-six patients (47.8%) had spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures. Seventeen fracture patients were diabetic. Thirty-three women (52.2%) were nonfracture controls. Sixteen women were diabetic nonfracture controls. To quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition, patients underwent MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the lumbar spine at 3 Tesla. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and lumbar spine (LS) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the LS. To evaluate associations of vertebral marrow fat content and composition with spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures and diabetes, we used linear regression models adjusted for age, race, and spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by QCT. At the LS, nondiabetic and diabetic fracture patients had lower vBMD than controls and diabetics without fractures (p = 0.018; p = 0.005). However, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA did not differ between fracture and nonfracture patients. After adjustment for age, race, and spinal vBMD, the prevalence of fragility fractures was associated with -1.7% lower unsaturation levels (confidence interval [CI] -2.8% to -0.5%, p = 0.005) and +2.9% higher saturation levels (CI 0.5% to 5.3%, p = 0.017). Diabetes was associated with -1.3% (CI -2.3% to -0.2%, p = 0.018) lower unsaturation and +3.3% (CI 1.1% to 5.4%, p = 0.004) higher saturation levels. Diabetics with fractures had the lowest marrow unsaturation and highest saturation. There were no associations of marrow fat content with diabetes or fracture. Our results

  18. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition.

    PubMed

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Kim, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP), age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition. PMID:27417630

  19. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Amin; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam; Gould, Maree

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. PMID:26117768

  20. Nd and Sr isotope compositions in modern and fossil bones - Proxies for vertebrate provenance and taphonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tütken, Thomas; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Pfretzschner, Hans-U.

    2011-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REE), while not essential for the physiologic functions of animals, are ingested and incorporated in ppb concentrations in bones and teeth. Nd isotope compositions of modern bones of animals from isotopically distinct habitats demonstrate that the 143Nd/ 144Nd of the apatite can be used as a fingerprint for bedrock geology or ambient water mass. This potentially allows the provenance and migration of extant vertebrates to be traced, similar to the use of Sr isotopes. Although REE may be enriched by up to 5 orders of magnitude during diagenesis and recrystallization of bone apatite, in vivo143Nd/ 144Nd may be preserved in the inner cortex of fossil bones or enamel. However, tracking the provenance of ancient or extinct vertebrates is possible only for well-preserved archeological and paleontological skeletal remains with in vivo-like Nd contents at the ppb-level. Intra-bone and -tooth REE analysis can be used to screen for appropriate areas. Large intra-bone Nd concentration gradients of 10 1-10 3 are often measured. Nd concentrations in the inner bone cortex increase over timescales of millions of years, while bone rims may be enriched over millenial timescales. Nevertheless, ɛ Nd values are often similar within one ɛ Nd unit within a single bone. Larger intra-bone differences in specimens may either reflect a partial preservation of in vivo values or changing ɛ Nd values of the diagenetic fluid during fossilization. However, most fossil specimens and the outer rims of bones will record taphonomic 143Nd/ 144Nd incorporated post mortem during diagenesis. Unlike REE patterns, 143Nd/ 144Nd are not biased by fractionation processes during REE-uptake into the apatite crystal lattice, hence the ɛ Nd value is an important tracer for taphonomy and reworking. Bones and teeth from autochthonous fossil assemblages have small variations of ±1 ɛ Nd unit only. In contrast, fossil bones and teeth from over 20 different marine and terrestrial fossil

  1. Body Mass, Training, Menses, and Bone in Adolescent Runners: A 3-y Follow-Up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Endurance runners with low bone mass during adolescence may be at risk of developing a low peak bone mineral density (BMD) as a young adult. However, it is possible that they mature late and undergo delayed bone mass accumulation. PURPOSE: We evaluated 40 adolescent runners (age 15.9 ± 0....

  2. Comparison of bone regeneration in alveolar bone of dogs on mineralized collagen grafts with two composition ratios of nano-hydroxyapatite and collagen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Fu; Wang, Cheng-Yue; Wan, Peng; Wang, Shao-Gang; Wang, Xiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of two composition ratios of nano-hydroxyapatite and collagen (NHAC) composites on repairing alveolar bone defect of dogs. Eighteen healthy adult dogs were randomly divided into three groups. Two kinds of the NHAC composites were prepared according to the constituent ratios of 3:7 and 5:5; immediately after extraction of the mandibular second premolars, each kind of the NHAC composite was implanted into extraction socket, respectively: Group I, nHA/Col = 3:7; Group II, nHA/Col = 5:5 and Group III, blank control group. The bone-repairing ability of the two grafts was separately analyzed by morphometric measurement, X-ray tomography examination and biomechanical analysis at 1st, 3rd and 6th month post-surgical, respectively. The NHAC composites were absorbed gradually after implanting into alveolar bone defect and were replaced by new bone. The ratios of new bone formation of Group I was significantly higher than that of Group II after 3 months (P < 0.05). The structure and bioactive performance can be improved when the ratio between the collagen and the hydroxyapatite was reasonable, and the repairing ability and effect in extraction sockets are obviously better. PMID:26816654

  3. Examining the Relationships Between Bone Tissue Composition, Compositional Heterogeneity, and Fragility Fracture: A Matched Case-Controlled FTIRI Study.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Donnelly, Eve; Boskey, Elizabeth; Spevak, Lyudmila; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R

    2016-05-01

    Fourier transfo