Science.gov

Sample records for bone cell cultures

  1. Comparison of manual and automated cultures of bone marrow stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Asako; Ichimura, Masaki; Tone, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masaru; Inoue, Minoru; Tojo, Arinobu; Kagami, Hideaki

    2015-11-01

    The development of an automated cell culture system would allow stable and economical cell processing for wider clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. However, it is crucial to determine whether the cells obtained by automated culture are comparable to those generated by manual culture. In the present study, we focused on the primary culture process of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering and investigated the feasibility of its automation using a commercially available automated cell culture system in a clinical setting. A comparison of the harvested BMSCs from manual and automated cultures using clinically acceptable protocols showed no differences in cell yields, viabilities, surface marker expression profiles, and in vivo osteogenic abilities. Cells cultured with this system also did not show malignant transformation and the automated process was revealed to be safe in terms of microbial contamination. Taken together, the automated procedure described in this report provides an approach to clinical bone tissue engineering. PMID:25907575

  2. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural methods (conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, inununocytochemistry, stereomicroscopy, and 3D image reconstruction). The studies have provided new knowledge of aspects of bone cell development and structural regulation, extracellular matrix assembly, and mineralization during spaceflight and under normal gravity. The information has contributed to insights into the means in general by which cells respond and adapt to different conditions of gravity (loading). The data may as well have suggested an underlying basis for the observed loss of bone by vertebrates, including man, in microgravity; and these scientific results may have implications for understanding bone loss following fracture healing and extended periods of inactivity such as during long-term bedrest.

  3. Characterization of osteoblast-like behavior of cultured bone marrow stromal cells on various polymer surfaces

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Lee E.

    Characterization of osteoblast-like behavior of cultured bone marrow stromal cells on various(D,L-lactic-co- glycolic acid) (PLGA), and combinations of these polymers for their ability to support bone marrow stromal cell prolif- eration and differentiation. Bone marrow stromal cells were cultured from New Zealand

  4. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the same statistical levels as control counterparts. Flight cells elaborated a less extensive extracellular matrix, evidenced by a reduced collagen gene expression and collagen protein appearance compared with controls. Osteocalcin was expressed by all cells, a result indicating progressive differentiation of both flight and control osteoblasts, but its message levels also were reduced in flight cells compared with ground samples. This finding suggested that osteoblasts subjected to flight followed a slower progression toward a differentiated function. The summary of data indicates that spaceflight, including microgravity exposure, demonstrably affects bone cells by down-regulating type I collagen and osteocalcin gene expression and thereby inhibiting expression of the osteogenic phenotype notably by committed osteoblasts. The information is important for insight into the response of bone cells to changes of gravity and of force in general.

  5. Mineralization of Decalcified Bone Occurs Under Cell Culture Conditions and Requires Bovine Serum But Not Cells

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    Mineralization of Decalcified Bone Occurs Under Cell Culture Conditions and Requires Bovine Serum mineralization in the absence of cells. For this model, we utilized EDTA- decalcified new-born rat tibias with the cartilaginous ends intact, allowing us to visually determine the spec- ificity of mineralization within the bone

  6. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in stromal cells from human bone marrow long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Snjezana; Mazic, Sanja; Kisic, Veronika; Basic, Nikolina; Jakic-Razumovic, Jasminka; Borovecki, Fran; Batinic, Drago; Simic, Petra; Grgurevic, Lovorka; Labar, Boris; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2004-09-01

    Highly purified primitive hemopoietic stem cells express BMP receptors but do not synthesize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, exogenously added BMPs regulate their proliferation, differentiation, and survival. To further explore the mechanism by which BMPs might be involved in hemopoietic differentiation, we tested whether stromal cells from long-term culture (LTC) of normal human bone marrow produce BMPs, BMP receptors, and SMAD signaling molecules. Stromal cells were immunohistochemically characterized by the presence of lyzozyme, CD 31, factor VIII, CD 68, S100, alkaline phosphatase, and vimentin. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and the presence of BMP protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The supportive role of the stromal cell layer in hemopoiesis in vitro was confirmed by a colony assay of clonogenic progenitors. Bone marrow stromal cells express mRNA and protein for BMP-3, -4, and -7 but not for BMP-2, -5, and -6 from the first to the eighth week of culture. Furthermore, stromal cells express the BMP type I receptors, activin-like kinase-3 (ALK-3), ALK-6, and the downstream transducers SMAD-1, -4, and -5. Thus, human bone marrow stromal cells synthesize BMPs, which might exert their effects on hemopoietic stem cells in a paracrine manner through specific BMP receptors. PMID:15314083

  7. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo )

    1991-08-01

    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  8. The Impairment of Osteogenesis in Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) Knockout Calvaria Cell Cultures Is Cell Density Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Guenaelle; Bouleftour, Wafa; Juignet, Laura; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Thomas, Mireille; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Aubin, Jane E.; Vico, Laurence; Marchat, David; Malaval, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) belongs to the "small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein" (SIBLING) family, whose members interact with bone cells and bone mineral. BSP is strongly expressed in bone and we previously showed that BSP knockout (BSP-/-) mice have a higher bone mass than wild type (BSP+/+) littermates, with lower bone remodelling. Because baseline bone formation activity is constitutively lower in BSP-/- mice, we studied the impact of the absence of BSP on in vitro osteogenesis in mouse calvaria cell (MCC) cultures. MCC BSP-/- cultures exhibit fewer fibroblast (CFU-F), preosteoblast (CFU-ALP) and osteoblast colonies (bone nodules) than wild type, indicative of a lower number of osteoprogenitors. No mineralized colonies were observed in BSP-/- cultures, along with little/no expression of either osteogenic markers or SIBLING proteins MEPE or DMP1. Osteopontin (OPN) is the only SIBLING expressed in standard density BSP-/- culture, at higher levels than in wild type in early culture times. At higher plating density, the effects of the absence of BSP were partly rescued, with resumed expression of osteoblast markers and cognate SIBLING proteins, and mineralization of the mutant cultures. OPN expression and amount are further increased in high density BSP-/- cultures, while PHEX and CatB expression are differentiatlly regulated in a manner that may favor mineralization. Altogether, we found that BSP regulates mouse calvaria osteoblast cell clonogenicity, differentiation and activity in vitro in a cell density dependent manner, consistent with the effective skeletogenesis but the low levels of bone formation observed in vivo. The BSP knockout bone microenvironment may alter the proliferation/cell fate of early osteoprogenitors. PMID:25710686

  9. The phenotype of freshly isolated and cultured human bone marrow allostimulatory cells: possible heterogeneity in bone marrow dendritic cell populations.

    PubMed Central

    Egner, W; Hart, D N

    1995-01-01

    Putative dendritic cells (DC) and their precursors have been obtained from human bone marrow but their origin and relationship to other myeloid cells remains obscure. A minor bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) population, which contains the most potent allostimulatory cells and lacks mature cell lineage markers (CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD57 and glycophorin A; lineage-negative) was enriched by immunoselection. These preparations, which contain cells with similar characteristics to freshly isolated human blood DC, were further subdivided by serial fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). Potent allostimulatory cells were detected in the CD34, CD33 and CD4 positive and negative subpopulations. Cells with putative DC morphology were present in both the CD33 and CD4 positive and negative fractions. No significant CD13 or Thy-1 staining was seen in the lineage-negative population. In vitro culture of lineage-negative BMMC for 7 days in conditioned medium resulted in a up to fivefold expansion of cells and generated many lineage-positive progeny. This lineage-positive population was as allostimulatory as the negative progeny. Likewise, the CD14-positive and the CD14-negative cell progeny were equally allostimulatory. In contrast, the freshly isolated lineage-positive BMMC (containing CD14-positive monocytes) remained poor stimulators of the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), even after culture in the presence of cytokines. These data suggest that there are at least two phenotypically diverse forms of potent allostimulatory cells in the lineage-negative fraction of human BM, at least some of which express the early haemopoietic precursor antigens CD34 or CD33. Some of these precursors generate CD14-positive allostimulatory cells upon in vitro culture, suggesting an intimate link between DC ontogeny and myeloid differentiation. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 PMID:7558157

  10. Improved culture-based isolation of differentiating endothelial progenitor cells from mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Haruki; Ii, Masaaki; Jujo, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Ayumi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Asahara, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Numerous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-related investigations have been performed in mouse experiments. However, defined characteristics of mouse cultured EPC have not been examined. We focused on fast versus slow adherent cell population in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) in culture and examined their characteristics. After 24 h-culture of BMMNCs, attached (AT) cells and floating (FL) cells were further cultured in endothelial differentiation medium separately. Immunological and molecular analyses exhibited more endothelial-like and less monocyte/macrophage-like characteristics in FL cells compared with AT cells. FL cells formed thick/stable tube and hypoxia or shear stress overload further enhanced these endothelial-like features with increased angiogenic cytokine/growth factor mRNA expressions. Finally, FL cells exhibited therapeutic potential in a mouse myocardial infarction model showing the specific local recruitment to ischemic border zone and tissue preservation. These findings suggest that slow adherent (FL) but not fast attached (AT) BMMNCs in culture are EPC-rich population in mouse. PMID:22216102

  11. Vascularized Bone Tissue Formation Induced by Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cultured with Osteoblasts and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Hou, Chuanyong; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yelin; Guan, Guoping; Dong, Wei; Gao, Hongyang

    2013-01-01

    The repair of the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease was still a problem. Current strategies including the use of autografts and allografts have the disadvantages, namely, diseases transmission, tissue availability and donor morbidity. Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute damaged or diseased ones. The main limitation in engineering in vitro tissues is the lack of a sufficient blood vessel system, the vascularization. In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold which was reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells was fabricated. General observation, histological observation, detection of the degree of vascularization, and X-ray examination had been done to learn the effect of vascularized bone repair materials on the regeneration of bone. The results show that new vessel and bone formed using implant cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Nanofiber-reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation. PMID:24369019

  12. Guided differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells on co-cultured cartilage and bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul; Tran, Katelyn; Zhou, Gan; Bedi, Asheesh; Shelke, Namdev B; Yu, Xiaojun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

    2015-09-23

    Focal chondral defects that result from traumatic injuries to the knee remain one of the most common causes of disability in patients. Current solutions for healing focal cartilage defects are mainly limited by the production of inferior cartilage-like tissue and subsequent delamination due to incomplete healing of the subchondral bone. In this experiment a polymeric osteochondral implant for guiding autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to populate the scaffold to create distinctive bone and cartilage tissue is used. The cartilage component presents bioactive aligned nanofibers containing chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid while the bone component includes hydroxyapatite to promote chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of the rat BMSCs in vitro. The different cartilage and bone components resulted in the elevated expression of osteogenic markers such as bone sialoprotein, runt related transcription factor 2, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the deeper bone layer and chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan in the cartilage layer. Through immunofluorescence imaging, the alignment of the secreted collagen type II fibrils and aggrecan was visualized and quantified on the cartilage component of the scaffold. These current studies show that the biodegradable biphasic osteochondral implant may be effective in promoting more hyaline-like tissue to fill in chondral defects of the knee. PMID:26292727

  13. Stimulation of Mucosal Mast Cell Growth in Normal and Nude Rat Bone Marrow Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David M.; McMenamin, Christine; Gunneberg, Christian; Woodbury, Richard; Jarrett, Ellen E. E.

    1983-07-01

    Mast cells with the morphological and biochemical properties of mucosal mast cells (MMC) appear and proliferate to form the predominant cell type in rat bone marrow cultures stimulated with factors from antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Conditioned media causing a selective proliferation of MMC were derived from mesenteric lymph node cells of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats restimulated in vitro with specific antigen or from normal or infected rat mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated with concanavalin A. MMC growth factor is not produced by T-cell-depleted mesenteric lymph node cells or by the mesenteric lymph node cells of athymic rats. By contrast, MMC precursors are present in the bone marrow of athymic rats and are normally receptive to the growth factor produced by the lymphocytes of thymus-intact rats. The thymus dependence of MMC hyperplasia is thus based on the requirement of a thymus-independent precursor for a T-cell-derived growth promoter.

  14. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  15. Dynamic cell culture on calcium phosphate microcarriers for bone tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roman A; Riccardi, Kiara; Altankov, George

    2014-01-01

    Developing appropriate cell culturing techniques to populate scaffolds has become a great challenge in tissue engineering. This work describes the use of spinner flask dynamic cell cultures to populate hydroxyapatite microcarriers for bone tissue engineering. The microcarriers were obtained through the emulsion of a self-setting aqueous ?-tricalcium phosphate slurry in oil. After setting, hydroxyapatite microcarriers were obtained. The incorporation of gelatin in the liquid phase of the ?-tricalcium phosphate slurry allowed obtaining hybrid gelatin/hydroxyapatite-microcarriers. Initial cell attachment on the microcarriers was strongly influenced by the speed of the dynamic culture, achieving higher attachment at low speed (40 r/min) as compared to high speed (80 r/min). Under moderate culture speeds (40 r/min), the number of cells present in the culture as well as the number of microcarrier-containing cells considerably increased after 3 days, particularly in the gelatin-containing microcarriers. At longer culture times in dynamic culture, hydroxyapatite-containing microcarriers formed aggregates containing viable and extracellular matrix proteins, with a significantly higher number of cells compared to static cultures. PMID:25383168

  16. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-López, María D.; Andrades, José A.; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (?-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Although the cultured MSCs had osteogenic potential, their contribution to spinal fusion when seeded in mineral scaffolds, in the conditions disclosed here, remains uncertain probably due to callus interference with the scaffolds. At present, bone autografts are better than hybrid constructs for posterolateral lumbar fusion, but we should continue to seek better conditions for efficient tissue engineering. PMID:25522168

  17. Chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow?derived stem cells cultured in the supernatant of elastic cartilage cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodie; Xue, Ke; Zhou, Jia; Xu, Peng; Huang, Huizhen; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Repair of cartilage defects remains a challenge for surgeons, owing to its poor self?repairing capacity. Cartilage tissue engineering, particularly marrow stem cell?based cartilage regeneration, provides a promising option for the regeneration of damaged cartilage. Although producing tissue?engineered cartilage from marrow stem cells appeared to be a feasible method, constructing certain sub?types of cartilage, including elastic cartilage, remains difficult. Therefore, the present study explored the feasibility of constructing elastic cartilage by culturing bone marrow?derived stem cells (BMSCs) in the supernatant of elastic cartilage cells to generate elastic cartilage. The elastic cartilage cells were obtained from the auricle cartilage of a newborn pig, and BMSCs were isolated from pig bone marrow aspirate. The supernatant of the chondrocytes was collected and then used to the culture BMSCs. At various time?points, the differentiation of BMSCs was evaluated by gross view, histological examination and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. BMSCs changed from spindle?shaped cells into polygonal cells with increasing culture time. The expression of collagen II and elastin was observed in the cells cultured in the supernatant of elastic chondrocytes, while no expression was observed in the control cells. Furthermore, the expression of collagen I and collagen X was downregulated in the cells cultured in the supernatant of elastic cartilage cells. The supernatant of elastic cartilage cells promoted the differentiation of BMSCs into elastic cartilage cells, which may be a promising method for constructing certain sub?types of tissue?engineered cartilage. PMID:26238630

  18. Therapeutic benefits in thalassemic mice transplanted with long term cultured bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Seigo; Walton, William; Hatada, Tomoko; Wofford, Anne; Fox, Raymond; Liu, Naiyou; Lill, Michael C.; Fair, Jeffery H.; Kirby, Suzanne L.; Smithies, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Objective Autologous bone marrow (BM) cells with a faulty gene corrected by gene targeting could provide a powerful therapeutic option for patients with genetic blood diseases. Achieving this goal is hindered by the low abundance of therapeutically useful BM cells and the difficulty of maintaining them in tissue culture long enough for completing gene targeting without them differentiating. Our objective was to devise a simple long-term culture system, using unfractioned BM cells, that maintains and expands therapeutically useful cells for ?4 weeks. Materials and Methods From 2 to 60 million BM cells from wild-type (WT) mice, or from mice carrying a truncated erythropoietin receptor transgene (tEpoR-tg), were plated with or without irradiated fetal-liver derived AFT024 stromal cells in 25 cm2 culture flasks. Four-week cultured cells were analyzed and transplanted into sublethally irradiated thalassemic mice (1 million cells / mouse). Results After 4 weeks, the cultures with AFT024 cells had extensive “cobblestone” areas. Optimum expansion of Sca-1 positive cells was 5.5-fold with 20 × 106 WT cells/flask and 27-fold with 2 × 106 tEpoR-tg cells. More than 85% of thalassemic mice transplanted with either type of cells had almost complete reversal of their thalassemic phenotype for at least 6 months, including blood smear dysmorphology, reticulocytosis, high ferritin plasma levels and hepatic/renal hemosiderosis. Conclusion When plated at high cell densities on irradiated fetal-liver derived stromal cells, BM cells from WT mice maintain their therapeutic potential for 4 weeks in culture, which is sufficient time for correction of a faulty gene by targeting. PMID:21184801

  19. MDR1 gene expression enhances long-term engraftibility of cultured bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rentala, Satyanarayana; Sagar Balla, Murali Mohan; Khurana, Satish; Mukhopadhyay, Asok . E-mail: asok@nii.res.in

    2005-09-30

    Primitive hematopoietic stem cells are responsible for long-term engraftment in irradiated host. Here, we report that multi-drug resistance 1 (mdr1) gene expressing primitive hematopoietic cells were multiplied in ex vivo culture, with the support of extracellular matrix components and cytokines. About 20-fold expansion of total nucleated cells was achieved in a 10-day culture. Lin{sup -}Sca-1{sup +} and long-term culture-initiating cells were increased by 54- and 26-fold, respectively. Expanded cells were long-term multi-lineage engraftible in sub-lethally irradiated mice. Donor-derived peripheral blood chimerism was significantly higher (73.2 {+-} 9.1%, p < 0.01) in expanded cells than in normal and 5-flurouracil-treated bone marrow cells. Most interestingly, the expression of mdr1 gene was significantly enhanced in cultured cells than in other two sources of donor cells. The mdr1 gene was functional since expanded cells effluxed Hoechst 33342 and Rh123 dyes. These results suggest that primitive engraftible stem cells can be expanded in the presence of suitable microenvironments.

  20. Quantitative interactions between Pb2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis in cultured osteoclastic bone cells.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Pounds, J G

    1989-05-01

    Cellular calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated cell functions are conceptually attractive processes to be involved in the manifestation(s) of lead toxicity including impaired skeletal growth and cardiovascular and neurological dysfunction. Knowledge of Ca:Pb and Pb:Ca ratios in different structural and functional compartments of cells is essential for identifying, characterizing, and understanding the significance of Pb2+-Ca2+ interactions. Experiments were conducted to characterize the steady-state kinetic distribution and behavior of 45Ca in primary cultures of murine osteoclastic bone cells. Bone cells, derived from mouse calvaria, were enriched for osteoclasts by a sequential collagenase digestion and maintained in primary culture for 1 week. Cultures were labeled with 45Ca for two or 24 hr and the kinetic parameters were obtained by analysis of 45Ca washout curves. Cellular metabolism was based upon a model with three kinetic pools of intracellular Ca2+ containing approximately 45, 25, and 30% of the total cell calcium. In addition, we describe quantitative measurements of Ca:Pb and Pb:Ca ratios at important functional cell sites of Ca2+ transport and storage in intact cells. The intracellular relationships of Ca2+ and Pb2+ were calculated concurrently in individual cultures, using kinetic analysis of dual-label 45Ca and 203Pb washout curves. The Ca:Pb ratios of the rate constants and half-times were approximately 1:1, supporting the concept of similar cellular metabolism of the two elements. The Ca:Pb ratios for the kinetic pools and fluxes were considerably higher than 1:1. These in situ Ca:Pb relationships should be useful for designing and evaluating Ca-Pb studies with calmodulin, isolated mitochondria, and other individual components of the calcium messenger system. Moreover, these data demonstrate both similarities and differences in the kinetic distribution and behavior of Ca2+ and Pb2+ in osteoclastic bone cells. PMID:2718179

  1. In Vivo Ectopic Bone Formation by Devitalized Mineralized Stem Cell Carriers Produced Under Mineralizing Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro–generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43?) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography [nano-CT]). Histological analysis revealed different bone formation patterns, either bone ossicles containing bone marrow surrounding the scaffold struts (in BM2) or bone apposition directly on the struts' surface (in BM1 and BM3). In conclusion, we have presented experimental data on the feasibility to produce devitalized osteoinductive mineralized carriers by functionalizing 3D porous scaffolds with an in vitro cell-made mineralized matrix under the mineralizing culture conditions. PMID:25469312

  2. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography [nano-CT]). Histological analysis revealed different bone formation patterns, either bone ossicles containing bone marrow surrounding the scaffold struts (in BM2) or bone apposition directly on the struts' surface (in BM1 and BM3). In conclusion, we have presented experimental data on the feasibility to produce devitalized osteoinductive mineralized carriers by functionalizing 3D porous scaffolds with an in vitro cell-made mineralized matrix under the mineralizing culture conditions. PMID:25469312

  3. Cytocompatibility of the selected calcium phosphate based bone cements: comparative study in human cell culture.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, Rados?aw; Kaszczewski, Piotr; Czechowska, Joanna; Siek, Dominika; Pijocha, Dawid; Zima, Aneta; ?lósarczyk, Anna; Lewandowska-Szumie?, Ma?gorzata

    2015-12-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are valuable bone fillers. Recently they have been also considered as the basis for drug-, growth factors- or cells-delivery systems. Broad possibilities to manipulate CPC composition provide a unique opportunity to obtain materials with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In this study we show that CPC composition significantly influences cell response. Human bone derived cells were exposed to the several well-characterized different cements based on calcium phosphates, magnesium phosphates and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH). Cell viability assays, live/dead staining and real-time observation of cells in contact with the materials (time-laps) were performed. Although all the investigated materials have successfully passed a standard cytocompatibility assay, cell behavior in a direct contact with the materials varied depending on the material and the experimental system. The most recommended were the ?-TCP-based materials which proved suitable as a support for cells in a direct contact. The materials which caused a decrease of calcium ions concentration in culture induced the negative cell response, however this effect might be expected efficiently compensated in vivo. All the materials consisting of CSH had negative impact on the cells. The obtained results strongly support running series of cytocompatibility studies for preclinical evaluation of bone cements. PMID:26511138

  4. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on tendon-bone integration in an in vitro cell culture.

    PubMed

    Struewer, Johannes; Crönlein, Moritz; Ziring, Ewgeni; Schwarting, Tim; Kratz, Marita; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frangen, Thomas Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on tendon-bone integration in a bovine in vitro cell culture. Seventy-two bovine tendons were cultivated over 3 months. The effects of BMP-2 were evaluated by generation in 4 subgroups. The groups differed in 2 parameters: the application of BMP-2 and the application of primary bovine osteoblasts. Results were analyzed biochemically by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and histologic tendon calcification, both markers for graft incorporation. Histological analysis demonstrated a positive effect of BMP-2 on the production of extracellular matrix and therefore the induction of osteogenesis. In addition, the results showed a superior cell ingrowth on the tendon in the BMP-2-stimulated groups. Calcium carbonate-like structures and organized ossification zones could only be detected in the BMP-2-stimulated tendons. The histological results matched those of the biochemical alkaline phosphatase analysis. The highest alkaline phosphatase activity was detected using BMP-2 stimulation in the first month (P<.001). High alkaline phosphatase values suggest high osteoblast activity and a high potential for mineralization. Furthermore, a positive effect of BMP-2 on fibroblasts existed with regard to the overall integration process. These results confirm the positive influence and triggering effect of BMP-2 on the mineralization process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 seems to accelerate and optimize tendon-bone integration in the early process of graft incorporation. Besides the influence of BMP-2 on bovine osteoblasts, an additional positive effect of BMP-2 on bovine fibroblasts was detected; therefore, graft incorporation may be carried out by osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PMID:23380015

  5. An in situ hybridization technique for the study of B19 human parvovirus replication in bone marrow cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Vassias, I; Perol, S; Coulombel, L; Thebault, M C; Lagrange, P H; Morinet, F

    1993-10-01

    An in situ hybridization technique using digoxigenin labelling was developed to study B19 infection. By using appropriate DNA probes, transcription of structural and non-structural genes was detected in bone marrow cell cultures. Such a simple system is useful to the study of B19-cell interactions in non-permissive cell lines. PMID:8263124

  6. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  7. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  8. Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells.

  9. A VCAM-like adhesion molecule on murine bone marrow stromal cells mediates binding of lymphocyte precursors in culture

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Two new mAbs (M/K-1 and M/K-2) define an adhesion molecule expressed on stromal cell clones derived from murine bone marrow. The protein is similar in size to a human endothelial cell adhesion molecule known as VCAM-1 or INCAM110. VCAM-1 is expressed on endothelial cells in inflammatory sites and recognized by the integrin VLA-4 expressed on lymphocytes and monocytes. The new stromal cell molecule is a candidate ligand for the VLA-4 expressed on immature B lineage lymphocytes and a possible homologue of human VCAM-1. We now report additional similarities in the distribution, structure, and function of these proteins. The M/K antibodies detected large cells in normal bone marrow, as well as rare cells in other tissues. The antigen was constitutively expressed and functioned as a cell adhesion molecule on cultured murine endothelial cells. It correlated with the presence of mRNA which hybridized to a human VCAM-1 cDNA probe. Partial NH2 terminal amino acid sequencing of the murine protein revealed similarities to VCAM-1 and attachment of human lymphoma cells to murine endothelial cell lines was inhibited by the M/K antibodies. All of these observations suggest that the murine and human cell adhesion proteins may be related. The antibodies selectively interfered with B lymphocyte formation when included in long term bone marrow cultures. Moreover, they caused rapid detachment of lymphocytes from the adherent layer when added to preestablished cultures. The VCAM-like cell adhesion molecule on stromal cells and VLA-4 on lymphocyte precursors may both be important for B lymphocyte formation. PMID:1713592

  10. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  11. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  12. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  13. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Dept. of Material Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia , ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona; CIBER-BBN, Maria de Luna 11, Ed. CEEI, 50118 Zaragoza ; Engel, E.

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. {yields} Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. {yields} Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. {yields} qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  14. Composite Scaffolds Containing Silk Fibroin, Gelatin, and Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Regeneration and 3D Cell Culturing.

    PubMed

    Moisenovich, M M; Arkhipova, A Yu; Orlova, A A; Drutskaya, M S; Volkova, S V; Zacharov, S E; Agapov, I I; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silk fibroin scaffolds were modified with one of the major bone tissue derivatives (nano-hydroxyapatite) and/or a collagen derivative (gelatin). Adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) within the scaffold were increased after modification with either nano-hydroxyapatite or gelatin. However, a significant increase in MEF adhesion and proliferation was observed when both additives were introduced into the scaffold. Such modified composite scaffolds provide a new and better platform to study wound healing, bone and other tissue regeneration, as well as artificial organ bioengineering. This system can further be applied to establish experimental models to study cell-substrate interactions, cell migration and other complex processes, which may be difficult to address using the conventional two-dimensional culture systems. PMID:24772332

  15. Composite Scaffolds Containing Silk Fibroin, Gelatin, and Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Regeneration and 3D Cell Culturing

    PubMed Central

    Moisenovich, M. M.; Arkhipova, A. Yu.; Orlova, A. A.; Drutskaya, M. S; Volkova, S. V.; Zacharov, S. E.; Agapov, I. I.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silk fibroin scaffolds were modified with one of the major bone tissue derivatives (nano-hydroxyapatite) and/or a collagen derivative (gelatin). Adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) within the scaffold were increased after modification with either nano-hydroxyapatite or gelatin. However, a significant increase in MEF adhesion and proliferation was observed when both additives were introduced into the scaffold. Such modified composite scaffolds provide a new and better platform to study wound healing, bone and other tissue regeneration, as well as artificial organ bioengineering. This system can further be applied to establish experimental models to study cell-substrate interactions, cell migration and other complex processes, which may be difficult to address using the conventional two-dimensional culture systems. PMID:24772332

  16. A study of murine bone marrow cells cultured in bioreactors which create an environment which simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Brother Desales

    1990-01-01

    Previous research indicated that mouse bone marrow cells could be grown in conditions of simulated microgravity. This environment was created in rotating bioreactor vessels. On three attempts mouse cells were grown successfully in the vessels. The cells reached a stage where the concentrations were doubling daily. Phenotypic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated that the cell were hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells. One unsuccessful attempt was made to reestablish the immune system in immunocompromised mice using these cells. Since last summer, several unsuccessful attempts were made to duplicate these results. It was determined by electron microscopy that the cells successfully grown in 1989 contained virus particles. It was suggested that these virally parasitized cells had been immortalized. The work of this summer is a continuation of efforts to grow mouse bone marrow in these vessels. A number of variations of the protocol were introduced. Certified pathogen free mice were used in the repeat experiments. In some attempts the medium of last summer was used; in others Dexture Culture Medium containing Iscove's Medium supplemented with 20 percent horse serum and 10-6 M hydrocortisone. Efforts this summer were directed solely to repeating the work of last summer. Plans were made for investigations if stem cells were isolated. Immortalization of the undifferentiated stem cell would be attempted by transfection with an oncogenic vector. Selective differentiation would be induced in the stem cell line by growing it with known growth factors and immune response modulators. Interest is in identifying any surface antigens unique to stem cells that would help in their characterization. Another goal was to search for markers on stem cells that would distinguish them from stem cells committed to a particular lineage. If the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell was obtained, the pathways that would terminally convert it to myeloid, lyphoid, erythroid, or other cell lines would be studied. Transfection with a known gene would be attempted and then conversion to a terminally identifiable cell.

  17. Fetal bovine bone cells synthesize bone-specific matrix proteins

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We isolated cells from both calvaria and the outer cortices of long bones from 3- to 5-mo bovine fetuses. The cells were identified as functional osteoblasts by indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies against three bone-specific, noncollagenous matrix proteins (osteonectin, the bone proteoglycan, and the bone sialoprotein) and against type 1 collagen. In separate experiments, confluent cultures of the cells were radiolabeled and shown to synthesize and secrete osteonectin, the bone proteoglycan and the bone sialoprotein by immunoprecipitation and fluorography of SDS polyacrylamide gels. Analysis of the radiolabeled collagens synthesized by the cultures showed that they produced predominantly (approximately 94%) type I collagen, with small amounts of types III and V collagens. In agreement with previous investigators who have employed the rodent bone cell system, we confirmed in bovine bone cells that (a) there was a typical cyclic AMP response to parathyroid hormone, (b) freshly isolated cells possessed high levels of alkaline phosphatase, which diminished during culture but returned to normal levels in mineralizing cultures, and (c) cells grown in the presence of ascorbic acid and beta-glycerophosphate rapidly produced and mineralized an extracellular matrix containing largely type I collagen. These results show that antibodies directed against bone-specific, noncollagenous proteins can be used to clearly identify bone cells in vitro. PMID:6086672

  18. Research of osteoblastic induced rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultured on ?-TCP/PLLA porous scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Gele; Li, Liang; Li, Zhongwei; Li, Cao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ceramic and polymer composite scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering for bone tissue regeneration. Composite of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and poly L-lactic acid (PLLA), due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, is widely used in bioengineering. However, optimal ratio, porosity and pore size of this kind of scaffolds were not very clear yet. Materials and methods: We cultured osteoblastic induced rMSCs on ?-TCP/PLLA scaffolds to investigate the optimum construction, which owned better properties for supporting cells growth, proliferation and differentiation. A total of 24 mice were divided into three groups: rMSCs + ?-TCP/PLLA, osteoblastic rMSCs + ?-TCP/PLLA and ?-TCP/PLLA without cells. 8 rude mice were implanted with rMSCs + ?-TCP/PLLA in the left thighs and ?-TCP/PLLA without cells in the right thighs. 8 rude mice were implanted with osteoblastic rMSCs + ?-TCP/PLLA in the left thighs and the same treatments in the right thighs as the above. After 8 and 12 weeks, the mice were sacrificed and implants with the surrounding tissues were harvested together. Paraffin sections were got and HE stain and Masson-Goldner stain were employed to observe the ectopic bone formation. Results: The scaffolds of ?-TCP/PLLA = 2:1 significantly increased osteocalcin production of the cells. In addition, scaffolds with NaCl = 70 wt%, pore size 200~450 ?m showed better compatibility to these seeding cells. A significantly larger area of bone formation in the osteoblastic rMSCs and ?-TCP/PLLA composite than that in rMSCs/scaffold and in the scaffold without cells in vivo. Conclusion: compounds of osteoblastic induced rMSCs and the scaffold with ?-TCP/PLLA = 2:1, NaCl = 70 wt%, pore size = 200-450 ?m had good properties as a kind of bone substitute. PMID:26064209

  19. Osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells derived from canine umbilical cord matrix co-cultured with platelet-rich plasma and demineralized bone matrix.

    PubMed

    Souza, Talita F B; Sakamoto, Silmara S; Ferreira, Gabriel T N M; Gameiro, Roberto; Marinho, Marcia; de Andrade, Alexandre L; Cardoso, Tereza C

    2015-09-01

    Canine mesenchymal cells (MSCs) derived from Wharton's jelly were co-cultured, then supplemented or not supplemented with platelet rich plasma (PRP) and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) to verify osteogenic differentiation. Osteoblastic differentiation followed by mineralized bone matrix production was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) when MSCs were associated with PRP/DBM in culture after 14-21-days of induction. Osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression were significantly superior (p < 0.05) under the same culture conditions after 21 days of observation. In conclusion, addition of PRP to DBM co-cultured with MSCs successfully induced osteogenesis in vitro. PMID:26040617

  20. Osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells derived from canine umbilical cord matrix co-cultured with platelet-rich plasma and demineralized bone matrix

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Talita F.B.; Sakamoto, Silmara S.; Ferreira, Gabriel T.N.M.; Gameiro, Roberto; Marinho, Marcia; de Andrade, Alexandre L.

    2015-01-01

    Canine mesenchymal cells (MSCs) derived from Wharton's jelly were co-cultured, then supplemented or not supplemented with platelet rich plasma (PRP) and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) to verify osteogenic differentiation. Osteoblastic differentiation followed by mineralized bone matrix production was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) when MSCs were associated with PRP/DBM in culture after 14-21-days of induction. Osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression were significantly superior (p < 0.05) under the same culture conditions after 21 days of observation. In conclusion, addition of PRP to DBM co-cultured with MSCs successfully induced osteogenesis in vitro. PMID:26040617

  1. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon. PMID:24874764

  2. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon.

  3. Osteogenic differentiation of CD271+ cells from rabbit bone marrow cultured on three phase PCL/TZ-HA bioactive scaffolds: comparative study with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Colosimo, Alessia; Rofani, Cristina; Ciraci, Elisa; Salerno, Aurelio; Oliviero, Maria; Maio, Ernesto Di; Iannace, Salvatore; Netti, Paolo A; Velardi, Francesco; Berardi, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is one of the major challenges of orthopedics and trauma surgery for bone regeneration. Biomaterials filled with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered the most promising approach in bone tissue engineering. Furthermore, our previous study showed that the multi-phase poly [?-caprolactone]/thermoplastic zein-hydroxyapatite (PCL/TZ-HA) biomaterials improved rabbit (r) MSCs adhesion and osteoblast differentiation, thus demonstrating high potential of this bioengineered scaffold for bone regeneration. In the recent past, CD271 has been applied as a specific selective marker for the enrichment of MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs). In the present study, we aimed at establishing whether CD271-based enrichment could be an efficient method for the selection of rBM-MSCs, displaying higher ability in osteogenic differentiation than non-selected rBM-MSCs in an in vitro system. CD271+ cells were isolated from rabbit bone marrow and were compared with rMSCs in their proliferation rate and osteogenic differentiation capability. Furthermore, rCD271+ cells were tested in their ability to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteogenic lineage, while growing on PCL/TZ-HA scaffolds, in comparison to rMSCs. Our result demonstrate that rCD271+ cells were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts when cultured on PCL/TZ-HA scaffolds in significantly higher levels as compared to rMSCs. Based on these findings, CD271 marker might serve as an optimal alternative MSCs selection method for the potential preclinical and clinical application of these cells in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26550238

  4. Beneficial reciprocal effects of bone marrow stromal cells and Schwann cells from adult rats in a dynamic co-culture system in vitro without intercellular contact

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LI-NA; CUI, XIAO-JUN; SU, KAI-XIN; WANG, XIAO-HONG; GUO, JIN-HUA

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine how implanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) encourage peripheral nerve regeneration, the present study investigated the interaction of BMSCs and Schwann cells (SCs) using an indirect in vitro co-culture model. SCs and BMSCs were obtained from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The passaged BMSCs were CD29- and CD44-positive but CD45-negative and were co-cultured with the primary SCs using a Millicell system, which allows BMSCs and SCs to grow in the same culture medium but without direct contact. Expression of the typical SC markers S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of the treated BMSCs as well as the proliferation capacity of the co-cultured SCs was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining on the 3rd and 5th day of co-culture. Immunocytochemical staining showed that >75% of the BMSCs in the indirect co-culture model were GFAP- and S-100-positive on the 3rd and 5th day after co-culture, as opposed to <5% of the BMSCs in the control group. On the 3rd day after co-culture, only a few co-cultured BMSCs showed the typical SC-like morphology, while most BMSCs still kept their native appearance. By contrast, on the 5th day after co-culture, almost all of the co-cultured BMSCs appeared with the typical SC-like morphology. Furthermore, 70.71% of the SCs in the indirect co-culture model were S-100-positive on the 5th day of co-culture, as opposed to >30.43% of the SCs in the control group. These results indicated that BMSCs may interact synergistically with SCs with regard to promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26133460

  5. Adult Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells Promote Late Fetal Type II Cell Differentiation in a Co-Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Ab; Brockmeyer, T; Chevalier, R; Zscheppang, K; Nielsen, Hc; Dammann, Ce

    2013-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia develops in preterm infants due to a combination of lung immaturity and lung injury. Cultured pluripotent bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) are known to reduce injury and induce repair in adult and in immature lungs, possibly through paracrine secretion of soluble factors. The paracrine relationship between BMSC and primary fetal lung epithelial type II cells is unknown. We determined the effects of BMSC on type II cell and fibroblast behavior using an in vitro co-culture model. Rat BMSC were isolated and co-cultured with primary fetal E21 rat type II cells or lung fibroblasts in a Transwell(®) system without direct cell contact. Effects of BMSC conditioned media (CM) on type II cell and fibroblast proliferation and on type II cell surfactant phospholipid (DSPC) synthesis and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins B and C (sftpb and sftpc) were studied. We also determined the effect of fibroblast and type II cell CM on BMSC proliferation and surface marker expression. Co-culture with BMSC significantly decreased type II cell and fibroblast proliferation to 72.5% and 83.7% of controls, respectively. Type II cell DSPC synthesis was significantly increased by 21% and sftpb and sftpc mRNA expressions were significantly induced (2.1 fold and 2.4 fold, respectively). BMSC proliferation was significantly reduced during the co-culture. Flow cytometry confirmed that BMSC retained the expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers despite their exposure to fetal lung cell CM. We conclude that BMSC induce fetal type II cell differentiation through paracrine release of soluble factors. These studies provide clues for how BMSC may act in promoting alveolar repair following injury. PMID:23730368

  6. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the integrin VLA-4 mediate adhesion of human B cell precursors to cultured bone marrow adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, D H; Nuccie, B L; Abboud, C N; Winslow, J M

    1991-01-01

    Adhesion of B cell precursors to accessory cells in the bone marrow microenvironment may be required for normal early B cell development. Human bone marrow B cell precursors adhere more avidly than mature B cells to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts. To determine the mechanism of this adhesion, expression of adhesion proteins on human B precursor cells and cell lines was measured by flow cytometry. The very late antigen (VLA) integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5 were the only adhesion proteins expressed at higher levels in B cell precursors than mature B cells. Antibodies to the alpha and beta chains of VLA-4, but not VLA-5, significantly blocked binding to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts of immature B cells and cell lines. Although fibronectin is a ligand for VLA-4, anti-fibronectin antibody and a soluble fibronectin fragment containing the VLA-4 binding domain did not block adhesion, suggesting that VLA-4 is involved in adhesion of B cell precursors, but not as a fibronectin receptor. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), the other known counterreceptor for VLA-4, was identified on bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, and anti-VCAM-1 significantly blocked adhesion of normal B cell precursors to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, indicating that VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions are important in adhesion of B cell precursors to the bone marrow microenvironment. Images PMID:1715889

  7. Culture medium of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells effects lymphatic endothelial cells and tumor lymph vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    ZHAN, JIE; LI, YAHONG; YU, JING; ZHAO, YUANYAUN; CAO, WENMING; MA, JIE; SUN, XIAOXIAN; SUN, LI; QIAN, HUI; ZHU, WEI; XU, WENRONG

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) favor tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Neovascularization is involved in several pathological conditions, including tumor growth and metastasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that human bone marrow MSC-derived conditioned medium (hBM-MSC-CM) can promote tumor growth by inducing the expression of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells. However, the effect of BM-MSCs on tumor lymph vessel formation has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of BM-MSCs on processes involved in lymph vessel formation, including tube formation, migration and proliferation, was investigated in human-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). It was identified that hBM-MSC-CM promoted the tube formation and migration of HDLECs. In addition, tumor cells were revealed to participate in lymph vessel formation. In the present study, the SGC-7901, HGC-27 and GFP-MCF-7 cell lines were treated with hBM-MSC-CM. The results demonstrated that the expression of the lymph-associated markers, prospero homeobox protein 1 and VEGF receptor-3, were increased in the SGC-7901 and HGC-27 cell lines, but not in the GFP-MCF-7 cells. The tube formation assay demonstrated that the HGC-27 cells treated with hBM-MSC-CM for 20 days underwent tube formation. These findings indicate that hBM-MSC-CM can promote tube formation in HDLECs and HGC-27 cells, which may be associated with lymph vessel formation during tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:25663886

  8. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fatty tissue inside your bones. Bone marrow contains stem cells, which are immature cells that become blood ... marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell transplant. For this type of treatment, bone ...

  9. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, YM529/ONO-5920 (a novel minodronic acid), inhibits RANKL expression in a cultured bone marrow stromal cell line ST2.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Hoshino, Mayumi; Namimatsu, Ayumi; Uji, Hiromi; Yoshioka, Shohei; Tanimori, Yoshihiro; Yanae, Masashi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Irimajiri, Kiyohiro

    2005-03-01

    Increase in bone resorption by osteoclasts can cause metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. Recent attention has been paid to the receptor activator of the NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), an accelerator of osteoclast differentiation. RANKL is expressed on the bone marrow-derived stromal cell membrane and induces the differentiation of osteoclasts by binding to RANK expressed on the osteoclast precursor cell membrane. Since the inhibition of RANKL expression can lead to the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption, the clinical application of RANKL inhibition could be expected to have a major effect on metabolic bone disease therapy. In this study, we investigated whether or not YM529/ONO-5920, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (a novel minodronic acid), inhibits RANKL expression in a bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2 cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the administration of YM529/ONO-5920 to ST2 cells inhibited RANKL mRNA expression and reduced RANKL proteins as assessed by Western blot analysis. The inhibition of RANKL mRNA expression was reversed when geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, was used in combination. Furthermore, YM529/ONO-5920 reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and similarly, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor, inhibited RANKL expression. Pretreatment with GGPP reversed the YM529/ONO-5920-induced decrease in phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, YM529/ONO-5920 decreased TRAP-positive cells in co-culture of ST2 cells and an osteoclast cell line, C7 cells, and this decrease was inhibited by pretreatment with GGPP. This indicates that YM529/ONO-5920 inhibits GGPP biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway and then signal transduction in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, thereby inhibiting RANKL expression on ST2 cells. These results suggest a newly elucidated action of bisphosphonates in the inhibition of bone resorption. PMID:15670755

  10. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type Ib Receptor Is a Major Mediator of Glial Differentiation and Cell Survival in Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Brederlau, A.; Faigle, R.; Elmi, M.; Zarebski, A.; Sjöberg, S.; Fujii, M.; Miyazono, K.; Funa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. Little is known about functional differences between the three type I receptors. Here, we have investigated consequences of constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) type I receptor overexpression in adult-derived hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs). The dn receptors have a nonfunctional intracellular but functional extracellular domain. They thus trap BMPs that are endogenously produced by AHPs. We found that effects obtained by overexpression of dnAlk2 and dnAlk6 were similar, suggesting similar ligand binding patterns for these receptors. Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. No effect on neuronal differentiation was seen. Whereas the expression of Alk2 and Alk3 mRNA remained unchanged, the Alk6 mRNA was induced after impaired BMP signaling. After dnAlk3 overexpression, cell survival and astroglial differentiation increased in parallel to augmented Alk6 receptor signaling. We conclude that endogenous BMPs mediate cell survival, astroglial differentiation and the suppression of oligodendrocytic cell fate mainly via the Alk6 receptor in AHP culture. PMID:15194807

  11. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma. PMID:26000310

  12. Wnt5a is expressed in spondyloarthritis and exerts opposite effects on enthesis and bone in murine organ and cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bougault, Carole; Briolay, Anne; Boutet, Marie-Astrid; Pilet, Paul; Delplace, Séverine; Le Goff, Benoît; Guicheux, Jérôme; Blanchard, Frédéric; Magne, David

    2015-12-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder that initiates at the enthesis, where tendons attach to bone through a fibrocartilage zone. At late stages, excessive bone apposition appears within the diseased enthesis. Because Wnt5a participates to normal bone formation and appears related to inflammatory processes, we investigated the role of this Wnt growth factor in inflammation-associated ossification in SpA. The concentration of Wnt5a assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in synovial fluids of patients with SpA (2.58 ± 0.98 ng/mL) was higher than in osteoarthritic patients (1.33 ± 0.71 ng/mL). In murine primary cultures of tendon cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts and in an organotypic model of mouse ankle, we showed that tumor necrosis factor ? reversibly diminished Wnt5a expression and secretion, respectively. Wnt5a decreased gene expression of differentiation markers and mineralization in cultured chondrocytes and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity in Achilles tendon enthesis (-14%) and osteocalcin protein levels released by ankle explants (-36%). On the contrary, Wnt5a stimulated ossification markers' expression in cultured osteoblasts and increased the bone volume of the tibial plateau of the cultured explants (+19%). In conclusion, our results suggest that Wnt5a is expressed locally in the joints of patients with SpA. Wnt5a appears more associated with ossification than with inflammation and tends to inhibit mineralization in chondrocytes and enthesis, whereas it seems to favor the ossification process in osteoblasts and bone. Further studies are needed to decipher the opposing effects observed locally in enthesis and systemically in bone in SpA. PMID:26163991

  13. Rat bone marrow-derived mast cells co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts in the absence of T-cell derived cytokines require stem cell factor for their survival and maintain their mucosal mast cell-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A J; Thornton, E M; Newlands, G F; Galli, S J; Moqbel, R; Miller, H R

    1996-07-01

    When cultured without fibroblasts, rat bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) contain abundant rat mast cell proteinase type II (RMCP-II), and exhibit survival and proliferation when maintained in mesenteric lymph node conditioned medium (CM). When BMMC were co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts in the absence of CM, BMMC numbers increased for 7 days and the BMMC survived for up to 23 days. There was a gradual loss of stored RMCP-II in BMMC that were co-cultured with 3T3 cells, but the fibroblast microenvironment did not induce a detectable increase in the low levels of the connective tissue mast cell (CTMC)-associated proteinase, RMCP-I, in the BMMC. Nor did 3T3 cell co-culture induce significant heparin synthesis in BMMC as judged by the cells' reactivity with the fluorescent heparin-binding dye, berberine sulphate. These results suggest that rat BMMC, unlike murine BMMC, do not have the potential to develop multiple CTMC-like characteristics upon co-culture with 3T3 cells. However, when BMMC and fibroblast co-cultures were treated with an antibody to recombinant rat stem cell factor (rrSCF), mast cell survival was completely abrogated. This result suggests that endogenous, fibroblast-derived SCF is essential for the maintenance of rat BMMC viability in the absence of CM. On the other hand, prior treatment of the fibroblasts with the anti-rrSCF antibody did not affect the adherence of BMMC to the monolayer, implying that (an) other molecule(s) is(are) involved in the attachment process. The demonstration that rat BMMC survival on fibroblasts in vitro is dependent upon SCF may indicate an important mechanism by which tissue mucosal cells can be maintained in vivo in the absence of T-cell derived factors. PMID:8774353

  14. Interactions between Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Adipocytes, and Osteoblasts in a 3D Tri-Culture Model of Hyperglycemic Conditions in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Torri E.; Hammoudi, Taymour M.; Kemp, Melissa L.; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found that uncontrolled diabetes and consequential hyperglycemic conditions can lead to increased incidence of osteoporosis. Osteoblasts, adipocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all components of the bone marrow microenvironment and thus may have an effect on diabetes-related osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the influence of these three cell types on each other, especially in the context of hyperglycemia. Thus, we developed a hydrogel-based 3D culture platform engineered to allow live-cell retrieval in order to investigate the interactions between MSCs, osteoblasts, and adipocytes in mono-, co-, and tri-culture configurations under hyperglycemic conditions for 7 days of culture. Gene expression, histochemical analysis of differentiation markers, and cell viability were measured for all cell types, and MSC-laden hydrogels were degraded to retrieve cells to assess colony-forming capacity. Multivariate models of gene expression data indicated that primary discrimination was dependent on neighboring cell type, validating the need for co-culture configurations to study conditions modeling this disease state. MSC viability and clonogenicity were reduced when mono- and co-cultured with osteoblasts in high glucose levels. In contrast, MSCs had no reduction of viability or clonogenicity when cultured with adipocytes in high glucose conditions and adipogenic gene expression indicated that cross-talk between MSCs and adipocytes may occur. Thus, our unique culture platform combined with post-culture multivariate analysis provided novel insight into cellular interactions within the MSC microenvironment and highlights the necessity of multi-cellular culture systems for further investigation of complex pathologies such as diabetes and osteoporosis. PMID:24463781

  15. Onset of heterogeneity in culture-expanded bone marrow stromal cells

    E-print Network

    Whitfield, Matthew J.

    Inconsistencies among in vitro and in vivo experiments using adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) confound development of therapeutic, regenerative medicine applications, and in vitro expansion is typically required to ...

  16. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary rat osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were implanted on uniform-sized biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds produced by a 3D printing method. Three types of culture conditions were applied: static culture without osteoinduction (Group A); static culture with osteoinduction (Group B); dynamic culture with osteoinduction (Group C). After 3 and 6 weeks, the scaffolds were analysed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dsDNA amount, SEM, fluorescent labelled live-dead assay, and real-time RT-PCR in addition to weekly alamarBlue assays. With osteoinduction, increased ALP values and calcium deposition are observed; however, under static conditions, a significant decrease in the cell number on the biomaterial is observed. Interestingly, the bioreactor system not only reversed the decreased cell numbers but also increased their differentiation potential. We conclude from this study that a continuous flow bioreactor not only preserves the number of osteogenic cells but also keeps their differentiation ability in balance providing a suitable cell-seeded scaffold product for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:22304383

  17. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary rat osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were implanted on uniform-sized biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds produced by a 3D printing method. Three types of culture conditions were applied: static culture without osteoinduction (Group A); static culture with osteoinduction (Group B); dynamic culture with osteoinduction (Group C). After 3 and 6 weeks, the scaffolds were analysed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dsDNA amount, SEM, fluorescent labelled live-dead assay, and real-time RT-PCR in addition to weekly alamarBlue assays. With osteoinduction, increased ALP values and calcium deposition are observed; however, under static conditions, a significant decrease in the cell number on the biomaterial is observed. Interestingly, the bioreactor system not only reversed the decreased cell numbers but also increased their differentiation potential. We conclude from this study that a continuous flow bioreactor not only preserves the number of osteogenic cells but also keeps their differentiation ability in balance providing a suitable cell-seeded scaffold product for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:22304383

  18. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  19. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  20. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on ?-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    PubMed

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous ?-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the ?-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the ?-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the ?-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on ?-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects on hPDLCs than the inorganic elements. PMID:25738431

  1. Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

    1980-08-01

    Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

  2. Identification of human T-lymphoid progenitor cells in CD34+ CD38low and CD34+ CD38+ subsets of human cord blood and bone marrow cells using NOD-SCID fetal thymus organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Robin, C; Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Louache, F; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1999-03-01

    In contrast to myeloid and B-lymphoid differentiation, which take place in the marrow environment, development of T cells requires the presence of thymic stromal cells. We demonstrate in this study that human CD34+, CD34+ CD38+ and CD34+ CD38(low) cells from both cord blood and adult bone marrow reproducibly develop into CD4+ CD8+ T cells when introduced into NOD-SCID embryonic thymuses and further cultured in organotypic cultures. Such human/mouse FTOC fetal thymic organ culture) thus represents a reproducible and sensitive system to assess the T-cell potential of human primitive progenitor cells. The frequency of T-cell progenitors among cord-blood-derived CD34+ cells was estimated to be 1/500. Furthermore, the differentiation steps classically observed in human thymus were reproduced in NOD-SCID FTOC initiated with cord blood and human marrow CD34+ cells: immature human CD41(low) CD8- sCD3- TCR alphabeta- CD5+ CD1a+ T cells were mixed with CD4+ CD8+ cells and more mature CD4+ CD8- TCR alphabeta+ cells. However, in FTOC initiated with bone marrow T progenitors, <10% double-positive cells were observed, whereas this proportion increased to 50% when cord blood CD34+ cells were used, and most CD4+ cells were immature T cells. These differences may be explained by a lower frequency of T-cell progenitors in adult samples, but may also suggest differences in the thymic signals required by bone marrow versus cord blood T progenitors. Finally, since cytokine-stimulated CD34+ CD38(low) cells retained their ability to generate T cells, these FTOC assays will be of value to monitor, when combined with other biological assays, the influence of different expansion protocols on the potential of human stem cells. PMID:10192444

  3. Characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells isolated by immunomagnetic selection.

    PubMed

    Lagar'kova, M A; Lyakisheva, A V; Filonenko, E S; Volchkov, P Yu; Rubtsova, K V; Gerasimov, Yu V; Chailakhyan, R K; Kiselev, S L

    2006-01-01

    Immunophenotype of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was studied after several culturing passages and after cryopreservation. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells acquired homogeneity during in vitro culturing, but initially contained heterogeneous populations. PMID:16929980

  4. Comparative activities of daidzein metabolites, equol and O-desmethylangolensin, on bone mineral density and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized mice and in osteoclast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Takuya; Uehara, Mariko; Peñalvo, José Luis; Adlercreutz, Herman; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Takeda, Ken; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2008-08-01

    Daidzein, a major isoflavone predominantly found in soybean, is mainly metabolized to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) by the human gut microflora. Equol exhibits a stronger estrogenic activity than daidzein, however, only approximately 30% of the population has been identified as equol-producers and there are too few direct evidences of the effects of the other major metabolite, O-DMA on estrogen-deficient status. The purpose of this study is therefore, to compare the effect of both O-DMA and equol on bone and lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro. For the in vivo study, 8-week-old female mice were assigned to five groups as follows: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + 0.5 mg/day O-DMA (OVX + O-DMA), OVX + 0.5 mg/day equol (OVX + Eq), and OVX + 0.03 microg/day 17beta-estradiol (OVX + E2) administration. Three weeks after the intervention, O-DMA and equol did not affect uterine atrophy in OVX mice. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was lower in the OVX group than in the sham group. The administration of equol but not O-DMA, maintained BMD through the intervention. Values of whole body fat mass and plasma lipids were lower in the equol and O-DMA treated OVX mice than those in OVX mice. In the in vitro study, equol significantly inhibited the osteoclast formation induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in a dose-dependent manner in a co-culture system of mouse bone-marrow cells with primary osteoblastic cells. However, O-DMA slightly inhibited osteoclast formation, and the effect was not dose dependent. These results suggest that the effects of O-DMA on bone and lipid metabolism in OVX mice and osteoclast cell cultures are weaker than those of equol. PMID:18622636

  5. Histomorphometry and autoradiography of cultured fetal rat long bones

    SciTech Connect

    Nefussi, J.R.; Vignery, A.; Puzas, J.E.; Baron, R.

    1982-10-01

    The behavior of fetal rat long bones cultured in vitro according to Raisz's technique (1969) was studied by histomorphometry and autoradiography for a period of four days. The changes were recorded daily both on the trabecular and cortical bone by measuring the bone volume, the number of osteoclasts, and the number of nuclei per osteoclast. Radioactive calcium release was measured and compared to the changes in bone volume and in the number of osteoclasts. An autoradiographic study, using /sup 3/H-proline and /sup 3/H-thymidine in flash labeling in the medium and /sup 3/H-thymidine in follow-up labeling after one injection in vivo was performed to evaluate the bone formation, the cellular proliferation rate and cell differentiation. After four days in culture, an increase in total calcified bone volume was observed which correlated with changes in the trabecular bone. No significant changes were recorded in the cortical bone. The results showed a good maintenance of the resorption and formation phenomena through an active process of cellular multiplication and differentiation. Undifferentiated cells were labeled in flash label and osteoblast, osteocyte and some osteoclast nuclei were labeled in follow-up studies.

  6. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    PubMed Central

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  7. Bone scaffold architecture modulates the development of mineralized bone matrix by human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Marolt, Darja; Petridis, Petros; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Schmidt, Daniel; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Decellularized bone has been widely used as a scaffold for bone formation, due to its similarity to the native bone matrix and excellent osteoinductive and biomechanical properties. We have previously shown that human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells form functional bone matrix on such scaffolds, without the use of growth factors. In this study, we focused on differences in bone matrix that exist even among identical harvesting sites, and the effects of the matrix architecture and mineral content on bone formation by human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Mesenchymal progenitors derived from hESCs were cultured for 5 weeks in decellularized bone scaffolds with three different densities: low (0.281 ± 0.018 mg/mm3), medium (0.434 ± 0.015 mg/mm3) and high (0.618 ± 0.027 mg/mm3). The medium-density group yielded highest densities of cells and newly assembled bone matrix, presumably due to the best balance between the transport of nutrients and metabolites to and from the cells, space for cell infiltration, surface for cell attachment and the mechanical strength of the scaffolds, all of which depend on the scaffold density. Bone mineral was beneficial for the higher expression of bone markers in cultured cells and more robust accumulation of the new bone matrix. PMID:22901965

  8. Activity of dental pulp cells in semisolid 3D cultures initiated by transforming growth factor-?1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4.

    PubMed

    Suzergoz, F; Sepet, E; Erdem, A P; Cinar, S; Ikikarakayali, G; Erdem, M A; Gurol, A O

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to investigate the effect of modified 3D culture conditions on dental pulp cells (DPCs). DPCs were isolated from extracted primary molar, premolar, and wisdom teeth. Tooth samples were divided into three groups as control group; plated into methyl cellulose medium without any supplementation, growth factor (GF) group; supplemented with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2, BMP4), transforming growth factor—?1 (TGF—?1) and growth factor+conditioned medium (GF+CM) group; supplemented with both growth factors and pulp conditioned medium. The DPCs were tested for colony forming ability, proliferation capacity and morphology. The highest colony forming ability was detected in the GF and GF+CM groups of DPCs isolated from wisdom teeth. The proliferation capacity was higher in GF+CM group of DPCs isolated from primary molars, and in GF and GF+CM groups of DPCs isolated from wisdom teeth. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the wisdom teeth samples showed cell—cell interactions in the GF and GF+CM groups. Our results indicate that growth factors and pulp conditioned medium in methyl cellulose culture created proper environment to follow the behavior of dental cells three—dimensionally. PMID:26475387

  9. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tu?lu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Delilo?lu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-10-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell differentiation in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. It may be possible to improve healing of bone defects in humans using stem cells from bone marrow. PMID:25994048

  10. A Trabecular Bone Explant Model of OsteocyteOsteoblast Co-Culture for Bone Mechanobiology

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    A Trabecular Bone Explant Model of Osteocyte­Osteoblast Co-Culture for Bone Mechanobiology MEILIN--The osteocyte network is recognized as the major mechanical sensor in the bone remodeling process, and osteocyte, we developed a novel 3D trabecular bone explant co-culture model that allows live osteocytes situated

  11. Effects of Mössbauer radiation on bone marrow cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortalli, I.; Pedrazzi, G.; Jiang, K.; Zhang, X.; Carlo-Stella, C.; Mangoni, L.; Rizzoli, V.

    1992-04-01

    A low radiation dose approach to cell eradication would be highly desirable in cancer treatments in order to reduce the side ellects of conventional radiotherapy. In the present work we present a preliminary study on coltures of bone marrow mononuclear cells collected from normal subjects and patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). Hematin (104, 10-3, 10°M) has been added to mattow culture cells which were then irradiated with a 3.7 GBq (100 mCi)57Co/Rh Mossbauer source for 4 hours. Significant inbibition has been observed on the cell growth due to hematin and irradiatron.

  12. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  13. Exogenous Nkx2.5- or GATA-4-transfected rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and myocardial cell co-culture on the treatment of myocardial infarction in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LI, PU; ZHANG, LEI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 transfection with myocardial extracellular environment co-culture on the transformation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into differentiated cardiomyocytes. Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 were transfected into myocardial extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs, and then injected into the periphery of infarcted myocardium of a myocardial infarction rabbit model. The effects of these gene transfections and culture on the infarcted myocardium were observed and the results may provide an experimental basis for the efficient myocardial cell differentiation of BMSCs. The present study also suggested that these cells may provide a source and clinical basis for myocardial injury repair via stem cell transplantation. The present study examined whether Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 exogenous gene transfection with myocardial cell extracellular environment co-culture were able to induce the differentiation of BMSCs into cardiac cells. In addition, the effect of these transfected BMSCs on the repair of the myocardium following myocardial infarction was determined using New Zealand rabbit models. The results demonstrated that myocardial cell differentiation was significantly less effective following exogenous gene transfection of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 alone compared with that of transfection in combination with extracellular environment co-culture. In addition, the results of the present study showed that exogenous gene transfection of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 into myocardial cell extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs was able to significantly enhance the ability to repair, mitigating the death of myocardial cells and activation of the myocardium in rabbits with myocardial infarction compared with those of the rabbits transplanted with untreated BMSCs. In conclusion, the exogenous Nkx2.5 and GATA-4 gene transfection into myocardial extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs induced increased differentiation into myocardial cells compared with that of gene transfection alone. Furthermore, significantly enhanced reparative effects were observed in the myocardium of rabbits following treatment with Nkx2.5- or GATA-4-transfected myocardial cell extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs compared with those treated with untreated BMSCs. PMID:25975979

  14. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  15. Effects of Kagocel® on the Counts of Multipotent Stromal Cells, Expression of Cytokine Genes in Primary Cultures of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells, and Serum Cytokine Concentrations in CBA Mice.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Grabko, V I; Konopleva, M V; Suslov, A P; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-06-01

    The efficiency of cloning of bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (ECF-MSC) from CBA mice and the MSC counts in the femoral bone increased 24 h after a single in vivo (but not in vitro) injection of kagocel (active substance of antiviral drug Kagocel (®) ) 1.4 times (in response to 50-80 ?g) and 4.6 times (in response to 250 ?g). The maximum increase of ECF-MSC in response to 50 ?g per mouse was detected just 1 h after Kagocel injection to intact mice and to mice previously receiving the drug for 3 days (2 and 1.7 times, respectively). The increase of ECF-MSC was 3-fold less intense in response to oral Kagocel in a dose of 250 ?g/mouse vs. intraperitoneal Kagocel, ECF-MSC corresponding to its level in response to oral Poly (I:C). In vivo Kagocel led to emergence of proinflammatory cytokine IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 mRNA in primary cultures of bone marrow stromal cells. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-4, and IL-12 increased 1.5 and 2 times just 1 h after Kagocel injection in doses of 30-50 and 250 ?g, respectively, to intact mice and to animals previously treated with the drug for 3 days. The cytokine concentrations normalized after 3 h and increased again after 24 h, though did not reach the levels recorded 1 h after the drug injection. These data indicated that the therapeutic and preventive effects of Kagocel, together with its previously demonstrated stimulation of ?- and ?-interferon production during several days, could be due to the capacity of this drug to increase the bone marrow ECF-MSC, serum cytokine concentrations, and induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in the bone marrow stromal cells 1 h after its injection. PMID:26087752

  16. Individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and citrinin on viability and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and on chromosome aberrations in mice bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Bouslimi, Amel; Bouaziz, Chayma; Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Hassen, Wafa; Bacha, Hassen

    2008-09-29

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) are two common contaminant mycotoxins which can occur jointly in a wide range of food commodities. Both mycotoxins have several toxic effects but share a significant nephrotoxic and carcinogenic potential since OTA and CTN were reported to be responsible for naturally occurring human and animal kidney diseases and tumors. Considering the concomitant production of OTA and CTN, it is very likely that humans and animals are always exposed to the mixture rather than to individual compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in vivo and in vitro, whether DNA damage is enhanced by combination of both mycotoxins as compared to their effect separately. To this end, we have assessed their effects individually or combined on cell proliferation and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and in vivo by monitoring the induction of chromosome aberrations. Our results clearly showed that cultured renal cells respond to OTA and CTN exposure by a moderate and weak inhibition of cell proliferation, respectively. However, when combined, they exert a significant increase in inhibition of cell viability. Similar results were found for the investigated genotoxicity endpoints (DNA fragmentation and chromosome aberrations). Altogether, our study showed that OTA and CTN combination effects are clearly synergistic. The synergistic induction of DNA damage observed with OTA and CTN taken concomitantly could be relevant to explain the molecular basis of the renal diseases and tumorogenesis induced by naturally occurring mycotoxins. PMID:18638518

  17. Chondrocytes Directly Transform into Bone Cells in Mandibular Condyle Growth.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Zhou, X; Han, X; Jing, J; von der Mark, K; Wang, J; de Crombrugghe, B; Hinton, R J; Feng, J Q

    2015-12-01

    For decades, it has been widely accepted that hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo apoptosis prior to endochondral bone formation. However, very recent studies in long bone suggest that chondrocytes can directly transform into bone cells. Our initial in vivo characterization of condylar hypertrophic chondrocytes revealed modest numbers of apoptotic cells but high levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, some dividing cells, and clear alkaline phosphatase activity (early bone marker). Ex vivo culture of newborn condylar cartilage on a chick chorioallantoic membrane showed that after 5 d the cells on the periphery of the explants had begun to express Col1 (bone marker). The cartilage-specific cell lineage-tracing approach in triple mice containing Rosa 26(tdTomato) (tracing marker), 2.3 Col1(GFP) (bone cell marker), and aggrecan Cre(ERT2) (onetime tamoxifen induced) or Col10-Cre (activated from E14.5 throughout adult stage) demonstrated the direct transformation of chondrocytes into bone cells in vivo. This transformation was initiated at the inferior portion of the condylar cartilage, in contrast to the initial ossification site in long bone, which is in the center. Quantitative data from the Col10-Cre compound mice showed that hypertrophic chondrocytes contributed to ~80% of bone cells in subchondral bone, ~70% in a somewhat more inferior region, and ~40% in the most inferior part of the condylar neck (n = 4, P < 0.01 for differences among regions). This multipronged approach clearly demonstrates that a majority of chondrocytes in the fibrocartilaginous condylar cartilage, similar to hyaline cartilage in long bones, directly transform into bone cells during endochondral bone formation. Moreover, ossification is initiated from the inferior portion of mandibular condylar cartilage with expansion in one direction. PMID:26341973

  18. Modeling Selective Elimination of Quiescent Cancer Cells from Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Cavnar, Stephen P.; Rickelmann, Andrew D.; Meguiar, Kaille F.; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M.; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E.; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer. PMID:26408255

  19. Improved adipogenic in vitro differentiation: comparison of different adipogenic cell culture media on human fat and bone stroma cells for fat tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Açil, Yahya; Wiltfang, Jörg; Gierloff, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    To date there is no sufficient in vitro fat tissue engineering and a protocol has not been well established for this purpose. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro influence of two different adipogenic growth media for their stimulation potential on different cell lineages to clearly define the most potent adipogenic growth media for future in vitro tissue engineering approaches. The samples for differentiation were composed of human adipogenic-derived stroma cells (hADSCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSCs). A normal adipogenic medium (NAM) and a specific adipogenic medium (SAM) were tested for their adipogenic stimulation potential. After 10 days and 21 days the relative gene expression was measured for the adipogenic marker genes PPAR?2, C/EBP?, FABP4, LPL, and GLUT4 detected through real time reverse transcriptase polymease chain reaction (RT-PCR). Other study variables were the comparison between NAM and SAM and between the used cells hADSCs and hMSCs. Additionally an Oil-Red staining was performed after 21 days. Our results revealed that only SAM was significantly (P<0.05) superior in the differentiation process in contrast to NAM for 10 days and 21 days. As well was SAM superior to differentiate the used cell lineages. This was evaluated by the detected marker genes PPAR?2, C/EBP?, FABP4, LPL, and GLUT4 through real time RT-PCR and by Oil-Red staining. In addition, the hMSCs proofed to be equal donor cells for adipogenic differentiation especially when stimulated by SAM. The results suggest that the SAM should be established as a new standard medium for a more promising in vitro adipogenic differentiation. PMID:26140219

  20. Canine Cranial Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mankani, Mahesh H.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Shannon, Brian; Nalla, Ravi K.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Qin, Yixian; Robey, Pamela Gehron

    2006-01-01

    Limited-sized transplants of culture-expanded autologous or allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) form cortico-cancellous bone in rodent models. Initiation of clinical studies using autologous BMSC transplantation requires effective bone formation among sizable transplants in a large animal model as well as noninvasive techniques for evaluating transplant success. Here, we obtained bone marrow from the femurs of six dogs and expanded BMSCs in tissue culture. Autologous BMSC-hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) transplants were introduced into critical-sized calvarial defects and contralateral control skull defects received HA/TCP vehicle alone. At intervals ranging from 2 to 20 months, transplants were biopsied or harvested for histological and mechanical analysis. Noninvasive studies, including quantitative computed tomography scans and ultrasound, were simultaneously obtained. In all animals, BMSC-containing transplants formed significantly more bone than their control counterparts. BMSC-associated bone possessed mechanical properties similar to the adjacent normal bone, confirmed by both ultrasound and ex vivo analysis. Evaluation by quantitative computed tomography confirmed that the extent of bone formation demonstrated by histology could be discerned through noninvasive means. These results show that autologous cultured BMSC transplantation is a feasible therapy in clinical-sized bone defects and that such transplants can be assessed noninvasively, suggesting that this technique has potential for use in patients with certain bone defects. PMID:16436668

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu ; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  2. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  3. Repair of Segmental Bone Defect Using Totally Vitalized Tissue Engineered Bone Graft by a Combined Perfusion Seeding and Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ya-Fei; Li, Xiang; Hu, Yun-Yu; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Lei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG) is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D) scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the “Totally Vitalized TEBG” (TV-TEBG) which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. Methods In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP) technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC) method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC) method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC) method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. Results Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and maxillofacial fields. PMID:24728277

  4. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-12-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  5. Stem Cells and Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, W.; Liu, X.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. This article reviews recent developments in stem cell delivery via CPC for bone regeneration. This includes: (1) biofunctionalization of the CPC scaffold, (2) co-culturing of osteoblasts/endothelial cells and prevascularization of CPC, (3) seeding of CPC with different stem cell species, (4) human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) and bone marrow MSC (hBMSC) seeding on CPC for bone regeneration, and (5) human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) seeding with CPC for bone regeneration. Cells exhibited good attachment/proliferation in CPC scaffolds. Stem-cell-CPC constructs generated more new bone and blood vessels in vivo than did the CPC control without cells. hUCMSCs, hESC-MSCs, and hiPSC-MSCs in CPC generated new bone and blood vessels similar to those of hBMSCs; hence, they were viable cell sources for bone engineering. CPC with hESC-MSCs and hiPSC-MSCs generated new bone two- to three-fold that of the CPC control. Therefore, this article demonstrates that: (1) CPC scaffolds are suitable for delivering cells; (2) hUCMSCs, hESCs, and hiPSCs are promising alternatives to hBMSCs, which require invasive procedures to harvest with limited cell quantity; and (3) stem-cell-CPC constructs are highly promising for bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. PMID:24799422

  6. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  7. Effect of culture conditions and calcium phosphate coating on ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hamlet, Stephen M; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating onto a polycaprolactone melt electrospun scaffold and in vitro culture conditions on ectopic bone formation in a subcutaneous rat model. The CaP coating resulted in an increased alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) in ovine osteoblasts regardless of the culture conditions and this was also translated into higher levels of mineralisation. A subcutaneous implantation was performed and increasing ectopic bone formation was observed over time for the CaP-coated samples previously cultured in osteogenic media whereas the corresponding non-coated samples displayed a lag phase before bone formation occurred from 4 to 8 weeks post-implantation. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed bone fill through the scaffolds 8 weeks post-implantation for coated and non-coated specimens and that ALP, osteocalcin and collagen 1 were present at the ossification front and in the bone tissues. Vascularisation in the vicinity of the bone tissues was also observed indicating that the newly formed bone was not deprived of oxygen and nutrients. We found that in vitro osteogenic induction was essential for achieving bone formation and CaP coating accelerated the osteogenic process. We conclude that high cell density and preservation of the collagenous and mineralised extracellular matrix secreted in vitro are factors of importance for ectopic bone formation. PMID:23623428

  8. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  9. Cell therapy in bone healing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Marcus; Hernigou, Philippe; Zilkens, Christoph; Herten, Monika; Li, Xinning; Fischer, Johannes; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    In addition to osteosynthetic stabilizing techniques and autologous bone transplantations, so-called orthobiologics play an increasing role in the treatment of bone healing disorders. Besides the use of various growth factors, more and more new data suggest that cell-based therapies promote local bone regeneration. For ethical and biological reasons, clinical application of progenitor cells on the musculoskeletal system is limited to autologous, postpartum stem cells. Intraoperative one-step treatment with autologous progenitor cells, in particular, delivered promising results in preliminary clinical studies. This article provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of the clinical application of cell-based therapy to treat osseous defects based on a review of existing literature and our own experience with more than 100 patients. Most clinical trials report successful bone regeneration after the application of mixed cell populations from bone marrow. The autologous application of human bone marrow cells which are not expanded ex vivo has medico-legal advantages. However, there is a lack of prospective randomized studies including controls for cell therapy for bone defects. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy seems to be a promising treatment option which may reduce the amount of bone grafting in future. PMID:21808710

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, ? particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by ?H2AX-immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l ?-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). TGF-?1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to ? particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent permanent cell cycle blocks lead to a depletion of proliferation-competent cel

  11. Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone

    E-print Network

    Morante, Silvia

    Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow as part of the immune system and as a filter #12;Cells of the Immune System Cells destined to become workings of the immune system, while others are cytotoxic and directly contact infected cells and destroy

  12. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  13. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shengjuan; Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 ; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  14. Cell culture's spider silk road.

    PubMed

    Perkel, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

  15. Humanized Culture of Periosteal Progenitors in Allogeneic Serum Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation and In Vivo Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Helen C.; Tam, Wai Long; Solie, Lien; Van Cromphaut, Sophie J.; Van den Berghe, Greet; Luyten, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    The translation of stem cell-based regenerative solutions from the laboratory to the clinic is often hindered by the culture conditions used to expand cell populations. Although fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used, regulatory bodies and safety concerns encourage alternative, xeno-free culturing practices. In an attempt to apply this approach to a bone-forming combination product of human periosteal progenitors (human periosteum derived cells) on a clinically used calcium phosphate carrier, FBS was substituted for human allogeneic serum (hAS) during cell expansion. It was found that cell proliferation was increased in hAS along with an apparent commitment to the osteogenic lineage, indicated by enhanced Runx2 expression, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Following analysis of signaling pathways, it was found that interferon-mediated signaling was downregulated, whereas JAK-STAT signaling was upregulated. STAT3 phosphorylation was enhanced in hAS-cultured human periosteum derived cells, inhibition of which ablated the proliferative effect of hAS. Furthermore, following in vivo implantation of hAS-cultured cells on NuOss scaffolds, enhanced bone formation was observed compared with FBS (71% increase, p < .001). Interestingly, the de novo-formed bone appeared to have a higher ratio of immature regions to mature regions, indicating that after 8 weeks implantation, tissue-formation processes were continuing. Integration of the implant with the environment appeared to be altered, with a decrease in calcium phosphate grain size and surface area, indicative of accelerated resorption. This study highlights the advantages of using humanized culture conditions for the expansion of human periosteal progenitors intended for bone regeneration. PMID:24375540

  16. Laser Light Induced Photosensitization Of Lymphomas Cells And Normal Bone Marrow Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Nealon, Don G.; VanderMeulen, David L.

    1988-06-01

    Dye mediated, laser light induced photosensitization was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating the contaminating tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Daudi and U-937 cells (3 x 106/ml) in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 0.25% human albumin were mixed with 20 µg/ml and 25 µg/ml of MC-540, respectively. These cell-dye mixtures were then exposed to 514 nm argon laser light. Identical treatment was given to the normal bone marrow cells. Viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 irradiation, 99.9999% Daudi cells were killed while 87% of the normal bone marrow cells survived. No regrowth of Daudi cells was observed for 30 days in culture. However, a light dose of 93.6 J/cm2 was required to obtain 99.999% U-937 cell kill with 80% normal bone marrow cell survival. Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with an equal number of lymphoma cells did not interfere with the photodynamic killing of lymphoma cells. Exposure of cells to low doses of recombinant interferon-alpha prior to photodynamic therapy increased the viability of lymphoma cells.

  17. Effects of flavonoid on calcium content in femoral tissue culture and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Hamamoto, Reiko; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Ishiyama, Kaori

    2007-09-01

    The effect of various flavonoids, which are present in food and plants, on bone calcium content and osteoclastogenesis were investigated to compare action of flavonoid on bone formation and bone resorption in vitro. Rat femoral-diaphyseal (cortical bone) and -metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were cultured for 48 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (high glucose) supplemented with antibiotics and bovine serum albumin. Amoung quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, curcumin, hesperidin, or astaxanthin in the range of 10(-7)-10(-5)M, culture with quercetin (10(-6) or 10(-5)M) caused a significant increase in diaphyseal calcium content. Such an effect was not seen in other compounds. Mouse bone marrow cells were cultured for 7 days in the presence of parathyroid hormone (PTH; 10(-7)M), a bone-resorbing factor, in vitro. Culture with PTH caused a significant increase in osteoclast-like cell formation. This increase was significantly inhibited in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, or curcumin in the range of 10(-8)-10(-6)M. Such an effect was not seen in the case of hesperidin or astaxanthin. In addition, culture with PTH (10(-7)M) caused a significant decrease in diaphyseal calcium content. This decrease was completely prevented in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferal, or isorhamnetin of 10(-6)M. This study demonstrates that various flavonoids have a potent inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption rather than bone formation in vitro. Among various flavonoids, quercetin had a stimulatory effect on bone formation and an inhibitory effect on bone resorption in vitro. PMID:17541507

  18. Oestrogen binding proteins in bone cell cytosol.

    PubMed

    van Paassen, H C; Poortman, J; Borgart-Creutzburg, I H; Thijssen, J H; Duursma, S A

    1978-08-18

    Attempts were made to demonstrate the presence of specific oestrogen binding proteins ("receptors") in bone cells. High speed cytosol preparations of bone were incubated with several concentrations of radioactive oestradiol alone and with radioactive oestradiol in the presence of a specific antioestrogen, Nafoxidine. Separation of bound and free oestradiol was carried out by dextran coated charcoal treatment and by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Several types of bones likely to be oestrogen-sensitive were investigated: human femoral heads, human phalanx, rat and rabbit calvaria, humeri and femora of female rats. In all experiments we were unable to demonstrate the presence of specific oestrogen receptors in bone cell cytosol indicating that the direct effect of oestrogens on bone, if present, is not mediated by specific oestrogen receptors. PMID:709407

  19. Stem Cells in Teeth and Craniofacial Bones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Chai, Y

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells are remarkable, and stem cell-based tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical science aiming to restore damaged tissue or organs. In dentistry and reconstructive facial surgery, it is of great interest to restore lost teeth or craniofacial bone defects using stem cell-mediated therapy. In the craniofacial region, various stem cell populations have been identified with regeneration potential. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge concerning the various types of tooth- and craniofacial bone-related stem cells and discuss their in vivo identities and regulating mechanisms. PMID:26350960

  20. Osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in transplants of Dunn and Ridgway osteosarcoma cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, H.; Urist, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    Dunn osteosarcomas synthesize 2 times more alkaline phosphatase than do Ridgeway osteosarcomas, 3 times more than do HeLa cells, and 4 to 5 times more than do rat or mouse fibroblast cell cultures. Implants of killed freeze-dried Dunn cell cultures into the thigh muscles are resorbed and replaced by normal cartilage, bone, and bone marrow tissue, while implants of freeze-dried Ridgeway cells are resorbed and replaced by fibrous tissue only. Outgrowths of normal muscle septum connective tissue cells onto the stroma of Ridgeway tumors differentiate into fibrous tissue. Cultures of either tumor on a substratum of bone matrix stroma prepared from normal bone proliferate, assume a spherical shape, and perpetuate the transformed osteoblast-like cell without forming attachments or adapting to the contour of the substratum. Outgrwoths of muscle mesenchymal cells on the Dunn tumor stroma differentiate into cartilage. Dunn osteosarcoma cell cultures proliferate on the inside and produce deposits of normal bone (not tumorous bone) on the outside of diffusion chambers. Killed freeze-dried cell cultures produce transfilter deposits of normal bone and bone marrow, but the quantity is significantly lower. On a substratum of cellulose acetate, outgrowths of muscle connective tissue will differentiate into cartilage when cell-free Dunn stroma is present under the organ culture grid. Tumorigenesis and normal cartilage and bone morphodifferentiation are antithetic, but tumor cells transfer a bone morphogen similar to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of normal bone matrix. BMP recruits mesenchymal cells to proliferate and differentiate into cartilage and bone. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:274082

  1. Unique and reliable rat model for the assessment of cell therapy: bone union in the rat mandibular symphysis using bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yagyuu, Takahiro; Kirita, Tadaaki; Hattori, Koji; Tadokoro, Mika; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Many kinds of bone graft materials have been developed and reported to repair various bone defects. The defects are usually created by surgical resection of pre-existing bone tissue. However, spontaneous healing of bone defects without implantation of materials could be seen, because bone tissue possesses inherent repairing property. The central portion of the lower jaw bone in many animals consists of fibrous tissue and is called the mandibular symphysis. It persists even in old animals and thus can be interpreted as a physiological bone gap or a non-healing bone defect. We implanted calcium phosphate porous ceramics alone or composites of the ceramics and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into the bone defect (mandibular symphysis) to examine whether it could be filled with new bone tissue, resulting in bone union. Eight weeks after implantation, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological and biomechanical analyses demonstrated that bone union of the mandibles occurred in all rats with composites but in none of those with ceramics alone. These results showed that the rat mandibular symphysis is a unique bone defect site for the evaluation of bone graft materials. These analyses demonstrated that ceramics alone could not contribute to bone healing in the defect; however, supplementation with BMSCs drastically changed the properties of the ceramics (turning them into osteogenic ceramics), which completely healed the defect. As BMSCs can be culture-expanded using small amounts of bone marrow, the use of the composites might have clinical significance for the reconstruction of various bone tissues, including facial bone. PMID:23255518

  2. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling. PMID:26247020

  3. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto . E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  4. Stem cells and bone: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Bone physiology and stem cells were tightly intertwined with one another, both conceptually and experimentally, long before the current explosion of interest in stem cells and so-called regenerative medicine. Bone is home to the two best known and best characterized systems of postnatal stem cells, and it is the only organ in which two stem cells and their dependent lineages coordinate the overall adaptive responses of two major physiological systems. All along, the nature and the evolutionary significance of the interplay of bone and hematopoiesis have remained a major scientific challenge, but also allowed for some of the most spectacular developments in cell biology-based medicine, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This question recurs in novel forms at multiple turning points over time: today, it finds in the biology of the "niche" its popular phrasing. Entirely new avenues of investigation emerge as a new view of bone in physiology and medicine is progressively established. Looking at bone and stem cells in a historical perspective provides a unique case study to highlight the general evolution of science in biomedicine since the end of World War II to the present day. A paradigm shift in science and in its relation to society and policies occurred in the second half of the XXth century, with major implications thereof for health, industry, drug development, market and society. Current interest in stem cells in bone as in other fields is intertwined with that shift. New opportunities and also new challenges arise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem cells and bone". PMID:25171959

  5. Human placenta and bone marrow derived MSC cultured in serum-free, b-FGF-containing medium express cell surface frizzled-9 and SSEA-4 and give rise to multilineage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Battula, Venkata Lokesh; Bareiss, Petra M; Treml, Sabrina; Conrad, Sabine; Albert, Ingrid; Hojak, Sigrid; Abele, Harald; Schewe, Bernhard; Just, Lothar; Skutella, Thomas; Bühring, Hans-Jörg

    2007-04-01

    Conventionally, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are generated by plating cells from bone marrow (BM) or other sources into culture flasks and selecting plastic-adherent cells with fibroblastoid morphology. These cells express CD9, CD10, CD13, CD73, CD105, CD166, and other markers but show only a weak or no expression of the embryonic markers stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), Oct-4 and nanog-3. Using a novel protocol we prepared MSC from BM and non-amniotic placenta (PL) by culture of Ficoll-selected cells in gelatin-coated flasks in the presence of a serum-free, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF)-containing medium that was originally designed for the expansion of human embryonic stem cells (ESC). MSC generated in gelatin-coated flasks in the presence of ESC medium revealed a four-to fivefold higher proliferation rate than conventionally prepared MSC which were grown in uncoated flasks in serum-containing medium. In contrast, the colony forming unit fibroblast number was only 1.5- to twofold increased in PL-MSC and not affected in BM-MSC. PL-MSC grown in ESC medium showed an increased surface expression of SSEA-4 and frizzled-9 (FZD-9), an increased Oct-4 and nestin mRNA expression, and an induced expression of nanog-3. BM-MSC showed an induced expression of FZD-9, nanog-3, and Oct-4. In contrast to PL-MSC, only BM-MSC expressed the MSC-specific W8B2 antigen. When cultured under appropriate conditions, these MSC gave rise to functional adipocytes and osteoblast-like cells (mesoderm), glucagon and insulin expressing pancreatic-like cells (endoderm), as well as cells expressing the neuronal markers neuron-specific enolase, glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD), or class III beta-tubulin, and the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (ectoderm). In conclusion, using a novel protocol we demonstrate that adult BM-and neonatal PL-derived MSC can be induced to express high levels of FZD-9, Oct-4, nanog-3, and nestin and are able of multi-lineage differentiation. PMID:17288545

  6. Curcumin analog UBS109 prevents bone marrow osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis disordered by coculture with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Zhu, Shijun; Weitzmann, M Neale; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru

    2015-03-01

    UBS109 is a curcumin analog that possesses antitumor properties has been shown to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. This study was undertaken to determine whether UBS109 might alleviate the inhibitory activity of breast cancer cells on osteoblastic mineralization and stimulatory effects on osteoclastogenesis. Mouse bone marrow cells were cocultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells in vitro. UBS109 stimulated osteoblastic mineralization and suppressed adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture. Coculture with MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed osteoblastic mineralization and enhanced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture. Effects that were reserved by UBS109 (50-200 nM). Mineralization in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was suppressed by coculture with MDA-MB-231 cells, while MDA-MB-231 cells did not have effects on osteoclastogenesis of RAW267.4 cells in vitro. UBS109 (500 nM) revealed toxic effects on MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells. This study demonstrates that UBS109, which is an antitumor agent, reveals restorative effects on bone marrow cell differentiation disordered by coculture with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells in vitro. This in vitro model may be a useful tool to evaluate the mechanism of breast cancer cell bone metastasis. PMID:25416449

  7. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. )

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  8. Stem cell mechanobiology: diverse lessons from bone marrow

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    Stem cell mechanobiology: diverse lessons from bone marrow Irena L. Ivanovska, Jae-Won Shin, Joe in stem cell biology, with a particular focus on bone marrow stem and progenitor cells. Influence of matrix mechanics on differentiation of bone marrow cells Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute

  9. T cells stimulate catabolic gene expression by the stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Robert W.; Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 ; Ghert, Michelle; Department of Surgery, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 ; Singh, Gurmit; Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two T cell lines stimulate PTHrP, RANKL, MMP13 gene expression in GCT cell cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD40 expressed by stromal cells; CD40L detected in whole tumor but not cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of CD40L treatment on GCT cells increased PTHrP and MMP13 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTHrP treatment increased MMP13 expression, while inhibition decreased expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells may stimulate GCT stromal cells and promote the osteolysis of the tumor. -- Abstract: The factors that promote the localized bone resorption by giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) are not fully understood. We investigated whether T cells could contribute to bone resorption by stimulating expression of genes for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and the receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Two cell lines, Jurkat clone E6-1 and D1.1, were co-cultured with isolated GCT stromal cells. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated a significant increase of all three genes following 48 h incubation, and PTHrP and MMP-13 gene expression was also increased at 24 h. Further, we examined the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a protein expressed by activated T cells, and its receptor, CD40, in GCT. Immunohistochemistry results revealed expression of the CD40 receptor in both the stromal cells and giant cells of the tumor. RNA collected from whole GCT tissues showed expression of CD40LG, which was absent in cultured stromal cells, and suggests that CD40L is expressed within GCT. Stimulation of GCT stromal cells with CD40L significantly increased expression of the PTHrP and MMP-13 genes. Moreover, we show that inhibition of PTHrP with neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased MMP13 expression by the stromal cells compared to IgG-matched controls, whereas stimulation with PTHrP (1-34) increased MMP-13 gene expression. These results suggest that T cells may potentiate the catabolic effect of GCT.

  10. Advances in tissue engineering through stem cell-based co-culture

    E-print Network

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    are the future in tissue engineering and regeneration. In a co-culture, stem cells not only provide a target cell, bone, heart, vasculature, lung, kidney, liver and nerve. A concise review of the progress

  11. Hairy Cell Leukemia and Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Streu, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a relatively rare but distinct B-cell lympho-proliferative disorder of the blood, bone marrow, and spleen that accounts for only 2% of all adult leukemia cases. The median age at presentation is 50-55 years, with a 4:1 male to female predominance. Although considered uncommon, a number of unusual clinical presentations have been noted in the literature, including the presence of peripheral lymphadenopathy, lytic bone lesions, skin involvement, organ involvement, and central nervous system involvement. Unlike the clinical management of other hematologic malignancies, no current system is used to stage hairy cell leukemia. PMID:26679440

  12. Bone regeneration using coculture of mesenchymal stem cells and angiogenic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Ling; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.; Pan, Ju-Li; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Chen, Su

    2014-03-01

    Cellular strategies remain a crucial component in bone tissue engineering (BTE). So far, the outcome of cell-based strategies from initial clinical trials is far behind compared to animal studies, which is suggested to be related to insufficient nutrient and oxygen supply inside the tissue-engineered constructs. Cocultures, by introducing angiogenic cells into osteogenic cell cultures, might provide a solution for improving vascularization and hence increasing bone formation for cell-based constructs. So far, pre-clinical studies demonstrated that cocultures enhance vascularization and bone formation compared to monocultures. However, there has been no report on the application of cocultures in clinics. Therefore, this mini-review aims to provide an overview regarding (i) critical parameters in cocultures and the outcomes of cocultures compared to monocultures in the currently available pre-clinical studies using human mesenchymal stem cells implanted in orthotopic animal models; and (ii) the usage of monocultures in clinical application in BTE.

  13. Development of collagen/demineralized bone powder scaffolds and periosteum-derived cells for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Thitiset, Thakoon; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Bunaprasert, Tanom; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physical and biological properties of collagen (COL) and demineralized bone powder (DBP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. DBP was prepared and divided into three groups, based on various particle sizes: 75-125 µm, 125-250 µm, and 250-500 µm. DBP was homogeneously mixed with type I collagen and three-dimensional scaffolds were constructed, applying chemical crosslinking and lyophilization. Upon culture with human periosteum-derived cells (PD cells), osteogenic differentiation of PD cells was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium assay kits. The physical properties of the COL/DBP scaffolds were obviously different from COL scaffolds, irrespective of the size of DBP. In addition, PD cells cultured with COL scaffolds showed significantly higher cell adhesion and proliferation than those with COL/DBP scaffolds. In contrast, COL/DBP scaffolds exhibited greater osteoinductive potential than COL scaffolds. The PD cells with COL/DBP scaffolds possessed higher ALP activity than those with COL scaffolds. PD cells cultured with COL/DBP scaffolds with 250-500 mm particle size yielded the maximum calcium deposition. In conclusion, PD cells cultured on the scaffolds could exhibit osteoinductive potential. The composite scaffold of COL/DBP with 250-500 mm particle size could be considered a potential bone tissue engineering implant. PMID:23337204

  14. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into type II alveolar epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Gai, Hui; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fang-Bao; Bao, Chun-Rong; Nguyen, David M; Zhong, Hong

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that BMSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) can be successfully differentiated into type II alveolar epithelial cells in vitro under mimic pulmonary microenvironment. BMSCs were co-cultured with MRC-5 cells in modified SAGM (small airway growth medium). The BMSC-derived type II alveolar epithelial cells morphologically resemble human lung epithelial cells. They began to appear after 10 days in co-culture and became morphologically dominant after day 15. Correspondingly, SPC (surfactant protein C), a specific functional marker of human type II alveolar epithelial cells, was detected in differentiated cells by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis after day 15. Immunostaining analysis revealed the present of scattered SPC-positive cells with a differentiation efficiency of 2.43-4.21%. Our study further showed that the SPC gene expression level in differentiated cells was related to the ratio of BMSCs to MRC-5 cells and the components of modified SAGM. PMID:21542803

  16. Recent highlights on bone stem cells: a report from Bone Stem Cells 2009, and not only….

    PubMed

    Cenni, Elisabetta; Perut, Francesca; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Fiorentini, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells has opened new prospects for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions characterized by large bone defects. However, many issues still exist to which answers are needed before routine, large-scale application becomes possible. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which are clonogenic, multipotential precursors present in the bone marrow stroma, are generally employed for bone regeneration. Stem cells with multilineage differentiation similar to MSC have also been demonstrated in adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Each source presents its own advantages and drawbacks. Unfortunately, no unique surface antigen is expressed by MSC, and this hampers simple MSC enrichment from heterogeneous populations. MSC are identified through a combination of physical, morphological and functional assays. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been described for the research on bone stem cells. These models should predict the in vivo bone healing capacity of MSC and if the induced osteogenesis is similar to the physiological one. Although stem cells offer an exciting possibility of a renewable source of cells and tissues for replacement, orthopaedic applications often represent case reports whereas controlled randomized trials are still lacking. Further biological aspects of bone stem cells should be elucidated and a general consensus on the best models, protocols and proper use of scaffolds and growth factors should be achieved. PMID:20874718

  17. Murine stromal cells counteract the loss of long-term culture-initiating cell potential induced by cytokines in CD34(+)CD38(low/neg) human bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Tourino, C; Izac, B; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1999-07-15

    Evidence has been provided recently that shows that high concentrations of cytokines can fulfill functions previously attributed to stromal cells, such as promote the survival of, and led to a net increase in human primitive progenitors initiating long-term cultures in vitro (LTC-IC) or engrafting NOD-SCID (nonobese diabetic severe-combined immunodeficient) recipients in vivo. These data prompted us to re-evaluate whether stromal cells will further alter the properties of primitive progenitor cells exposed to cytokines. Single CD34(+)CD38(low) and CD38(neg) cells were incubated 10 days in serum-containing or serum-free medium in the presence or in the absence of murine marrow-derived stromal cells (MS-5). Recombinant human cytokines stem cell factor (SCF), pegylated-megakaryocyte growth and differentiation factor (PEG-MGDF), FLT3-L, Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were systematically added at various concentrations (10 to 300 ng/mL). Cell proliferation and LTC-IC potential were evaluated in each clone after 10 days. A striking and consistent observation was the retention of a high LTC-IC potential in clones exposed to cytokines in the presence of stromal feeders, whereas clones exposed to cytokines alone in the absence of stromal feeders rapidly lost their LTC-IC potential as they proliferated. This was reflected both by the higher proportion of wells containing LTC-IC and by the high numbers of CFC produced after 5 weeks in clones grown with MS-5 during the first 10 days. We further showed by analyzing multiple replicates of a single clone at day 10 that MS-5 cells promoted a net increase in the LTC-IC compartment through self-renewal divisions. Interestingly, these primitive LTC-IC were equally distributed among small and large clones, as counted at day 10, indicating that active proliferation and loss of LTC-IC potential could be dissociated. These observations show that, in primitive cells, stromal cells counteract differentiation events triggered by cytokines and promoted self-renewal divisions. Furthermore, the almost identical distribution of the size of the clones with or without MS-5 suggests that proliferation and function of human primitive cells may be independently regulated by external signals, and that the former is primarily under the control of cytokines. PMID:10397720

  18. Native multipotential stromal cell colonization and graft expander potential of a bovine natural bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kouroupis, Dimitrios; Baboolal, Thomas G; Jones, Elena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-12-01

    Graft expanders are bone scaffolds used, in combination with autografts, to fill large bone defects in trauma surgery. This study investigates the graft expander potential of a natural bone substitute Orthoss by studying its ability to support attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring multipotential stromal cells (MSCs). Material consisting of bone marrow (BM) aspirate and reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA)-harvested autograft bone was co-cultured with commercially available Orthoss granules. Native MSCs attached to Orthoss were expanded and phenotypically characterized. MSCs egress from neighboring cancelous bone was assessed in 3D Matrigel co-cultures. MSC differentiation was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity per cell. CD45(+) hematopoietic lineage cells and highly proliferative CD90(+) CD73(+) CD105(+) MSCs preferentially colonized Orthoss granules, over RIA bone chips. MSC colonization was followed by their intrinsic osteogenic differentiation, assessed as mineral deposition and gradual rise in ALP activity, even in the absence of osteogenic stimuli. When in contact with mixed cell populations and RIA chips, Orthoss granules support the attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring MSCs. Therefore, natural bone substitutes similar to Orthoss can be used as void fillers and graft expanders for repairing large bone defects in conjunction with autologous BM aspirates and autografts. PMID:23868185

  19. Boning up on Wolff's Law: Mechanical regulation of the cells that make and maintain bone

    E-print Network

    You, Lidan

    a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Accepted 21 August 2009 Keywords: Osteocyte Osteoprogenitor players in bone mechanobiology: osteocytes, the putative primary mechanosensors in intact bone by the cells in bone: osteocytes, the putative mechanosensors; osteoblasts that deposit bone matrix

  20. Engineering tubular bone using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Ma, Dongyang; Yan, Xingrong; Liu, Liangqi; Cui, Jihong; Xie, Xin; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: • We developed a novel engineering strategy to solve the limitations of bone grafts. • We fabricated tubular constructs using cell sheets and coral particles. • The composite constructs showed high radiological density and compressive strength. • These characteristics were similar to those of native bone. -- Abstract: The development of bone tissue engineering has provided new solutions for bone defects. However, the cell-scaffold-based approaches currently in use have several limitations, including low cell seeding rates and poor bone formation capacity. In the present study, we developed a novel strategy to engineer bone grafts using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles. Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were continuously cultured to form a cell sheet with osteogenic potential and coral particles were integrated into the sheet. The composite sheet was then wrapped around a cylindrical mandrel to fabricate a tubular construct. The resultant tubular construct was cultured in a spinner-flask bioreactor and subsequently implanted into a subcutaneous pocket in a nude mouse for assessment of its histological characteristics, radiological density and mechanical property. A similar construct assembled from a cell sheet alone acted as a control. In vitro observations demonstrated that the composite construct maintained its tubular shape, and exhibited higher radiological density, compressive strength and greater extracellular matrix deposition than did the control construct. In vivo experiments further revealed that new bone formed ectopically on the composite constructs, so that the 8-week explants of the composite sheets displayed radiological density similar to that of native bone. These results indicate that the strategy of using a combination of a cell sheet and coral particles has great potential for bone tissue engineering and repairing bone defects.

  1. Identification of a hypoxic population of bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Allalunis, M.J.; Chapman, J.D.; Turner, A.R.

    1983-02-01

    A technique using collagenase has been devised to release and separate, with reproducibility, hematopoietic cells (HC) from various microenvironments of mouse femurs. HC were assayed by an in vitro gel culture technique used traditionally to score granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (CFU-C). CFU-C which resided in the medullary cavity and endosteal regions were sensitive to ionizing radiation and resistant to misonidazole (MISO) cytotoxicity. CFU-C which resided within the compact bone were resistant to ionizing radiation and sensitive to the cytotoxic action of MISO. These results suggest that HC which reside in the bone are hypoxic and retain clonogenic potential. When animals were exposed to various treatments with MISO followed by myelotoxic doses of cyclophosphamide (CTX) or total body irradiation (TBI), the LD/sub 50/ of both agents was significantly reduced. This result suggests that a hypoxic component of HC could be important in the regenerative process within the marrow after such myelotoxic trauma.

  2. Dorsal root ganglion neurons promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei-xun; Jiang, Xiao-rui; Wang, Lei; Chen, Fang-min; Xu, Lin; Huang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary animal experiments have confirmed that sensory nerve fibers promote osteoblast differentiation, but motor nerve fibers have no promotion effect. Whether sensory neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains unclear. No results at the cellular level have been reported. In this study, dorsal root ganglion neurons (sensory neurons) from Sprague-Dawley fetal rats were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with green fluorescent protein 3 weeks after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, while osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells served as the control group. The rat dorsal root ganglion neurons promoted the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts at 3 and 5 days of co-culture, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The levels of mRNAs for osteogenic differentiation-related factors (including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2) in the co-culture group were higher than those in the control group, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Our findings indicate that dorsal root ganglion neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which provides a theoretical basis for in vitro experiments aimed at constructing tissue-engineered bone. PMID:25788931

  3. Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast culture in biodegradable polymer scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishaug, S. L.; Crane, G. M.; Miller, M. J.; Yasko, A. W.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Bone formation was investigated in vitro by culturing stromal osteoblasts in three-dimensional (3-D), biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams. Three polymer foam pore sizes, ranging from 150-300, 300-500, and 500-710 microns, and two different cell seeding densities, 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 and 22.1 x 10(5) cells/cm2, were examined over a 56-day culture period. The polymer foams supported the proliferation of seeded osteoblasts as well as their differentiated function, as demonstrated by high alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a mineralized matrix by the cells. Cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition increased significantly over time for all the polymer foams. Osteoblast foam constructs created by seeding 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 on foams with 300-500 microns pores resulted in a cell density of 4.63 x 10(5) cells/cm2 after 1 day in culture; they had alkaline phosphatase activities of 4.28 x 10(-7) and 2.91 x 10(-6) mumol/cell/min on Days 7 and 28, respectively; and they had a cell density that increased to 18.7 x 10(5) cells/cm2 by Day 56. For the same constructs, the mineralized matrix reached a maximum penetration depth of 240 microns from the top surface of the foam and a value of 0.083 mm for mineralized tissue volume per unit of cross sectional area. Seeding density was an important parameter for the constructs, but pore size over the range tested did not affect cell proliferation or function. This study suggests the feasibility of using poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams as scaffolding materials for the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue.

  4. Cell Cycle Related Differentiation of Bone Marrow Cells into Lung Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dooner, Mark; Aliotta, Jason M.; Pimental, Jeffrey; Dooner, Gerri J.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Colvin, Gerald; Liu, Qin; Weier, Heinz-Ulli; Dooner, Mark S.; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2007-12-31

    Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow cells transplanted into lethally irradiated mice can be detected in the lungs of transplanted mice and have been shown to express lung specific proteins while lacking the expression of hematopoietic markers. We have studied marrow cells induced to transit cell cycle by exposure to IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 and steel factor at different times of culture corresponding to different phases of cell cycle. We have found that marrow cells at the G1/S interface have a 3-fold increase in cells which assume a lung phenotype and that this increase is no longer seen in late S/G2. These cells have been characterized as GFP{sup +} CD45{sup -} and GFP{sup +} cytokeratin{sup +}. Thus marrow cells with the capacity to convert into cells with a lung phenotype after transplantation show a reversible increase with cytokine induced cell cycle transit. Previous studies have shown the phenotype of bone marrow stem cells fluctuates reversibly as these cells traverse cell cycle, leading to a continuum model of stem cell regulation. The present studies indicate that marrow stem cell production of nonhematopoietic cells also fluctuates on a continuum.

  5. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  6. The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Desales

    1989-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

  7. Cell sheet-engineered bones used for the reconstruction of mandibular defects in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    DU, CHUNHUA; YAO, CHAO; LI, NINGYI; WANG, SHUANGYI; FENG, YUANYONG; YANG, XUECAI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the generation of cell sheet-engineered bones used for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured and induced to generate osteoblasts. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds were wrapped with or without cell sheets and then implanted into dogs with mandibular defects in the right side (experimental group) or the left side (control group), respectively. Subsequently, X-ray analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed at various time points (at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks post-implantation; n=4 at each time point). The osteogenesis in the experimental group was significantly improved compared with that in the control group. At 16 weeks after implantation, numerous Haversian systems and a few lamellar bones were observed at the periphery. In the control group, the engineered bone (without BMSC sheets) presented fewer Haversian systems and no lamellar bones. The optical density of the fresh bone in the experimental group was significantly higher compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, tissue-engineered bone with the structure of lamellar bones can be generated using BMSC sheets and implantation of these bones had an improved effects compared with the control group. Cell sheet transplantation was found to enhance bone formation at the reconstruction site of the mandibular defects. PMID:26668619

  8. Co-cultured tissue-specific scaffolds for tendon/bone interface engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bumgardner, Joel D; Cole, Judith A; Smith, Richard A; Haggard, Warren O

    2014-01-01

    The tendon/ligament-to-bone interface has a complex organization to enable transfer of forces through the tendon/ligament to the bone. The purpose of this study is to create a co-culture environment enabling a tissue-specific tendon region and tissue-specific bone region on a degradable scaffold, using NIH 3T3 fibroblast–deposited extracellular matrix and MC 3T3 osteoblast–deposited extracellular matrix, respectively. Before full characterization of the deposited extracellular matrix coating can be analyzed, co-culture parameters including culture medium and seeding technique should be addressed. An appropriate medium formulation was developed to reduce fibroblast to osteoblast mineralization by adjusting beta-glycerophosphate concentrations. Standard growth medium with fetal bovine serum + 3 mM beta-glycerophosphate + 25 µg/mL ascorbic acid was found to be the most suitable formulation evaluated in these study conditions. Seeding and cell migration studies of co-cultured fibroblast- and osteoblast-specific scaffolds were performed to identify whether tissue regions could be created on the scaffold. Fibroblast and osteoblast regions were successfully seeded and little to no cell migration was observed up to 42 h after seeding. Finally, a preliminary analysis of basic extracellular matrix components was measured in the fibroblast, osteoblast, and transition regions. Tissue-specific DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen were found in uniform amounts on the scaffolds and were not different significantly between scaffold regions. In conclusion, initial steps to create tissue-specific fibroblast and osteoblast regions on a degradable scaffold were successful in preparation for further characterization investigations as a tendon-to-bone interface scaffold. PMID:25383167

  9. Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eick, J. David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R.; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A.; Miller, Bradley D.; Kilway, Kathleen V.; Dallas, Mark R.; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8–2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer. PMID:22278990

  10. Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eick, J David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A; Miller, Bradley D; Kilway, Kathleen V; Dallas, Mark R; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2012-04-01

    Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8-2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer. PMID:22278990

  11. Dissecting the role of bone marrow stromal cells on bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Denise; Park, Serk In; Sterling, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-induced bone disease is a dynamic process that involves interactions with many cell types. Once metastatic cancer cells reach the bone, they are in contact with many different cell types that are present in the cell-rich bone marrow. These cells include the immune cells, myeloid cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells. Each of these cell populations can influence the behavior or gene expression of both the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. Additionally, the tumor itself can alter the behavior of these bone marrow cells which further alters both the microenvironment and the tumor cells. While many groups focus on studying these interactions, much remains unknown. A better understanding of the interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment will improve our knowledge on how tumors establish in bone and may lead to improvements in diagnosing and treating bone metastases. This review details our current knowledge on the interactions between tumor cells that reside in bone and their microenvironment. PMID:25054153

  12. TGF-?1 regulates differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longmei; Hantash, Basil M

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are a small population of stromal cells present in most adult connective tissues, such as bone marrow, fat tissue, and umbilical cord blood. MSCs are maintained in a relative state of quiescence in vivo but, in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli, are capable of proliferating then differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, or other mesoderm-type lineages like smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and cardiomyocytes. Multiple signaling networks orchestrate MSCs differentiating into functional mesenchymal lineages. Among these, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has emerged as a key player. Hence, we summarize the effects of TGF-?1 on differentiation of MSCs toward different lineages. TGF-?1 can induce either chondrogenic or SMC differentiation of MSCs in vitro. However, it requires cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, similar to development of these tissues in vivo. The effect of TGF-?1-regulated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro depends on the specific culture conditions involved. TGF-?1 inhibits adipogenic differentiation of MSCs in monolayer culture. Using this information, we may optimize the culture conditions to differentiate MSCs into desired lineages. PMID:22127241

  13. Bone Repair Cells for Craniofacial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pagni, G; Kaigler, D; Rasperini, G; Avila-Ortiz, G; Bartel, R; Giannobile, WV

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex craniofacial deformities is a clinical challenge in situations of injury, congenital defects or disease. The use of cell-based therapies represents one of the most advanced methods for enhancing the regenerative response for craniofacial wound healing. Both Somatic and Stem Cells have been adopted in the treatment of complex osseous defects and advances have been made in finding the most adequate scaffold for the delivery of cell therapies in human regenerative medicine. As an example of such approaches for clinical application for craniofacial regeneration, Ixmyelocel-T or bone repair cells are a source of bone marrow derived stem and progenitor cells. They are produced through the use of single pass perfusion bioreactors for CD90+ mesenchymal stem cells and CD14+ monocyte/macrophage progenitor cells. The application of ixmyelocel-T has shown potential in the regeneration of muscular, vascular, nervous and osseous tissue. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight cell therapies used to repair bony and soft tissue defects in the oral and craniofacial complex. The field at this point remains at an early stage, however this review will provide insights into the progress being made using cell therapies for eventual development into clinical practice. PMID:22433781

  14. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  15. Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Tri-Culture Model of the Bone Marrow Microenvironment for Study of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Allison; Evans, Rebecca; Mezan, Ryan; Shi, Lin; Moses, Blake S.; Martin, Karen H.; Gibson, Laura F.; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) initiates and progresses in the bone marrow, and as such, the marrow microenvironment is a critical regulatory component in development of this cancer. However, ALL studies were conducted mainly on flat plastic substrates, which do not recapitulate the characteristics of marrow microenvironments. To study ALL in a model of in vivo relevance, we have engineered a 3-D microfluidic cell culture platform. Biologically relevant populations of primary human bone marrow stromal cells, osteoblasts and human leukemic cells representative of an aggressive phenotype were encapsulated in 3-D collagen matrix as the minimal constituents and cultured in a microfluidic platform. The matrix stiffness and fluidic shear stress were controlled in a physiological range. The 3-D microfluidic as well as 3-D static models demonstrated coordinated cell-cell interactions between these cell types compared to the compaction of the 2-D static model. Tumor cell viability in response to an antimetabolite chemotherapeutic agent, cytarabine in tumor cells alone and tri-culture models for 2-D static, 3-D static and 3-D microfluidic models were compared. The present study showed decreased chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity of leukemic cells in 3-D tri-culture models from the 2-D models. The results indicate that the bone marrow microenvironment plays a protective role in tumor cell survival during drug treatment. The engineered 3-D microfluidic tri-culture model enables systematic investigation of effects of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions on cancer progression and therapeutic intervention in a controllable manner, thus improving our limited comprehension of the role of microenvironmental signals in cancer biology. PMID:26488876

  16. 3D Porous Calcium-Alginate Scaffolds Cell Culture System Improved Human Osteoblast Cell Clusters for Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Yun; Ke, Cherng-Jyh; Yen, Ko-Chung; Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Age-related orthopedic disorders and bone defects have become a critical public health issue, and cell-based therapy is potentially a novel solution for issues surrounding bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Long-term cultures of primary bone cells exhibit phenotypic and functional degeneration; therefore, culturing cells or tissues suitable for clinical use remain a challenge. A platform consisting of human osteoblasts (hOBs), calcium-alginate (Ca-Alginate) scaffolds, and a self-made bioreactor system was established for autologous transplantation of human osteoblast cell clusters. The Ca-Alginate scaffold facilitated the growth and differentiation of human bone cell clusters, and the functionally-closed process bioreactor system supplied the soluble nutrients and osteogenic signals required to maintain the cell viability. This system preserved the proliferative ability of cells and cell viability and up-regulated bone-related gene expression and biological apatite crystals formation. The bone-like tissue generated could be extracted by removal of calcium ions via ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation, and exhibited a size suitable for injection. The described strategy could be used in therapeutic application and opens new avenues for surgical interventions to correct skeletal defects. PMID:25825603

  17. Cell culture compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

    2014-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  18. PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism Beata of bone homeostasis and energy metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent regulating systemic energy homeostasis. In this article, we review current knowledge on the role of PPARs

  19. Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein Promotes Bone Regeneration by Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu

    2015-01-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP)-3 is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The present study investigated the effects sFRP-3 on osteogenic differentiation by assessing osteogenic gene expression in hMSCs in vitro and by examining bone regeneration in a rat bone defect model. sFRP-3 treatment induced osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs as determined by alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 gene expression. hMSCs with or without sFRP-3 were implanted into a rat calvarial bone defect; a radiographic analysis by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis 4 and 8 weeks after implantation showed greater bone regeneration in the sFRP(+) than in the sFRP(?) group. These results suggest that modulation of Wnt signaling contributes to osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs. Specifically, sFRP-3 induces osteoblastic differentiation of cultured MSCs and bone regeneration in a calvarial bone defect, suggesting that it can be a useful agent for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:26404242

  20. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  1. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

    1987-11-01

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Connecting Mechanics and Bone Cell Activities in the Bone Remodeling Process: An Integrated Finite Element Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain–damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.’s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone adaptation. The proposed FEM model gives insight into how bone cells adapt their architecture to the mechanical and biological environment. PMID:25152881

  3. Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting. PMID:12567137

  4. Cartilage Repair With Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Mera, Hisashi; Itokazu, Maki; Hashimoto, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials of various procedures, including bone marrow stimulation, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation, have been explored to treat articular cartilage defects. However, all of them have some demerits. We focused on autologous culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), which can proliferate without losing their capacity for differentiation. First, we transplanted BMSC into the defective articular cartilage of rabbit and succeeded in regenerating osteochondral tissue. We then applied this transplantation in humans. Our previous reports showed that treatment with BMSC relieves the clinical symptoms of chondral defects in the knee and elbow joint. We investigated the efficacy of BMSC for osteoarthritic knee treated with high tibial osteotomy, by comparing 12 BMSC-transplanted patients with 12 cell-free patients. At 16-month follow-up, although the difference in clinical improvement between both groups was not significant, the arthroscopic and histological grading score was better in the cell-transplanted group. At the over 10-year follow-up, Hospital for Special Surgery knee scores improved to 76 and 73 in the BMSC-transplanted and cell-free groups, respectively, which were better than preoperative scores. Additionally, neither tumors nor infections were observed in all patients, and in the clinical study, we have never observed hypertrophy of repaired tissue, thereby guaranteeing the clinical safety of this therapy. Although we have never observed calcification above the tidemark in rabbit model and human histologically, the repair cartilage was not completely hyaline cartilage. To elucidate the optimum conditions for cell therapy, other stem cells, culture conditions, growth factors, and gene transfection methods should be explored. PMID:26069698

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Functional Bone Tissue Engineering: Lessons from Bone Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Bodle, Josephine C.; Hanson, Ariel D.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the current and significant work in the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in functional bone tissue engineering framed through the bone mechanobiology perspective. Over a century of work on the principles of bone mechanosensitivity is now being applied to our understanding of bone development. We are just beginning to harness that potential using stem cells in bone tissue engineering. ASC are the primary focus of this review due to their abundance and relative ease of accessibility for autologous procedures. This article outlines the current knowledge base in bone mechanobiology to investigate how the knowledge from this area has been applied to the various stem cell-based approaches to engineering bone tissue constructs. Specific emphasis is placed on the use of human ASC for this application. PMID:21338267

  6. Investigation of In Vitro Bone Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Ti Using Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 µA, were used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell-materials interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 µA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 µA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell-materials interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model. PMID:23144532

  7. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients. PMID:26535661

  8. Cell-tethered ligands modulate bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Rebecca S.; Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Harwood, Benjamin; Subramanian, Balajikarthick; Quinn, Kyle P.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kopin, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to establish an in vitro co-culture model of osteoblast and osteoclast function and to quantify the resulting bone remodeling. The bone is tissue engineered using well-defined silk protein biomaterials in 2D and 3D formats in combination with human cells expressing tethered agonists for selected G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The tethered constructs are introduced with the objective of triggering sustained and localized GPCR signaling. The cell-modified biomaterial surfaces are reconstructed from SEM images into 3D models using image processing for quantitative measurement of surface characteristics. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are selected because of their roles in bone remodeling for expression in tethered format on bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Increased calcium deposition and increased surface roughness are found in 3D digital surface models constructed from SEM images of silk protein films remodeled by the co-cultures containing the tethered PTH, and decreased surface roughness is found for the films remodeled by the tethered GIP co-cultures. Increased surface roughness is not found in monocultures of hMSCs expressing tethered PTH, suggesting that osteoclast-osteoblast interactions in the presence of PTH signaling are responsible for the increased mineralization. These data point towards the design of in vitro bone models in which osteoblast-osteoclast interactions are mimicked for a better understanding of bone remodeling. PMID:25419210

  9. Specific bone cells produce DLL4 to generate thymus-seeding progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vionnie W.C.; Saez, Borja; Cook, Colleen; Lotinun, Sutada; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Wang, Ying-Hua; Lymperi, Stefania; Ferraro, Francesca; Raaijmakers, Marc H.G.P.; Wu, Joy Y.; Zhou, Lan; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Baron, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Production of the cells that ultimately populate the thymus to generate ?/? T cells has been controversial, and their molecular drivers remain undefined. Here, we report that specific deletion of bone-producing osteocalcin (Ocn)-expressing cells in vivo markedly reduces T-competent progenitors and thymus-homing receptor expression among bone marrow hematopoietic cells. Decreased intrathymic T cell precursors and decreased generation of mature T cells occurred despite normal thymic function. The Notch ligand DLL4 is abundantly expressed on bone marrow Ocn+ cells, and selective depletion of DLL4 from these cells recapitulated the thymopoietic abnormality. These data indicate that specific mesenchymal cells in bone marrow provide key molecular drivers enforcing thymus-seeding progenitor generation and thereby directly link skeletal biology to the production of T cell–based adaptive immunity. PMID:25918341

  10. Specific bone cells produce DLL4 to generate thymus-seeding progenitors from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vionnie W C; Saez, Borja; Cook, Colleen; Lotinun, Sutada; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Wang, Ying-Hua; Lymperi, Stefania; Ferraro, Francesca; Raaijmakers, Marc H G P; Wu, Joy Y; Zhou, Lan; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Kronenberg, Henry M; Baron, Roland; Scadden, David T

    2015-05-01

    Production of the cells that ultimately populate the thymus to generate ?/? T cells has been controversial, and their molecular drivers remain undefined. Here, we report that specific deletion of bone-producing osteocalcin (Ocn)-expressing cells in vivo markedly reduces T-competent progenitors and thymus-homing receptor expression among bone marrow hematopoietic cells. Decreased intrathymic T cell precursors and decreased generation of mature T cells occurred despite normal thymic function. The Notch ligand DLL4 is abundantly expressed on bone marrow Ocn(+) cells, and selective depletion of DLL4 from these cells recapitulated the thymopoietic abnormality. These data indicate that specific mesenchymal cells in bone marrow provide key molecular drivers enforcing thymus-seeding progenitor generation and thereby directly link skeletal biology to the production of T cell-based adaptive immunity. PMID:25918341

  11. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediates changes of bone marrow stem cells during the bone repair process.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyotaka; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Tamura, Yukinori; Kurashimo, Shinzi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Kojima, Kotarou; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and macrophages that participate in the bone repair process are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the roles of these stem cells during the repair of injured bone tissue are still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of bone defect on HSCs and MSCs in bone marrow and spleen in 75 mice and its mechanism. We analyzed the HSC and MSC populations in these tissues of a mouse with femoral bone damage by using flow cytometry. The number of HSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly lower than the number of these cells in the bone marrow of the contralateral intact femurs on day 2 after injury. Meanwhile, the number of MSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly higher than that of the contralateral femurs. Both intraperitoneal administration of AMD3100, a C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, and local treatment with an anti-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) antibody blunted the observed decrease in HSC and increase in MSC populations within the bone marrow of injured femurs. In conclusion, the present study revealed that there is a concurrent decrease and increase in the numbers of HSCs and MSCs, respectively, in the bone marrow during repair of mouse femoral bone damage. Furthermore, the SDF-1/CXCR4 system was implicated as contributing to the changes in these stem cell populations upon bone injury. PMID:26530150

  12. A 3D in vitro bone organ model using human progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Scherberich, Arnaud; Güven, Sinan; Theilgaard, Naseem; Crooijmans, Hendrikus J A; Santini, Francesco; Scheffler, Klaus; Zallone, Alberta; Martin, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture models based on human cells may reduce the use of complex and costly animal models, while gaining clinical relevance. This study aimed at developing a 3D osteoblastic-osteoclastic-endothelial cell co-culture system, as an in vitro model to mimic the process of bone turnover. Osteoprogenitor and endothelial lineage cells were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of human adipose tissue, whereas CD14+ osteoclast progenitors were derived from human peripheral blood. Cells were co-cultured within 3D porous ceramic scaffolds using a perfusion-based bioreactor device, in the presence of typical osteoclastogenic factors. After 3 weeks, the scaffolds contained cells with endothelial (2.0±0.3%), pre/osteoclastic (14.0±1.4%) and mesenchymal/osteoblastic (44.0±8.4%) phenotypes, along with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclastic cells in contact with deposited bone-like matrix. Supernatant analysis demonstrated sustained matrix deposition (by C-terminus procollagen-I propeptides), resorption (by N-terminus collagen-I telopeptides and phosphate levels) and osteoclastic activity (by TRAP-5b) only when SVF and CD14+ cells were co-cultured. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the pattern of matrix deposition and resorption. The effectiveness of Vitamin D in replacing osteoclastogenic factors indicated a functional osteoblast-osteoclast coupling in the system. The formation of human-origin bone-like tissue, blood vessels and osteoclasts upon ectopic implantation validated the functionality of the developed cell types. The 3D co-culture system and the associated non-invasive analytical tools can be used as an advanced model to capture some aspects of the functional coupling of bone-like matrix deposition and resorption and could be exploited toward the engineering of multi-functional bone substitute implants. PMID:21604244

  13. Exosomes from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells contain a microRNA that promotes dormancy in metastatic breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Makiko; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Tominaga, Naoomi; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Ryou-u; Yoshida, Masayuki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Tamura, Kenji; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer patients often develop metastatic disease years after resection of the primary tumor. The patients are asymptomatic because the disseminated cells appear to become dormant and are undetectable. Because the proliferation of these cells is slowed, dormant cells are often unresponsive to traditional chemotherapies that exploit the rapid cell cycling of most cancer cells. We generated a bone marrow-metastatic human breast cancer cell line (BM2) by tracking and isolating fluorescent-labeled MDA-MB-231 cells that disseminated to the bone marrow in mice. Coculturing BM2 cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) isolated from human donors revealed that BM-MSCs suppressed the proliferation of BM2 cells, decreased the abundance of stem cell-like surface markers, inhibited their invasion through Matrigel Transwells, and decreased their sensitivity to docetaxel, a common chemotherapy agent. Acquisition of these dormant phenotypes in BM2 cells was also observed by culturing the cells in BM-MSC-conditioned medium or with exosomes isolated from BM-MSC cultures, which were taken up by BM2 cells. Among various microRNAs (miRNAs) increased in BM-MSC-derived exosomes compared with those from adult fibroblasts, overexpression of miR-23b in BM2 cells induced dormant phenotypes through the suppression of a target gene, MARCKS, which encodes a protein that promotes cell cycling and motility. Metastatic breast cancer cells in patient bone marrow had increased miR-23b and decreased MARCKS expression. Together, these findings suggest that exosomal transfer of miRNAs from the bone marrow may promote breast cancer cell dormancy in a metastatic niche. PMID:24985346

  14. Synergistic effect of scaffold composition and dynamic culturing environment in multilayered systems for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcia T; Martins, Albino; Dias, Isabel R; Viegas, Carlos A; Neves, Nuno M; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2012-11-01

    Bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of mineralized collagen fibrils which support biological apatite nucleation that participates in bone outstanding properties. Understanding and mimicking bone morphological and physiological parameters at a biological scale is a major challenge in tissue engineering scaffolding. Using emergent (nano)technologies scaffold designing may be critically improved, enabling highly functional tissue substitutes for bone applications. This study aims to develop novel biodegradable composite scaffolds of tricalcium phosphate (TCPs) and electrospun nanofibers of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL), combining TCPs osteoconductivity with PCL biocompatibility and elasticity, mimicking bone structure and composition. We hypothesized that scaffolds with such structure/composition would stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) towards the osteogenic phenotype. Composite scaffolds, developed by electrospining using consecutive stacked layers of PCL and TCPs, were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Cellular behavior was assessed in goat BMSCs seeded onto composite scaffolds and cultured in static or dynamic conditions, using basal or osteogenic media during 7, 14 or 21 days. Cellular proliferation was quantified and osteogenic differentiation confirmed by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining and immunocytochemistry for osteocalcin and collagen I. Results suggest that PCL-TCP scaffolds provide a 3D support for gBMSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation with production of ECM. TCPs positively stimulate the osteogenic process, especially under dynamic conditions, where PCL-TCP scaffolds are sufficient to promote osteogenic differentiation even in basal medium conditions. The enhancement of the osteogenic potential in dynamic conditions evidences the synergistic effect of scaffold composition and dynamic stimulation in gBMSCs osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22451140

  15. Identification of Ror? targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    SciTech Connect

    Roforth, Matthew M. Khosla, Sundeep Monroe, David G.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Ror? in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Ror? mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Ror? may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (Ror?) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Ror? is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Ror? are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Ror? in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Ror?-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Ror?-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Ror?-GFP model system, suggesting that Ror? may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both ROR? and a subset of ROR?-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for ROR? in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Ror? regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  16. Modeling of bone adaptative behavior based on cells activities.

    PubMed

    Bonfoh, Napo; Novinyo, Edem; Lipinski, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Bone remodeling occurs in an adult's skeleton to adapt its architecture to external loadings. This involves bone resorption by osteoclasts cells followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts cells. During bone remodeling, osteoclasts and osteoblasts interact with each other by expressing autocrine and paracrine factors that regulate cells' population. Therefore, changes in bone density depend on the amount of each acting cell population. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for the bone remodeling process, which takes into account the opposite activity of both types of cells. For this purpose, a system of differential equations, proposed by Komarova et al. (Bone 33:206-215, 2003), is introduced to describe bone cell interactions using parameters which characterize the autocrine and paracrine factors. Such equations allow us to determine how the autocrine and paracrine factors vary in response to an external stimulus. It is assumed that an equilibrium state can be obtained for values of stimulus near to some reference quantity. Far from this value, unbalanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is observed, which leads to bone apposition or resorption. The proposed model has been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS to analyze the qualitative response of a bone structure when subjected to certain mechanical loadings. Obtained results are satisfactory and in accordance with the expected bone remodeling behavior. PMID:21136134

  17. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  18. Interleukin-6 in the bone marrow microenvironment promotes the growth and survival of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Tasnim; Song, Liping; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Keshelava, Nino; Russell, Heidi V.; Metelitsa, Leonid S.; Groshen, Susan G.; Seeger, Robert C.; DeClerck, Yves A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the second most common solid tumor in children, frequently metastasizes to the bone marrow and the bone. Neuroblastoma cells present in the bone marrow stimulate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to activate osteoclasts. Here we have examined whether stromal-derived IL-6 also has a paracrine effect on neuroblastoma cells. An analysis of the expression of IL-6 and its receptor IL-6R in 11 neuroblastoma cell lines indicated the expression of IL-6 in 7 cell lines and of IL-6R in 9 cell lines. Treatment of IL-6R positive cells with rhIL-6 resulted in STAT-3 and Erk 1/2 activation. Culturing IL-6R positive neuroblastoma cells in the presence of BMSC or rhIL-6 increased proliferation and protected tumor cells from etoposide-induced apoptosis, whereas it had no effect on IL-6R negative tumor cells. In vivo, neuroblastoma tumors grew faster in the presence of a paracrine source of IL-6. IL-6 induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in neuroblastoma cells with concomitant release of prostaglandin-E2, that increased the expression of IL-6 by BMSC. Supporting a role for stromal-derived IL-6 in patients with neuroblastoma bone metastasis, we observed elevated levels of IL-6 in the serum and bone marrow of 16 patients with neuroblastoma bone metastasis, and in BMSC derived from these patients. Altogether the data indicate that stromal-derived IL-6 contributes to the formation of a bone marrow microenvironment favorable to the progression of metastatic neuroblastoma. PMID:19118018

  19. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-? family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-?, and third IGF-I. TGF-? enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-? affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-? mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-? is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-? and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  20. Characterization of Bone Resorption in Novel In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chelsea K.; Dirksen, Wessel P.; Shu, Sherry T.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Thudi, Nanda K.; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Wolfe, Tobie D.; Heller, Kristin N.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy in humans and cats and frequently invades bone. The objective of this study was to determine if feline OSCC serves as a relevant model of human OSCC in terms of osteolytic behavior and expression of bone resorption agonists. Materials and Methods Novel feline OSCC cell lines (SCCF2 and SCCF3) were derived from spontaneous carcinomas. Gene expression and osteolytic behavior were compared to an established feline OSCC cell line (SCCF1) and three human OSCC cell lines (UMSCC-12, A253 and SCC25). Interaction of OSCC with bone and murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3) was investigated using in vitro co-culture techniques. In vivo bioluminescent imaging, faxitron radiography and microscopy were used to measure xenograft growth and bone invasion in nude mice. Results Human and feline OSCC expressing the highest levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) were associated with in vitro and in vivo bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. MC3T3 cells had increased receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) expression and reduced osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in conditioned medium from bone-invasive SCCF2 cells compared to minimally bone invasive SCCF3 cells, which was partially reversed with a neutralizing anti-PTHrP antibody. Human and feline OSCC cells cultured in bone-conditioned medium had increased PTHrP secretion and proliferation. Conclusion Feline OSCC-induced bone resorption was associated with tumor cell secretion of PTHrP and with increased RANKL : OPG expression ratio in mouse preosteoblasts. Bone-CM increased OSCC proliferation and secretion of PTHrP. The preclinical models of feline OSCC recapitulated the bone-invasive phenotype characteristic of spontaneous OSCC and will be useful to future preclinical and mechanistic studies of bone invasive behavior. PMID:22265717

  1. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  2. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  3. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  4. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  5. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  6. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

  7. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

  8. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

  9. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

  10. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

  11. Interleukin-15-activated natural killer cells kill autologous osteoclasts via LFA-1, DNAM-1 and TRAIL, and inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shan; Madsen, Suzi H; Viller, Natasja N; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Geisler, Carsten; Karlsson, Lars; Söderström, Kalle

    2015-07-01

    Osteoclasts reside on bone and are the main bone resorbing cells playing an important role in bone homeostasis, while natural killer (NK) cells are bone-marrow-derived cells known to play a crucial role in immune defence against viral infections. Although mature NK cells traffic through bone marrow as well as to inflammatory sites associated with enhanced bone erosion, including the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, little is known about the impact NK cells may have on mature osteoclasts and bone erosion. We studied the interaction between human NK cells and autologous monocyte-derived osteoclasts from healthy donors in vitro. We show that osteoclasts express numerous ligands for receptors present on activated NK cells. Co-culture experiments revealed that interleukin-15-activated, but not resting, NK cells trigger osteoclast apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in drastically decreased bone erosion. Suppression of bone erosion requires contact between NK cells and osteoclasts, but soluble factors also play a minor role. Antibodies masking leucocyte function-associated antigen-1, DNAX accessory molecule-1 or tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand enhance osteoclast survival when co-cultured with activated NK cells and restore the capacity of osteoclasts to erode bone. These results suggest that interleukin-15-activated NK cells may directly affect bone erosion under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25684021

  12. Rapid growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, WAN NAZATUL; ALI, ABDUL MANAF; SUBRAMANI, TAMILSELVAN; MOHAMED ALITHEEN, NOORJAHAN BANU; HAMID, MUHAJIR; SAMSUDIN, ABDUL RANI; YEAP, SWEE KEONG

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in bone formation in the embryo, bone repair and remodeling. The differentiation of these cells is a complex multistep pathway that involves discrete cellular transitions and is similar to that which occurs during hematopoiesis. MSCs have self-renewal capacity without differentiation in long-term culture. In the present study, MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow and characterized by the presence of cluster of differentiation 105 marker using the labeled streptavidin biotin method. The MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, ?-glycerol phosphate and dexamethasone to differentiate into osteoblasts. Biological in vitro analysis showed the rapid proliferation of the MSCs. Further evaluation of specific osteogenic markers using von Kossa staining and the alkaline phosphate assay demonstrated that the MSCs were stimulated to differentiate into osteoblast-lineage cells. This mesengenic potential indicated that the bone marrow-derived cells were multipotent MSCs. The findings of this study show that bone marrow can be a legitimate source of MSCs for the production of osteoblasts for utilization in bone replacement therapy. PMID:26136960

  13. Suppressor cells in transplantation tolerance. II. maturation of suppressor cells in the bone marrow chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Tutschka, P.J.; Ki, P.F.; Beschorner, W.E.; Hess, A.D.; Santos, G.W.

    1981-10-01

    Histoincompatible bone marrow allografts were established in lethally irradiated rats. At various times after transplantation, the spleen cells were harvested, subjected to mixed lymphocyte cultures, and assayed for suppressor cells in vitro and in vivo by adoptive transfer studies. Alloantigen-nonspecific suppressor cells appeared in the chimera at 40 days after grafting, coinciding with the resolution of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At 250 days the nonspecific suppressor cells were replaced by suppressor cells specifically suppressing donor-versus-host alloantigen responses. At 720 days suppressor cells could no longer be identified by in vitro methods but were identified by in vivo adoptive transfer of transplantation tolerance. After injection of host-type antigen into chimeras, the suppressor cells could be again demonstrated by in vitro methods.

  14. Suppressor cells in transplantation tolerance II. Maturation of suppressor cells in the bone marrow chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Tutschka, P.J.; Ki, P.F.; Beschorner, W.E.; Hess, A.D.; Santos, G.W.

    1981-10-01

    Histoincompatible bone marrow allografts were established in lethally irradiated rats. At various times after transplantation, the spleen cells were harvested, subjected to mixed lymphocyte cultures, and assayed for suppressor cells in vitro and in vivo by adoptive transfer studies. Alloantigen-nonspecific suppressor cells appeared in the chimera at 40 days after grafting, coinciding with the resolution of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At 250 days the nonspecific suppressor cells were replaced by suppressor cells specifically suppressing donor-versus-host alloantigen responses. At 720 days suppressor cells could no longer be identified by in vitro methods but were identified by in vivo adoptive transfer of transplantation tolerance. After injection of host-type antigen into chimeras, the suppressor cells could be again demonstrated by in vitro methods.

  15. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Erika; Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Global Center of Excellence Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo ; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Global Center of Excellence Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo ; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Department of Pathology, Ome Municipal General Hospital, Ome, Tokyo ; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Global Center of Excellence Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction.

  16. The Alliance of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Nicola; Paladini, Angela; Briganti, Silvia I.; Pozzilli, Paolo; Epstein, Sol

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility has emerged as a new complication of diabetes. Several mechanisms in diabetes may influence bone homeostasis by impairing the action between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes and/or changing the structural properties of the bone tissue. Some of these mechanisms can potentially alter the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, the initial precursor of the osteoblast. In this review, we describe the main factors that impair bone health in diabetic patients and their clinical impact. PMID:25140176

  17. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  18. Bone marrow stem cells and liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Zanjani, Esmail D.; Porada, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of new approaches to treat patients with hepatic diseases that can eliminate the need for liver transplantation is imperative. The use of cell therapy as a means of repopulating the liver has several advantages over whole organ transplantation, since it would be less invasive, less immunogenic, and would allow the use, in some instances, of autologous-derived cells. Stem/progenitor cells that would be ideal for liver repopulation would need to have characteristics such as availability and ease of isolation, the ability to be expanded in vitro, ensuring adequate numbers of cells, susceptibility to modification by viral vector transduction/genetic recombination, to correct any underlying genetic defects, and the ability of restoring liver function following transplantation. Bone marrow-derived stem cells such as Hematopoietic, Mesenchymal and Endothelial Progenitor cells possess some or most of these characteristics, making them ideal candidates for liver regenerative therapies. Here, we will summarize the ability of each of these stem cell populations to give rise to functional hepatic elements which could mediate repair in patients with liver damage/disease. PMID:20417684

  19. Unique biomechanical interactions between myeloma cells and bone marrow stroma cells

    E-print Network

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    Review Unique biomechanical interactions between myeloma cells and bone marrow stroma cells 17 October 2009 Keywords: Myeloma Bone marrow stroma cell Stiffness Niche a b s t r a c t We observed that BMSCs (bone marrow stromal cells) from myeloma patients (myeloma BMSCs) were significantly stiffer than

  20. Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue that, in the presence of cytokines and growth factors, generates all of the circulating blood cells. These cells are important for protecting the organism against pathogens and for establishing an effective immune response. Previous studies have shown immunomodulatory effects of different products isolated from plant extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aqueous Physalis angulata (AEPa) extract on the differentiation of bone marrow cells. Results Increased cellular area, higher spreading ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, high number of cytoplasmatic projections and increase of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a high level of LC3b expression by treated cells was detected by flow cytometry, suggesting an autophagic process. Cell surface expression of F4/80 and CD11b also indicated that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone marrow cells mainly into macrophages. In addition, AEPa did not differentiate cells into dendritic cells, as assessed by CD11c analysis. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the cells treated with AEPa. Conclusion Results demonstrate that AEPa promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly into macrophages and may hold promise as an immunomodulating agent. PMID:25281406

  1. 3D environment on human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, T; Layrolle, P; Gaillard, Julien; Langonné, Alain; Sensebé, L; Rosset, P; Sohier, J

    2010-03-01

    In this work a novel method was developed to create a three dimensional environment at a cellular level for bone tissue engineering. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles of 140-200 microm were used in association with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cells seeded on these particles adhered and proliferated more rapidly in the first day of culture compared to culture on plastic. Analyses of hMSCs cultured without osteogenic factors on BCP particles revealed an abundant extracellular matrix production forming 3-dimensional (3D) hMSCs/BCP particles constructs after few days. Bone morphogenetic 2 (BMP-2), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and ALP gene expression using real time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that expression profiles were modified by the culture substrate while the addition of osteogenic medium enhanced bone markers expression. These results indicate that BCP particles alone are able to induce an osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs that might be of interest for bone tissue engineering. PMID:19856200

  2. Human rib bone marrow mononuclear cells spontaneously synthesize and secrete IgE in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    MacDermott, R P; Jendrisak, G A; Nash, G S; Schreiber, S; Bertovich, M J; Nahm, M; Nonaka, M; Fitzgerald, P; Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F

    1991-01-01

    We have examined spontaneous secretion of IgE by human rib bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNC). Bone marrow MNC from nine out of 12 rib specimens synthesized and secreted substantial amounts of IgE during 14 days of in vitro culture. The 14-day supernatants from these bone marrow MNC contained a mean of 2589 pg/ml of IgE (n = 12) with a maximum production of 15,408 pg/ml of IgE compared with small amounts of IgE (80-200 pg/ml) produced by similarly cultured normal and inflammatory bowel disease intestinal lamina propria MNC. Using two rib specimens, time-course studies revealed spontaneous secretion of IgE to be minimal during the first 2 days of culture (152 pg/ml), followed by a steady increase between days 4 (517 pg/ml) and 14 (3588 pg/ml). The addition of pokeweed mitogen resulted in 72% suppression of spontaneous IgE production by bone marrow MNC. The bone marrow MNC isolated from the ribs consisted of 22% Leu12+ (B) cells of which 3.2% were surface IgE positive. Staining for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin revealed 1% of the bone marrow MNC to be cytoplasmic IgE+. The presence of IgE-bearing and IgE-secreting MNC in human bone marrow is consistent with the observation that allergen-specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is adoptively transferred by human bone marrow transplantation and demonstrates the usefulness of human bone marrow MNC for examination of IgE secretory and regulatory events. PMID:1988224

  3. In vitro osteogenic induction of bone marrow stromal cells with encapsulated gene-modified bone marrow stromal cells and in vivo implantation for orbital bone repair.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuan; Zhou, Huifang; Yan, Chenxi; Wang, Yefei; Xiao, Caiwen; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2014-07-01

    Osteogenic induction with either growth factors or genetic modification has limitations due to the short half-life and cost of the former, or safety concerns regarding the latter. The objective of this study was to employ a microcapsulation technique to separate genetically modified and nonmodified bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to establish a cost-effective and biosafe osteogenic induction methodology with functional evaluation in vitro and in vivo in a canine model. Autologous BMSCs were isolated and transduced with adenoviral vectors containing either BMP-2 or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or were dual transduced followed by encapsulation in alginate microcapsules using an electrostatic bead generator. After cocultured with encapsulated cells, normal autologous BMSCs were analyzed for osteogenic differentiation and seeded onto tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds for in vivo implantation to repair orbital wall bone defects (12?mm in diameter) in a canine model. In vitro assays showed that the expression of the transduced genes was significantly upregulated, with significantly more transduced proteins released from the transduced cells compared with control cells. Importantly, examination of the BMSCs induced by soluble factors released from the encapsulated cells revealed a significant upregulation of expression of osteogenic markers Runx2, BSP, OPN, and OCN in dual-transduction or induction groups. In addition, dual transduction and induction resulted in the highest increase of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization compared with other experimental groups. In vivo assays using CT, micro-CT, and histology further supported the qPCR and western blot findings. In conclusion, encapsulation of genetically modified BMSCs was able to release a sufficient amount of BMP-2 and VEGF, which effectively induced osteogenic differentiation of normal-cultured BMSCs and demonstrated bone repair of the orbital wall defect after implantation with ?-TCP in vivo. PMID:24498882

  4. Osterix enhances proliferation and osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma . E-mail: paloma.valverde@tufts.edu; Chen, Jake

    2006-03-24

    Osterix (Osx) is a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in osteoblasts of all endochondral and membranous bones. In Osx null mice osteoblast differentiation is impaired and bone formation is absent. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of Osx in murine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) would be able to enhance their osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC cultured in non-differentiating medium did not affect expression of Runx2/Cbfa1, another key transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, but induced an increase in the expression of other markers associated with the osteoblastic lineage including alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC also increased their proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and ability to form bone nodules. These events occurred without significant changes in the expression of {alpha}1(II) procollagen or lipoprotein lipase, which are markers of chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation, respectively.

  5. Cell-Based Approaches to the Engineering of Vascularized Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rameshwar R.; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes recent efforts to create vascularized bone tissue in vitro and in vivo using cell-based therapy approaches. The treatment of large and recalcitrant bone wounds is a serious clinical problem, and in the United States approximately 10% of all fractures are complicated by delayed or non-union. Treatment approaches using growth factor and gene delivery have shown some promise, but results are variable and clinical complications have arisen. Cell-based therapies offer the potential to recapitulate key components of the bone healing cascade, which involves concomitant regeneration of vasculature and new bone tissue. For this reason, osteogenic and vasculogenic cell types have been combined in co-cultures to capitalize on the function of each cell type, and to promote heterotypic interactions. Experiments in both 2D and 3D systems have provided insight into the mechanisms by which osteogenic and vasculogenic cells interact to form vascularized bone, and these approaches have been translated to ectopic and orthotopic models in small animal studies. The knowledge generated by these studies will inform and facilitate the next generation of pre-clinical studies, which are needed to move cell-based orthopaedic repair strategies into the clinic. The science and application of cytotherapy for repair of large and ischemic bone defects is developing rapidly, and promises to provide new treatment methods for these challenging clinical problems. PMID:23999157

  6. Therapeutic potential of adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in diseases of the skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Diptiman; Kumar, Sanjay; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most popular among the adult stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since their discovery and functional characterization in the late sixties and early seventies, MSCs or MSC-like cells have been obtained from various mesodermal and non-mesodermal tissues, although majority of the therapeutic applications involved bone marrow derived MSCs. Based on its mesenchymal origin, it was predicted earlier that MSCs only can differentiate into mesengenic lineages like bone, cartilage, fat or muscle. However, varied isolation and cell culturing methods identified subsets of MSCs in the bone marrow which not only differentiated into mesenchymal lineages, but also into ectodermal and endodermal derivatives. Although, true pluripotent status is yet to be established, MSCs have been successfully used in bone and cartilage regeneration in osteoporotic fracture and arthritis respectively and in the repair of cardiac tissue following myocardial infarction. Immunosuppressive properties of MSCs extend utility of MSCs to reduce complications of graft versus host disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Homing of MSCs to sites of tissue injury, including tumor, is well established. In addition to their ability in tissue regeneration, MSCs can be genetically engineered ex vivo for delivery of therapeutic molecule(s) to the sites of injury or tumorigenesis as cell therapy vehicles. MSCs tend to lose surface receptors for trafficking and have been reported to develop sarcoma in long-term culture. In this article, we reviewed the current status of MSCs with special emphasis to therapeutic application in bone-related diseases. PMID:20506559

  7. Intramuscular injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells contributes to bone repair following midpalatal expansion in rats

    PubMed Central

    CHE, XIAOXIA; GUO, JIE; LI, XIANGDONG; WANG, LVE; WEI, SILONG

    2016-01-01

    Healing from injury requires the activation and proliferation of stem cells for tissue repair. Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow is a central pool of stem cells. The present study aimed to investigate the route undertaken by bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) following BMMC transplantation by masseter injection in a rat model of midpalatal expansion. The rats were divided into five groups according to the types of midpalatal expansion, incision and BMMC transplantation. Samples of midpalatal bone from the rats in each group were used for histological and immunohistochemical assessments to track and evaluate the differential potentials of the transplanted BMMCs in the masseter muscle and midpalatal bone. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as a BMMC tracing label, and M-cadherin was used to detect muscle satellite cells. The BMMCs injected into the masseter were observed, not only in the masseter, but also in the blood vessels and oral mucosa, and enveloped the midpalatal bone. A number of the BMMCs transformed into osteoblasts at the boundary of the neuromuscular bundle, and were embedded in the newly formed bone during midpalatal bone regeneration. The results of the present study suggested that BMMCs entered the circulation and migrated from muscle to the bone tissue, where they were involved in bone repair. Therefore, BMMCs may prove useful in the treatment of various types of cancer. PMID:26648442

  8. Intramuscular injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells contributes to bone repair following midpalatal expansion in rats.

    PubMed

    Che, Xiaoxia; Guo, Jie; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Lve; Wei, Silong

    2016-01-01

    Healing from injury requires the activation and proliferation of stem cells for tissue repair. Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow is a central pool of stem cells. The present study aimed to investigate the route undertaken by bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) following BMMC transplantation by masseter injection in a rat model of midpalatal expansion. The rats were divided into five groups according to the types of midpalatal expansion, incision and BMMC transplantation. Samples of midpalatal bone from the rats in each group were used for histological and immunohistochemical assessments to track and evaluate the differential potentials of the transplanted BMMCs in the masseter muscle and midpalatal bone. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as a BMMC tracing label, and M?cadherin was used to detect muscle satellite cells. The BMMCs injected into the masseter were observed, not only in the masseter, but also in the blood vessels and oral mucosa, and enveloped the midpalatal bone. A number of the BMMCs transformed into osteoblasts at the boundary of the neuromuscular bundle, and were embedded in the newly formed bone during midpalatal bone regeneration. The results of the present study suggested that BMMCs entered the circulation and migrated from muscle to the bone tissue, where they were involved in bone repair. Therefore, BMMCs may prove useful in the treatment of various types of cancer. PMID:26648442

  9. Integrins and bone metastasis: Integrating tumor cell and stromal cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jochen G.; Amend, Sarah H.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2010-01-01

    Integrins on both tumor cells and the supporting host stromal cells in bone (osteoclasts, new blood vessels, inflammatory cells, platelets and bone marrow stromal cells) play key roles in enhancing bone metastasis. Tumor cells localize to specific tissues through integrin-mediated contacts with extracellular matrix and stromal cells. Integrin expression and signaling are perturbed in cancer cells, allowing them to “escape” from cell-cell and cell matrix tethers, invade, migrate and colonize within new tissues and matrices. Integrin signaling through ?v?3 and VLA-4 on tumor cells can promote tumor metastasis to and proliferation in the bone microenvironment. Osteoclast (OC) mediated bone resorption is a critical component of bone metastasis and can promote tumor growth in bone and ?v?3 integrins are critical to osteoclast function and development. Tumors in the bone microenvironment can recruit new blood vessel formation, platelets, pro-tumor immune cells and bone marrow stromal cells that promote tumor growth and invasion in bone. Integrins play critical roles in platelet aggregation (?v?3 and ?IIb?3), hematopoietic cell mobilization (VLA-4, osteopontin), neoangiogenesis (?v?3,?v?5, ?6?4, ?1 integrin) and stromal function (osteopontin, VLA-4). Integrins are involved in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis at many levels and further study to define integrin dysregulation by cancer will yield new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of bone metastasis. PMID:20850578

  10. In vivo bone formation by progeny of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Cherman, Natasha; Robey, Pamela Gehron

    2011-02-01

    The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or from induced pluripotent stem cells for bone regeneration would be a welcome alternative to the use of adult stem cells. In an attempt to promote hESC osteogenic differentiation, cells of the HSF-6 line were cultured in differentiating conditions in vitro for prolonged periods of time ranging from 7 to 14.5 weeks, followed by in vivo transplantation into immunocompromised mice in conjunction with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate ceramic powder. Twelve different medium compositions were tested, along with a number of other variables in culture parameters. In differentiating conditions, HSF-6-derived cells demonstrated an array of diverse phenotypes reminiscent of multiple tissues, but after a few passages, acquired a more uniform, fibroblast-like morphology. Eight to 16 weeks post-transplantation, a group of transplants revealed the formation of histologically proven bone of human origin, including broad areas of multiple intertwining trabeculae, which represents by far the most extensive in vivo bone formation by the hESC-derived cells described to date. Knockout-Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-based media with fetal bovine serum, dexamethasone, and ascorbate promoted more frequent bone formation, while media based on ?-modified minimum essential medium promoted teratoma formation in 12- to 20-week-old transplants. Transcription levels of pluripotency-related (octamer binding protein 4, Nanog), osteogenesis-related (collagen type I, Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and bone sialoprotein), and chondrogenesis-related (collagen types II and X, and aggrecan) genes were not predictive of either bone or teratoma formation. The most extensive bone was formed by the strains that, following 4 passages in monolayer conditions, were cultured for 23 to 25 extra days on the surface of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate particles, suggesting that coculturing of hESC-derived cells with osteoconductive material may increase their osteogenic potential. While none of the conditions tested in this study, and elsewhere, ensured consistent bone formation by hESC-derived cells, our results may elucidate further directions toward the construction of bone on the basis of hESCs or an individual's own induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:20590404

  11. Response of endothelial cells to decellularized extracellular matrix deposited by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Yan, Mengdie; Gong, Yihong; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the behavior and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods: Prepared through chemical approach, decellularized ECM was characterized by use of immunofluorescence staining. The morphology, attachment, proliferation and migration of HUVECs cultured on six-well tissue culture plastic (TCP) and decellularized ECM were investigated. Results: Decellularized ECM was successfully prepared without three-dimensional architecture disruption. This biological scaffold is similar to nature vascular ECM, preserved various matrix proteins such as type I collagen, type III collagen and fibronection. HUVECs on decellularized ECM showed well attachment and regular arrangement. Decellularized ECM could also significantly enhance the migration and proliferation potential of HUVECs in contrast to TCP. Conclusion: Deposited by BMSCs, ECM can affect the behavior of endothelial cell and could be used as a promising material in tissue engineering. PMID:25663998

  12. Cultivation of Human Bone-Like Tissue from Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Osteogenic Progenitors in Perfusion Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent an unlimited source of skeletal tissue progenitors for studies of bone biology, pathogenesis, and the development of new approaches for bone reconstruction and therapies. In order to construct in vitro models of bone tissue development and to grow functional, clinical-size bone substitutes for transplantation, cell cultivation in three-dimensional environments composed of porous osteoconductive scaffolds and dynamic culture systems—bioreactors—has been studied. Here, we describe a stepwise procedure for the induction of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (collectively termed PSCs) into mesenchymal-like progenitors, and their subsequent cultivation on decellularized bovine bone scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, to support the development of viable, stable bone-like tissue in defined geometries. PMID:24281874

  13. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran; Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija

    2009-01-01

    Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. PMID:18955237

  14. Dynamized preparations in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija

    2009-06-01

    Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. PMID:18955237

  15. The osteogenetic potential of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    S?ynarski, K

    2000-09-30

    Multi-potential mesenchymal marrow Wells hale the capability to differentiate into a wide range of connective tissue cells, including the tissues involved in the locomotor apparatus. Progenitor cells can be easily obtained from the bone marrow of adult patients, and may provide an alternative to allografts or autografts of bone tissue. PMID:18034136

  16. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Picavet, Daisy I.; Davison, Noel L.; de Vries, Teun J.; Everts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body multinucleated giant cells (FBGCs) and osteoclasts share several characteristics, like a common myeloid precursor cell, multinuclearity, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). However, there is an important difference: osteoclasts form and reside in the vicinity of bone, while FBGCs form only under pathological conditions or at the surface of foreign materials, like medical implants. Despite similarities, an important distinction between these cell types is that osteoclasts can resorb bone, but it is unknown whether FBGCs are capable of such an activity. To investigate this, we differentiated FBGCs and osteoclasts in vitro from their common CD14+ monocyte precursor cells, using different sets of cytokines. Both cell types were cultured on bovine bone slices and analyzed for typical osteoclast features, such as bone resorption, presence of actin rings, formation of a ruffled border, and characteristic gene expression over time. Additionally, both cell types were cultured on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating to discriminate between bone resorption and mineral dissolution independent of organic matrix proteolysis. Both cell types differentiated into multinucleated cells on bone, but FBGCs were larger and had a higher number of nuclei compared to osteoclasts. FBGCs were not able to resorb bone, yet they were able to dissolve the mineral fraction of bone at the surface. Remarkably, FBGCs also expressed actin rings, podosome belts and sealing zones—cytoskeletal organization that is considered to be osteoclast-specific. However, they did not form a ruffled border. At the gene expression level, FBGCs and osteoclasts expressed similar levels of mRNAs that are associated with the dissolution of mineral (e.g., anion exchange protein 2 (AE2), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII), chloride channel 7 (CIC7), and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase)), in contrast the matrix degrading enzyme cathepsin K, which was hardly expressed by FBGCs. Functionally, the latter cells were able to dissolve a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating in vitro, which was blocked by inhibiting v-ATPase enzyme activity. These results show that FBGCs have the capacity to dissolve the mineral phase of bone, similar to osteoclasts. However, they are not able to digest the matrix fraction of bone, likely due to the lack of a ruffled border and cathepsin K. PMID:26426806

  17. Improving vascularization of engineered bone through the generation of pro-angiogenic effects in co-culture systems.

    PubMed

    Unger, Ronald E; Dohle, Eva; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2015-11-01

    One of the major problems with bone tissue engineering is the development of a rapid vascularization after implantation to supply the growing osteoblast cells with the nutrients to grow and survive as well as to remove waste products. It has been demonstrated that capillary-like structures produced in vitro will anastomose rapidly after implantation and become functioning blood vessels. For this reason, in recent years many studies have examined a variety of human osteoblast and endothelial cell co-culture systems in order to distribute osteoblasts on all parts of the bone scaffold and at the same time provide conditions for the endothelial cells to migrate to form a network of capillary-like structures throughout the osteoblast-colonized scaffold. The movement and proliferation of endothelial cells to form capillary-like structures is known as angiogenesis and is dependent on a variety of pro-angiogenic factors. This review summarizes human 2- and 3-D co-culture models to date, the types and origins of cells used in the co-cultures and the proangiogenic factors that have been identified in the co-culture models. PMID:25817732

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms and role in bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yunhao; Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Stimulating bone growth and regeneration, especially in patients with delayed union or non-union of bone, is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Treatments employed for bone regeneration are based on the use of cells, biomaterials and factors. Among these therapies, cell treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a number of advantages as MSCs: (1) are multipotent cells that can migrate to sites of injury; (2) are capable of suppressing the local immune response; and (3) are available in large quantities from the patients themselves. MSC therapies have been used for stimulating bone regeneration in animal models and in patients. Methods of application range from direct MSC injection, seeding MSCs on synthetic scaffolds, the use of gene-modified MSCs, and hetero-MSCs application. However, only a small number of these cell-based strategies are in clinical use, and none of these treatments has become the gold standard treatment for delayed or non-union of bone. PMID:25335795

  19. Osteoclast-independent bone resorption by fibroblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Thomas; Claus, Anja; Ohtsu, Susumu; Hummel, Klaus M; Schwartz, Peter; Drynda, Susanne; Pap, Géza; Machner, Andreas; Stein, Bernhard; George, Michael; Gay, Renate E; Neumann, Wolfram; Gay, Steffen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2003-01-01

    To date, mesenchymal cells have only been associated with bone resorption indirectly, and it has been hypothesized that the degradation of bone is associated exclusively with specific functions of osteoclasts. Here we show, in aseptic prosthesis loosening, that aggressive fibroblasts at the bone surface actively contribute to bone resorption and that this is independent of osteoclasts. In two separate models (a severe combined immunodeficient mouse coimplantation model and a dentin pit formation assay), these cells produce signs of bone resorption that are similar to those in early osteoclastic resorption. In an animal model of aseptic prosthesis loosening (i.e. intracranially self-stimulated rats), it is shown that these fibroblasts acquire their ability to degrade bone early on in their differentiation. Upon stimulation, such fibroblasts readily release acidic components that lower the pH of their pericellular milieu. Through the use of specific inhibitors, pericellular acidification is shown to involve the action of vacuolar type ATPases. Although fibroblasts, as mesenchymal derived cells, are thought to be incapable of resorbing bone, the present study provides the first evidence to challenge this widely held belief. It is demonstrated that fibroblast-like cells, under pathological conditions, may not only enhance but also actively contribute to bone resorption. These cells should therefore be considered novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of bone destructive disorders. PMID:12723988

  20. [The cultivation of bone marrow cells and cell lines on polymeric films].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, M S; Livak, D N; Krasheninnikov, M E; Onishchenko, N A

    2011-01-01

    The cultivation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal bone marrow cells and cells of A-431, MDCK, Vero, 3T3 and Hep-G2 was performed on polymeric films (PVA) with different hydrophobic fatty acid residues. The cells of different types grew on these films with different intensity, but in the most cases comparable with the cultivation control on usual plastic. The examined films were nontoxic to cells and sufficiently adhesive. They did not changed pH of cultural media, were optically transparent under microscope and comfortable in the experimental work. These films can be used as a model for the artificial organ construction. The covalent binding of different fatty acids to PVA shows possibility of the adaptable changes of films properties (hydrophobity and adhesiveness), and therefore possibility of the creation of optimal conditions for different cell types attachement and growth. PMID:22629604

  1. Bone regeneration in calvarial defects in a rat model by implantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Suzuki, Yukako; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ushida, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) condensation contributes to membrane ossification by enhancing their osteodifferentiation. We investigated bone regeneration in rats using the human bone marrow-derived MSC-spheroids prepared by rotation culture, without synthetic or exogenous biomaterials. Bilateral calvarial defects (8 mm) were created in nude male rats; the left-sided defects were implanted with MSC-spheroids, ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) granules, or ?-TCP granules + MSC-spheroids, while the right-sided defects served as internal controls. Micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin/osteopontin indicated formation of new, full-thickness bones at the implantation sites, but not at the control sites in the MSC-spheroid group. Raman spectroscopy revealed similarity in the spectral properties of the repaired bone and native calvarial bone. Mechanical performance of the bones in the MSC-implanted group was good (50 and 60 % those of native bones, respectively). All tests showed poor bone regeneration in the ?-TCP and ?-TCP + MSC-spheroid groups. Thus, significant bone regeneration was achieved with MSC-spheroid implantation into bone defects, justifying further investigation. PMID:26449444

  2. Development of silk-based scaffolds for tissue engineering of bone from human adipose derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Cristina; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Yan, Le-Ping; Oliveira, Ana L.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Rockwood, Danielle; Kaplan, David L.; Sousa, Rui A.; Reis, Rui L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibroin is a potent alternative to other biodegradable biopolymers for bone tissue engineering (TE), because of its tunable architecture and mechanical properties, and demonstrated ability to support bone formation, in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated a range of silk scaffolds for bone TE using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), an attractive cell source for engineering autologous bone grafts. Our goal was to understand the effects of scaffold architecture and biomechanics and use this information to optimize silk scaffolds for bone TE applications. Silk scaffolds were fabricated using different solvents (aqueous vs. hexafluoro-2-propanol - HFIP), pore sizes (250–500?m vs. 500–1000?m) and structures (lamellar vs. spherical pores). Four types of silk scaffolds combining the properties of interest were systematically compared with respect to bone tissue outcomes with decellularized trabecular bone (DCB) included as a “gold standard”. The scaffolds were seeded with hASC and cultured for 7 weeks in osteogenic media. Bone formation was evaluated by cell proliferation and differentiation, matrix production, calcification and mechanical properties. We observed that 400–600?m porous HFIP-derived silk fibroin scaffold demonstrated the best bone tissue formation outcomes as evidenced by increased bone protein production (osteopontin, collagen type I, bone sialoprotein), enhanced calcium deposition and total bone volume. On a direct comparison basis, alkaline phosphatase activity (AP) at week 2, and new calcium deposition at week 7 were comparable to the cells cultured in DCB. Yet, among the aqueous-based structures, the lamellar architecture induced increased AP activity and demonstrated higher equilibrium modulus than the spherical-pore scaffolds. Based on the collected data, we propose a conceptual model describing the effects of silk scaffold design on bone tissue formation. PMID:22421311

  3. The utility of human dedifferentiated fat cells in bone tissue engineering in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Fumito; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Kishimoto, Naotaka; Honda, Yoshitomo; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    We compared the osteoblastic differentiation abilities of dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a cell source for bone regeneration therapies. In addition, the utility of DFATs in bone tissue engineering in vitro was assessed by an alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP)/collagen sponge (CS). Human DFATs were isolated from the submandibular of a patient by ceiling culture. DFATs and hMSCs at passage 3 were cultured in control medium or osteogenic medium (OM) for 14 days. Runx2 gene expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, as well as osteocalcin (OCN) and calcium contents were analyzed to evaluate the osteoblastic differentiation ability of both cell types. DFATs seeded in a ?-TCP/CS and cultured in OM for 14 days were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histologically. Compared with hMSCs, DFATs cultured in OM generally underwent superior osteoblastogenesis by higher Runx2 gene expression at all days tested, as well as higher ALP activity at day 3 and 7, OCN expression at day 14, and calcium content at day 7. In SEM analyses, DFATs seeded in a ?-TCP/CS were well spread and covered the ?-TCP/CS by day 7. In addition, numerous spherical deposits were found to almost completely cover the ?-TCP/CS on day 14. Von Kossa staining showed that DFATs differentiated into osteoblasts in the ?-TCP/CS and formed cultured bone by deposition of a mineralized extracellular matrix. The combined use of DFATs and an ?-TCP/CS may be an attractive option for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24306271

  4. Connexin 43 hemichannels and intracellular signaling in bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2014-01-01

    Cell function and survival are controlled by intracellular signals, and modulated by surrounding cells and the extracellular environment. Connexin channels participate in these processes by mediating cell-to-cell communication. In bone cells, gap junction channels were detected in the early 1970s, and are present among bone resorbing osteoclasts, bone forming osteoblasts, and osteocytes - mature osteoblasts embedded in the mineralized matrix. These channels are composed mainly by Cx43, although the expression of other connexins (45, 46, and 37) has also been reported. It is now believed that undocked Cx43 hemichannels (connexons) formed in unopposed cell membranes facing the extracellular environment participate in the interaction of bone cells with the extracellular environment, and in their communication with neighboring cells. Thus, we and others demonstrated the presence of active hemichannels in osteoblastic and osteocytic cells. These hemichannels open in response to pharmacological and mechanical stimulation. In particular, preservation of the viability of osteoblasts and osteocytes by the anti-osteoporotic drugs bisphosphonates depends on Cx43 expression in vitro and in vivo, and is mediated by undocked hemichannels. Cx43 hemichannels are also required for the release of prostaglandins and ATP by osteocytes, and for cell survival induced by mechanical stimulation in vitro. Moreover, they are required for the anti-apoptotic effect of parathyroid hormone in osteoblastic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the presence and function of undocked connexons, and the role of hemichannel regulation for the maintenance of bone cell viability and, potentially, bone health. PMID:24772090

  5. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  6. Reconstruction of alveolar bone defects using bone morphogenetic protein 2 mediated rabbit dental pulp stem cells seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Chen; E, Ling-Ling; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Su, Fang; Wu, Xia; Shi, Zhan-Ping; Lv, Yan; Wang, Jia-Zhu

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2)-mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed postoperatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favored osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity/protein, osteocalcin content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation, and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs' contribution to new bone was detected through transfected eGFP genes. Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSC seeding, proliferation, and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects. PMID:21563858

  7. Ex vivo 3D osteocyte network construction with primary murine bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiaoling; Gu, Yexin; Zhang, Wenting; Dziopa, Leah; Zilberberg, Jenny; Lee, Woo

    2015-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as three-dimensionally (3D) networked cells in the lacunocanalicular structure of bones and regulate bone and mineral homeostasis. Despite of their important regulatory roles, in vitro studies of osteocytes have been challenging because: (1) current cell lines do not sufficiently represent the phenotypic features of mature osteocytes and (2) primary cells rapidly differentiate to osteoblasts upon isolation. In this study, we used a 3D perfusion culture approach to: (1) construct the 3D cellular network of primary murine osteocytes by biomimetic assembly with microbeads and (2) reproduce ex vivo the phenotype of primary murine osteocytes, for the first time to our best knowledge. In order to enable 3D construction with a sufficient number of viable cells, we used a proliferated osteoblastic population of healthy cells outgrown from digested bone chips. The diameter of microbeads was controlled to: (1) distribute and entrap cells within the interstitial spaces between the microbeads and (2) maintain average cell-to-cell distance to be about 19 µm. The entrapped cells formed a 3D cellular network by extending and connecting their processes through openings between the microbeads. Also, with increasing culture time, the entrapped cells exhibited the characteristic gene expressions (SOST and FGF23) and nonproliferative behavior of mature osteocytes. In contrast, 2D-cultured cells continued their osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation. This 3D biomimetic approach is expected to provide a new means of: (1) studying flow-induced shear stress on the mechanotransduction function of primary osteocytes, (2) studying physiological functions of 3D-networked osteocytes with in vitro convenience, and (3) developing clinically relevant human bone disease models. PMID:26421212

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting axonal growth and anti-autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Meng, Chunyang; Lu, Rifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hao; Qin, Yonggang; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes after transplantation in the spinal cord of rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are known to protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic effects, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and proliferated, then transplanted into rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury via retro-orbital injection. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with subsequent quantification revealed that the expression of the axonal regeneration marker, growth associated protein-43, and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein 2, significantly increased in rats with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, the expression of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B, and Beclin 1, was significantly reduced in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament-H increased but light chain 3B and Beclin 1 decreased in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Our results therefore suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes neurite growth and regeneration and prevents autophagy. These responses may likely be mechanisms underlying the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25374587

  9. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. A mathematical approach to understand bone remodeling].

    PubMed

    Kameo, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Taiji

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that bone tissue can change its outer shape and internal structure by remodeling according to a changing mechanical environment. However, the mechanism of bone functional adaptation induced by the collaborative metabolic activities of bone cells in response to mechanical stimuli remains elusive. In this article, we focus on the hierarchy of bone structure and function from the microscopic cellular level to the macroscopic tissue level. We provide an overview of a mathematical approach to understand the adaptive changes in trabecular morphology under the application of mechanical stress. PMID:26412726

  10. Effects of Polymer Surfaces on Proliferation and Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sisi; Liao, Wenbin; Ma, Yupo; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Stony Brook Medical Center Collaboration; Stony Brook Dental Schoo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Currently, proliferation and differentiation of stem cell is usually accomplished either in vivo, or on chemical coated tissue culture petri dish with the presence of feeder cells. Here we investigated whether they can be directly cultured on polymeric substrates, in the absence of additional factors. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells did not require gelatin and could remain in the undifferentiated state without feeder cells at least for four passages on partially sulfonated polystyrene. The modulii of cells was measured and found to be higher for cells plated directly on the polymer surface than for those on the same surface covered with gelatin and feeder cells. When plated with feeder cells, the modulii was not sensitive to gelatin. Whereas the differentiation properties of human bone marrow stem cells, which are not adherent, are less dependent on either chemical or mechanical properties of the substrate. However, they behave differently on different toughness hydrogels as oppose to on polymer coated thin films.

  11. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  12. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  13. The bone marrow niche, stem cells, and leukemia: impact of drugs, chemicals, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Detection, treatment, and prevention of bone marrow diseases have long been the aims of experimental and clinical hematologists and mechanistically oriented toxicologists. Among these diseases is aplastic anemia, which manifests as the cessation of normal blood cell production; the leukemias, in contrast, feature the production of excessive hematologic cancer cells. Both diseases are associated with exposure to either industrial chemicals or cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Studies of hematopoietic bone marrow cells in culture have shown that the generation of circulating blood cells requires the interaction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with supporting marrow stromal cells; yet, isolation of HSCs from bone destroys the unique morphology of the marrow stroma in which the HSCs reside. Imaging techniques and related studies have made it possible to examine specific niches where HSCs may either initiate differentiation toward mature blood cells or reside in a dormant state awaiting a signal to begin differentiation. HSCs and related cells may be highly vulnerable to the mutagenic or toxic effects of drugs or other chemicals early in these processes. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanisms by which drug or chemical exposure may affect these cells and lead to either depression of bone marrow function or to leukemia. PMID:24495003

  14. Presentation of a novel model of chitosan- polyethylene oxide-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers together with bone marrow stromal cells to repair and improve minor bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholi, Asgar; Rahimi, Mohsen; Kaka, Gholamreza; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Najafi, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Various methods for repairing bone defects are presented. Cell therapy is one of these methods. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seem to be suitable for this purpose. On the other hand, lots of biomaterials are used to improve and repair the defect in the body, so in this study we tried to produce a similar structure to the bone by the chitosan and hydroxyapatite. Materials and Methods: In this study, the solution of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite-polyethylene oxide (PEO) Nanofibers was produced by electrospinning method, and then the BMSCs were cultured on this solution. A piece of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite Nanofibers with BMSCs was placed in a hole with the diameter of 1 mm at the distal epiphysis of the rat femur. Then the biomechanical and radiographic studies were performed. Results: Biomechanical testing results showed that bone strength was significantly higher in the Nanofiber/BMSCs group in comparison with control group. Also the bone strength in nanofiber/BMSCs group was significant, but in nanofiber group was nearly significant. Radiographic studies also showed that the average amount of callus formation (radio opacity) in nanofiber and control group was not significantly different. The callus formation in nanofiber/BMSCs group was increased compared to the control group, and it was not significant in the nanofiber group. Conclusion: Since chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers with BMSCs increases the rate of bone repair, the obtained cell-nanoscaffold shell can be used in tissue engineering and cell therapy, especially for bone defects. PMID:26523221

  15. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    PubMed Central

    Mindaye, Samuel T.; Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R.; Alterman, Michail A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5], [6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results. PMID:26702413

  16. Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Tissue Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Three-Dimensional Constructs Incorporating Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Hashimoto, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Itsumi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Imazato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of technologies to promote vascularization of engineered tissue would drive major developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) cell constructs composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the majority of cells within the constructs underwent necrosis due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen. We hypothesized that incorporation of vascular endothelial cells would improve the cell survival rate and aid in the fabrication of biomimetic bone tissues in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of endothelial cells combined with the MSC constructs (MSC/HUVEC constructs) during short- and long-term culture. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incorporated into the cell constructs, cell viability and growth factor production were increased after 7 days. Furthermore, HUVECs were observed to proliferate and self-organize into reticulate porous structures by interacting with the MSCs. After long-term culture, MSC/HUVEC constructs formed abundant mineralized matrices compared with those composed of MSCs alone. Transmission electron microscopy and qualitative analysis revealed that the mineralized matrices comprised porous cancellous bone-like tissues. These results demonstrate that highly biomimetic bone tissue can be fabricated in vitro by 3D MSC constructs incorporated with HUVECs. PMID:26047122

  17. Cell-secreted matrices perpetuate the bone-forming phenotype of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Allison I; Mittal, Vaishali; Mitra, Debika; Vollmer, Nina; Zikry, Christopher A; Leach, J Kent

    2016-01-01

    Prior to transplantation, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced toward the osteoblastic phenotype using a cocktail of soluble supplements. However, there is little evidence of differentiated MSCs directly participating in bone formation, suggesting that MSCs may either die or revert in phenotype upon transplantation. Cell-secreted decellularized extracellular matrices (DMs) are a promising platform to confer bioactivity and direct cell fate through the presentation of a complex and physiologically relevant milieu. Therefore, we examined the capacity of biomimetic DMs to preserve the mineral-producing phenotype upon withdrawal of the induction stimulus. Regardless of induction duration, ranging up to 6 weeks, MSCs exhibited up to a 5-fold reduction in osteogenic markers within 24 h following stimulus withdrawal. We show that seeding osteogenically induced MSCs on DMs yields up to 2-fold more calcium deposition than tissue culture plastic, and this improvement is at least partially mediated by increasing actin cytoskeletal tension via the ROCK II pathway. MSCs on DMs also secreted 25% more vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a crucial endogenous proangiogenic factor that is abrogated during MSC osteogenic differentiation. The deployment of DMs into a subcutaneous ectopic site enhanced the persistence of MSCs 5-fold, vessel density 3-fold, and bone formation 2-fold more than MSCs delivered without DMs. These results underscore the need for deploying MSCs using biomaterial platforms such as DMs to preserve the in vitro-acquired mineral-producing phenotype and accelerate the process of bone repair. PMID:26457835

  18. Downregulation of tenascin expression by glucocorticoids in bone marrow stromal cells and in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Tenascin, a predominantly mesenchymal extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein has a rather restricted tissue distribution, but until now factors that inhibit its expression have not been identified. Glucocorticoids are known to be beneficial for establishment of myelopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. Tenascin was found to be expressed in the bone marrow, and glucocorticoids were found to affect bone marrow tenascin expression. Both tenascin mRNAs and the mRNA of another ECM protein, laminin B1 chain, were drastically downregulated by glucocorticoids during initiation of bone marrow cultures. However, in already established long-term cultures glucocorticoids did not affect laminin B1 chain mRNA levels although tenascin mRNAs continued to be downregulated. Studies with a stromal cell line (MC3T3-G2/PA6) and fibroblasts (3T3) suggested that glucocorticoids act directly on the stromal cells that produce tenascin. In 3T3 cells this downregulation occurred within 12 h of glucocorticoid-treatment, suggesting that glucocorticoids acted through cis regulatory elements of the tenascin gene. We suggest that glucocorticoids in part regulate hematopoiesis by modifying the ECM. Furthermore, downregulation of tenascin expression by glucocorticoids may in part explain the restricted tissue distribution of tenascin in other tissues. PMID:7693719

  19. Biological roles of human bone morphogenetic protein 9 in the bone microenvironment of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Weng, Yaguang; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Jiang, Yayun; Chen, Yingying; Zhou, Lan; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma plays a critical role in the bone metastasis of breast cancer. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) are critical to facilitate cancer progression. Human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is the most potent osteogenic factor and one of bone-stored growth factors involved in both promotion and inhibition of different cancers. However, it is unclear whether BMP9 correlates with the bone metastasis of breast cancer. This study was to evaluate the role of BMP9 in the interaction between BMSC and breast cancer cells (BCC). To determine whether BMP9 is able to block the tumor promoting effect of BMSC, an in vitro model was developed using breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells HS-5 with-BMP9 overexpression. The expressions of metastasis-related genes were detected to identify important factors mediating the role of BMP9 in breast cancer cells. Results showed BMP9 could inhibit invasion and promote apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. The expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and monocyte chemoattratctant protein-1 (MCP-1) decreased in the MDA-MB-231 cells of BMP9 over-expression group, and the expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules was also reduced. On the other hand, the expression of stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) decreased in HS-5 cells of BMP9 over-expression group. Taken together, BMP9 is able to inhibit the migration and promote the apoptosis of breast cancer by regulating the interaction between MDA-MB-231 cells and HS-5 cells in which SDF-1/CXCR4-PI3K pathway and EMT are involved. PMID:26550465

  20. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  1. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia??

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hua, Xuming; Hua, Fang; Mao, Wenwei; Wan, Liang; Li, Shiting

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohistological staining and reverse transcription-PCR detection showed that transplanted bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells could migrate and survive in the ischemic regions, such as the cortical and striatal infarction zone. These cells promote vascular endothelial cell growth factor mRNA expression in the ischemic marginal zone surrounding the ischemic penumbra of the cortical and striatal infarction zone, and have great advantages in promoting the recovery of neurological function, reducing infarct size and promoting angiogenesis. Bone marrow regenerative cells exhibited stronger neuroprotective effects than bone marrow cells. Our experimental findings indicate that bone marrow regenerative cells are preferable over bone marrow cells for cell therapy for neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. Their neuroprotective effect is largely due to their ability to induce the secretion of factors that promote vascular regeneration, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:25206414

  2. The Impact of Simulated and Real Microgravity on Bone Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Magnusson, Nils; Infanger, Manfred; Grosse, Jirka; Eilles, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such as the random positioning machine (RPM), the 2D-clinostat, or the NASA-developed rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) to create tissue from bone, tumor, and mesenchymal stem cells. To understand the development of 3D structures, in vitro experiments using s-µg devices can provide valuable information about modulations in signal-transduction, cell adhesion, or extracellular matrix induced by altered gravity conditions. These systems also facilitate the analysis of the impact of growth factors, hormones, or drugs on these tissue-like constructs. Progress has been made in bone tissue engineering using the RWV, and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), formed in both r- and s-µg, have been reported and were analyzed in depth. Currently, these MCTS are available for drug testing and proteomic investigations. This review provides an overview of the influence of µg on the aforementioned cells and an outlook for future perspectives in tissue engineering. PMID:25110709

  3. The impact of simulated and real microgravity on bone cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Magnusson, Nils; Infanger, Manfred; Grosse, Jirka; Eilles, Christoph; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Grimm, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such as the random positioning machine (RPM), the 2D-clinostat, or the NASA-developed rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) to create tissue from bone, tumor, and mesenchymal stem cells. To understand the development of 3D structures, in vitro experiments using s-µg devices can provide valuable information about modulations in signal-transduction, cell adhesion, or extracellular matrix induced by altered gravity conditions. These systems also facilitate the analysis of the impact of growth factors, hormones, or drugs on these tissue-like constructs. Progress has been made in bone tissue engineering using the RWV, and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), formed in both r- and s-µg, have been reported and were analyzed in depth. Currently, these MCTS are available for drug testing and proteomic investigations. This review provides an overview of the influence of µg on the aforementioned cells and an outlook for future perspectives in tissue engineering. PMID:25110709

  4. Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.

  5. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  6. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

  7. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow wastes of spinal fusion procedure (TLIF) for low back pain patients and preparation of bone dusts for transplantable autologous bone graft with a serum glue.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, T; Anabuki, K; Nishijima, Y; Ono, H

    2010-06-01

    Low back pain and subsequent disabilities are common. A lumbar spinal fusion procedure is an effective treatment with autologous bone grafts, but harvesting the bone from the iliac crest is associated with risks of complications. New treatments using stem cells together with osteoconductive and otesoinductive materials have made the procedure safer, but the inconsistency of the amount of stem cells harvested from bone marrow aspirate still remains to be solved. This study reports that the bone dusts, usually discarded as surgical wastes during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedure (TLIF procedure), yielded cells which had the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The cells were positive for the MSC markers and were able to differentiate in osteogenic and adipogenic directions. The cells grew robustly in an osteoconductive material, Bolheal (serum glue), and also proliferated well in culture medium supplemented with autologous serum. Therefore, the bone dust is a good candidate for the alternative source of stem cells other than bone marrow aspirate to increase the safety of the TLIF procedure. PMID:20592461

  8. Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Gronthos, Stan; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2012-06-01

    Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann Emdogain, a clinical preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). MSCs were isolated and ex vivo-expanded from human bone marrow and periodontal ligament and, in culture, allowed to attach to Bone Ceramic in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Gene expression of bone-related proteins was investigated by real time RT-PCR for 72 h, and ectopic bone formation was assessed histologically in subcutaneous implants of Bone Ceramic containing MSCs with or without Emdogain in NOD/SCID mice. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed in vitro, in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Collagen-I mRNA was up-regulated in both MSC populations over the 72-h time course with Emdogain. Expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 showed early stimulation in both MSC types after 24 h. In contrast, expression of BMP-4 was consistently down-regulated in both MSC types with Emdogain. Up-regulation of osteopontin and periostin mRNA was restricted to BMSCs, while higher levels of bone sialoprotein-II were observed in PDLFs with Emdogain. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity levels were reduced in both BMSCs and PDLFs in the presence of Emdogain. Very little evidence was found for ectopic bone formation following subcutaneous implantation of MSCs with Emdogain-coated or -uncoated Bone Ceramic in NOD/SCID mice. The early up-regulation of several important bone-related genes suggests that Emdogain may have a significant stimulatory effect in the commitment of mesenchymal cells to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. While Emdogain inhibited AP activity and appeared not to induce ectopic bone formation, longer-term studies are required to determine whether it promotes the final stages of osteoblast formation and mineralization at gene and protein levels. While used in clinical applications, whether Emdogain and other commercial preparations of EMPs truly possess the capacity to induce the regeneration of bone or other components of the periodontium remains to be established. PMID:21584694

  9. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

  10. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  11. AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolites such as ammonia and lactic formed during mammalian cell culture can frequently be toxic to the cells themselves beyond a threshold concentration of the metabolites. ell culture conducted in the presence of such accumulated metabolites is therefore limited in productiv...

  12. Stability of human mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture: considerations for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Binato, R; de Souza Fernandez, T; Lazzarotto-Silva, C; Du Rocher, B; Mencalha, A; Pizzatti, L; Bouzas, L F; Abdelhay, E

    2013-02-01

    Ex vivo expansion and manipulation of human mesenchymal stem cells are important approaches to immunoregulatory and regenerative cell therapies. Although these cells show great potential for use, issues relating to their overall nature emerge as problems in the field. The need for extensive cell quantity amplification in vitro to obtain sufficient cell numbers for use, poses a risk of accumulating genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that could lead to sporadic malignant cell transformation. In this study, we have examined human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, over extended culture time, using cytogenetic analyses, mixed lymphocyte reactions, proteomics and gene expression assays to determine whether the cultures would retain their potential for use in subsequent passages. Results indicate that in vitro cultures of these cells demonstrated chromosome variability after passage 4, but their immunomodulatory functions and differentiation capacity were maintained. At the molecular level, changes were observed from passage 5 on, indicating initiation of differentiation. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that human mesenchymal stem cells cultures can be used successfully in cell therapy up to passage 4. However, use of cells from higher passages would have to be analysed case by case. PMID:23163975

  13. Reconstitution activity of hypoxic cultured human cord blood CD34-positive cells in NOG mice

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, Haruko; Takubo, Keiyo; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Gomei, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Arai, Fumio; Takahashi, Takao; Suda, Toshio

    2009-01-16

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in hypoxic areas of the bone marrow. However, the role of hypoxia in the maintenance of HSCs has not been fully characterized. We performed xenotransplantation of human cord blood cells cultured in hypoxic or normoxic conditions into adult NOD/SCID/IL-2R{gamma}{sup null} (NOG) mice. Hypoxic culture (1% O{sub 2}) for 6 days efficiently supported the maintenance of HSCs, although cell proliferation was suppressed compared to the normoxic culture. In contrast, hypoxia did not affect in vitro colony-forming ability. Upregulation of a cell cycle inhibitor, p21, was observed in hypoxic culture. Immunohistochemical analysis of recipient bone marrow revealed that engrafted CD34{sup +}CD38{sup -} cord blood HSCs were hypoxic. Taken together, these results demonstrate the significance of hypoxia in the maintenance of quiescent human cord blood HSCs.

  14. Extracellular matrix mineralization in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures: an ultrastructural, compositional and comparative analysis with mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Addison, W N; Nelea, V; Chicatun, F; Chien, Y-C; Tran-Khanh, N; Buschmann, M D; Nazhat, S N; Kaartinen, M T; Vali, H; Tecklenburg, M M; Franceschi, R T; McKee, M D

    2015-02-01

    Bone cell culture systems are essential tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms regulating extracellular matrix mineralization. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell cultures are the most commonly used in vitro model of bone matrix mineralization. Despite the widespread use of this cell line to study biomineralization, there is as yet no systematic characterization of the mineral phase produced in these cultures. Here we provide a comprehensive, multi-technique biophysical characterization of this cell culture mineral and extracellular matrix, and compare it to mouse bone and synthetic apatite mineral standards, to determine the suitability of MC3T3-E1 cultures for biomineralization studies. Elemental compositional analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed calcium and phosphorus, and trace amounts of sodium and magnesium, in both biological samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on resin-embedded intact cultures demonstrated that similar to 1-month-old mouse bone, apatite crystals grew with preferential orientations along the (100), (101) and (111) mineral planes indicative of guided biogenic growth as opposed to dystrophic calcification. XRD of crystals isolated from the cultures revealed that the mineral phase was poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite with 10 to 20nm-sized nanocrystallites. Consistent with the XRD observations, electron diffraction patterns indicated that culture mineral had low crystallinity typical of biological apatites. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed apatitic carbonate and phosphate within the biological samples. With all techniques utilized, cell culture mineral and mouse bone mineral were remarkably similar. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy showed that the cultures had a dense fibrillar collagen matrix with small, 100nm-sized, collagen fibril-associated mineralization foci which coalesced to form larger mineral aggregates, and where mineralized sites showed the accumulation of the mineral-binding protein osteopontin. Light microscopy, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions showed that some cells had dendritic processes and became embedded within the mineral in an osteocyte-like manner. In conclusion, we have documented characteristics of the mineral and matrix phases of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures, and have determined that the structural and compositional properties of the mineral are highly similar to that of mouse bone. PMID:25460184

  15. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brady, Robert T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Hoey, David A

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24 hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. PMID:25721667

  16. Stem cell origin differently affects bone tissue engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Orciani, Monia; Dicarlo, Manuela; Fini, Milena; Orsini, Giovanna; Di Primio, Roberto; Falconi, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering approaches are encouraging for the improvement of conventional bone grafting technique drawbacks. Thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation ability, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and among these adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) are the first- identified and well-recognized stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue. On the basis of these considerations, we analyzed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e., periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum) as well as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches. PMID:26441682

  17. Characterization of Distinct Classes of Differential Gene Expression in Osteoblast Cultures from Non-Syndromic Craniosynostosis Bone

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Peña, Monica L.; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon; Arafat, Dalia; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.; Williams, Joseph; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more skull sutures, occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 infants, with the majority of cases non-syndromic and of unknown etiology. Two common reasons proposed for premature suture fusion are abnormal compression forces on the skull and rare genetic abnormalities. Our goal was to evaluate whether different sub-classes of disease can be identified based on total gene expression profiles. RNA-Seq data were obtained from 31 human osteoblast cultures derived from bone biopsy samples collected between 2009 and 2011, representing 23 craniosynostosis fusions and 8 normal cranial bones or long bones. No differentiation between regions of the skull was detected, but variance component analysis of gene expression patterns nevertheless supports transcriptome-based classification of craniosynostosis. Cluster analysis showed 4 distinct groups of samples; 1 predominantly normal and 3 craniosynostosis subtypes. Similar constellations of sub-types were also observed upon re-analysis of a similar dataset of 199 calvarial osteoblast cultures. Annotation of gene function of differentially expressed transcripts strongly implicates physiological differences with respect to cell cycle and cell death, stromal cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and ribosomal activity. Based on these results, we propose non-syndromic craniosynostosis cases can be classified by differences in their gene expression patterns and that these may provide targets for future clinical intervention. PMID:25184005

  18. Comparison of osteoclastogenesis and resorption activity of human osteoclasts on tissue culture polystyrene and on natural extracellular bone matrix in 2D and 3D.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, C; Schmid, F F; Schmid, F V; Kluger, P J

    2015-07-10

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by osteoblasts (bone formation) and osteoclasts (bone resorption). While there have been numerous studies investigating mesenchymal stem cells and their potential to differentiate into osteoblasts as well as their interaction with different bone substitute materials, there is only limited knowledge concerning in vitro generated osteoclasts. Due to the increasing development of degradable bone-grafting materials and the need of sophisticated in vitro test methods, it is essential to gain deeper insight into the process of osteoclastogenesis and the resorption functionality of human osteoclasts. Therefore, we focused on the comparison of osteoclastogenesis and resorption activity on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and bovine extracellular bone matrices (BMs). Cortical bone slices were used as two-dimensional (2D) substrates, whereas a thermally treated cancellous bone matrix was used for three-dimensional (3D) experiments. We isolated primary human monocytes and induced osteoclastogenesis by medium supplementation. Subsequently, the expression of the vitronectin receptor (?V?3) and cathepsin K as well as the characteristic actin formation on TCPS and the two BMs were examined. The cell area of human osteoclasts was analyzed on TCPS and on BMs, whereas significantly larger osteoclasts could be detected on BMs. Additionally, we compared the diameter of the sealing zones with the measured diameter of the resorption pits on the BMs and revealed similar diameters of the sealing zones and the resorption pits. We conclude that using TCPS as culture substrate does not affect the expression of osteoclast-specific markers. The analysis of resorption activity can successfully be conducted on cortical as well as on cancellous bone matrices. For new in vitro test systems concerning bone resorption, we suggest the establishment of a 2D assay for high throughput screening of new degradable bone substitute materials with osteoclasts. PMID:25562421

  19. The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sean J.; Scadden, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Niches are local tissue microenvironments that maintain and regulate stem cells. Haematopoiesis provides a paradigm for understanding mammalian stem cells and their niches, yet the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche remains incompletely defined and beset by competing models. Here we review progress in elucidating the location and cellular components of the HSC niche in the bone marrow. The niche is perivascular, created partly by mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial cells and often, but not always, located near trabecular bone. Outstanding questions concern the cellular complexity of the niche, the role of the endosteum, and functional heterogeneity among perivascular microenvironments. PMID:24429631

  20. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  1. Clonal analysis of bone marrow and macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.C.; Walker, E.B.; Johnson, C.; Little, R.

    1984-01-01

    To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  2. Effects of Ulmus davidiana planch on mineralization, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and collagenase-1 in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Kap-Sung; Byun, Yu-Seok; Suh, Seok-Jong; Jim, Un-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) (UD) long has been known to have anti-inflammatory and protective effects on damaged tissue, inflammation, and bone among other functions. The herbal medicine also is being used in Oriental medicine to treat osteoporosis. In a preliminary study, treatment of osteoclasts containing long bone cells with the water extract of UD bark prevented the intracellular maturation of cathepsin K (cat K), and thus, it was considered that UD is a pro-drug of a potent bone-resorption inhibitor. To further clarify the role of UD in ossification, we investigated the effects of UD on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cell lines in vitro. In this study, we assessed the effects of UD on osteoblastic differentiation in nontransformed osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) and rat bone marrow cells. UD enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. This stimulatory effect of the UD was observed at relatively low doses (significant at 5-50 microg/ml and maximal at 50 microg/ml). Northern blot analysis showed that UD (100 microg/ml) increases in bone morphogenic protein-2 as well as ALP mRNA concentrations in MC3T3-E1 cells. UD slightly increased in type I collagen mRNA abundance throughout the culture period, whereas it markedly inhibited the gene expression of collagenase-1 between days 15 and 20 of culture. These results indicate that UD has anabolic effects on bone through the promotion of osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that it could be used for the treatment of common metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:16948504

  3. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  4. Inhibition of hepatic stellate cells by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yoon Ok; Jun, Baek Gyu; Kim, Moon Young; Kwon, Sang Ok

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Therapies involving bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have considerable potential in the management of hepatic disease. BM-MSCs have been investigated in regenerative medicine due to their ability to secrete various growth factors and cytokines that regress hepatic fibrosis and enhance hepatocyte functionality. The aim of this study was to determine the antifibrosis effect of BM-MSCs on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the mechanism underlying how BM-MSCs modulate the function of activated HSCs. Methods We used HSCs in both direct and indirect co-culture systems with BM-MSCs to evaluate the antifibrosis effect of BM-MSCs. The cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by a direct co-culture system of activated HSCs with BM-MSCs. The activations of both HSCs alone and HSCs with BM-MSCs in the direct co-culture system were observed by immunocytochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). The levels of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by an indirect co-culture system of activated HSCs with BM-MSCs. Results The BM-MSCs in the direct co-culture system significantly decreased the production of ?-SMA and the viability of activated HSCs, whereas they induced the apoptosis of activated HSCs. The BM-MSCs in the indirect co-culture system decreased the production of transforming growth factor-?1 and interleukin (IL)-6, whereas they increased the production of hepatocyte growth factor and IL-10. These results confirmed that the juxtacrine and paracrine effects of BM-MSCs can inhibit the proliferative, fibrogenic function of activated HSCs and have the potential to reverse the fibrotic process by inhibiting the production of ?-SMA and inducing the apoptosis of HSCs. Conclusions These results have demonstrated that BM-MSCs may exert an antifibrosis effect by modulating the function of activated HSCs. PMID:26157751

  5. Biomass segregation in sage cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Bolta, Ziga; Baricevic, Dea; Raspor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The biomass of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) cell suspension culture was composed of single cells and cell aggregates. The development of aggregated cell culture from a single-cell suspension was monitored by particle size distribution for four particle size classes. Particle size distribution was compared between the biomass grown in bioreactor and shake flasks. The size of the particles had a strong influence on content of secondary metabolite, ursolic acid (UA). The single cell biomass fraction accumulated up to 7.7 mg UA g(-1) DW which was up to 50 times higher compared to aggregated biomass fractions. PMID:12882308

  6. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Prevents Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Berlier, J L; Kharroubi, I; Zhang, J; Dalla Valle, A; Rigutto, S; Mathieu, M; Gangji, V; Rasschaert, J

    2015-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) are able to differentiate into cells of connective tissue lineages, including bone and cartilage. They are therefore considered as a promising tool for the treatment of bone degenerative diseases. One of the major issues in regenerative cell therapy is the biosafety of fetal bovine serum used for cell culture. Therefore, the development of a culture medium devoid of serum but preserving hBMSC viability will be of clinical value. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has an anti-apoptotic action in insulin-producing cells. Interestingly, GIP also exerts beneficial effects on bone turnover by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We therefore evaluated the ability of GIP to prevent cell death in osteoblastic cells cultured in serum-free conditions. In hBMSC and SaOS-2 cells, activation of the GIP receptor increased intracellular cAMP levels. Serum deprivation induced apoptosis in SaOS-2 and hBMSC that was reduced by 30 and 50 %, respectively, in the presence of GIP. The protective effect of GIP involves activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and inhibition of caspases 3/7 activation. These findings demonstrate that GIP exerts a protective action against apoptosis in hBMSC and suggest a novel approach to preserve viability of hBMSC cultured in the absence of serum. PMID:26254594

  7. Incorporation of biphasic calcium phosphate microparticles in injectable thermoresponsive hydrogel modulates bone cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Tsai, Ming-Jin; Liao, Han-Tsung

    2013-10-01

    To provide osteoblast cells with a three-dimensional environment closer to bone matrix, an engineered construct mimicking bone components have been designed and evaluated. A biocompatible injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel, hyaluronic acid-g-chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-CPN), was used as a biomimetic organic gel matrix while embedded biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic micoparticles were used to replace mineralized matrix. The physicochemical properties of HA-CPN/BCP hydrogel composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimeric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human fetal osteoblast cells were cultured in vitro in HA-CPN and HA-CPN/BCP scaffold to study cell viability, proliferation, gene expression, and maintenance of their osteoblastic differential potentials. Overall, HA-CPN/BCP can serve as a better injectable carrier for bone cells than HA-CPN with enhanced proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase activity from biochemical assays, improved calcium deposition and mineralization of extracellular matrix by histological examinations, and elevated gene expression of all essential osteoblastic genes from quantitative real-time PCR, to provide a cell/scaffold construct with higher mechanical strength and elasticity. From in vivo nude mice subcutaneous implantation experiments, the injected cell mass can form ectopic bone tissue in HA-CPN/BCP hydrogel composite. PMID:23711782

  8. Effective combination of aligned nanocomposite nanofibers and human unrestricted somatic stem cells for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Soleimani, Masoud; Ghaemi, Nasser; Shabani, Iman

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Bioartificial bone tissue engineering is an increasingly popular technique to solve bone defect challenges. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between matrix composition and appropriate cell type, focusing on hydroxyapatite (HA), to achieve a more effective combination for bone regeneration. Methods: Human unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) were isolated from placental cord blood. The cellular and molecular events during the osteo-induction of USSCs were evaluated for 21 d under the following conditions: (1) in basal culture, (2) supplemented with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) suspension, and (3) seeded on electrospun aligned nanofibrous poly-?-caprolactone/poly-L-lactic acid/nHA (PCL/PLLA/nHA) scaffolds. The scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tensile test. Results: Maintenance of USSCs for 21 d in basal or osteogenic culture resulted in significant increase in osteoblast differentiation. With nHA suspension, even soluble osteo-inductive additives were ineffective, probably due to induced apoptosis of the cells. In contrast to the hindrance of proliferation by nHA suspension, the scaffolds improved cell growth. The scaffolds mimic the nanostructure of natural bone matrix with the combination of PLLA/PCL (organic phase) and HA (inorganic phase) offering a favorable surface topography, which was demonstrated to possess suitable properties for supporting USSCs. Quantitative measurement of osteogenic markers, enzymatic activity and mineralization indicated that the scaffolds did not disturb, but enhanced the osteogenic potential of USSCs. Moreover, the alignment of the fibers led to cell orientation during cell growth. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the synergism of PCL/PLLA/nHA nanofibrous scaffolds and USSCs in the augmentation of osteogenic differentiation. Thus, nHA grafted into PCL/PLLA scaffolds can be a suitable choice for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:21516135

  9. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  10. Porous collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ning, Li; Malmström, Hans; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-02-01

    Current bone grafting materials have significant limitations for repairing maxillofacial and dentoalveolar bone deficiencies. An ideal bone tissue-engineering construct is still lacking. The purpose of the present study was first to synthesize and develop a collagen-hydroxyapatite (Col-HA) composite through controlled in situ mineralization on type I collagen fibrils with nanometer-sized apatite crystals, and then evaluate their biologic properties by culturing with mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We synthesized Col-HA scaffolds with different Col:HA ratios. Mouse C3H10T1/2 MSCs and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDSCs) were cultured with scaffolds for cell proliferation and biocompatibility assays. We found that the porous Col-HA composites have good biocompatibility and biomimetic properties. The Col-HA composites with ratios 80:20 and 50:50 composites supported the attachments and proliferations of mouse MSCs and hPDSCs. These findings indicate that Col-HA composite complexes have strong potentials for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23574526

  11. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  12. Insect cell culture in reagent bottles

    PubMed Central

    Rieffel, S.; Roest, S.; Klopp, J.; Carnal, S.; Marti, S.; Gerhartz, B.; Shrestha, B.

    2014-01-01

    Growing insect cells with high air space in culture vessel is common from the early development of suspension cell culture. We believed and followed it with the hope that it allows sufficient air for optimal cell growth. However, we missed to identify how much air exactly cells need for its growth and multiplication. Here we present the innovative method that changed the way we run insect cell culture. The method is easy to adapt, cost-effective and useful for both academic and industrial research labs. We believe this method will revolutionize the way we run insect cell culture by increasing throughput in a cost-effective way. In our study we identified:•Insect cells need to be in suspension; air space in culture vessel and type of culture vessel is of less importance. Shaking condition that introduces small air bubbles and maintains it in suspension for longer time provides better oxygen transfer in liquid. For this, high-fill volume in combination with speed and shaking diameter are important.•Commercially available insect cells are not fragile as original isolates. These cells can easily withstand higher shaking speed.•Growth condition in particular lab set-up needs to be optimized. The condition used in one lab may not be optimum for another lab due to different incubators from different vendors. PMID:26150948

  13. [The effect of prodigiozan on the postradiational recovery of hemopoiesis in long-term bone morrow cultures of mice of different genotypes].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, V G; Moroz, V V; Deshevo?, Iu B; Lirshchikov, A V

    2005-01-01

    The influence of prodigiozan on the processes of postirradiation recovery of hemopoiesis in long-term bone morrow cultures of two strain mice, having genetic distinctions in the condition of systems of the reparation DNA was investigated. It was showh, that the irradiation of long-term bone morrow cultures of mice reparation-defective strain 101/H resulted in the greater degree damage of early haemopoietic precursors (GM-CFC), reduction of the amount of the immature and of the mature granulocytes and of the decrease of the number of stromall cells in the comparison with the bone morrow of reparation-capable mice (CBA x C57B1)F1. Under the introduction in cultures of prodigiozan for 24 hours prior to an radiation the distinctions of the speed of postirradiation recovery of hemopoiesis substantially smoothed out, and the protective effect of the drag in bone morrow cultures of mice 101/H was comparable to those, marked in bone morrow cultures of reparation-capable strain mice (CBA x C57B1)F1. It is supposed, that this effect can be caused by the activation of the hematopoietic microenvironment cellular elements and inclusion of the mechanisms of intercellular of interactions, which provide stimulation of the regenerative processes at action radioprotective drags and can in the certain degree to compensate the defect of the systems of the reparation DNA. PMID:16454340

  14. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

  19. Development of a Functional Schwann Cell Phenotype from Autologous Porcine Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Michael J.; Janes, Michael Ann; Chang, Ivy R.; Gregory, Cynthia R.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2012-01-01

    Adult bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) are a potential resource for making Schwann cells to repair damaged peripheral nerves. However, many methods of producing Schwann-like cells can be laborious with the cells lacking a functional phenotype. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method using autologous BM-MNCs to produce a phenotypic and functional Schwann-like cell. Adult porcine bone marrow was collected and enriched for BM-MNCs using a SEPAX device, then cells cultured in Neurobasal media, 4?mM L-glutamine and 20% serum. After 6–8 days, the cultures expressed Schwann cell markers, S-100, O4, GFAP, were FluoroMyelin positive, but had low p75(NGF) expression. Addition of neuregulin (1–25?nM) increased p75(NGF) levels at 24–48?hrs. We found ATP dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, with nucleotide potency being UTP = ATP > ADP > AMP > adenosine. Suramin blocked the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i but ?, ?,-methylene-ATP had little effect suggesting an ATP purinergic P2Y2 G-protein-coupled receptor is present. Both the Schwann cell markers and ATP-induced [Ca2+]i sensitivity decreased in cells passaged >20 times. Our studies indicate that autologous BM-MNCs can be induced to form a phenotypic and functional Schwann-like cell which could be used for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:22792117

  20. Quantitative analysis of glycans, related genes, and proteins in two human bone marrow stromal cell lines using an integrated strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Dongliang; Pang, Xingchen; Yang, Ganglong; Deeg, H Joachim; Guan, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Altered expression of glycans is associated with cell-cell signal transduction and regulation of cell functions in the bone marrow micro-environment. Studies of this micro-environment often use two human bone marrow stromal cell lines, HS5 and HS27a, co-cultured with myeloid cells. We hypothesized that differential protein glycosylation between these two cell lines may contribute to functional differences in in vitro co-culture models. In this study, we applied an integrated strategy using genomic, proteomic, and functional glycomic techniques for global expression profiling of N-glycans and their related genes and enzymes in HS5 cells versus HS27a cells. HS5 cells had significantly enhanced levels of bisecting N-glycans (catalyzed by MGAT3 [?-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-?-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase]), whereas HS27a cells had enhanced levels of Gal?1,4GlcNAc (catalyzed by ?4GalT1 [?4-galactosyltransferase I]). This integrated strategy provides useful information regarding the functional roles of glycans and their related glycogenes and glycosyltransferases in the bone marrow microenvironment, and a basis for future studies of crosstalk among stromal cells and myeloma cells in co-culture. PMID:25936519

  1. Bone matrix osteonectin limits prostate cancer cell growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Kapinas, Kristina; Lowther, Katie M; Kessler, Catherine B; Tilbury, Karissa; Lieberman, Jay R; Tirnauer, Jennifer S; Campagnola, Paul; Delany, Anne M

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding prostate cancer metastasis to bone and the interaction of these cells with the bone microenvironment. Osteonectin/SPARC/BM-40 is a collagen binding matricellular protein that is enriched in bone. Its expression is increased in prostate cancer metastases, and it stimulates the migration of prostate carcinoma cells. However, the presence of osteonectin in cancer cells and the stroma may limit prostate tumor development and progression. To determine how bone matrix osteonectin affects the behavior of prostate cancer cells, we modeled prostate cancer cell-bone interactions using the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, and mineralized matrices synthesized by wild type and osteonectin-null osteoblasts in vitro. We developed this in vitro system because the structural complexity of collagen matrices in vivo is not mimicked by reconstituted collagen scaffolds or by more complex substrates, like basement membrane extracts. Second harmonic generation imaging demonstrated that the wild type matrices had thick collagen fibers organized into longitudinal bundles, whereas osteonectin-null matrices had thinner fibers in random networks. Importantly, a mouse model of prostate cancer metastases to bone showed a collagen fiber phenotype similar to the wild type matrix synthesized in vitro. When PC-3 cells were grown on the wild type matrices, they displayed decreased cell proliferation, increased cell spreading, and decreased resistance to radiation-induced cell death, compared to cells grown on osteonectin-null matrix. Our data support the idea that osteonectin can suppress prostate cancer pathogenesis, expanding this concept to the microenvironment of skeletal metastases. PMID:22525512

  2. A Method for Generation of Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages from Cryopreserved Mouse Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Djalma S.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2010-01-01

    The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells. PMID:21179419

  3. Immunophenotype of multinucleated and mononuclear cells in giant cell lesions of bone and soft tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Doussis, I. A.; Puddle, B.; Athanasou, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the antigenic phenotype of giant cells in giant cell lesions of bone and soft tissue with that of osteoclasts and macrophage polykaryons. METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded sections of 106 giant cell lesions, 19 granulomatous, and 14 osteoclast containing lesions were immuno-histochemically stained for leucocyte common antigen (LCA), CD68, and HLA-DR. RESULTS: Osteoclasts and giant cells of giant cell tumour of bone and giant cell reparative granuloma could be distinguished by their generalised absence of HLA-DR reaction from macrophage polykaryons and giant cells in other giant cell lesions of bone and soft tissue. Staining for LCA, CD68, and HLA-DR was useful in distinguishing reactive histiocytic giant cells and osteoclasts from tumour giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of macrophage associated antigens should be diagnostically useful in differentiating the histological nature of giant cells in various giant cell lesions of bone and soft tissue. Images PMID:1597517

  4. Isolation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and their Cultivation on the Porous Bone Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Ambrosio-Hernández, Javier R.; Piña-Barba, Maria C.; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Cerbón-Cervantes, Marco A.; Tapia-Ramírez, José; Alcantara-Quintana, Luz E.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a differentiation potential towards osteoblastic lineage when they are stimulated with soluble factors or specific biomaterials. This work presents a novel option for the delivery of MSCs from human amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs) that employs bovine bone matrix Nukbone (NKB) as a scaffold. Thus, the application of MSCs in repair and tissue regeneration processes depends principally on the efficient implementation of the techniques for placing these cells in a host tissue. For this reason, the design of biomaterials and cellular scaffolds has gained importance in recent years because the topographical characteristics of the selected scaffold must ensure adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into the desired cell lineage in the microenvironment of the injured tissue. This option for the delivery of MSCs from human amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs) employs bovine bone matrix as a cellular scaffold and is an efficient culture technique because the cells respond to the topographic characteristics of the bovine bone matrix Nukbone (NKB), i.e., spreading on the surface, macroporous covering and colonizing the depth of the biomaterial, after the cell isolation process. We present the procedure for isolating and culturing MSCs on a bovine matrix. PMID:25742362

  5. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna; Aarnisalo, Piia; Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital

    2010-05-28

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  6. Non-Hematopoietic and Hematopoietic SIRP? Signaling Differently Regulates Murine B Cell Maturation in Bone Marrow and Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Kolan, Shrikant Shantilal; Lejon, Kristina; Koskinen Holm, Cecilia; Sulniute, Rima; Lundberg, Pernilla; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    B lymphocyte development occurs in the bone marrow, while final differentiation and maturation can occur in both the bone marrow and the spleen. Here we provide evidence that signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?), an Ig-superfamily ITIM-receptor expressed by myeloid but not by lymphoid cells, is involved in regulating B cell maturation. Lack of SIRP? signaling in adult SIRP?-mutant mice resulted in a reduced maturation of B cells in the bone marrow, evident by reduced numbers of semi-mature IgD+IgMhi follicular type-II (F-II) and mature IgD+IgMlo follicular type-I (F-I) B cells, as well as reduced blood B cell numbers. In addition, lack of SIRP? signaling also impaired follicular B cell maturation in the spleen. Maturing BM or splenic B cells of SIRP?-mutant mice were found to express higher levels of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM and apoptosis was increased among these B cells. Bone marrow reconstitution experiments revealed that the B cell maturation defect in bone marrow and blood was due to lack of SIRP? signaling in non-hematopoietic cells, while hematopoietic SIRP? signaling was important for follicular B cell maturation in the spleen. Adding on to our previous findings of a stromal cell defect in SIRP?-mutant mice was the finding that gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) was significantly lower in cultured bone marrow stromal cells of SIRP? mutant mice. These data suggest a novel and opposite contribution of SIRP? signaling within non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cells, respectively, to maintain B cell maturation and to prevent apoptosis in the bone marrow and spleen of adult mice. PMID:26222253

  7. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy (Yijuan); Kiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including (1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; (2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; (3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process control; and (4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation and ensure compliance with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., generation of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development. PMID:20622510

  8. The effects of bone marrow stromal cell transplants on tendon healing in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Bakri, Karim; Ikeda, Jun; Sun, Yu-Long; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on tendon healing in a canine ex vivo model. Bone marrow was harvested and BMSCs were isolated and cultured according to established protocols. Cells were seeded into 0.5 mg/ml collagen gels and cultured for 24 h to allow gel contraction, and then implanted between the lacerated ends of repaired flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Tendons repaired with a gel patch alone and without a gel patch served as control groups. After 2 and 4 weeks in culture, the repaired tendons were evaluated for breaking strength and stiffness. Cell viability was assessed by labeling the cells with PKH26 red fluorescent cell linker. The maximal strength and stiffness of repaired tendons with the BMSC-seeded patch were significantly higher than the repaired tendons without a patch or with a patch without cells, at both 2 and 4 weeks (p < 0.05). Viable BMSC were present between the cut tendon ends at both 2 and 4 weeks. We conclude that BMSC-seeded gel patch transplantation has the potential to enhance flexor tendon healing, and we plan to investigate this effect in vivo. PMID:19736035

  9. Encapsulated dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an injectable and biodegradable scaffold for applications in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chen, Chider; Akiyama, Kentaro; Xu, Xingtian; Chee, Winston W L; Schricker, Scott R; Shi, Songtao

    2013-11-01

    Bone grafts are currently the major family of treatment options in modern reconstructive dentistry. As an alternative, stem cell-scaffold constructs seem to hold promise for bone tissue engineering. However, the feasibility of encapsulating dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells in scaffold biomaterials such as alginate hydrogel remains to be tested. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to: (1) develop an injectable scaffold based on oxidized alginate microbeads encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs); and (2) investigate the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells in the microbeads both in vitro and in vivo. Microbeads with diameters of 1?±?0.1 mm were fabricated with 2 × 10(6) stem cells/mL of alginate. Microbeads containing PDLSCs, GMSCs, and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a positive control were implanted subcutaneously and ectopic bone formation was analyzed by micro CT and histological analysis at 8-weeks postimplantation. The encapsulated stem cells remained viable after 4 weeks of culturing in osteo-differentiating induction medium. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the stem cells. In vivo, ectopic mineralization was observed inside and around the implanted microbeads containing the immobilized stem cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that immobilization of PDLSCs and GMSCs in alginate microbeads provides a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23983201

  10. Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein Smads signaling in mesenchymal stem cells affected by osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhurong; Wang, Zhe; Qing, Fangzhu; Ni, Yilu; Fan, Yujiang; Tan, Yanfei; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control (culture plate) for up to 14 days to detect the signal molecules which might be affected by the CaP ceramics. Without adding osteogenic factors, MSCs cultured on HA and BCP both expressed higher Runx2, Osterix, collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin at various stages compared with control, thus confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. Later study demonstrated the messenger RNA level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 were also significantly enhanced by HA and BCP. Furthermore, Smad1, 4, 5, and Dlx5, the main molecules in the BMP/Smads signaling pathway, were upregulated by HA and BCP. Moreover, the higher expression of Smads and BMP2, 4 in BCP over HA, corresponded to the better performance of BCP in stimulating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. This was in accordance with the better osteoinductivity of BCP over HA in vivo. Altogether, these results implied that the CaP ceramics may initiate the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by influencing the expression of molecules in BMP/Smads pathway. PMID:24889783

  12. Effect of Intra-Medullar and Intra-Venous Infusions of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cell Engraftment by In-Vivo Cell Tracking and Osteoinductivity in Rabbit Long Bones: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Ohmine, Ken; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stem cell therapy can be an efficacious treatment option for bone fragility disorders (eg, osteogenesis imperfecta, disuse osteopenia, and osteoporosis), and successful cell therapy application may be dependent on optimal cell engraftment in target bones. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of intra-medullar and intra-venous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to improve cell engraftment rate, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture. Methods By using six healthy juvenile New Zealand White rabbits, MSC were isolated from cancellous bone harvests and confirmed to have osteogenic capacity by inducing ectopic bone formation. The MSC were cultured, transduced by foamy viral vectors with marker genes for in vivo cell tracking, and expanded. All rabbits had one randomly selected limb receive intra-medullar infusion of 3×107 to 1×108 autologous MSC in the distal femur or the distal femur and proximal tibia. Two of six rabbits also received an intra-venous MSC infusion. At 28 days, MSC bone engraftment was assessed by PCR and the bone density and microstructure assessed by computed tomography and histomorphometry. Results The intra-medullar-infused MSC were detected in epiphysis or diaphysis of the distal femurs and/or proximal tibiae. Infused MSC comprised 0.01 to 0.3% of all cells in the bone tissues. The intra-venous-infused MSC were not detected in any location. Neither intra-medullar nor intra-venous MSC infusion altered bone volume, bone mineral density, or cortical bone porosity/thickness. Systemic biodistribution of intra-medullar-infused MSC was not evident. Conclusions Our results indicated that intra-medullar infusion can be an effective cell delivery route for stem cell therapy potentially for orthopedic disorders, in preference to systemic administration. Further research is warranted to demonstrate an efficacy of intra-medullar MSC infusion on bone density and micro-architecture using animal models of bone disorders. PMID:25520900

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  14. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cesarz, Zoe; Tamama, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown. PMID:26649054

  15. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cesarz, Zoe; Tamama, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown. PMID:26649054

  16. Oscillatory behavior of cells in tissue culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaever, Ivar; Linton, Michael F. A.; Keese, Charles R.

    1998-03-01

    Fibroblasts and epithelial cells organize themselves in distinct patterns in tissue culture which indicates that neighboring cells communicate. A striking example of such communication is the oscillatory behavior of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells reported here. These oscillations were discovered using a biosensor referred to as ECIS (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing). In this measurement cells are seeded out on a small electrode deposited at the bottom of a tissue culture well and immersed in ordinary culture medium. By measuring the changes in the impedance of the electrode as a function of time, many important properties of the cells on the electrode can be inferred, such as motion, morphology changes and membrane capacitance. The impedance oscillations of MDCK cells were observed with highly confluent cell layers, where the approximately 100 cells on the electrode acted in unison. The communication between cells can be demonstrated directly by a variation of the ECIS concept, where cells are cultured on two closely spaced electrodes. The impedance fluctuations are measured independently on each electrode and compared by using a cross-correlation function.

  17. Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

    E-print Network

    Ni, Ming

    Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods ...

  18. Incidence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose as revealed by bone marrow culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    1. Techniques are described for the cultural isolation of trypanosomes from avian bone marrow obtained from living birds or at autopsy. A new medium SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood) is described. In addition to being a good medium for growing avian trypanosomes, it is excellent for growing trypanosomes of amphibians and mammals. 2. Evidence is presented demonstrating the superiority of (a) cultures over stained smears for detecting the presence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose, and (b) bone marrow over heart blood of this species as a source of trypanosomes for culture. 3. In April 1952, from cultures of bone marrow collected at autopsy it was demonstrated that trypanosome infection occurred in 33 (40.2%) of 82 Canada geese from the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. On February 17, 1953, cultures of bone marrow obtained from living birds revealed presence of trypanosomes in 12 (20.7%) of 58 geese from the same refuge. On February 26, 1953, by employing the latter method, 9 (20.4%) of 44 geese from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge were shown to harbor the parasites. In another survey ninety-two geese from seven national wildlife refuges subjected to the biopsy technique showed evidence of infection in 13 (14.1 %) birds and indicated that trypanosome infection is widely distributed in this host.

  19. Maxillofacial-derived stem cells regenerate critical mandibular bone defect.

    PubMed

    Steinhardt, Yair; Aslan, Hadi; Regev, Eran; Zilberman, Yoram; Kallai, Ilan; Gazit, Dan; Gazit, Zulma

    2008-11-01

    Stem cell-based bone tissue regeneration in the maxillofacial complex is a clinical necessity. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to follow specific differentiation pathways may enhance the ability of these cells to regenerate and increase their clinical relevance. MSCs isolated from maxillofacial bone marrow (BM) are good candidates for tissue regeneration at sites of damage to the maxillofacial complex. In this study, we hypothesized that MSCs isolated from the maxillofacial complex can be engineered to overexpress the bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene and induce bone tissue regeneration in vivo. To demonstrate that the cells isolated from the maxillofacial complex were indeed MSCs, we performed a flow cytometry analysis, which revealed a high expression of mesenchyme-related markers and an absence of non-mesenchyme-related markers. In vitro, the MSCs were able to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Gene delivery of the osteogenic gene BMP2 via an adenoviral vector revealed high expression levels of BMP2 protein that induced osteogenic differentiation of these cells in vitro and induced bone formation in an ectopic site in vivo. In addition, implantation of genetically engineered maxillofacial BM-derived MSCs into a mandibular defect led to regeneration of tissue at the site of the defect; this was confirmed by performing micro-computed tomography analysis. Histological analysis of the mandibles revealed osteogenic differentiation of implanted cells as well as bone tissue regeneration. We conclude that maxillofacial BM-derived MSCs can be genetically engineered to induce bone tissue regeneration in the maxillofacial complex and that this finding may be clinically relevant. PMID:18636943

  20. Effects of ethanol on bone cells in vitro resulting in increased resorption.

    PubMed

    Cheung, R C; Gray, C; Boyde, A; Jones, S J

    1995-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol has been found to be an important risk factor for fractures and osteoporosis, and tissue culture experiments have indicated that low concentrations of ethanol can affect bone formation and resorption. This study investigated direct effects of ethanol on bone cells using an in vitro resorption assay. Osteoclasts from long bones of 19-day prehatch chicks were seeded onto slices of dentine and cultured with control medium alone, or medium containing 0.001%, 0.01% or 0.1% ethanol, at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 for 24 h before being removed. The volumes and areas of resorption pits made in the dentine were measured using confocal laser reflection microscopy (Lasertech 1LM21 system) and the pits counted. An increase in the pit numbers and mean pit areas, volumes and volume/area ratios was observed with 0.001% and 0.01% ethanol, with a dose-related, bell-shaped curve of resorption. Greatest mean volume resorbed per pit (p < 0.05), mean area resorbed per pit (p < 0.01) and number of pits was at 0.01% ethanol. Volume/area (mean depth) per pit was greatest at 0.001% ethanol (p < 0.05). This study has shown that ethanol, even at blood concentrations experienced by the social drinker, has an immediate direct effect on bone cells in vitro, resulting in increased resorption by osteoclasts. PMID:7742073

  1. Human Bone-Forming Chondrocytes Cultured in the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor Retain Matrix Proteins: Similarities to Spaceflight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Hecht, J.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fracture healing, crucial to a successful Mars mission, involves formation of a cartilaginous fracture callus which differentiates, mineralizes, ossifies and remodels via the endochondral process. Studies of spaceflown and tailsuspended rats found that, without loading, fracture callus formation and cartilage differentiation within the callus were minimal. We found delayed differentiation of chondrocytes within the rat growth plate on Cosmos 1887, 2044, and Spacelab 3. In the current study, differentiation of human bone-forming chondrocytes cultured in the hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) was assessed. Human costochondral chondrocytes in suspension were aggregated overnight, then cultured in the HFB for 25 days. Collagen Type II, aggrecan and unsulfated chondroitin were found extracellularly and chondroitin sulfates 4 and 6 within the cell. Lack of secretion was also found in pancreatic cells of spaceflown rats, and in our SL3 studies. The HFB can be used to study cartilage differentiation in simulated microgravity.

  2. A Novel Inverse Finite Element Analysis to Assess Bone Fracture Healing in Mice Receiving Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    healing phase) either receiving or not receiving a therapeutic transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymalA Novel Inverse Finite Element Analysis to Assess Bone Fracture Healing in Mice Receiving Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation J.A. Weis, F. Granero-Moltó, T. Myers, A. Spagnoli, and M

  3. Bone marrow stem cell transplant into intra-bone cavity prevents type 2 diabetes: Role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Review Bone marrow stem cell transplant into intra-bone cavity prevents type 2 diabetes: Role progenitors in diabetic subjects are well known phenomena. We hypothesized that transplantation of bone marrow diabetic ob mice would restore insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. This approach, when combined

  4. Ameloblastin expression and putative autoregulation in mesenchymal cells suggest a role in early bone formation and repair

    PubMed Central

    Tamburstuen, Margareth V.; Reseland, Janne E.; Spahr, Axel; Brookes, Steven J.; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Slaby, Ivan; Snead, Malcolm L.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastin is mainly known as a dental enamel protein, synthesized and secreted into developing enamel matrix by the enamel-forming ameloblasts. The function of ameloblastin in tooth development remains unclear, but it has been suggested to be involved in processes varying from regulating crystal growth to activity as a growth factor or partaking in cell signaling. Recent studies suggest that some enamel matrix proteins also might have important functions outside enamel formation. In this context ameloblastin has recently been reported to induce dentin and bone repair, as well as being present in the early bone and cartilage extracellular matrices during embryogenesis. However, what cells express ameloblastin in these tissues still remain unclear. Thus, the expression of ameloblastin was examined in cultured primary mesenchymal cells and in vivo during healing of bone defects in a “proof of concept” animal study. The real time RT-PCR analysis revealed human ameloblastin (AMBN) mRNA expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and primary osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Expression of AMBN mRNA was also confirmed in human CD34 positive cells and osteoclasts. Western and dot blot analysis of cell lysates and medium confirmed the expression and secretion of ameloblastin from mesenchymal stem cells, primary human osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Expression of ameloblastin was also detected in newly formed bone in experimental bone defects in adult rats. Together these findings suggest a role of this protein in early bone formation and repair. PMID:20854943

  5. Characterization of human cultured periosteal sheets expressing bone-forming potential: in vitro and in vivo animal studies.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tomoyuki; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Kogami, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Nagata, Masaki; Nakata, Koh; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-03-01

    Our recent clinical studies have demonstrated that autologous implantation of human cultured periosteal (hCP) sheets in combination with porous hydroxylapatite (HAp) particles at the site of periodontal bone defects strikingly facilitates tissue regeneration. To better understand how the hCP sheet functions at the implantation site, we have now examined its biochemical and morphological characteristics in vitro and its ectopic osteoinductivity in nude mice. Cultured human periosteal tissue segments produced periosteal cells that migrated out from the central region within 4-8 days and grew more rapidly with longer culture times. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in parallel with actual osteoblastic induction. Cytokine array assays demonstrated that osteoblastic induction downregulated IL-6 and thrombopoietin, but upregulated IL-8, IL-13, IGF-I and IGFBP-2 in hCP sheets. When differentiated hCP sheets were implanted alone, areas of osteoid and mineralized tissue were formed within 2 weeks, but non-induced, immature hCP sheets did not produce much mineralization. These findings suggest that mature hCP sheets potentially function not only as seeds of ectopic bone formation without the need of synthetic tissue scaffolds, but also as living drug-delivery systems, to influence cells near implantation sites by producing several important cytokines. These two major characteristics indicate that a mature hCP sheet is a promising osteoinductive biomaterial, even without conventional scaffolds for periodontal regenerative therapy. PMID:19266490

  6. Culture and transfection of axolotl cells.

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean-François; Sader, Fadi; Ferretti, Patrizia; Roy, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The use of cells grown in vitro has been instrumental for multiple aspects of biomedical research and especially molecular and cellular biology. The ability to grow cells from multicellular organisms like humans, squids, or salamanders is important to simplify the analyses and experimental designs to help understand the biology of these organisms. The advent of the first cell culture has allowed scientists to tease apart the cellular functions, and in many situations these experiments help understand what is happening in the whole organism. In this chapter, we describe techniques for the culture and genetic manipulation of an established cell line from axolotl, a species widely used for studying epimorphic regeneration. PMID:25740487

  7. An Osteoblast-Derived Proteinase Controls Tumor Cell Survival via TGF-beta Activation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Thiolloy, Sophie; Edwards, James R.; Fingleton, Barbara; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Lynch, Conor C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast to bone metastases frequently induce a “vicious cycle” in which osteoclast mediated bone resorption and proteolysis results in the release of bone matrix sequestered factors that drive tumor growth. While osteoclasts express numerous proteinases, analysis of human breast to bone metastases unexpectedly revealed that bone forming osteoblasts were consistently positive for the proteinase, MMP-2. Given the role of MMP-2 in extracellular matrix degradation and growth factor/cytokine processing, we tested whether osteoblast derived MMP-2 contributed to the vicious cycle of tumor progression in the bone microenvironment. Methodology/Principal Findings To test our hypothesis, we utilized murine models of the osteolytic tumor-bone microenvironment in immunocompetent wild type and MMP-2 null mice. In longitudinal studies, we found that host MMP-2 significantly contributed to tumor progression in bone by protecting against apoptosis and promoting cancer cell survival (caspase-3; immunohistochemistry). Our data also indicate that host MMP-2 contributes to tumor induced osteolysis (?CT, histomorphometry). Further ex vivo/in vitro experiments with wild type and MMP-2 null osteoclast and osteoblast cultures identified that 1) the absence of MMP-2 did not have a deleterious effect on osteoclast function (cd11B isolation, osteoclast differentiation, transwell migration and dentin resorption assay); and 2) that osteoblast derived MMP-2 promoted tumor survival by regulating the bioavailability of TGF?, a factor critical for cell-cell communication in the bone (ELISA, immunoblot assay, clonal and soft agar assays). Conclusion/Significance Collectively, these studies identify a novel “mini-vicious cycle” between the osteoblast and metastatic cancer cells that is key for initial tumor survival in the bone microenvironment. In conclusion, the findings of our study suggest that the targeted inhibition of MMP-2 and/or TGF? would be beneficial for the treatment of bone metastases. PMID:22238668

  8. Ex Vivo Behaviour of Human Bone Tumor Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Teresa; Cesario, Elena; Gallo, Michele; Fazioli, Flavio; De Chiara, Annarosaria; Tutucci, Cristina; Apice, Gaetano; de Nigris, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data and experimental research have proved that angiogenic pathways differ in each tumor type and stage. Here, for the first time, we characterize at the molecular and functional level tumor endothelial cells from human bone sarcomas at different stages of disease and with different histotypes. We selected a CD31+ subpopulation from biopsies that displayed the capability to grow as adherent cell lines without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings show the existence in human primary bone sarcomas of highly proliferative endothelial cells expressing CD31, CD44, CD105, CD146 and CD90 markers. These cells are committed to develop capillary-like structures and colony formation units, and to produce nitric oxide. We believe that a better understanding of tumor vasculature could be a valid tool for the design of an efficacious antiangiogenic therapy as adjuvant treatment of sarcomas. PMID:24216983

  9. Interactions between MSCs and Immune Cells: Implications for Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Tracy K.; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Lobo, Peter I.; Cui, Quanjun

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that, of the 7.9 million fractures sustained in the United States each year, 5% to 20% result in delayed or impaired healing requiring therapeutic intervention. Following fracture injury, there is an initial inflammatory response that plays a crucial role in bone healing; however, prolonged inflammation is inhibitory for fracture repair. The precise spatial and temporal impact of immune cells and their cytokines on fracture healing remains obscure. Some cytokines are reported to be proosteogenic while others inhibit bone healing. Cell-based therapy utilizing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an attractive option for augmenting the fracture repair process. Osteoprogenitor MSCs not only differentiate into bone, but they also exert modulatory effects on immune cells via a variety of mechanisms. In this paper, we review the current literature on both in vitro and in vivo studies on the role of the immune system in fracture repair, the use of MSCs in the enhancement of fracture healing, and interactions between MSCs and immune cells. Insight into this paradigm can provide valuable clues in identifying cellular and noncellular targets that can potentially be modulated to enhance both natural bone healing and bone repair augmented by the exogenous addition of MSCs. PMID:26000315

  10. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroids in Fibrin Hydrogels Exhibit Improved Cell Survival and Potential for Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kaitlin C.; Fang, Sophia Y.; Leach, J. Kent

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have great therapeutic potential for the repair of nonhealing bone defects due to their proliferative capacity, multilineage potential, trophic factor secretion, and lack of immunogenicity. However, a major barrier to the translation of cell-based therapies into clinical practice is ensuring their survival and function upon implantation into the defect site. We hypothesized that forming MSC into more physiologic 3-dimensional spheroids, rather than employing dissociated cells from 2-dimensional monolayer culture, would enhance their survival when exposed to a harsh microenvironment while maintaining their osteogenic potential. MSC spheroids were formed using the hanging drop method with increasing cell numbers. Compared to larger spheroids, the smallest spheroids which contained 15,000 cells exhibited increased metabolic activity, reduced apoptosis, and the most uniform distribution of proliferating cells. Spheroids were then entrapped in fibrin gels and cultured in serum-free media and 1% oxygen. Compared to identical numbers of dissociated MSC in fibrin gels, spheroids exhibited significantly reduced apoptosis and secreted up to 100-fold more VEGF. We also observed that fibrin gels containing spheroids and those containing an equivalent number of dissociated cells exhibited similar expression levels of early and late markers of osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrate that MSC spheroids exhibit greater resistance to apoptosis and enhanced proangiogenic potential, while maintaining similar osteogenic potential to dissociated MSC entrapped in a clinically relevant biomaterial, supporting the use of MSC spheroids in cell-based approaches to bone repair. PMID:24781147

  11. Peritoneal repairing cells: a type of bone marrow derived progenitor cells involved in mesothelial regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, R; Cano, E; Grueso, E; Ruiz-Villalba, A; Bera, T K; Gaztambide, J; Segovia, J C; Muñoz-Chápuli, R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The peritoneal mesothelium exhibits a high regenerative ability. Peritoneal regeneration is concomitant with the appearance, in the coelomic cavity, of a free-floating population of cells whose origin and functions are still under discussion. We have isolated and characterized this cell population and we have studied the process of mesothelial regeneration through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in a murine model lethally irradiated and reconstituted with GFP-expressing bone marrow cells. In unoperated control mice, most free cells positive for mesothelin, a mesothelial marker, are green fluorescent protein (GFP). However, 24 hrs after peritoneal damage, free mesothelin+/ GFP+ cells appear in peritoneal lavages. Cultured lavage peritoneal cells show colocalization of GFP with mesothelial (mesothelin, cytokeratin) and fibroblastic markers. Immunohistochemical staining of the peritoneal wall also revealed colocalization of GFP with mesothelial markers and with procollagen-1 and smooth muscle ?-actin. This was observed in the injured area as well as in the surrounding not-injured peritoneal surfaces. These cells, which we herein call peritoneal repairing cells (PRC), are very abundant 1 week after surgery covering both the damaged peritoneal wall and the surrounding uninjured area. However, they become very scarce 1 month later, when the mesothelium has completely healed. We suggest that PRC constitute a type of monocyte-derived cells, closely related with the tissue-repairing cells known as ‘fibrocytes’ and specifically involved in peritoneal reparation. Thus, our results constitute a synthesis of the different scenarios hitherto proposed about peritoneal regeneration, particularly recruitment of circulating progenitor cells and adhesion of free-floating coelomic cells. PMID:20477904

  12. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  13. Expansion of murine periosteal progenitor cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 reveals an intrinsic endochondral ossification program mediated by bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    van Gastel, Nick; Stegen, Steve; Stockmans, Ingrid; Moermans, Karen; Schrooten, Jan; Graf, Daniel; Luyten, Frank P; Carmeliet, Geert

    2014-09-01

    The preservation of the bone-forming potential of skeletal progenitor cells during their ex vivo expansion remains one of the major challenges for cell-based bone regeneration strategies. We report that expansion of murine periosteal cells in the presence of FGF2, a signal present during the early stages of fracture healing, is necessary and sufficient to maintain their ability to organize in vivo into a cartilage template which gives rise to mature bone. Implantation of FGF2-primed cells in a large bone defect in mice resulted in complete healing, demonstrating the feasibility of using this approach for bone tissue engineering purposes. Mechanistically, the enhanced endochondral ossification potential of FGF2-expanded periosteal cells is predominantly driven by an increased production of BMP2 and is additionally linked to an improved preservation of skeletal progenitor cells in the cultures. This characteristic is unique for periosteal cells, as FGF2-primed bone marrow stromal cells formed significantly less bone and progressed exclusively through the intramembranous pathway, revealing essential differences between both cell pools. Taken together, our findings provide insight in the molecular regulation of fracture repair by identifying a unique interaction between periosteal cells and FGF2. These insights may promote the development of cell-based therapeutic strategies for bone regeneration which are independent of the in vivo use of growth factors, thus limiting undesired side effects. PMID:24989687

  14. Synthetic Bone Substitute Engineered with Amniotic Epithelial Cells Enhances Bone Regeneration after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Barboni, Barbara; Mangano, Carlo; Valbonetti, Luca; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Berardinelli, Paolo; Martelli, Alessandra; Muttini, Aurelio; Mauro, Annunziata; Bedini, Rossella; Turriani, Maura; Pecci, Raffaella; Nardinocchi, Delia; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; Tetè, Stefano; Piattelli, Adriano; Mattioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has been provided that a cell-based therapy combined with the use of bioactive materials may significantly improve bone regeneration prior to dental implant, although the identification of an ideal source of progenitor/stem cells remains to be determined. Aim In the present research, the bone regenerative property of an emerging source of progenitor cells, the amniotic epithelial cells (AEC), loaded on a calcium-phosphate synthetic bone substitute, made by direct rapid prototyping (rPT) technique, was evaluated in an animal study. Material And Methods Two blocks of synthetic bone substitute (?0.14 cm3), alone or engineered with 1×106 ovine AEC (oAEC), were grafted bilaterally into maxillary sinuses of six adult sheep, an animal model chosen for its high translational value in dentistry. The sheep were then randomly divided into two groups and sacrificed at 45 and 90 days post implantation (p.i.). Tissue regeneration was evaluated in the sinus explants by micro-computer tomography (micro-CT), morphological, morphometric and biochemical analyses. Results And Conclusions The obtained data suggest that scaffold integration and bone deposition are positively influenced by allotransplantated oAEC. Sinus explants derived from sheep grafted with oAEC engineered scaffolds displayed a reduced fibrotic reaction, a limited inflammatory response and an accelerated process of angiogenesis. In addition, the presence of oAEC significantly stimulated osteogenesis either by enhancing bone deposition or making more extent the foci of bone nucleation. Besides the modulatory role played by oAEC in the crucial events successfully guiding tissue regeneration (angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor expression and inflammation), data provided herein show that oAEC were also able to directly participate in the process of bone deposition, as suggested by the presence of oAEC entrapped within the newly deposited osteoid matrix and by their ability to switch-on the expression of a specific bone-related protein (osteocalcin, OCN) when transplanted into host tissues. PMID:23696804

  15. Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Anja M; Weigand, Annika; Deschler, Gloria; Gerber, Thomas; Arkudas, Andreas; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum) was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 ?g/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin). Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly in the group with autologous serum and after 12 weeks in every experimental group. This study clearly demonstrates the positive effects of autologous serum in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 on bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nano-HA bone grafting material in the sheep model. In further experiments, the results will be transferred to the sheep arteriovenous loop model in order to engineer an axially vascularized primary stable bone replacement in clinically relevant size for free transplantation. PMID:25429218

  16. Selection using the alpha-1 integrin (CD49a) enhances the multipotentiality of the mesenchymal stem cell population from heterogeneous bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Rider, David A; Nalathamby, Thenmozhi; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M

    2007-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells consist of a developmentally heterogeneous population of cells obtained from colony forming progenitors. As these colonies express the alpha-1 integrin (CD49a), here we single-cell FACS sorted CD49a+ cells from bone marrow in order to create clones and then compared their colony forming efficiency and multilineage differentiation capacity to the unsorted cells. Following selection, 40% of the sorted CD49a+ cells formed colonies, whereas parental cells failed to form colonies following limited dilution plating at 1 cell/well. Following ex vivo expansion, clones shared a similar morphology to the parental cell line, and also demonstrated enhanced proliferation. Further analysis by flow cytometry using a panel of multilineage markers demonstrated that the CD49a+ clones had enhanced expression of CD90 and CD105 compared to unsorted cells. Culturing cells in adipogenic, osteogenic or chondrogenic medium for 7, 10 and 15 days respectively and then analysing them by quantitative PCR demonstrated that CD49a+ clones readily underwent multlineage differentiation into fat, bone and cartilage compared to unsorted cells. These results thus support the use of CD49a selection for the enrichment of mesenchymal stem cells, and describes a strategy for selecting the most multipotential cells from a heterogeneous pool of bone marrow mononuclear stem cells. PMID:17694277

  17. Age-related changes in production of interleukin-7 (IL-7) by murine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC).

    PubMed

    Updyke, L W; Cocke, K S; Wierda, D

    1993-06-01

    Age-related decreases in humoral immune function have been well documented. In aged mice, these functional deficits may be due, in part, to decreased numbers of precursor B cells. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) plays a key role in B cell development by stimulating proliferation of progenitor and pre-B cells. In the current study, proliferation of the murine IL-7-dependent pre-B cell line SCID/FC-7 (SCID) was used to assess IL-7 activity in long-term bone marrow culture-conditioned medium (LTBMC-CM) from both young (4-8-week-old) and older (16-40-week-old) mice. Time to reach peak production and peak IL-7 levels were similar in both groups and was optimal between weeks 2 and 6 of culture. IL-7 activity in LTBMC-CM from older mice fell rapidly to negligible levels after 8 weeks in culture. These findings are consistent with age-related changes in stem cell production and B lymphopoiesis in LTBMC reported in other studies. PMID:8377525

  18. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

  19. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

  20. Henrietta Lacks, HeLa cells, and cell culture contamination.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Nelson-Rees, Walter A; Hutchins, Grover M

    2009-09-01

    Henrietta Lacks died in 1951 of an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A tissue biopsy obtained for diagnostic evaluation yielded additional tissue for Dr George O. Gey's tissue culture laboratory at Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, Maryland). The cancer cells, now called HeLa cells, grew rapidly in cell culture and became the first human cell line. HeLa cells were used by researchers around the world. However, 20 years after Henrietta Lacks' death, mounting evidence suggested that HeLa cells contaminated and overgrew other cell lines. Cultures, supposedly of tissues such as breast cancer or mouse, proved to be HeLa cells. We describe the history behind the development of HeLa cells, including the first published description of Ms Lacks' autopsy, and the cell culture contamination that resulted. The debate over cell culture contamination began in the 1970s and was not harmonious. Ultimately, the problem was not resolved and it continues today. Finally, we discuss the philosophical implications of the immortal HeLa cell line. PMID:19722756

  1. Bone marrow stromal cell adhesion and morphology on micro- and sub-micropatterned titanium.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Aaron F; De Howitt, Natalie; Gott, Shannon C; Miller, Christopher; Rao, Masaru P; Liu, Huinan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs) on bulk titanium (Ti) substrates with precisely-patterned surfaces consisting of groove-based gratings with groove widths ranging from 50 micro m down to 0.5 micro m (500 nm). Although it is well known that certain surface patterning enhances osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions, past studies on cell-pattern interactions reported in the literature have heavily relied on surface patterning on materials with limited clinical relevance for orthopedic applications, such as polymeric substrates. The clinical need for improving osseointegration and juxtaposed bone formation around load-bearing Ti implants motivated this in vitro study. BMSCs were selected as model cells due to their important role in bone regeneration. The results showed significantly greater BMSC adhesion density and more favorable cell morphology on sub-micropatterned gratings when compared with larger micropatterned gratings and non-patterned control surfaces after both 24 hr and 72 hr cultures. We observed increasing cellular alignment and elongation with decreasing feature size. We also identified two distinctive cellular morphologies: Type I-Attached and spread cells that elongated along the pattern axes; and Type II-Superficially adhered round cells. Sub-micropatterned gratings demonstrated significantly greater Type I cell density than the non-patterned control, and lower Type II cell density than the larger micropatterned gratings. Collectively, these results suggest potential for rationally designing nano-scale surface topography on Ti implants to improve osseointegration. PMID:24734518

  2. Arsenic induces cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, C.-H.; Chiu, Y.-C.; Huang, C.-F.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chen, P.-C.

    2009-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Therefore, decreased bone formation by osteoblasts may lead to the development of osteoporosis, and rate of apoptosis is responsible for the regulation of bone formation. Arsenic (As) exists ubiquitously in our environment and increases the risk of neurotoxicity, liver injury, peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the effect of As on apoptosis of osteoblasts is mostly unknown. Here, we found that As induced cell apoptosis in osteoblastic cell lines (including hFOB, MC3T3-E1 and MG-63) and mouse bone marrow stromal cells (M2-10B4). As also induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and dysfunction of mitochondria in osteoblasts. As also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic-calcium levels. We found that As increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced As-mediated cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. Therefore, our results suggest that As increased cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts and increased the risk of osteoporosis.

  3. Arsenic induces cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Huang, Chun-Fa; Chen, Ya-Wen; Chen, Po-Chun

    2009-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Therefore, decreased bone formation by osteoblasts may lead to the development of osteoporosis, and rate of apoptosis is responsible for the regulation of bone formation. Arsenic (As) exists ubiquitously in our environment and increases the risk of neurotoxicity, liver injury, peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the effect of As on apoptosis of osteoblasts is mostly unknown. Here, we found that As induced cell apoptosis in osteoblastic cell lines (including hFOB, MC3T3-E1 and MG-63) and mouse bone marrow stromal cells (M2-10B4). As also induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and dysfunction of mitochondria in osteoblasts. As also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic-calcium levels. We found that As increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced As-mediated cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. Therefore, our results suggest that As increased cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts and increased the risk of osteoporosis. PMID:19695276

  4. Noninvasive Real-Time Monitoring by AlamarBlue® During In Vitro Culture of Three-Dimensional Tissue-Engineered Bone Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohua; Holsbeeks, Inge; Impens, Saartje; Sonnaert, Maarten; Bloemen, Veerle; Luyten, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering (TE) aims to develop reproducible and predictive three-dimensional (3D) TE constructs, defined as cell-seeded scaffolds produced by a controlled in vitro process, to heal or replace damaged and nonfunctional bone. To control and assure the quality of the bone TE constructs, a prerequisite for regulatory authorization, there is a need to develop noninvasive analysis techniques to evaluate TE constructs and to monitor their behavior in real time during in vitro culturing. Most analysis techniques, however, are limited to destructive end-point analyses. This study investigates the use of the nontoxic alamarBlue® (AB) reagent, which is an indicator for metabolic cell activity, for monitoring the cellularity of 3D TE constructs in vitro as part of a bioreactor culturing processes. Within the field of TE, bioreactors have a huge potential in the translation of TE concepts to the clinic. Hence, the use of the AB reagent was evaluated not only in static cultures, but also in dynamic cultures in a perfusion bioreactor setup. Hereto, the AB assay was successfully integrated in the bioreactor-driven TE construct culture process in a noninvasive way. The obtained results indicate a linear correlation between the overall metabolic activity and the total DNA content of a scaffold upon seeding as well as during the initial stages of cell proliferation. This makes the AB reagent a powerful tool to follow-up bone TE constructs in real-time during static as well as dynamic 3D cultures. Hence, the AB reagent can be successfully used to monitor and predict cell confluence in a growing 3D TE construct. PMID:23327780

  5. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  6. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: their mobilization and homing to bone marrow and peripheral

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: their mobilization and homing to bone marrow differentiation. In the bone marrow (BM), HSPCs warrant blood cell homeostasis. In addition, they may also Progenitor cells Á Migration Á Homing Á Bone marrow Á Peripheral tissue Introduction Hematopoietic stem cells

  7. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  8. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in...

  9. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in...

  10. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in...

  11. Stem Cell-Calcium Phosphate Constructs for Bone Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H.H.K.; Zhao, L.; Weir, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    While human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been investigated, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are a relatively new cell source. Little has been reported on hUCMSC encapsulation in scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs and hUCMSCs in calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. Stem-cell-encapsulating CPC construct with chitosan and fiber reinforcement reached the strength of cancellous bone, which was much stronger than previous injectable carriers for cell delivery. hUCMSCs and hBMSCs inside the constructs showed excellent viability and osteo-differentiation. The encapsulated hUCMSCs synthesized nearly three-fold more bone minerals than the hBMSCs in vitro. Hence, stem-cell-encapsulating CPC-chitosan-fiber construct may be promising for dental and orthopedic applications. This study indicated that the hUCMSCs were a potent alternative to the gold-standard hBMSCs, which may have a broad impact on regenerative medicine and dental tissue engineering. PMID:20929721

  12. Focal Adhesion Kinase Regulates the Localization and Retention of Pro-B Cells in Bone Marrow Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Young; Wolfram, Peter; Canty, Kimberly; Harley, Brendan; Nombela-Arrieta, César; Pivarnik, Gregory; Manis, John; Beggs, Hilary E; Silberstein, Leslie E

    2012-01-01

    Progenitor B cells reside in complex bone marrow microenvironments where they receive signals for growth and maturation. We reported previously that the CXCL12-FAK-VLA4 pathway plays an important role in progenitor B cell adhesion and migration. Here we have conditionally targeted in B cells Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and find that the numbers of progenitor pro-B, pre-B and immature B cells are reduced by 30–40% in B cell specific FAK knockout mice. When cultured in methylcellulose with IL-7 ± CXCL12, Fak deleted pro-B cells yield significantly fewer cells and colonies. Utilizing in situ quantitative imaging cytometry, we establish that in longitudinal femoral bone marrow sections, pro-B cells are preferentially localized in close proximity to the endosteum of the metaphyses and the diaphysis. Fak deletion disrupts the non-random distribution of pro-B cells and induces the mobilization of pro-B cells to the periphery in vivo. These effects of Fak deletion on pro-B cell mobilization and localization in bone marrow are amplified under inflammatory stress, i.e. following immunization with nitrophenol-conjugated chicken ?-globulin in alum (NP-CGG-alum). Collectively, these studies suggest the importance of FAK in regulating pro-B cell homeostasis and maintenance of their spatial distribution in bone marrow niches. PMID:23264658

  13. In vivo repopulation ability of genetically corrected bone marrow cells from Fanconi anemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Haguenauer, Odile; Péault, Bruno; Bauche, Cécile; Daniel, Marie-Thérèse; Casal, Ibrahim; Levy, Vincent; Dausset, Jean; Boiron, Michel; Auclair, Christian; Gluckman, Eliane; Marty, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited genomic instability syndrome representing one of the best examples of hematopoietic stem cell deficiency. Although FA might be an excellent candidate for bone marrow (BM) genetic correction ex vivo, knockout animal models are not sufficient to guide preclinical steps, and gene therapy attempts have proven disappointing so far. Contributing to these poor results is a characteristic and dramatic early BM-cells die-off when placed in culture. We show here that human primary FA BM cell survival can be ameliorated by using specific culture conditions that limit oxidative stress. When coupled with retrovirus-mediated transfer of the main complementation group FANCA-cDNA, we could achieve long-term reconstitution of the stem cell compartment both in vitro and in vivo. Gene-corrected BM cultures grew for >120 days, and after cultured cell transplantation into NOD?SCID mice, clonogenic human cells carrying the FANCA transgene could be detected 6 months after transduction. By comparison, untransduced cells died in culture by 15 days. Of necessity for ethical reasons, experiments were conducted on a very limited number of primary BM cells. By using low cytokine regimen and conditions matching regulatory requirements, a contingent of gene-corrected cells slowly emerges with an unmet potential for in vivo engraftment. Future therapeutic applications of stem cells might be expanding from these data. In addition, we provide a model of gene-corrected human primary cell growth that carries the potential to better delineate the combined role of both DNA damage and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of FA. PMID:16461901

  14. Human Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E; Franquesa, Marcella; Engela, Anja U; Korevaar, Sander S; Roelofs, Helene; Genever, Paul G; IJzermans, Jan NM; Betjes, Michiel GH; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For clinical applications, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) can be isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of autologous or allogeneic origin. Allogeneic cell usage has advantages but may harbor the risk of sensitization against foreign HLA. Therefore, we evaluated whether bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC are capable of inducing HLA-specific alloreactivity. Methods MSC were isolated from healthy human Bone Marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (ASC) donors. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with HLA-AB mismatched BM-MSC or ASC precultured with or without IFNy. After isolation via FACS sorting, the educated CD8+ T effector populations were exposed for 4 hours to Europium labeled MSC of the same HLA make up as in the co-cultures or with different HLA. Lysis of MSC was determined by spectrophotometric measurement of Europium release. Results CD8+ T cells educated with BM-MSC were capable of HLA specific lysis of BM-MSC. The maximum lysis was 24% in an effector:target (E:T) ratio of 40:1. Exposure to IFN? increased HLA-I expression on BM-MSC and increased lysis to 48%. Co-culturing of PBMC with IFN?-stimulated BM-MSC further increased lysis to 76%. Surprisingly, lysis induced by ASC was significantly lower. CD8+ T cells educated with ASC induced a maximum lysis of 13% and CD8+ T cells educated with IFN?-stimulated ASC of only 31%. Conclusion Allogeneic BM-MSC, and to a lesser extend ASC, are capable of inducing HLA specific reactivity. These results should be taken into consideration when using allogeneic MSC for clinical therapy. PMID:24729944

  15. Characterization of DC-STAMP+ Cells in Human Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yahui Grace; Ritchlin, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts (OC), specialized cells derived from monocytes, maintain skeletal homeostasis under normal conditions but degrade bone in patients with rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Monocytes initially develop in the bone marrow (BM), circulate in peripheral blood, and differentiate into distinct cell types with diverse functions. Imaging studies in (RA) patients and murine arthritis models demonstrate that bone marrow edema detected on MRI is the result of enhanced myelopoiesis which precedes the development of bone erosions detected on plain radiographs several years later. A major knowledge gap, however, is whether OC develop in the BM and circulate to the joint and if the differentiation to OC takes place in the joint space in response to differentiation signals such as RANKL and TNF. We have previously demonstrated that osteoclast precursors (OCP) are increased in the circulaton of patients with RA and PsA. We showed that DC-STAMP (Dendritic Cell-Specific Transmembrane protein), a 7-pass transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of monocytes, is essential for cell-to-cell fusion during OC differentiation and is a valid biomarker of OCP. Herein, we examined OCP in human bone marrow and identified one novel subset of DC-STAMP+CD45intermediate monocytes which was absent in the blood. We also found that OCPs reside in human BM with a higher frequency than in the peripheral blood. These findings support the notion that the BM is a major reservoir of circulating OCPs. In addition, we demonstrated that a higher frequency of DC-STAMP+ cells in the BM have detectable intracellular IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-17A than DC-STAMP+ cells circulating in the peripheral blood. Finally, the frequency of DC-STAMP+ monocytes and T cells is signficantly higher in PsA BM compared to healthy controls, suggesting an enhanced myelopoiesis is a central event in inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25419541

  16. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells in the field of bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Cecilia; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering represents one of the most challenging emergent fields for scientists and clinicians. Current failures of autografts and allografts in many pathological conditions have prompted researchers to find new biomaterials able to promote bone repair or regeneration with specific characteristics of biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoinductivity. Recent advancements for tissue regeneration in bone defects have occurred by following the diamond concept and combining the use of growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In particular, a more abundant and easily accessible source of MSCs was recently discovered in adipose tissue. These adipose stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained in large quantities with little donor site morbidity or patient discomfort, in contrast to the invasive and painful isolation of bone marrow MSCs. The osteogenic potential of ASCs on scaffolds has been examined in cell cultures and animal models, with only a few cases reporting the use of ASCs for successful reconstruction or accelerated healing of defects of the skull and jaw in patients. Although these reports extend our limited knowledge concerning the use of ASCs for osseous tissue repair and regeneration, the lack of standardization in applied techniques makes the comparison between studies difficult. Additional clinical trials are needed to assess ASC therapy and address potential ethical and safety concerns, which must be resolved to permit application in regenerative medicine. PMID:24772241

  17. Effects of simvastatin on the osteogenic differentiation and immunomodulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jianyi; Ding, Gang; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of simvastatin on the bone differentiation capacity and immunological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were isolated and cultured in medium containing 1.0 µmol/ml simvastatin. The alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expression levels of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, and calcium nodule formation were assessed to determine the osteogenic differentiation capability of BMSCs. To investigate alterations in the immunological properties of simvastation?treated BMSCs, the immunogenicity of these cells and the effect of BMSCs on phytohemagglutinin?stimulated lymphocyte proliferation were also assessed. Following treatment with simvastatin, the alkaline phosphatase activity, and mRNA expression levels of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein were increased significantly in the BMSCs. In addition, von Kossa staining revealed a brown calcium?positive reaction zone in simvastatin?treated cells. Simvastatin?induced BMSCs revealed no affect on the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes, however, inhibited phytohemagglutinin?induced lymphocyte proliferation. Collectively, simvastatin promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs significantly without affecting their immunosuppressive properties. PMID:26499955

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Fraction Contained in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Lara de Freitas, Rafael; Loibl, Markus; Bittermann, Gido; Geoff Richards, R.; Alini, Mauro; Verrier, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In bone tissue engineering (TE) endothelial cell-osteoblast cocultures are known to induce synergies of cell differentiation and activity. Bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMCs) are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) able to develop an osteogenic phenotype. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are also present within BMC. In this study we investigate the effect of EPCs present in the BMC population on MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Human BMCs were isolated and separated into two populations. The MSC population was selected through plastic adhesion capacity. EPCs (CD34+ and CD133+) were removed from the BMC population and the resulting population was named depleted MSCs. Both populations were cultured over 28 days in osteogenic medium (Dex+) or medium containing platelet lysate (PL). MSC population grew faster than depleted MSCs in both media, and PL containing medium accelerated the proliferation for both populations. Cell differentiation was much higher in Dex+ medium in both cases. Real-time RT-PCR revealed upregulation of osteogenic marker genes in depleted MSCs. Higher values of ALP activity and matrix mineralization analyses confirmed these results. Our study advocates that absence of EPCs in the MSC population enables higher osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization and therefore may lead to advanced bone neoformation necessary for TE constructs. PMID:26491682

  19. Ablation of p38? MAPK Signaling in Osteoblast Lineage Cells Protects Mice From Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thouverey, Cyril; Caverzasio, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Estrogen deficiency causes bone loss by increasing the number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Selective p38? MAPK inhibitors prevent bone-wasting effects of estrogen withdrawal but implicated mechanisms remain to be identified. Here, we show that inactivation of the p38?-encoding gene in osteoblast lineage cells with the use of an osteocalcin-cre transgene protects mice from ovariectomy-induced bone loss (a murine model of postmenopausal osteoporosis). Ovariectomy fails to induce bone loss, increase bone resorption, and stimulate receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand and IL-6 expression in mice lacking p38? in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Finally, TNF? or IL-1, which are osteoclastogenic cytokines overproduced in the bone marrow under estrogen deficiency, can activate p38? signaling in osteoblasts, but those cytokines cannot enhance Rankl and Il6 expressions or increase osteoclast formation in p38a-deficient osteoblast cultures. These findings demonstrate that p38? MAPK signaling in osteoblast lineage cells mediates ovariectomy-induced bone loss by up-regulating receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand and IL-6 production. PMID:26441240

  20. Transplantation of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhances angiogenesis and neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia in rats

    E-print Network

    Hayar, Abdallah

    Transplantation of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhances angiogenesis online 9 March 2012 Keywords: Hypoxic preconditioning Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell Transplantation that hypoxic preconditioning of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could not only enhance

  1. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  2. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic reappraisal via the genostem experience

    PubMed Central

    Charbord, Pierre; Livne, Erella; Gross, Gerhard; Häupl, Thomas; Neves, Nuno M.; Marie, Pierre; Bianco, Paolo; Jorgensen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Genostem (acronym for “Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench to the bed side”) has been an European consortium of 30 teams working together on human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been dedicated to the study of basic issues on undifferentiated MSCs properties and on signalling pathways leading to the differentiation into 3 of the connective tissue lineages, osteoblastic, chondrocytic and tenocytic. We have evidenced that native bone marrow MSCs and stromal cells, forming the niche of hematopoietic stem cells, were the same cellular entity located abluminally from marrow sinus endothelial cells. We have also shown that culture-amplified, clonogenic and highly-proliferative MSCs were bona fide stem cells, sharing with other stem cell types the major attributes of self-renewal and of multipotential priming to the lineages to which they can differentiate (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells/pericytes). Extensive transcription profiling and in vitro and in vivo assays were applied to identify genes involved in differentiation. Thus we have described novel factors implicated in osteogenesis (FHL2, ITGA5, Fgf18), chondrogenesis (FOXO1A) and tenogenesis (Smad8). Another part of Genostem activity has been devoted to studies of the repair capacity of MSCs in animal models, a prerequisite for future clinical trials. We have developed novel scaffolds (chitosan, pharmacologically active microcarriers) useful for the repair of both bone and cartilage. Finally and most importantly, we have shown that locally implanted MSCs effectively repair bone, cartilage and tendon. PMID:20198518

  3. A biphasic scaffold design combined with cell sheet technology for simultaneous regeneration of alveolar bone/periodontal ligament complex.

    PubMed

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Fan, Wei; Xiao, Yin; Hamlet, Stephen; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Ivanovski, Saso

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the design of a biphasic scaffold composed of a Fused Deposition Modeling scaffold (bone compartment) and an electrospun membrane (periodontal compartment) for periodontal regeneration. In order to achieve simultaneous alveolar bone and periodontal ligament regeneration a cell-based strategy was carried out by combining osteoblast culture in the bone compartment and placement of multiple periodontal ligament (PDL) cell sheets on the electrospun membrane. In vitro data showed that the osteoblasts formed mineralized matrix in the bone compartment after 21 days in culture and that the PDL cell sheet harvesting did not induce significant cell death. The cell-seeded biphasic scaffolds were placed onto a dentin block and implanted for 8 weeks in an athymic rat subcutaneous model. The scaffolds were analyzed by ?CT, immunohistochemistry and histology. In the bone compartment, a more intense ALP staining was obtained following seeding with osteoblasts, confirming the ?CT results which showed higher mineralization density for these scaffolds. A thin mineralized cementum-like tissue was deposited on the dentin surface for the scaffolds incorporating the multiple PDL cell sheets, as observed by H&E and Azan staining. These scaffolds also demonstrated better attachment onto the dentin surface compared to no attachment when no cell sheets were used. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of CEMP1 protein at the interface with the dentine. These results demonstrated that the combination of multiple PDL cell sheets and a biphasic scaffold allows the simultaneous delivery of the cells necessary for in vivo regeneration of alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. PMID:22575832

  4. The Benefit of a Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells Concentrate in addition to an Inorganic Scaffold for Bone Regeneration: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Torres, J.; Lopes, A.; Lopes, M. A.; Gutierres, M.; Cabral, A. T.; Fernandes, M. H.; Monteiro, E.; van Eck, C. F.; Santos, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This work compares the osteoblastic behaviour of a bone marrow (BM) aspirate and a prepared BM concentrate of nucleated cells associated with a glass reinforced hydroxyapatite composite (GRHC) in a microporous pellet formulation. Methods. BM aspirate (30?mL) was collected during 3 orthopedic surgical procedures, and a concentration system was used to achieve 3 rapid preparations of a concentrate of nucleated cells (3?mL) from the BM aspirates. The BM aspirates (53% cell viability; 2.7 × 106 nucleated cell/mL) and the BM concentrates (76% cell viability; 2 × 107 nucleated cell/mL) were cultured over glass reinforced hydroxyapatite pellets, at the same volume/mass ratio, for 30 days. Cultures performed in standard tissue culture plates were used as control. Results. The colonized BM concentrate/material constructs exhibited a representative osteoblastic proliferation/differentiation pathway, evidenced by a high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of collagen type 1, ALP, BMP-2, M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG, and formation of a calcium phosphate mineralized matrix. A clear improved behaviour was noticed compared to the BM aspirate/material constructs. Conclusions. The results suggest the benefit of using an autologous BM concentrate/material construct in the clinical setting, in bone regeneration applications. PMID:25685773

  5. Optimization of Cell Adhesion on Mg Based Implant Materials by Pre-Incubation under Cell Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Willumeit, Regine; Möhring, Anneke; Feyerabend, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture. PMID:24857908

  6. Conditioned Media from Microvascular Endothelial Cells Cultured in Simulated Microgravity Inhibit Osteoblast Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Sara; Maier, Jeanette A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. Gravity contributes to the maintenance of bone integrity. Accordingly, weightlessness conditions during space flight accelerate bone loss and experimental models in real and simulated microgravity show decreased osteoblastic and increased osteoclastic activities. It is well known that the endothelium and bone cells cross-talk and this intercellular communication is vital to regulate bone homeostasis. Because microgravity promotes microvascular endothelial dysfunction, we anticipated that the molecular cross-talk between endothelial cells exposed to simulated microgravity and osteoblasts might be altered. Results. We cultured human microvascular endothelial cells in simulated microgravity using the rotating wall vessel device developed by NASA. Endothelial cells in microgravity show growth inhibition and release higher amounts of matrix metalloproteases type 2 and interleukin-6 than controls. Conditioned media collected from microvascular endothelial cells in simulated microgravity were used to culture human osteoblasts and were shown to retard osteoblast proliferation and inhibit their activity. Discussion. Microvascular endothelial cells in microgravity are growth retarded and release high amounts of matrix metalloproteases type 2 and interleukin-6, which might play a role in retarding the growth of osteoblasts and impairing their osteogenic activity. Conclusions. We demonstrate that since simulated microgravity modulates microvascular endothelial cell function, it indirectly impairs osteoblastic function. PMID:25210716

  7. Cellular bone matrices: viable stem cell-containing bone graft substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z.; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K.; Iatridis, James C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. PURPOSE To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. STUDY DESIGN Areview of literature. METHODS A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. RESULTS Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs’ survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. CONCLUSIONS Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery. Although CBMs appear to be safe for use as bone graft substitutes, their efficacy in spinal fusion surgery remains highly inconclusive. Large, nonindustry sponsored studies evaluating the efficacy of CBMs are required. Without results from such studies, surgeons must be made aware of the potential pitfalls of CBMs in spinal fusion surgery. With the currently available data, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of CBMs as bone graft substitutes in spinal fusion surgery. PMID:24929059

  8. Potential Spermatogenesis Recovery with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Azoospermic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deying; Liu, Xing; Peng, Jinpu; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Jing; Li, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Non-obstructive azoospermia is the most challenging type of male infertility. Stem cell based therapy provides the potential to enhance the recovery of spermatogenesis following cancer therapy. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess the potential to differentiate or trans-differentiate into multi-lineage cells, secrete paracrine factors to recruit the resident stem cells to participate in tissue regeneration, or fuse with the local cells in the affected region. In this study, we tested whether spermatogenically-induced BMSCs can restore spermatogenesis after administration of an anticancer drug. Allogeneic BMSCs were co-cultured in conditioned media derived from cultured testicular Sertoli cells in vitro, and then induced stem cells were transplanted into the seminiferous tubules of a busulfan-induced azoospermatic rat model for 8 weeks. The in vitro induced BMSCs exhibited specific spermatogonic gene and protein markers, and after implantation the donor cells survived and located at the basement membranes of the recipient seminiferous tubules, in accordance with what are considered the unique biological characteristics of spermatogenic stem cells. Molecular markers of spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogonia (Vasa, Stella, SMAD1, Dazl, GCNF, HSP90?, integrin?1, and c-kit) were expressed in the recipient testis tissue. No tumor mass, immune response, or inflammatory reaction developed. In conclusion, BMSCs might provide the potential to trans-differentiate into spermatogenic-like-cells, enhancing endogenous fertility recovery. The present study indicates that BMSCs might offer alternative treatment for the patients with azoospermatic infertility after cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25062349

  9. Potential spermatogenesis recovery with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an azoospermic rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deying; Liu, Xing; Peng, Jinpu; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Jing; Li, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Non-obstructive azoospermia is the most challenging type of male infertility. Stem cell based therapy provides the potential to enhance the recovery of spermatogenesis following cancer therapy. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess the potential to differentiate or trans-differentiate into multi-lineage cells, secrete paracrine factors to recruit the resident stem cells to participate in tissue regeneration, or fuse with the local cells in the affected region. In this study, we tested whether spermatogenically-induced BMSCs can restore spermatogenesis after administration of an anticancer drug. Allogeneic BMSCs were co-cultured in conditioned media derived from cultured testicular Sertoli cells in vitro, and then induced stem cells were transplanted into the seminiferous tubules of a busulfan-induced azoospermatic rat model for 8 weeks. The in vitro induced BMSCs exhibited specific spermatogonic gene and protein markers, and after implantation the donor cells survived and located at the basement membranes of the recipient seminiferous tubules, in accordance with what are considered the unique biological characteristics of spermatogenic stem cells. Molecular markers of spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogonia (Vasa, Stella, SMAD1, Dazl, GCNF, HSP90?, integrin?1, and c-kit) were expressed in the recipient testis tissue. No tumor mass, immune response, or inflammatory reaction developed. In conclusion, BMSCs might provide the potential to trans-differentiate into spermatogenic-like-cells, enhancing endogenous fertility recovery. The present study indicates that BMSCs might offer alternative treatment for the patients with azoospermatic infertility after cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25062349

  10. In vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and in vivo bone formation in composite nanofiber meshes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Kyoung; Jeong, Sung In; Rim, Nae Gyune; Lee, Young Moo; Shin, Heungsoo; Lee, Bu-Kyu

    2008-12-01

    Tissue engineering has become an alternative method to traditional surgical treatments for the repair of bone defects, and an appropriate scaffold supporting bone formation is a key element in this approach. In the present study, nanofibrous organic and inorganic composite scaffolds containing nano-sized demineralized bone powders (DBPs) with biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLA) were developed using an electrospinning process for engineering bone. To assess their biocompatibility, in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mandible-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on PLA or PLA/DBP composite nanofiber scaffolds were examined. The mineralization of hMSCs cultured with osteogenic supplements on the PLA/DBP nanofiber scaffolds was remarkably greater than on the PLA nanofiber scaffold during the first 14 days of culture but reached the same level after 21 days. The in vivo osteoconductive effect of PLA/DBP nanofibrous scaffolds was further investigated using rats with critical-sized skull defects. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that a greater amount of newly formed bone extended across the defect area in PLA/DBP scaffolds than in the nonimplant and PLA scaffolds 12 weeks after implantation and that the defect size was almost 90% smaller. Therefore, PLA/DBP composite nanofiber scaffolds may serve as a favorable matrix for the regeneration of bone tissue. PMID:18788980

  11. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Verboket, René; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C.; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma), demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and bovine cancellous bone (BS) were assessed. Seeding efficacy on ?-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and ?-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo. PMID:25802865

  12. In vivo leptin expression in cartilage and bone cells of growing rats and adult humans

    PubMed Central

    Morroni, M; De Matteis, R; Palumbo, C; Ferretti, M; Villa, I; Rubinacci, A; Cinti, S; Marotti, G

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to analyse, immunohistochemically, in vivo leptin expression in cartilage and bone cells, the latter restricted to the elements of the osteogenic system (stromal cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells). Observations were performed on the first lumbar vertebra, tibia and femur of four rats and on the humerus, femur and acromion of four patients. Histological sections of paraffin-embedded bone samples were immunostained using antibody to leptin. The results showed that, in growing rat bone, leptin is expressed in chondrocytes and stromal cells, but not in osteoblasts; bone lining cells were not found in the microscopic fields examined. In adult human bone, leptin is expressed in chondrocytes, stromal cells and bone lining cells; osteoblasts were not found in the microscopic fields examined. Osteocytes were found to be leptin positive only occasionally and focally in both rat and human bone. The in vivo findings reported show, for the first time, that leptin appears to be expressed only in the cells of the osteogenic lineage (stromal cells, bone lining cells, osteocytes) that, with respect to osteoblasts, are permanent and inactive, i.e. in those cells that according to our terminology constitute the bone basic cellular system (BBCS). Because the BBCS seems to be primarily involved in sensing and integrating mechanical strains and biochemical factors and then in triggering and driving bone formation and/or bone resorption, it appears that leptin seems to be mainly involved in modulating the initial phases of bone modelling and remodelling processes. PMID:15447688

  13. Isolation of adipose and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using CD29 and CD90 modifies their capacity for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Paul R; Shelton, Richard M; Smith, Anthony J; Scheven, Ben A

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from rats are frequently used for tissue engineering research. However, considerable differences have been identified between rat mesenchymal stem cells and those derived from humans, and no defined panel of markers currently exists for the isolation of these cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cell sorting for CD29+/CD90+ cells from rat adipose and bone marrow tissues on their differentiation and expression of stem cell–associated genes. Flow cytometry showed 66% and 78% CD29+/CD90+ positivity within passage 1 of adipose and bone marrow cultures, respectively. CD29+/CD90+ cells showed a reduction in both osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation when compared with unsorted cells, as determined by alizarin red and Oil Red-O staining, respectively. These findings could not entirely be explained by fluorescence-activated cell sorting–induced cell injury as sort recovery was only modestly affected in adipose-derived cells. Maintaining cells in fluorescence-activated cell sorting buffer did not affect adipose-derived cell viability, but a significant (p?bone marrow–derived cell viability. Additionally, CD29+/CD90+ selection was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of Lin28, Sox2, Nanog and CD73 in adipose-derived cell cultures, whereas differences in stem cell–associated gene expression were not observed in sorted bone marrow–derived cell cultures. In summary, this study demonstrated that fluorescence-activated cell sorting had differential effects on adipose-derived cells and bone marrow–derived cells, and both CD29+/CD90+ cells displayed a significantly reduced capacity for osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation. In conclusion, we identify that maintaining heterogeneity within the mesenchymal stem cell population may be important for optimal differentiation. PMID:26380065

  14. ``In-bone'' Utricle CulturesVA Simplified, Atraumatic Technique for In Situ Cultures of the Adult Mouse

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Mouse (Mus musculus) Utricle *§Henry C. Ou, *Vincent Lin, and *Edwin W. Rubel *Virginia Merrill Bloedel is a reliable and atraumatic technique for cultur- ing mature mouse hair cells and studying hair cell death and protection. Background: The current in vitro technique for studying hair cells of the mature mouse utricle

  15. Verbascoside production by plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, N; Nishimura, H; Okada, M; Mitsuhashi, H

    1991-01-01

    Verbascoside was found to be produced in all calli derived from eleven species that contained the compound in their leaves. Cell suspension cultures were also established in three species, i.e., Leucosceptrum japonicum f. barbinerve, Syringa josikaea, and Sy. vulgaris, all of which were found to produce verbascoside at more than 1 g/l. Of the three species, suspension cultures of L. japonicum f. barbinerve showed rapid growth and the highest yield of verbascoside (1.89 g/l). In these cultures, the effects of major salt concentration in B5 medium on cell growth and verbascoside production were examined. Maximum cell growth and maximum verbascoside production were both achieved by reducing the major salt concentration to half that of the original medium. PMID:24213785

  16. Cellular complexity of the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Calvi, Laura M; Link, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The skeleton serves as the principal site for hematopoiesis in adult terrestrial vertebrates. The function of the hematopoietic system is to maintain homeostatic levels of all circulating blood cells, including myeloid cells, lymphoid cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This action requires the daily production of more than 500 billion blood cells. The vast majority of these cells are synthesized in the bone marrow, where they arise from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. These attributes of HSCs are best demonstrated by marrow transplantation, where even a single HSC can repopulate the entire hematopoietic system. HSCs are therefore adult stem cells capable of multilineage repopulation, poised between cell fate choices which include quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis. While HSC fate choices are in part determined by multiple stochastic fluctuations of cell autonomous processes, according to the niche hypothesis, signals from the microenvironment are also likely to determine stem cell fate. While it had long been postulated that signals within the bone marrow could provide regulation of hematopoietic cells, it is only in the past decade that advances in flow cytometry and genetic models have allowed for a deeper understanding of the microenvironmental regulation of HSCs. In this review, we will highlight the cellular regulatory components of the HSC niche. PMID:24101231

  17. Cellular complexity of the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, Laura M.; Link, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    The skeleton serves as the principal site for hematopoiesis in adult terrestrial vertebrates. The function of the hematopoietic system is to maintain homeostatic levels of all circulating blood cells, including myeloid cells, lymphoid cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This action requires the daily production of more than 500 billion blood cells every day. The vast majority of these cells are synthesized in the bone marrow, where they arise from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. These attributes of HSCs are best demonstrated by marrow transplantation, where even a single HSC can repopulate the entire hematopoietic system. HSCs are therefore adult stem cells capable of multilineage repopulation, poised between cell fate choices, which include quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation and apoptosis. While HSC fate choices are in part determined by multiple stochastic fluctuations of cell autonomous processes, according to the niche hypothesis, signals from the microenvironment are also likely to determine stem cell fate. While it had long been postulated that signals within the bone marrow could provide regulation of hematopoietic cells, it is only in the past decade that advances in flow cytometry and genetic models have allowed for a deeper understanding of microenvironmental regulation of HSCs. In this review, we will highlight the cellular regulatory components of the HSC niche. PMID:24101231

  18. Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Ming; Tong, Wen Hao; Choudhury, Deepak; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods include cost-effectiveness, controllability, low volume, high resolution, and sensitivity. Both biocompatible and bio-incompatible materials have been developed for use in these applications. Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. This review describes multiple surface modification strategies to improve the biocompatibility of MEMS materials. Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue Engineering are presented. PMID:20054478

  19. NK cells differentiated from bone marrow, cord blood and peripheral blood stem cells exhibit similar phenotype and functions.

    PubMed

    Carayol, G; Robin, C; Bourhis, J H; Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Chouaib, S; Coulombel, L; Caignard, A

    1998-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the differentiation of human NK cells from bone marrow, cord blood and mobilized peripheral blood purified CD34+ stem cells using a potent culture system. Elutriated CD34+ stem cells were grown for several weeks in medium supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-15 in the presence or absence of a murine stromal cell line (MS-5). Our data indicate that IL-15 induced the proliferation and maturation of highly positive CD56+ NK cells in both types of culture, although murine stromal cells slightly increased the proliferation of NK cells. NK cells differentiated in the presence of MS-5 were mostly CD56+ CD7 and a small subset expressed CD16. These in vitro differentiated CD56+ NK cells displayed cytolytic activity against the HLA class I- target K562. The CD56+ CD16+ subset also lysed NK-resistant Daudi cells. Neither of these NK subsets were shown to express Fas ligand. Total CD56+ cells expressed high amounts of transforming growth factor-beta and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but no IFN-gamma. Investigation of NK receptor expression showed that most CD56+ cells expressed membrane CD94 and NKG2-A mRNA. PCR analysis revealed that p58 was also expressed in these cells. The role of CD94 in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was assessed on human HLA-B7-transfected murine L cells. While a low cytotoxic activity towards HLA-B7 cells was observed, the HLA-DR4 control cells were killed with high efficiency. These studies demonstrate that cytolytic and cytokine-producing NK cells may be derived from adult and fetal precursors by IL-15 and that these cells express a CD94 receptor which may influence their lytic potential. PMID:9645381

  20. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell aggregate: an optimal cell therapy for full-layer cutaneous wound vascularization and regeneration.

    PubMed

    An, Yulin; Wei, Wei; Jing, Huan; Ming, Leiguo; Liu, Shiyu; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries. Wounds involving dermis suffer more from outside influence and higher risk of chronic inflammation. Therefore the appearance and function restoration has become an imperative in tissue engineering research. In this study, cell-aggregates constructed with green fluorescent protein-expressing (GFP(+)) rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were applied to rat acute full-layer cutaneous wound model to confirm its pro-regeneration ability and compare its regenerative efficacy with the currently thriving subcutaneous and intravenous stem cell administration strategy, with a view to sensing the advantages, disadvantages and the mechanism behind. According to results, cell-aggregates cultured in vitro enjoyed higher expression of several pro-healing genes than adherent cultured cells. Animal experiments showed better vascularization along with more regular dermal collagen deposition for cell-aggregate transplanted models. Immunofluorescence staining on inflammatory cells indicated a shorter inflammatory phase for cell-aggregate group, which was backed up by further RT-PCR. The in situ immunofluorescence staining manifested a higher GFP(+)-cell engraftment for cell-aggregate transplanted models versus cell administered ones. Thus it is safe to say the BMMSCs aggregate could bring superior cutaneous regeneration for full layer cutaneous wound to BMMSCs administration, both intravenous and subcutaneous. PMID:26594024

  1. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell aggregate: an optimal cell therapy for full-layer cutaneous wound vascularization and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    An, Yulin; wei, Wei; Jing, Huan; Ming, Leiguo; Liu, Shiyu; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries. Wounds involving dermis suffer more from outside influence and higher risk of chronic inflammation. Therefore the appearance and function restoration has become an imperative in tissue engineering research. In this study, cell-aggregates constructed with green fluorescent protein-expressing (GFP+) rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were applied to rat acute full-layer cutaneous wound model to confirm its pro-regeneration ability and compare its regenerative efficacy with the currently thriving subcutaneous and intravenous stem cell administration strategy, with a view to sensing the advantages, disadvantages and the mechanism behind. According to results, cell-aggregates cultured in vitro enjoyed higher expression of several pro-healing genes than adherent cultured cells. Animal experiments showed better vascularization along with more regular dermal collagen deposition for cell-aggregate transplanted models. Immunofluorescence staining on inflammatory cells indicated a shorter inflammatory phase for cell-aggregate group, which was backed up by further RT-PCR. The in situ immunofluorescence staining manifested a higher GFP+-cell engraftment for cell-aggregate transplanted models versus cell administered ones. Thus it is safe to say the BMMSCs aggregate could bring superior cutaneous regeneration for full layer cutaneous wound to BMMSCs administration, both intravenous and subcutaneous. PMID:26594024

  2. Distribution of bone morphogenetic protein receptors in human scleral fibroblasts cultured in vitro and human sclera

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen-Ya; Huo, Li-Jun; Cui, Dong-Mei; Yang, Xiao; Wan, Wen-Juan; Zeng, Jun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate the distribution of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs) in human scleral fibroblsasts (HSFs) and in human sclera. METHODS Primary HSFs were cultured in vitro. The mRNA levels of BMP-2 and BMPRs in HSFs were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein distributions of BMP-2 and BMPRs in HSFs were further detected by immunocytofluorescence and western blot. Their protein expression was also detected in frozen human posterior scleral sections by immunohistofluorescence. RESULTS BMP-2 and BMPRs were expressed in both HSFs and human sclera not only at mRNA level but also at protein level. The expressions of BMPRIA and BMPRII were higher than that of BMPRIB in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of HSFs in vitro. Western blot further verified the results of immunocytofluorescence. In human sclera, BMP2, BMPR IB and BMPR II were found to be expressed in the cytomatrix of HSF, and weak signal was detected about BMPRIA. CONCLUSION BMP-2 and all three subtypes of BMPRs were found in HSFs and may play a role in scleral remodeling. PMID:23275897

  3. Bone fracture healing: cell therapy in delayed unions and nonunions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Rosset, Philippe; Lozano, Daniel; Stanovici, Julien; Ermthaller, Christian; Gerbhard, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Bone fracture healing impairment related to mechanical problems has been largely corrected by advances in fracture management. Better protocols, more strict controls of time and function, and hardware and surgical technique evolution have contributed to better prognosis, even in complex fractures. However, atrophic nonunion persists in clinical cases where, for different reasons, the osteogenic capability is impaired. When this is the case, a better understanding of the basic mechanisms under bone repair and augmentation techniques may put in perspective the current possibilities and future opportunities. Among those, cell therapy particularly aims to correct this insufficient osteogenesis. However, the launching of safe and efficacious cell therapies still requires substantial amount of research, especially clinical trials. This review will envisage the current clinical trials on bone healing augmentation based on cell therapy, with the experience provided by the REBORNE Project, and the insight from investigator-driven clinical trials on advanced therapies towards the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem Cells and Bone. PMID:25093266

  4. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; de Maeztu, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-01

    Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40-80 keV), fluence (1-2 e17 ion/cm2) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted surfaces, without surface chemistry modification, are in the same range and that such modifications, in certain conditions, do have a statistically significant effect on bone tissue forming cell adhesion.

  5. The effect of synthetic ?-tricalcium phosphate on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinzhong; Zhao, Liang; Ni, Ling; Qiao, Chunyan; Li, Daowei; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Zongtao

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of large bone defects has been the focus in bone tissue engineering research. By acting as synthetic frameworks for cell growth and tissue formation, biomaterials can play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Among various biomaterials, calcium phosphate based materials include hydroxyapatite (HA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) are widely used as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. However, little is known about the effect of ?-TCP alone on the osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. To this end, we synthesized ?-TCP using a novel co-precipitation method. The synthetic ?-TCP was then incubated with rat BMSCs under osteogenic inductive medium culture conditions, followed by the analysis of the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7, using a quantitative RT-PCR method. Following incubation of BMSCs with 20 ?g/ml ?-TCP, cells reached confluency after 7 days. Additionally, the MTT analysis showed that ?-TCP at concentration of 10-20 ?g/ml had good biocompatibility with BMSCs, showing no significant inhibition of rat BMSCs proliferation. Furthermore, the synthetic ?-TCP (20 ?g/ml), when incubated with rat BMSCs in the osteogenic culture medium, increased the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7. Finally, treatment of synthetic ?-TCP (20 ?g/ml) potentiated calcium nodule formations after incubation with rat BMSCs in osteogenic culture medium for 21 days, as compared with non-treated control. Taken together, the results in the present study suggested that ?-TCP alone likely promotes rat BMSCs osteogenic differentiation through up-regulating ALP, Col-I, Runx2, and SP7 gene expression. PMID:26550458

  6. Devastation of Adult Stem Cell Pools by Irradiation Precedes Collapse of Trabecular Bone Quality

    E-print Network

    Devastation of Adult Stem Cell Pools by Irradiation Precedes Collapse of Trabecular Bone Quality mice were sublethally irradiated with 5 Gy of 137 Cs g-rays, and adult stem cells residing in the bone Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA ABSTRACT Stem cell depletion and compromised bone

  7. Migration of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in 3D: 4 Color Methodology Reveals Spatially

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    Technique Migration of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in 3D: 4 Color Methodology Reveals Spatially and the nucleus for high-resolution confocal microscopy of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) migrating through-Liss, Inc. Key words: bone marrow stromal cells; quadruple labeling; cytoskeleton; confocal microscopy

  8. The Effects of 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Transforming Growth Factor-?3 on Bone Development in an Ex Vivo Organotypic Culture System of Embryonic Chick Femora

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma L.; Rashidi, Hassan; Kanczler, Janos M.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-?3) and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25 (OH) 2D3) are essential factors in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis respectively. These factors also play a fundamental role in the developmental processes and the maintenance of skeletal integrity, but their respective direct effects on these processes are not fully understood. Using an organotypic bone rudiment culture system the current study has examined the direct roles the osteotropic factors 1?,25 (OH)2D3 and TGF-?3 exert on the development and modulation of the three dimensional structure of the embryonic femur. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E11) were organotypically cultured for 10 days in basal media, or basal media supplemented with either 1?,25 (OH) 2D3 (25 nM) or TGF-?3 (5 ng/mL & 15 ng/mL). Analyses of the femurs were undertaken using micro-computed tomography (?CT), histology and immunohistochemistry. 1?,25 (OH)2D3 supplemented cultures enhanced osteogenesis directly in the developing femurs with elevated levels of osteogenic markers such as type 1 collagen. In marked contrast organotypic femur cultures supplemented with TGF-?3 (5 ng/mL & 15 ng/mL) demonstrated enhanced chondrogenesis with a reduction in osteogenesis. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of the ex vivo organotypic embryonic femur culture employed to elucidate the direct roles of these molecules, 1?,25 (OH) 2D3 and TGF-?3 on the structural development of embryonic bone within a three dimensional framework. We conclude that 1?,25(OH)2D and TGF-?3 modify directly the various cell populations in bone rudiment organotypic cultures effecting tissue metabolism resulting in significant changes in embryonic bone growth and modulation. Understanding the roles of osteotropic agents in the process of skeletal development is integral to developing new strategies for the recapitulation of bone tissue in later life. PMID:25835745

  9. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  10. Biomineralized hydroxyapatite nanoclay composite scaffolds with polycaprolactone for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ambre, Avinash H; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2015-06-01

    Nanoclay modified with unnatural amino acid was used to design a nanoclay-hydroxyapatite (HAP) hybrid by mineralizing HAP in the nanoclay galleries mimicking biomineralization. This hybrid (in situ HAPclay) was used to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL)/in situ HAPclay films and scaffolds for bone regeneration. Cell culture assays and imaging were used to study interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and PCL/in situ HAPclay composites (films and scaffolds). SEM imaging indicated MSC attachment, formation of mineralized extracellular (ECM) on PCL/in situ HAPclay films, and infiltration of MSCs to the interior of PCL/in situ HAPclay scaffolds. Mineralized ECM was formed by MSCs without use of osteogenic supplements. AFM imaging performed on this in vitro generated mineralized ECM on PCL/in situ HAPclay films revealed presence of components (collagen and mineral) of hierarchical organization reminiscent of natural bone. Cellular events observed during two-stage seeding experiments on PCL/in situ HAPclay films indicated similarities with events occurring during in vivo bone formation. PCL/in situ HAPclay films showed significantly increased (100-595% increase in elastic moduli) nanomechanical properties and PCL/in situ HAPclay scaffolds showed increased degradation. This work puts forth PCL/in situ HAPclay composites as viable biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25331212

  11. Establishment of a cell line producing bone morphogenetic protein from a human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, K; Yoshikawa, H; Masuhara, K; Sugamoto, K; Tsuda, T; Aoki, Y; Ono, K; Sakamoto, Y

    1989-07-01

    A human osteosarcoma cell line was established from a biopsy specimen from a 13-year-old girl. The osteosarcoma tissue was maintained in athymic nude mice (Balb C nu/nu) by serial transplantation for three years. The tumor was excised from a host mouse and digested with collagenase. The isolated cells were cultured by 98 passages in 14 months, and clones of osteosarcoma cells were obtained by limiting dilution. A clone named human osteosarcoma cell 6 (H-OS-6) that showed the osteoblastic phenotypes of productions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and alkaline phosphatase and a response to human parathyroid hormone (h-PTH 1-34) was selected. The morphology of its chromosomes indicated its human origin. This human osteosarcoma cell line is unique in producing BMP under in vitro conditions. PMID:2545399

  12. Bone tissue engineering via human induced pluripotent, umbilical cord and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rat cranium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Xian; Zhao, Liang; Weir, Michael D; Sun, Jirun; Chen, Wenchuan; Man, Yi; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are an exciting cell source with great potential for tissue engineering. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been used in clinics but are limited by several disadvantages, hence alternative sources of MSCs such as umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs) are being investigated. However, there has been no report comparing hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs for bone regeneration. The objectives of this pilot study were to investigate hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs for bone tissue engineering, and compare their bone regeneration via seeding on biofunctionalized macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in rat cranial defects. For all three types of cells, approximately 90% of the cells remained alive on CPC scaffolds. Osteogenic genes were up-regulated, and mineral synthesis by cells increased with time in vitro for all three types of cells. The new bone area fractions at 12weeks (mean±sd; n=6) were (30.4±5.8)%, (27.4±9.7)% and (22.6±4.7)% in hiPSC-MSC-CPC, hUCMSC-CPC and hBMSC-CPC respectively, compared to (11.0±6.3)% for control (p<0.05). No significant differences were detected among the three types of stem cells (p>0.1). New blood vessel density was higher in cell-seeded groups than control (p<0.05). De novo bone formation and participation by implanted cells was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, (1) hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs greatly enhanced bone regeneration, more than doubling the new bone amount of cell-free CPC control; (2) hiPSC-MSCs and hUCMSCs represented viable alternatives to hBMSCs; (3) biofunctionalized macroporous CPC-stem cell constructs had a robust capacity for bone regeneration. PMID:25712391

  13. Stem cell factor and interleukin-4 induce murine bone marrow cells to develop into mast cells with connective tissue type characteristics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Karimi, K; Redegeld, F A; Heijdra, B; Nijkamp, F P

    1999-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a method to obtain mast cells with connective tissue type mast cell (CTMC) characteristics directly from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells. BM cells were grown for 3 weeks in presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) plus stem cell factor (SCF). SCF alone poorly supported growth and development of mast cells. IL-4 dose-dependently enhanced the expression of c-kit and high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc(epsilon)RI) on the cell surface of SCF-cultured BM cells. Furthermore, cytoplasmic granulation and histamine synthesis of BM-derived mast cells were increased in presence of IL-4 and SCF. Histochemical staining demonstrated that granules were safranin positive. BM-derived mast cells could be activated for granule exocytosis (beta-hexosaminidase release) and lipid mediator generation (LTC4 production) via Fc(epsilon)RI after sensitization with IgE and subsequent crosslinking with multivalent antigen. In addition, mast cells derived from BM cells cultured with SCF plus IL-4 could be activated by substance P, a nonimmunologic stimulus, to release beta-hexosaminidase. The results presented indicate that IL-4 and SCF both have a prominent role in the development of mast cells from murine BM cells in vitro. Mast cells can directly be derived from BM cells in presence of SCF and IL-4 and the cultured cells show typical hallmarks of CTMC, indicating that precursor cells for CTMC may be present in BM. The described culture procedure may be useful to investigate the molecular aspects of the development of committed mast cell lineages. PMID:10210323

  14. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  15. Characteristics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Guoping; Jin Huiming . E-mail: hmjin@shmu.edu.cn; Hu Renming

    2006-09-29

    Evidence for dysfunction of endothelial repair in aged mice was sought by studying the pattern of induced differentiation, quantity, and function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in aged mice. The CD117-positive stem cell population was separated from bone marrow by magnetic activated cell-sorting system (MACS), and EPCs were defined by demonstrating the expression of CD117{sup +}CD34{sup +}Flk-1{sup +} by flow cytometry. After 7 days of culture, the number of clones formed was counted, and proliferation and migration of EPCs were analyzed by MTT[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay and modified Boyden chamber assay. The results demonstrated that compared to the control group, the quantity of bone marrow-derived CD117{sup +} stem cells and EPCs, as well as the proliferation, migration, the number of clones formed, and phagocytotic function of EPCs were significantly reduced in aged mice. There were no significant differences in the morphology and induced differentiation pattern of EPCs between the aged mouse group and the control group. Authors suggest that the dysfunction of EPCs may serve as a surrogate parameter of vascular function in old mice.

  16. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  17. Noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow infiltration and bone marrow microcirculation in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease by means of diffusion

    E-print Network

    Gertz, Michael

    Rajiv Shah Dr. med. Noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow infiltration and bone in the diagnosis and staging of plasma cell diseases using functional imaging. Currently, invasive bone marrow spine of 31 patients with monoclonal plasma cell diseases of all stages was performed. Bone marrow

  18. Demineralized Bone Matrix Combined Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-?3 Gene Promoted Pig Cartilage Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yanlin; Han, Rui; He, Chuan; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Jianwei; Zheng, Jiali; Pei, Mei; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a combination of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) infected with adenovirus-mediated- bone morphogenetic protein (Ad-BMP-2) and transforming growth factor-?3 (Ad-TGF-?3) promotes the repair of the full-thickness cartilage lesions in pig model. Methods BMSCs isolated from pig were cultured and infected with Ad-BMP-2(B group), Ad-TGF-?3 (T group), Ad-BMP-2 + Ad-TGF-?3(BT group), cells infected with empty Ad served as a negative group(N group), the expression of the BMP-2 and TGF-?3 were confirmed by immunofluorescence, PCR, and ELISA, the expression of SOX-9, type II collagen(COL-2A), aggrecan (ACAN) in each group were evaluated by real-time PCR at 1w, 2w, 3w, respectively. The chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was evaluated by type II collagen at 21d with immunohistochemical staining. The third-passage BMSCs infected with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-?3 were suspended and cultured with DBM for 6 days to construct a new type of tissue engineering scaffold to repair full-thickness cartilage lesions in the femur condyles of pig knee, the regenerated tissue was evaluated at 1,2 and 3 months after surgery by gross appearance, H&E, safranin O staining and O'driscoll score. Results Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-?3 (BT group) infected cells acquired strong type II collagen staining compared with Ad-BMP-2 (B group) and Ad-TGF-?3 (T group) along. The Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-?3 infected BMSCs adhered and propagated well in DBM and the new type of tissue engineering scaffold produced hyaline cartilage morphology containing a stronger type II collagen and safranin O staining, the O'driscoll score was higher than other groups. Conclusions The DBM compound with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-?3 infected BMSCs scaffold has a good biocompatibility and could well induce cartilage regeneration to repair the defects of joint cartilage. This technology may be efficiently employed for cartilage lesions repair in vivo. PMID:25545777

  19. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  20. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little resemblance to their pretreatment counterparts, careful attention to the history of denosumab administration is crucial to avoid a misdiagnosis with an important impact on therapy. Unlike malignant GCTs, tGCTs lack significant nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, and infiltration of preexisting bone, but instead show a unique pattern of intralesional bone deposition. PMID:26414220

  1. Bone marrow and splenic histology in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Sena Teixeira Mendes, Larissa

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia is a rare chronic neoplastic B-cell lymphoproliferation that characteristically involves blood, bone marrow and spleen with liver, lymph node and skin less commonly involved. Histologically, the cells have a characteristic appearance with pale/clear cytoplasm and round or reniform nuclei. In the spleen, the infiltrate involves the red pulp and is frequently associated with areas of haemorrhage (blood lakes). The cells stain for B-cell related antigens as well as with antibodies against tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, DBA44 (CD72), CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123, cyclin D1 and annexin A1. Mutation of BRAF -V600E is present and antibody to the mutant protein can be used as a specific marker. Bone marrow biopsy is essential in the initial assessment of disease as the bone marrow may be inaspirable or unrepresentative of degree of marrow infiltration as a result of the tumour associated fibrosis preventing aspiration of the tumour cell component. Bone marrow biopsy is important in the assessment of therapy response but in this context staining for CD11c and Annexin A1 is not helpful as they are also markers of myeloid lineage and identification of low level infiltration may be obscured. In this context staining for CD20 may be used in conjunction with morphological assessment and staining of serial sections for cyclin D1 and DBA44 to identify subtle residual infiltration. Staining for CD79a and CD19 is not recommended as these antibodies will identify plasma cells and can lead to over-estimation of disease. Staining for CD20 should not be used in patients following with anti-CD20 based treatments. Down regulation of cyclin D1 and CD25 has been reported in patients following BRAF inhibitor therapy and assessment of these antigens should not be used in this context. Histologically, hairy cell leukaemia needs to be distinguished from other B-cell lymphoproliferations associated with splenomegaly including splenic marginal zone lymphoma, splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma and hairy cell leukaemia variant. This can be done by assessment of the spleen but as this is now rarely performed in this disorder distinction is almost always possible by a combination of morphological and immunophenotypic studies on bone marrow trephine biopsy, which can be supplemented by assessment of BRAF-V600E mutation assessment in borderline cases. PMID:26614898

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation to Promote Bone Healing Chan Gao,1,2

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    . These results provide pre-clinical evidence that MSC transplantation promotes peri-implant bone regeneration osseointegration of a femoral implant. MSC harvested from normal young adult mice differentiated into bone forming osteoblasts when cultured on implant grade titanium surfaces ex vivo and promoted bone formation around

  3. USE OF CELL CULTURE FOR EVALUATING NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter familiarizes the reader with the need to develop, validate and utilize in vitro models to test chemicals for neurotoxic potential. he major advantages and disadvantages of using cell and tissue culture, factors which have stimulated and hampered the promulgation of i...

  4. Effects of Electromagnetic Stimulation on Cell Density and Neural Markers in Murine Enteric Cell Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Carreon-Rodriguez, A.; Belkind-Gerson, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Canedo-Dorantes, L.

    2008-08-11

    Availability of adult stem cells from several organs like bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood has become a powerful therapeutic tool for many chronic diseases. Potential of adult stem cells for regeneration extents to other tissues among them the nervous system. However two obstacles should be resolved before such cells could be currently applied in clinical practice: a) slow growth rate and b) ability to form enough dense colonies in order to populate a specific injury or cellular deficiency. Many approaches have been explored as genetic differentiation programs, growth factors, and supplemented culture media, among others. Electromagnetic field stimulation of differentiation, proliferation, migration, and particularly on neurogenesis is little known. Since the biological effects of ELF-EMF are well documented, we hypothesize ELF-EMF could affect growth and maturation of stem cells derived of enteric tissue.

  5. Effects of Electromagnetic Stimulation on Cell Density and Neural Markers in Murine Enteric Cell Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreón-Rodríguez, A.; Belkind-Gerson, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.

    2008-08-01

    Availability of adult stem cells from several organs like bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood has become a powerful therapeutic tool for many chronic diseases. Potential of adult stem cells for regeneration extents to other tissues among them the nervous system. However two obstacles should be resolved before such cells could be currently applied in clinical practice: a) slow growth rate and b) ability to form enough dense colonies in order to populate a specific injury or cellular deficiency. Many approaches have been explored as genetic differentiation programs, growth factors, and supplemented culture media, among others. Electromagnetic field stimulation of differentiation, proliferation, migration, and particularly on neurogenesis is little known. Since the biological effects of ELF-EMF are well documented, we hypothesize ELF-EMF could affect growth and maturation of stem cells derived of enteric tissue.

  6. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand during breast cancer progression and promote tumor-induced bone destruction

    PubMed Central

    Danilin, Sabrina; Merkel, Alyssa R.; Johnson, Joshua R.; Johnson, Rachelle W.; Edwards, James R.; Sterling, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), identified as Gr1+CD11b+ cells in mice, expand during cancer and promote tumor growth, recurrence and burden. However, little is known about their role in bone metastases. We hypothesized that MDSCs may contribute to tumor-induced bone disease, and inoculated breast cancer cells into the left cardiac ventricle of nude mice. Disease progression was monitored weekly by X-ray and fluorescence imaging and MDSCs expansion by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. To explore the contribution of MDSCs to bone metastasis, we co-injected mice with tumor cells or PBS into the left cardiac ventricle and Gr1+CD11b+ cells isolated from healthy or tumor-bearing mice into the left tibia. MDSCs didn’t induce bone resorption in normal mice, but increased resorption and tumor burden significantly in tumor-bearing mice. In vitro experiments showed that Gr1+CD11b+ cells isolated from normal and tumor-bearing mice differentiate into osteoclasts when cultured with RANK ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and that MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice upregulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) mRNA levels in cancer cells. PTHrP upregulation is likely due to the 2-fold increase in transforming growth factor ? expression that we observed in MDSCs isolated from tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, using MDSCs isolated from GFP-expressing animals, we found that MDSCs differentiate into osteoclast-like cells in tumor-bearing mice as evidenced by the presence of GFP+TRAP+ cells. These results demonstrate that MDSCs expand in breast cancer bone metastases and induce bone destruction. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that MDSCs are able to differentiate into osteoclasts in vivo and that this is stimulated in the presence of tumors. PMID:23264895

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) induces buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell differentiation into germ cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) stimulation on differentiation of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ lineage cells. ES cells were subjected to in vitro differentiation in floating and adherent cultures, under different BMP4 concentrations (20, 50 and 100 ngml(-1)) for different culture intervals (4, 8 and 14 days). qPCR analysis revealed that BMP4 at a concentration of 50-100 ngml(-1) for a culture period of 14 days led to maximum induction of germ lineage genes like DAZL, VASA, PLZF (PGC-specific); SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2 (Meiotic genes); BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers); GDF9, ZP2 and 3 (Oocyte markers). The expression levels of all the genes were significantly higher under BMP4 differentiation as compared to BMP4 + NOGGIN and spontaneously differentiated cultures. Immunocytochemical analysis of embryoid bodies (EBs) and monolayer adherent cultures revealed expression of PGC- (c-KIT, DAZL and VASA); Meiotic- (SYCP3, MLH1 and PROTAMINE1); Spermatocyte- (ACROSIN and HAPRIN); and Oocyte- markers (GDF9 and ZP4). Western blotting was positive for VASA, GDF9 and ZP4. Oocyte-like structures (OLS) obtained in monolayer differentiated cultures harbored a big nucleus and a ZP4 coat. They showed embryonic development and progressed through 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell and blastocyst-like structures. Global DNA methylation analysis showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreased levels of 5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine in EBs obtained in optimum differentiation medium. The expression of meiotic markers coupled with expression of spermatocyte and oocyte markers is an indication of post-meiotic progression into spermatogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. PMID:26529649

  8. Understanding cellular networks to improve hematopoietic stem cell expansion cultures

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Understanding cellular networks to improve hematopoietic stem cell expansion cultures Daniel C blood stem cell growth have met with limited success. Considering that adult stem cell cultures-output systems, adult stem cell cultures are better described as complex, non-linear, multiple-input multiple

  9. Prognostic Impact of Reduced Connexin43 Expression and Gap Junction Coupling of Neoplastic Stromal Cells in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Peter; Maros, Mate Elod; Barna, Gabor; Antal, Imre; Papp, Gergo; Sapi, Zoltan; Athanasou, Nicholas Anthony; Benassi, Maria Serena; Picci, Pierro; Krenacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Missense mutations of the GJA1 gene encoding the gap junction channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) cause bone malformations resulting in oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), while GJA1 null and ODDD mutant mice develop osteopenia. In this study we investigated Cx43 expression and channel functions in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), a locally aggressive osteolytic lesion with uncertain progression. Cx43 protein levels assessed by immunohistochemistry were correlated with GCTB cell types, clinico-radiological stages and progression free survival in tissue microarrays of 89 primary and 34 recurrent GCTB cases. Cx43 expression, phosphorylation, subcellular distribution and gap junction coupling was also investigated and compared between cultured neoplastic GCTB stromal cells and bone marow stromal cells or HDFa fibroblasts as a control. In GCTB tissues, most Cx43 was produced by CD163 negative neoplastic stromal cells and less by CD163 positive reactive monocytes/macrophages or by giant cells. Significantly less Cx43 was detected in ?-smooth muscle actin positive than ?-smooth muscle actin negative stromal cells and in osteoclast-rich tumor nests than in the adjacent reactive stroma. Progressively reduced Cx43 production in GCTB was significantly linked to advanced clinico-radiological stages and worse progression free survival. In neoplastic GCTB stromal cell cultures most Cx43 protein was localized in the paranuclear-Golgi region, while it was concentrated in the cell membranes both in bone marrow stromal cells and HDFa fibroblasts. In Western blots, alkaline phosphatase sensitive bands, linked to serine residues (Ser369, Ser372 or Ser373) detected in control cells, were missing in GCTB stromal cells. Defective cell membrane localization of Cx43 channels was in line with the significantly reduced transfer of the 622 Da fluorescing calcein dye between GCTB stromal cells. Our results show that significant downregulation of Cx43 expression and gap junction coupling in neoplastic stromal cells are associated with the clinical progression and worse prognosis in GCTB. PMID:25933380

  10. Method of determining the number of cells in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, D.T.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a color-sensitivity method for determining the number of cells in in vitro cell culture at a sensitivity as low as about 100 or about 500 cells. It comprises lysing the cells and incubating the lysate with p-nitrophenyl phosphate at acid pH for a predetermined period of time at a temperature of from about 35{degrees} to about 38{degrees}C. and then measuring the color development at 400 to 420 nanometers and correlating the color development with cell number by comparing with a control standard of known cell number.

  11. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  12. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground-based investigations simulating the conditions expected in the flight experiment. Several parameters including cell concentration, time between cell loading and activation, and storage temperature on cell survival were examined to characterise cell response and optimise the experiments to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. Results indicate that the objectives of the experiments could be met with delays up to 5 days between cell loading into the hardware and initial in flight experiment activation, without the need for medium exchange. Experiment hardware of this kind, which is adaptable to a wide range of cell types and can be easily interfaced to different spacecraft facilities, offers the possibility for a wide range of experimenters successfully and easily to utilise future flight opportunities.

  13. From bench to clinic and back: skeletal stem cells and impaction bone grafting for regeneration of bone defects.

    PubMed

    Aarvold, A; Smith, J O; Tayton, E R; Jones, A M H; Dawson, J I; Lanham, S; Briscoe, A; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue engineering offers enormous potential for bone regeneration. Despite extensive in vitro and in vivo work, few strategies translate into clinical practice. This paper describes the combination of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) and impaction bone grafting (IBG) for the treatment of patients with bone defects associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head. SSCs and milled allograft were impacted into necrotic bone in the femoral heads of four patients. Three patients remained asymptomatic at 22-44 month follow-up, but one patient has required total hip replacement (both hips). This has allowed retrieval of the femoral heads, which were analysed structurally and functionally by ?CT, histology and mechanical testing. A central channel of impacted bone was found in the femoral heads, which displayed a mature trabecular micro-architecture. The impacted bone was denser than the surrounding trabecular bone, as strong in compression and with histological micro-architecture comparable to that of trabecular bone. Analysis of the retrieved femoral head samples has demonstrated that this tissue-engineering strategy regenerates bone that is both structurally and functionally analogous to normal trabecular bone. SSCs, together with IBG, have proved an effective treatment for avascular necrosis of the femoral head and offer significant potential for the broader spectrum of bone defects. PMID:23038218

  14. Effects of Ti surface treatments with silane and arginylglycylaspartic acid peptide on bone cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lo, Yang; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2015-09-01

    Achieving optimal aesthetic appearance is a major objective in dental implant design, and the interaction between the materials and the bone cell progenitors is an important factor in the attainment of this objective. In this study, a novel concept was evaluated by varying the surface modifications on titanium (Ti). Different levels of roughness can be attained by machine grinding (M), sand blasting, and acid etching (SLA) of the samples. The behavior of bone cell progenitors (D1) on the surfaces of Ti disks with different surface modifications was investigated. The surfaces of M or SLA disks were silanized (MS or SLAS group) through treatment with silane/Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) peptide (MSP or SLASP group) and anchored particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) on the specimen surfaces (SLA-TTCP group). Physicochemical analysis was performed by metallographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle analysis. The proliferation and the quantitative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production of D1 cells on the surface of different sample groups were determined. The SLASP group had a significantly larger D1 cell proliferation than the other groups after 4 and 7 d of incubation (p < 0.05). ALP expression was a very early marker of differentiation, and was the first indication of the increasing number of cells at 7 d of culture. Among the groups in the M substrate series (i.e., M, MS, and MSP) and in the SLA series (i.e., SLA, SLAS, and SLASP), the MSP and SLASP specimens exhibited superior differentiation abilities on respective cultures until day 7 and day 10. A high number of hydrophilic surfaces dominated cell proliferation in the early stage of cell attachment. However, factors affecting the pore structure and the surface morphology can improve cell proliferation and differentiation. According to analyses of proliferation and ALP expression of bone cell progenitors D1, the original SLA implant surface can be improved with surface treatment methods, such as silanization and treatment with graft GRGDS pentapeptide. These methods can be potential candidates for the promotion of bone growth. PMID:25119711

  15. Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Ma, Zhan; Xu, Songtao; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yao; Yu, Yinglu; Liu, Ruilai; Chen, Zhihong; Lu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy. PMID:24998261

  16. PDGFBB promotes PDGFR{alpha}-positive cell migration into artificial bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Center for Human Metabolomic Systems Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kawana, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582; Department of Integrated Bone Metabolism and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hoshi, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hao, Wu; and others

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined effects of PDGFBB in PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration in artificial bones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB was not expressed in osteoblastic cells but was expressed in peripheral blood cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB promoted PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration into artificial bones but not osteoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB did not inhibit osteoblastogenesis. -- Abstract: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha})-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF{beta}) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.

  17. Chondrogenic potential of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells on a novel, auricular-shaped, nanocomposite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kavi H; Nayyer, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of the human auricle remains a challenge to plastic surgeons, and current approaches are not ideal. Tissue engineering provides a promising alternative. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells on a novel, auricular-shaped polymer. The proposed polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-modified poly(hexanolactone/carbonate)urethane/urea nanocomposite polymer has already been transplanted in patients as the world’s first synthetic trachea, tear duct and vascular bypass graft. The nanocomposite scaffold was fabricated via a coagulation/salt-leaching method and shaped into an auricle. Adult bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, cultured and seeded onto the scaffold. On day 21, samples were sent for scanning electron microscopy, histology and immunofluorescence to assess for neocartilage formation. Cell viability assay confirmed cytocompatability and normal patterns of cellular growth at 7, 14 and 21 days after culture. This study demonstrates the potential of a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-modified poly(hexanolactone/carbonate)urethane/urea scaffold for culturing bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells in chondrogenic medium to produce an auricular-shaped construct. This is supported by scanning electron microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis revealing markers of chondrogenesis including collagen type II, SOX-9, glycosaminoglycan and elastin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of stem cell application on an auricular-shaped scaffold for tissue engineering purposes. Although many obstacles remain in producing a functional auricle, this is a promising step forward. PMID:24555012

  18. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation. PMID:25486871

  19. Isolation and Assessment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Bone Marrow: Histologic and Histomorphometric Study in a Canine Periodontal Defect.

    PubMed

    Paknejad, Mojgan; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Ghaedi, Baharak; Rokn, Amir-Reza; Khorsand, Afshin; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Moslemi, Neda; Nowzari, Hessam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate an isolation procedure to culture mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and evaluate their potential in periodontal regeneration. Potential stem cells from bone marrow, aspirated from the iliac crest of nine mongrel canines 1 to 2 years of age, were cultivated. After the examination of surface epitopes of the isolated cells, the total RNA from osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell cultures were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to confirm stem cell gene expressions. 2 × 10(7) mL of the stem cells were loaded on 0.2 mL of anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) granules. In each animal, bilateral acute/chronic intrabony periodontal defects were created surgically and by placement of ligatures around the cervical aspect of the teeth. At week 5, after flap debridement, the bilateral defects were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: the control group received ABBM, and the test group received BMSCs-loaded ABBM. Eight weeks after transplantation, regenerative parameters were analyzed histologically and histometrically. The RNA expressions confirmed the cultivation of mesenchymal stem cell. More new cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured in the test group (cementum: 3.33 ± 0.94 vs 2.03 ± 1.30, P = 0.027; PDL: 2.69 ± 0.73 vs 1.53 ± 1.21, P = 0.026). New bone formation was similar in both groups (2.70 ± 0.86 vs 1.99 ± 1.31; P = 0.193). Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow should be considered a promising technique for use in patients with periodontal attachment loss and merits further investigations. PMID:24383495

  20. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Arshak R. . E-mail: aalexan@mcw.edu

    2005-11-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into {beta}-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs.

  1. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  2. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villagran, Marcelo A; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A; Pantoja, Diego F; Alarcon, Jose C; Fariña, Macarena A; Amigo, Romina F; Muñoz-Godoy, Natalia A; Pinilla, Mabel G; Peña, Eduardo A; Gonzalez-Chavarria, Ivan; Toledo, Jorge R; Rivas, Coralia I; Vera, Juan C; McNerney, Eileen M; Onate, Sergio A

    2015-11-27

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. PMID:26494300

  3. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa; Nagai, Mami; Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Asano, Shigetaka; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065; Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 654-0142

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1{sup +/+} MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1{sup ?/?} MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1{sup +/+} and Med1{sup ?/?} MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

  4. Isolation of a preadipocyte cell line from rat bone marrow and differentiation to adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Marko, O; Cascieri, M A; Ayad, N; Strader, C D; Candelore, M R

    1995-10-01

    A unique population of rat adipocyte precursor cells was derived from normal rat bone marrow. The epitheloid-like preadipocytes were isolated from a mixed culture of bone marrow cells by a combination of differential trypsinization, enrichment by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, and differential seeding. This cell line, designated RBM-Ad, can be fully differentiated into multilocular adipocytes morphologically resembling brown adipose tissue. No changes in the differentiation pattern are observed during propagation of these cells, and they have been successfully carried and differentiated up to passage 49. Histological staining of differentiated cells with Sudan black, Sudan IV, and oil red O indicates the presence of lipids in intracellular vesicles. The nonselective beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity in both preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes. In contrast, BRL-37344, a beta 3-adrenergic receptor-specific agonist, stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and glycerol release in differentiated adipocytes, but not preadipocytes. In addition, differentiated adipocytes contain messenger RNA encoding the brown adipose-specific protein, thermogenin. Thus, this rat preadipocyte cell line can be differentiated into adipocytes that histologically and functionally resemble brown adipose tissue. PMID:7545105

  5. Directed differentiation of aged human bone marrow multipotent stem cells effectively generates dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lixing; Hu, Kaimeng; Ji, Kaihong; Sun, Qing; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Ling; Liu, Houqi

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to isolate aged human bone marrow multipotent stem cells (hAMSCs) with the potential for multilineage differentiation and to directly induce the cells to generate dopamine neurons, which could be used for Parkinson's disease therapy. We compared different culture methods for stem cells from aged human bone marrow and identified hAMSCs that could proliferate in vitro for at least 60 doubling times. Using RT-PCR and IHC, we found that these hAMSCs expressed pluripotent genes, such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. In vitro studies also proved that hAMSCs could differentiate into three germ layer-derived cell types, such as osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and hepatocyte-liked cells. After induction for more than 20 d in vitro with retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor, and sonic hedgehog using a two-step method and withdrawal of serum, hAMSCs could differentiate into dopamine neurons at the positive ratio of 70%, which showed DA secretion function upon depolarization. In conclusion, we suggest that hAMSCs can be used as cell sources to develop medical treatments to prevent the progression of Parkinson's disease, especially in aged persons. PMID:24163158

  6. The characteristics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and their effect on glioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background EPCs were isolated primarily in 1997 by Asahara et al. and recent studies indicated that bone-marrow-derived EPCs contributed little to the endothelium of tumor vessels. Tumors of the CNS system demonstrate various features of angiogenesis. Methods EPCs derived from rat bone marrow were isolated and cultured in M199 medium without any induced factors. EPCs were studied using immunohistochemical staining, Flow cytometry and culture under three-dimensional condition to determine EPCs’ characteristics in vitro. We also established an animal model by injecting EPCs marked with Hoechst 33342 into the back of BALB/c nude mice and performed hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunofluorescent staining to study EPCs’ features in vivo. To research effect of EPCs on glioma, animals bearing tumors model with C6 glioma were established. About 27?day after injection, we performed immunohistochemical staining and Immunofluorescence staining. Results Our results showed that EPCs derived from rat bone marrow appeared typical morphological characteristics and were positive of CD34, CD133, KDR and CD31 antigens at different time in vitro under the special M199 medium without any induced factors. The percentage of cells that expressed CD133 decreased gradually. In brief, the present study showed that EPCs derived from rat bone marrow differentiated into ECs in medium the without any induced factors and formed tubular structures in three-dimensional circumstances. Animal experiments suggested that EPCs differentiated into ECs and other else non-endothelial cells, and that EPCs contributed M199 of glioma. Discussion These findings provides some novel results about biological characteristics of EPCs in vivo and ex vivo, and an update on the effect of EPCs on glioma and which would be helpful for the overall understanding of EPCs and make EPCs to be implied on the clinical therapy. PMID:22720671

  7. Advantages and challenges of microfluidic cell culture in polydimethylsiloxane devices.

    PubMed

    Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Lucumi, Edinson; Gómez-Sjöberg, Rafael; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2015-01-15

    Culture of cells using various microfluidic devices is becoming more common within experimental cell biology. At the same time, a technological radiation of microfluidic cell culture device designs is currently in progress. Ultimately, the utility of microfluidic cell culture will be determined by its capacity to permit new insights into cellular function. Especially insights that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with macroscopic cell culture in traditional polystyrene dishes, flasks or well-plates. Many decades of heuristic optimization have gone into perfecting conventional cell culture devices and protocols. In comparison, even for the most commonly used microfluidic cell culture devices, such as those fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), collective understanding of the differences in cellular behavior between microfluidic and macroscopic culture is still developing. Moving in vitro culture from macroscopic culture to PDMS based devices can come with unforeseen challenges. Changes in device material, surface coating, cell number per unit surface area or per unit media volume may all affect the outcome of otherwise standard protocols. In this review, we outline some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture. We focus on decisive factors that distinguish macroscopic from microfluidic cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopic cell culture principles might apply to microfluidic cell culture. PMID:25105943

  8. Perinatal stem cells: A promising cell resource for tissue engineering of craniofacial bone

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jia-Wen; Wang, Xu-Dong; Shen, Steve GF

    2015-01-01

    In facing the mounting clinical challenge and suboptimal techniques of craniofacial bone defects resulting from various conditions, such as congenital malformations, osteomyelitis, trauma and tumor resection, the ongoing research of regenerative medicine using stem cells and concurrent advancement in biotechnology have shifted the focus from surgical reconstruction to a novel stem cell-based tissue engineering strategy for customized and functional craniofacial bone regeneration. Given the unique ontogenetical and cell biological properties of perinatal stem cells, emerging evidence has suggested these extraembryonic tissue-derived stem cells to be a promising cell source for extensive use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize the current achievements and obstacles in stem cell-based craniofacial bone regeneration and subsequently we address the characteristics of various types of perinatal stem cells and their novel application in tissue engineering of craniofacial bone. We propose the promising feasibility and scope of perinatal stem cell-based craniofacial bone tissue engineering for future clinical application. PMID:25621114

  9. 3D cell culture to determine in vitro biocompatibility of bioactive glass in association with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Bédouin, Y; Pellen Mussi, P; Tricot-Doleux, S; Chauvel-Lebret, D; Auroy, P; Ravalec, X; Oudadesse, H; Perez, F

    2015-12-17

    This study reports the in vitro biocompatibility of a composite biomaterial composed of 46S6 bioactive glass in association with chitosan (CH) by using 3D osteoblast culture of SaOS2. The 46S6 and CH composite (46S6-CH) forms small hydroxyapatite crystals on its surface after only three days immersion in the simulated body fluid. For 2D osteoblast culture, a significant increase in cell proliferation was observed after three days of contact with 46S6 or 46S6-CH-immersed media. After six days, 46S6-CH led to a significant increase in cell proliferation (128%) compared with pure 46S6 (113%) and pure CH (122%). For 3D osteoblast culture, after six days of culture, there was an increase in gene expression of markers of the early osteoblastic differentiation (RUNX2, ALP, COL1A1). Geometric structures corresponding to small apatite clusters were observed by SEM on the surface of the spheroids cultivated with 46S6 or 46S6-CH-immersed media.We showed different cellular responses depending on the 2D and 3D cell culture model. The induction of osteoblast differentiation in the 3D cell culture explained the differences of cell proliferation in contact with 46S6, CH or 46S6-CH-immersed media. This study confirmed that the 3D cell culture model is a very promising tool for in vitro biological evaluation of bone substitutes' properties. PMID:26684889

  10. The Effects of Exendine-4 on Insulin Producing Cell Differentiation from Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nejad-Dehbashi, Fereshteh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Bahramzadeh, Somaieh; Shahhosseini Pourshoushtary, Elham; Khorsandi, Layasadat

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exendin-4 (EX-4) on differentiation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (RAT-BM-MSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, RAT-BM-MSCs were cultured and the cells characterized by flow cytometry analysis of cell surface markers. RAT-BM-MSCs were subsequently treated with induction media with or without EX-4. After induction, the presence of IPCs was demonstrated with dithizone (DTZ) staining and gene expression profiles for pancreatic cell differentiation markers (PDX-1, GLUT-2, insulin) were assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Insulin excreted from differentiated cells was analyzed with radioimmunoassay (RIA). The two-tailed student’s t-test was used for comparison of the obtained values. Results The percentage of DTZ-positive cells significantly increased in EX-4 treated cells (p<0.05). Expression of the islet-associated genes PDX-1, GLUT-2 and insulin genes in EX-4 treated cells was markedly higher than in the cells exposed to differentiation media without EX-4. RIA analysis demonstrated significant release of insulin with the glucose challenge test in EX-4 treated cells compared to EX-4 untreated cells. Conclusion The results of this study have demonstrated that EX-4 can enhance differentiation of IPCs from RAT-BM-MSCs. PMID:24567935

  11. Transdifferentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Islet-Like Cells: the Role of Extracellular Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Lewandowska, Marzena Anna; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Jundzill, Arkadiusz; Rasmus, Marta; Warda, Karolina; Gagat, Maciej; Deptula, Aleksander; Helmin-Basa, Anna; Holysz, Marcin; Nowacki, Maciej; Buchholz, Lukasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alina; Jozwicki, Wojciech; Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islet implantation has been recently shown to be an efficient method of treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, limited availability of donor islets reduces its use. Bone morrow would provide potentially unlimited source of stem cells for generation of insulin-producing cells. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of extracellular matrix proteins like collagen, laminin, and vitronectin on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transdifferentiation into islet-like cells (ILCs) in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the importance of vitronectin in transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into ILCs. Rat BM-MSCs were induced to ILCs using four-step protocol on plates coated with collagen type IV, laminin type I and vitronectin type I. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect gene expression related to pancreatic ? cell development. The induced cells expressed islet-related genes including: neurogenin 3, neurogenic differentiation 1, paired box 4, NK homeobox factor 6.1, glucagon, insulin 1 and insulin 2. Laminin but not collagen type IV or vitronectin enhanced expression of insulin and promoted formation of islet-like structures in monolayer culture. Laminin triggered transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into ILCs. PMID:25957583

  12. In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licínio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25?µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and ?-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5?µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5?µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15?µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15?µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

  13. Are MSCs angiogenic cells? New insights on human nestin-positive bone marrow-derived multipotent cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Iacopo

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have made considerable progress in the understanding of tissue regeneration driven by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Data indicate the anatomical location of MSC as residing in the “perivascular” space of blood vessels dispersed across the whole body. This histological localization suggests that MSCs contribute to the formation of new blood vessels in vivo. Indeed, MSCs can release angiogenic factors and protease to facilitate blood vessel formation and in vitro are able to promote/support angiogenesis. However, the direct differentiation of MCSs into endothelial cells is still matter of debate. Most of the conflicting data might arise from the presence of multiple subtypes of cells with heterogeneous morpho functional features within the MSC cultures. According to this scenario, we hypothesize that the presence of the recently described Mesodermal Progenitor Cells (MPCs) within the MSCs cultures is responsible for their variable angiogenic potential. Indeed, MPCs are Nestin-positive CD31-positive cells exhibiting angiogenic potential that differentiate in MSC upon proper stimuli. The ISCT criteria do not account for the presence of MPC within MSC culture generating confusion in the interpretation of MSC angiogenic potential. In conclusion, the discovery of MPC gives new insight in defining MSC ancestors in human bone marrow, and indicates the tunica intima as a further, and previously overlooked, possible additional source of MSC. PMID:25364727

  14. : The opposite effects of doxorubicin on bone marrow stem cells versus breast cancer stem cells depend on glucosylceramide synthase

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    1 : The opposite effects of doxorubicin on bone marrow stem cells versus breast cancer stem synthase, Breast cancer stem cells, Bone marrow Dox Dox GCS (stemness) GCS ABCG2+ sphere formation assay Dox ABCG2+ (bone marrow spheres) ABCG2+ (in vivo

  15. Human embryonic stem cells and macroporous calcium phosphate construct for bone regeneration in cranial defects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian; Wang, Ping; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Bao, Chunyun; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an exciting cell source to offer an unlimited supply of cells that can differentiate into all cell types for regenerative medicine applications. To date, there has been no report on hESCs with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds for bone regeneration in vivo. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate hESCs for bone regeneration in vivo in critical-sized cranial defects in rats; (2) determine the effects of cell seeding and platelets in macroporous CPC on new bone and blood vessel formation. hESCs were cultured to yield mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which underwent osteogenic differentiation. Four groups were tested in rats: (1) CPC control without cells; (2) CPC with hESC-derived MSCs (“CPC+hESC-MSC”); (3) CPC with hESC-MSCs and 30% human platelet concentrate (hPC) (“CPC+hESC-MSC+30%hPC”); (4) CPC+hESC-MSC+50%hPC. In vitro, MSCs were derived from embryoid bodies (EBs) of hESCs. Cells on CPC were differentiated into the osteogenic lineage, with highly-elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) expressions as well as mineralization. In vivo at 12 weeks, groups with hESC-MSCs and hPC had new bone 3-times, and blood vessel density 2-times, those of CPC control. The new bone in the defects contained osteocytes and blood vessels, and the new bone front was lined with osteoblasts. The group with 30% hPC and hESC-MSCs had a blood vessel density that was 49% greater than the hESC-MSC group without hPC, likely due to the various growth factors in the platelets enhancing both new bone and blood vessel formation. In conclusion, hESCs are promising for bone tissue engineering, and hPC can enhance new bone and blood vessel formation. Macroporous CPC with hESC-MSCs and hPC may be useful for bone regeneration in craniofacial and orthopedic applications. PMID:24972090

  16. Attachment of osteocyte cell processes to the bone matrix

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, LM; Majeska, RJ; Weinbaum, S; Friedrich; Schaffler, MB

    2010-01-01

    In order for osteocytes to perceive mechanical information and regulate bone remodeling accordingly they must be anchored to their extracellular matrix (ECM). To date the nature of this attachment is not understood. Osteocytes are embedded in mineralized bone matrix, but maintain a pericellular space (50–80nm) to facilitate fluid flow and transport of metabolites. This provides a spatial limit for their attachment to bone matrix. Integrins are cell adhesion proteins that may play a role in osteocyte attachment. However, integrin attachments require proximity between the ECM, cell membrane and cytoskeleton, which conflicts with the osteocytes requirement for a pericellular fluid space. In this study we hypothesize that the challenge for osteocytes to attach to surrounding bone matrix, while also maintaining fluid-filled pericellular space, requires different “engineering” solutions than in other tissues that are not similarly constrained. Using novel rapid fixation techniques, to improve cell membrane and matrix protein preservation, and Transmission Electron Microscopy, the attachment of osteocyte processes to their canalicular boundaries are quantified. We report that the canalicular wall is wave-like with periodic conical protrusions extending into the pericellular space. By immunohistochemistry we identify that the integrin ?v?3 may play a role in attachment at these complexes; a punctate pattern of staining of ?3 along the canalicular wall was consistent with observations of periodic protrusions extending into the pericellular space. We propose that during osteocyte attachment the pericellular space is periodically interrupted by underlying collagen fibrils that attach directly to the cell process membrane via integrin-attachments. PMID:19248169

  17. Recombinant protein production and insect cell culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn (inventor); Prewett, Tacey (inventor); Goodwin, Thomas (inventor); Francis, Karen (inventor); Andrews, Angela (inventor); Oconnor, Kim (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using the cultured insect cells as host for a virus encoding the described polypeptide such as baculovirus. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  18. Acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde from cultured white cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Umber, Brandon J; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Zaldivar, Frank; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Noninvasive detection of innate immune function such as the accumulation of neutrophils remains a challenge in many areas of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that granulocytes could generate volatile organic compounds. Methods To begin to test this, we developed a bioreactor and analytical GC-MS system to accurately identify and quantify gases in trace concentrations (parts per billion) emitted solely from cell/media culture. A human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, frequently used to assess neutrophil function, was grown in serum-free medium. Results HL60 cells released acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde in a time-dependent manner. The mean ± SD concentration of acetaldehyde in the headspace above the cultured cells following 4-, 24- and 48-h incubation was 157 ± 13 ppbv, 490 ± 99 ppbv, 698 ± 87 ppbv. For hexanaldehyde these values were 1 ± 0.3 ppbv, 8 ± 2 ppbv, and 11 ± 2 ppbv. In addition, our experimental system permitted us to identify confounding trace gas contaminants such as styrene. Conclusion This study demonstrates that human immune cells known to mimic the function of innate immune cells, like neutrophils, produce volatile gases that can be measured in vitro in trace amounts. PMID:19402909

  19. Natural suppressor cells in spleens of irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice and normal bone marrow: Lack of Sca-1 expression and enrichment by depletion of Mac1-positive cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, M.; Sharabi, Y.; Sachs, D.H. )

    1990-05-01

    We have recently reported the development of natural suppressor (NS) cells in lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice during the early weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These cells were shown to be derived primarily from the syngeneic marrow component in recipients of mixed allogeneic plus syngeneic (host type) marrow, and it was speculated that they might be responsible for the anti-GVHD effect previously described for T-cell-depleted syngeneic marrow. It was therefore of interest to look for such suppressive activity in normal adult bone marrow, which might serve as an obtainable source of such cells if they were to be isolated and used clinically. Such activity has indeed been found in normal adult bone marrow and its characteristics compared to that in spleens of early BMT recipients. Suppressive cells from both sources were similar in their specificity patterns and radiosensitivity, and were of the null (i.e., non-T, non-B, nonmacrophage) cell phenotype. Suppression from either source can be enriched by removal of Mac1-positive cells, providing a possible approach to obtaining NS-enriched populations for in vitro expansion and adoptive transfer studies. Such depletion of Mac1-positive cells was associated with a threefold enrichment of Thy1-positive cells, of which one half were CD4- and CD8-negative, similar to the reported phenotype of cultured NS cell lines. Even when enriched in this manner, the contribution of Thy1-positive cell populations did not reach statistical significance. A recent report has suggested that NS cells might actually be pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In contrast, we report here that depletion of Sca1-positive pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells with monoclonal antibody plus immunomagnetic beads does not remove NS activity.

  20. Deregulation of Bone Forming Cells in Bone Diseases and Anabolic Effects of Strontium-Containing Agents and Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shuang; Zhang, Binbin; Zhu, Xiaomei; Ao, Ping; Guo, Huajie; Yi, Weihong; Zhou, Guang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Age-related bone loss and osteoporosis are associated with bone remodeling changes that are featured with decreased trabecular and periosteal bone formation relative to bone resorption. Current anticatabolic therapies focusing on the inhibition of bone resorption may not be sufficient in the prevention or reversal of age-related bone deterioration and there is a big need in promoting osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. Enhanced understanding of the network formed by key signaling pathways and molecules regulating bone forming cells in health and diseases has therefore become highly significant. The successful development of agonist/antagonist of the PTH and Wnt signaling pathways are profits of the understanding of these key pathways. As the core component of an approved antiosteoporosis agent, strontium takes its effect on osteoblasts at multilevel through multiple pathways, representing a good example in revealing and exploring anabolic mechanisms. The recognition of strontium effects on bone has led to its expected application in a variety of biomaterial scaffolds used in tissue engineering strategies aiming at bone repairing and regeneration. While summarizing the recent progress in these respects, this review also proposes the new approaches such as systems biology in order to reveal new insights in the pathology of osteoporosis as well as possible discovery of new therapies. PMID:24800251

  1. CCR5 receptor antagonists block metastasis to bone of v-Src-oncogene-transformed metastatic prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sicoli, Daniela; Jiao, Xuanmao; Ju, Xiaoming; Velasco-Velazquez, Marco; Ertel, Adam; Addya, Sankar; Li, Zhiping; Ando, Sebastiano; Fatatis, Alessandro; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Thakur, Mathew L.; Lisanti, Michael P; Pestell, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) integrate signal transduction for multiple receptors, regulating cellular proliferation invasion and metastasis in human cancer. Although Src is rarely mutated in human prostate cancer, SFK activity is increased in the majority of human prostate cancers. In order to determine the molecular mechanisms governing prostate cancer bone metastasis, FVB murine prostate epithelium was transduced with oncogenic v-Src. The prostate cancer cell lines metastasized in FVB mice to brain and bone. Gene expression profiling of the tumors identified activation of a CCR5 signaling module when the prostate epithelial cells (PEC) lines were grown in vivo vs. tissue cultures. The whole body, bone and brain metastatic prostate cancer burden was reduced by oral CCR5 antagonist. Clinical trials of CCR5 inhibitors may warrant consideration in patients with CCR5 activation in their tumors. PMID:25452256

  2. A population of serumdeprivation-induced bone marrow stem cells (SD-BMSC) expresses marker typical for embryonic and neural stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sauerzweig, Steven Munsch, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow represents an easy accessible source of adult stem cells suitable for various cell based therapies. Several studies in recent years suggested the existence of pluripotent stem cells within bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) expressing marker proteins of both embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. These subpopulations were referred to as MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells. Here we describe SD-BMSC (serumdeprivation-induced BMSC) which are induced as a distinct subpopulation after complete serumdeprivation. SD-BMSC are generated from small-sized nestin-positive BMSC (S-BMSC) organized as round-shaped cells in the top layer of BMSC-cultures. The generation of SD-BMSC is caused by a selective proliferation of S-BMSC and accompanied by changes in both morphology and gene expression. SD-BMSC up-regulate not only markers typical for neural stem cells like nestin and GFAP, but also proteins characteristic for embryonic cells like Oct4 and SOX2. We hypothesize, that SD-BMSC like MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells represent derivatives from a single pluripotent stem cell fraction within BMSC exhibiting characteristics of embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. The complete removal of serum might offer a simple way to specifically enrich this fraction of pluripotent embryonic like stem cells in BMSC cultures.

  3. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  4. Gonococcal and meningococcal pathogenesis as defined by human cell, cell culture, and organ culture assays.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S

    1989-01-01

    Human cells, cell cultures, and organ cultures have been extremely useful for studying the events that occur when gonococci and meningococci encounter human mucosal surfaces. The specificity and selectivity of these events for human cells are striking and correlate with the adaptation of these pathogens for survival on human mucous membranes. To colonize these sites, meningococci and gonococci have developed mechanisms to damage local host defenses such as the mucociliary blanket, to attach to epithelial cells, and to invade these cells. Attachment to epithelial cells mediated by pili, and to some types of cells mediated by PIIs, serves to anchor the organism close to sources of nutrition and allows multiplication. Intracellular invasion, possibly initiated by the major porin protein, may provide additional nutritional support and protection from host defenses. Mucosal invasion may also result in access of gonococci and meningococci to the bloodstream, leading to dissemination. Images PMID:2497953

  5. Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells J. Goswami,1 A. J. Sinskey,2 H. Steller of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability. Keywords: cell culture; Chinese Hamster Ovary; apopto- sis; caspase; bcl-2 INTRODUCTION Chinese Hamster

  6. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  7. Uncultured Marrow Mononuclear Cells Delivered Within Fibrin Glue Hydrogels to Porous Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration Within Critical-Sized Rat Cranial Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; Spicer, Patrick P.; Jansen, John A.; Vacanti, Charles A.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2010-01-01

    For bone tissue engineering, the benefits of incorporating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into porous scaffolds are well established. There is, however, little consensus on the effects of or need for MSC handling ex vivo. Culture and expansion of MSCs adds length and cost, and likely increases risk associated with treatment. We evaluated the effect of using uncultured bone marrow mononuclear cells (bmMNCs) encapsulated within fibrin glue hydrogels and seeded into porous scaffolds to regenerate bone over 12 weeks in an 8-mm-diameter, critical-sized rat cranial defect. A full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate bone formation within model poly(L-lactic acid) and corraline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with or without platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bmMNCs. Mechanical push-out testing, microcomputed tomographical analyses, and histology were performed. PRP showed no benefit for bone formation. Cell-laden poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds without PRP required significantly greater force to displace from surrounding tissues than control (cell-free) scaffolds, but no differences were observed during push-out testing of coral scaffolds. For bone volume formation as analyzed by microcomputed tomography, significant positive overall effects were observed with bmMNC incorporation. These data suggest that bmMNCs may provide therapeutic advantages in bone tissue engineering applications without the need for culture, expansion, and purification. PMID:20715884

  8. Expressional Analysis of GFP-Tagged Cells in an In Vivo Mouse Model of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Mak, I; Ghert, M

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone in a neoplastic stromal cell which survives for multiple passages in primary cell culture with a stable phenotype. In the pathological environment of GCT, the neoplastic nature of the mesenchymal stromal component drives local hematopoietic precursors to undergo fusion and form multinucleated osteoclast like giant cells. There is currently very limited knowledge about the pathogenesis of GCT due to the lack of suitable in vivo models for this tumor. Here we report stable gene transfer of Green fluorescence protein (GFP) in GCT stromal cells. In the present study, we have used GCT stromal cells that stably express enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) that are used in a new in vivo culture model. Our results show the utility of the GFP tagged cell lines that stably express GFP signals up to 52 weeks of continuous growth. The in vivo model described herein can serve as an excellent system for in vivo therapeutic and mechanistic evaluation of existing and novel targets for GCT. PMID:23730372

  9. Identification of senescence-associated genes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Eunsook; Hong, Su; Kang, Jaeku; Woo, Junghoon; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Jongho Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2008-07-04

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several specialized cell types, including bone, cartilage, and fat cells. The proliferative capacity of hBMMSCs paves the way for the development of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, long-term in vitro culture of hBMMSCs leads to a reduced life span of the cells due to senescence, which leads eventually to growth arrest. To investigate the molecular mechanism behind the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs, microarray analysis was used to compare the expression profiles of early passage hBMMSCs, late passage hBMMSCs and hBMMSCs ectopically expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Using an intersection analysis of 3892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) out of 27,171 total genes analyzed, we identified 338 senescence-related DEGs. GO term categorization and pathway network analysis revealed that the identified genes are strongly related to known senescence pathways and mechanisms. The genes identified using this approach will facilitate future studies of the mechanisms underlying the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs.

  10. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    DOEpatents

    An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  11. Stemness of B cell progenitors in multiple myeloma bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Kelly; Parquet, Nancy; Widen, Raymond; Shain, Kenneth; Baz, Rachid; Alsina, Melissa; Koomen, John; Anasetti, Claudio; Dalton, William; Perez, Lia E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In myeloma, B cells and plasma cells show a clonal relationship. Clonotypic B cells may represent a tumor-initiating compartment or cancer stem cell responsible for minimal residual disease in myeloma. Experimental Design We report a study of 58 patients with myeloma at time of diagnosis or relapse. B cells in bone marrow were evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry and sorting. Clonality was determined by light chain and/or immunoglobulin chain gene rearrangement PCR. We also determined aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and colony formation growth. Drug sensitivity was tested with conventional and novel agents. Results Marrow CD19+ cells express a light chain identical to plasma cells and are therefore termed light chain restricted (LCR). The LCR B cell mass is small in both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients (?1%). Few marrow LCR B cells (~10%) are CD19+/CD34+, with the rest being more differentiated CD19+/CD34? B cells. Marrow LCR CD19+ B cells exhibit enhanced aldehyde dehydrogenase activity versus healthy controls. Both CD19+/CD34+ and CD19+/CD34? cells showed colony formation activity, with colony growth efficiency optimized when stroma-conditioned medium was used. B cell progenitors showed resistance to melphalan, lenalidomide, and bortezomib. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced apoptosis of LCR B cells and CD138+ cells. LCR B cells are CD117, survivin, and Notch positive. Conclusions We propose that antigen-independent B cell differentiation stages are involved in disease origination and progression in myeloma. Further investigations of myeloma putative stem cell progenitors may lead to novel treatments to eradicate the potential reservoir of minimal residual disease. PMID:22988056

  12. Key role of the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in increasing the osteogenic activity of osteoblast-like cells exposed to shock waves and seeded on bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Muzio, Giuliana; Martinasso, Germana; Baino, Francesco; Frairia, Roberto; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Canuto, Rosa A

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the role of shock wave-induced increase of bone morphogenetic proteins in modulating the osteogenic properties of osteoblast-like cells seeded on a bioactive scaffold was investigated using gremlin as a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist. Bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds, based on a silicate experimental bioactive glass developed at the Politecnico di Torino, were produced by the sponge replication method and used as porous substrates for cell culture. Human MG-63 cells, exposed to shock waves and seeded on the scaffolds, were treated with gremlin every two days and analysed after 20 days for the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers. Shock waves have been shown to induce osteogenic activity mediated by increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, type I collagen, BMP-4 and BMP-7. Cells exposed to shock waves plus gremlin showed increased growth in comparison with cells treated with shock waves alone and, conversely, mRNA contents of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly lower. Therefore, the shock wave-mediated increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein in MG-63 cells seeded on the scaffolds is essential in improving osteogenic activity; blocking bone morphogenetic protein via gremlin completely prevents the increase of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. The results confirmed that the combination of glass-ceramic scaffolds and shock waves exposure could be used to significantly improve osteogenesis opening new perspectives for bone regenerative medicine. PMID:24994880

  13. Dedifferentiated Giant-Cell Tumor of Bone with an Undifferentiated Round Cell Mesenchymal Component

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Villaseñor, Eréndira G.; Cortés-González, Socorro; Linares-González, Luis Miguel; González-Guzmán, Roberto; Rico-Martínez, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    The dedifferentiated giant-cell tumor of the bone is a very rare variant of the giant-cell tumor (GCT). We report the clinical, radiographic and histological findings of a dedifferentiated GCT in which the dedifferentiated component consisted of small round cells. We also comment on previously reported cases of dedifferentiated GCT, discuss the clinical implications of this dual histology, and analyze the information published about the coexistence of similar genetic abnormalities in GCT and small round cell tumors of the bone. PMID:25276319

  14. CD40 ligand-stimulated B cell precursor leukemic cells elicit interferon-gamma production by autologous bone marrow T cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Todisco, E; Gaipa, G; Biagi, E; Bonamino, M; Gramigna, R; Introna, M; Biondi, A

    2002-10-01

    Childhood B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells, collected from bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, were cultured, after thawing, on allogeneic human bone marrow stroma (HBMS) for 48 h in the presence of a soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (stCD40L) molecule. HBMS maintained leukemic cells viability in all tested cases (mean viability 85%). Under these culture conditions we noticed upregulation or de novo expression of costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) in 22/22, 15/23 and 21/23 cases, respectively. Upregulation, in terms of fluorescence intensity, was also observed in the expression of MHC I, MHC II, CD54 (ICAM 1) and CD58 (LFA 3) molecules. HBMS alone, although to a lesser extent, was able to induce modulation of these molecules, but not CD80, in a similar proportion of cases. Neither stCD40L nor HBMS induced modulation of CD10 and CD34 molecules. Moreover, in 4/4 tested cases, stCD40L-stimulated ALL cells were able to induce allogeneic T cells proliferation. To evaluate whether leukemia-reactive T cells were detectable in the BM of ALL patients at diagnosis, stCD40L-stimulated ALL cells were co-cultured with autologous T cells (ratio 1:1), isolated from BM at diagnosis, for 4 days and a 24 h ELISPOT assay was applied to detect the presence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing cells. In four of seven cases IFN-gamma-producing cells were detected with frequencies of 1/900, 1/1560, 1/2150 and 1/1575 autologous T cells. These data confirm that stCD40L exposure can activate the antigen-presenting cell (APC) capacity of BCP-ALL cells cultured on HBMS and that ELISPOT assay can be used to measure the frequency of leukemia-reactive autologous T cells in the BM of ALL patients even after short-term culture with stCD40L-stimulated ALL cells. PMID:12357356

  15. Induction of DNA-strand breaks after X-irradiation in murine bone cells of various differentiation capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine E.; Kirchner, Simone; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    During longterm space missions, astronauts suffer from the loss of minerals especially from weightbearing bones due to prolonged sojourn under microgravity. In addition to weightlessness, exposure to cosmic ionization radiation is another space related factor endangering health and productivity of astronauts. In order to elucidate changes in bone cell metabolism induced by ionizing radiation, ground-based bone cell models have been developed. The differentiation level of the bone cells may influence their radiation sensitivity. Therefore, our cell model comprises a collection of immortalized murine pre-osteoblast, osteoblast and osteocyte cell lines representing discrete stages of differentiation: the subclones 4 and 24 of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1, the osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 display varying potential to produce mineralized bone matrix upon incubation with ascorbic acid and ?-glycerophosphate (osteogenic medium). The MLO-Y4 cells showed the highest and subclone 24 the lowest proliferation rate. The most intense von Kossa reaction after culture in osteogenic medium was observed in subclone 4, indicating mineralized bone matrix. The bone cell markers alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were determined to further characterize the differentiation stage. All cell lines expressed osteocalcin, as determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was highest in the cell line OCT-1 and very low in MLO-Y4 and S4. The peculiarity of the markers suggests a characterization of OCT-1 and S24 as preosteoblast, S4 as (mature) osteoblast, and MLO-Y4 as osteocyte. Survival after exposure to X-rays was determined using the colony forming ability test. The resulting dose-effect relationships revealed normal radiation sensitivity (compared to human fibroblasts). Cell clone specific variations (subclones 4 and 24) in the radiation sensitivity may be due to the differentiation level. The survival curve of MLO-Y4 shows a broad shoulder, suggesting a high repair capacity or a high DNA damage or misrepair tolerance. The quantitative acquisition of DNA-strand breaks was performed by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding and revealed a high level of DNA damage immediately after X-irradiation, which increases dose dependently. In conclusion, the cell line with the highest differentiation level (MLO-Y4) displays lower radiation sensitivity, regarding the shoulder width of the dose-effect curve, compared to the less differentiated osteoblast cell lines.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Bone-Forming Cell Proliferative Response to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Roden, C.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2004-01-01

    Life on Earth has evolved under the continuous influence of gravity (1-g). As humans explore and develop space, however, we must learn to adapt to an environment with little or no gravity. Studies indicate that lack of weightbearing for vertebrates occurring with immobilization, paralysis, or in a microgravity environment may cause muscle and bone atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) (consisting of molecules such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin) in mechanosensitive tissues. We test for the presence of gravity-sensitive pathways in bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) using hypergravity applied by a cell culture centrifuge. Stimulation of 50 times gravity (50-g) increased proliferation in primary rat osteoblasts for cells grown on collagen Type I and fibronectin, but not on laminin or uncoated surfaces. Survival was also enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of ECM. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to test for all possible integrins. Our combined results indicate that beta1 and/or beta3 integrin subunits may be involved. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signalling pathways which are sensitive to g-level. Further research to define the mechanisms involved will provide direction so that we may better adapt and counteract bone atrophy caused by the lack of weightbearing.

  17. Measurement of Glucose Uptake in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Ueda-Wakagi, Manabu; Sato, Takuya; Kawasaki, Kengo; Sawada, Keisuke; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Akagawa, Mitsugu; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Facilitative glucose uptake transport systems are ubiquitous in animal cells and are responsible for transporting glucose across cell surface membranes. Evaluation of glucose uptake is crucial in the study of numerous diseases and metabolic disorders such as myocardial ischemia, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Detailed in this unit are laboratory methods for assessing glucose uptake into mammalian cells. The unit is divided into five sections: (1) a brief overview of glucose uptake assays in cultured cells; (2) a method for measuring glucose uptake using radiolabeled 3-O-methylglucose; (3) a method for measuring glucose uptake using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose (2DG); (4) a microplate method for measuring 2DG-uptake using an enzymatic, fluorometric assay; and (5) a microplate-based method using a fluorescent analog of 2DG. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26646194

  18. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced chemotaxis of bone cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiosis, Sue A.; Masiello, Lisa M.; Bollinger, Nikki; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a platelet-derived bioactive lipid that is postulated to regulate wound healing. LPA activates G protein-coupled receptors to induce Ca2+ signaling in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, and is a potent chemotactic stimulus for these cells. Since bone fracture healing requires the migration of osteoblast progenitors, we postulate that LPA is among the factors that stimulate bone repair. UMR 106-01 cells, which express a more mature osteoblastic phenotype than MC3T3-E1 cells, did not migrate in response to LPA, although they express LPA receptors and exhibit LPA-induced Ca2+ signals. This suggests that LPA differentially induces pre-osteoblast chemotaxis, consistent with our hypothesis that LPA stimulates the motility of osteoblast progenitors during bone healing. LPA-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells exhibit striking changes in morphology and F-actin architecture, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) is required for motility-associated cytoskeletal rearrangements in many cell types. We found a dose-dependent reduction in LPA-induced osteoblast migration when cells also were treated with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Treatment of many cell types with LPA is associated with an autocrine/paracrine transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) via shedding of surface-tethered EGFR ligands, a phenomenon often required for LPA-induced chemotaxis. MC3T3-E1 cells express multiple EGFR ligands (epigen, epiregulin, HB-EGF and amphiregulin) and migrated in response to EGF. However, while EGF-stimulated motility in MC3T3-E1 cells was blocked by an EGFR inhibitor, there was no significant effect on LPA-induced chemotaxis. Activation of MAP kinases is a hallmark of EGFR-mediated signaling, and EGF treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells led to a strong stimulation of ERK1/2 kinase. In contrast, LPA induced only a minor elevation in ERK activity. Thus, it is likely that the increase in ERK activity by LPA is related to cell proliferation associated with lipid treatment. We conclude that LPA-induced MC3T3-E1 cell chemotaxis requires PI3K-associated cytoskeletal changes, but not transactivation of the EGF receptor.

  19. Isolation and culture of larval cells from C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sihui; Banerjee, Diya; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

    2011-01-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool to study cell function. In C. elegans the ability to isolate and culture cells has been limited to embryonically derived cells. However, cells or blastomeres isolated from mixed stage embryos terminally differentiate within 24 hours of culture, thus precluding post-embryonic stage cell culture. We have developed an efficient and technically simple method for large-scale isolation and primary culture of larval-stage cells. We have optimized the treatment to maximize cell number and minimize cell death for each of the four larval stages. We obtained up to 7.8×10(4) cells per microliter of packed larvae, and up to 97% of adherent cells isolated by this method were viable for at least 16 hours. Cultured larval cells showed stage-specific increases in both cell size and multinuclearity and expressed lineage- and cell type-specific reporters. The majority (81%) of larval cells isolated by our method were muscle cells that exhibited stage-specific phenotypes. L1 muscle cells developed 1 to 2 wide cytoplasmic processes, while L4 muscle cells developed 4 to 14 processes of various thicknesses. L4 muscle cells developed bands of myosin heavy chain A thick filaments at the cell center and spontaneously contracted ex vivo. Neurons constituted less than 10% of the isolated cells and the majority of neurons developed one or more long, microtubule-rich protrusions that terminated in actin-rich growth cones. In addition to cells such as muscle and neuron that are high abundance in vivo, we were also able to isolate M-lineage cells that constitute less than 0.2% of cells in vivo. Our novel method of cell isolation extends C. elegans cell culture to larval developmental stages, and allows use of the wealth of cell culture tools, such as cell sorting, electrophysiology, co-culture, and high-resolution imaging of subcellular dynamics, in investigation of post-embryonic development and physiology. PMID:21559335

  20. Ascorbic acid transport into cultured pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, E.I.; May, V.; Eipper, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    An amidating enzyme designated peptidyl-glycine ..cap alpha..-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) has been studied in a variety of tissues and is dependent on molecular oxygen and stimulated by copper and ascorbic acid. To continue investigating the relationship among cellular ascorbic acid concentrations, amidating ability, and PAM activity, the authors studied ascorbic acid transport in three cell preparations that contain PAM and produce amidated peptides: primary cultures of rat anterior and intermediate pituitary and mouse AtT-20 tumor cells. When incubated in 50 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid all three cell preparations concentrated ascorbic acid 20- to 40-fold, producing intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1 to 2 mM, based on experimentally determined cell volumes. All three cell preparations displayed saturable ascorbic acid uptake with half-maximal initial rates occurring between 9 and 18 ..mu..M ascorbate. Replacing NaCl in the uptake buffer with choline chloride significantly diminished ascorbate uptake in all three preparations. Ascorbic acid efflux from these cells was slow, displaying half-lives of 7 hours. Unlike systems that transport dehydroascorbic acid, the transport system for ascorbic acid in these cells was not inhibited by glucose. Thus, ascorbate is transported into pituitary cells by a sodium-dependent, active transport system.

  1. Effects of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide on the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Shaohui; Zeng, Gaofeng; Zou, Bin; Li, Keke; Fang, Ye; Lu, Li; Xiao, Deqiang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine and is widely used to treat many diseases for hundreds of years conventionally. This study was to access the effects of PSP on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the mice. Cells collected from BALB/C mice in the bone marrow were isolated and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM) with different concentrations of PSP. The proliferation and morphological changes of BMSCs were observed using an inverted microscope. Flow cytometric analysis was used to identify the BMSCs. MTT test was performed to analyze the proliferation and viability of the cells. ELISA was used to determine the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Immunocytochemistry and western blot were respectively used to determine the expressions of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and SPARC/osteonectin (OSN). The growth curves of the proliferation and differentiation of the Control, OM, 17?-E2 and PSP groups were increased. Compared to the Control and OM groups, the expression levels of ALP, OC, PINP and BMP-2 were significantly increased in the PSP induced group (P<0.05). Immunocytochemistry and western blot showed that BSP and SPARC were increased after induction of PSP compared to the OM group (P<0.05). The study demonstrates that PSP promotes the proliferation and enhances the viability of BMSCs during osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, PSP may be a potential treatment of osteoporosis in the clinic. PMID:26261494

  2. Self assembled temperature responsive surfaces for generation of cell patches for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M; Chang, Wei; Xu, Jiahua; Yu, Xiaojun

    2012-09-01

    One of the major challenges in the fabrication of tissue engineered scaffolds is the ability of the scaffold to biologically mimic autograft-like tissues. One of the alternate approaches to achieve this is by the application of cell seeded scaffolds with optimal porosity and mechanical properties. However, the current approaches for seeding cells on scaffolds are not optimal in terms of seeding efficiencies, cell penetration into the scaffold and more importantly uniform distribution of cells on the scaffold. Also, recent developments in scaffold geometries to enhance surface areas, pore sizes and porosities tend to further complicate the scenario. Cell sheet-based approaches for cell seeding have demonstrated a successful approach to generate scaffold-free tissue engineering approaches. However, the method of generating the temperature responsive surface is quite challenging and requires carcinogenic reagents and gamma rays. Therefore, here, we have developed temperature responsive substrates by layer-by-layer self assembly of smart polymers. Multilayer thin films prepared from tannic acid and poly N-isopropylacrylamide were fabricated based on their electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Cell attachment and proliferation studies on these thin films showed uniform cell attachment on the substrate, matching tissue culture plates. Also, the cells could be harvested as cell patches and sheets from the scaffolds, by reducing the temperature for a short period of time, and seeded onto porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. An enhanced cell seeding efficiency on scaffolds was observed using the cell patch-based technique as compared to seeding cells in suspension. Owing to the already pre-existent cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, the cell patch showed the ability to reattach rapidly onto scaffolds and showed enhanced ability to proliferate and differentiate into a bone-like matrix. PMID:22914662

  3. Automated quantification of hematopoietic cell - stromal cell interactions in histological images of undecalcified bone.

    PubMed

    Zehentmeier, Sandra; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Escribano Navarro, Juan; Niesner, Raluca A; Hauser, Anja E

    2015-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is the method of choice for the analysis of localization of multiple cell types within complex tissues such as the bone marrow. However, the analysis and quantification of cellular localization is difficult, as in many cases it relies on manual counting, thus bearing the risk of introducing a rater-dependent bias and reducing interrater reliability. Moreover, it is often difficult to judge whether the co-localization between two cells results from random positioning, especially when cell types differ strongly in the frequency of their occurrence. Here, a method for unbiased quantification of cellular co-localization in the bone marrow is introduced. The protocol describes the sample preparation used to obtain histological sections of whole murine long bones including the bone marrow, as well as the staining protocol and the acquisition of high-resolution images. An analysis workflow spanning from the recognition of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types in 2-dimensional (2D) bone marrow images to the quantification of the direct contacts between those cells is presented. This also includes a neighborhood analysis, to obtain information about the cellular microenvironment surrounding a certain cell type. In order to evaluate whether co-localization of two cell types is the mere result of random cell positioning or reflects preferential associations between the cells, a simulation tool which is suitable for testing this hypothesis in the case of hematopoietic as well as stromal cells, is used. This approach is not limited to the bone marrow, and can be extended to other tissues to permit reproducible, quantitative analysis of histological data. PMID:25938636

  4. Concise Review: Optimizing Expansion of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells for Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Allison I.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have demonstrated success in the clinical treatment of hematopoietic pathologies and cardiovascular disease and are the focus of treating other diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, integumentary, and nervous systems. However, during the requisite two-dimensional (2D) expansion to achieve a clinically relevant number of cells, MSCs exhibit profound degeneration in progenitor potency. Proliferation, multilineage potential, and colony-forming efficiency are fundamental progenitor properties that are abrogated by extensive monolayer culture. To harness the robust therapeutic potential of MSCs, a consistent, rapid, and minimally detrimental expansion method is necessary. Alternative expansion efforts have exhibited promise in the ability to preserve MSC progenitor potency better than the 2D paradigm by mimicking features of the native bone marrow niche. MSCs have been successfully expanded when stimulated by growth factors, under reduced oxygen tension, and in three-dimensional bioreactors. MSC therapeutic value can be optimized for clinical applications by combining system inputs to tailor culture parameters for recapitulating the niche with probes that nondestructively monitor progenitor potency. The purpose of this review is to explore how modulations in the 2D paradigm affect MSC progenitor properties and to highlight recent efforts in alternative expansion techniques. PMID:24682286

  5. Concise review: optimizing expansion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Allison I; Leach, J Kent

    2014-05-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have demonstrated success in the clinical treatment of hematopoietic pathologies and cardiovascular disease and are the focus of treating other diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, integumentary, and nervous systems. However, during the requisite two-dimensional (2D) expansion to achieve a clinically relevant number of cells, MSCs exhibit profound degeneration in progenitor potency. Proliferation, multilineage potential, and colony-forming efficiency are fundamental progenitor properties that are abrogated by extensive monolayer culture. To harness the robust therapeutic potential of MSCs, a consistent, rapid, and minimally detrimental expansion method is necessary. Alternative expansion efforts have exhibited promise in the ability to preserve MSC progenitor potency better than the 2D paradigm by mimicking features of the native bone marrow niche. MSCs have been successfully expanded when stimulated by growth factors, under reduced oxygen tension, and in three-dimensional bioreactors. MSC therapeutic value can be optimized for clinical applications by combining system inputs to tailor culture parameters for recapitulating the niche with probes that nondestructively monitor progenitor potency. The purpose of this review is to explore how modulations in the 2D paradigm affect MSC progenitor properties and to highlight recent efforts in alternative expansion techniques. PMID:24682286

  6. Human alternatives to fetal bovine serum for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Hecker, Andrea; Kocaömer, Asli; Lannert, Heinrich; Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk; Klüter, Harald

    2009-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for novel cell therapeutic applications. For clinical scale manufacturing, human factors from serum or platelets have been suggested as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS). We have previously shown that pooled human serum (HS) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) support the expansion of adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Contradictory results with bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs have initiated a comprehensive comparison of HS, tPRP, and pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and FBS in terms of their impact on MSC isolation, expansion, differentiation, and immunomodulatory activity. In addition to conventional Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, depletion of lineage marker expressing cells (RosetteSep) and CD271+ sorting were used for BM-MSC enrichment. Cells were cultured in medium containing either 10% FBS, HS, tPRP, or pHPL. Colony-forming units and cumulative population doublings were determined, and MSCs were maximally expanded. Although both HS and tPRP comparable to FBS supported isolation and expansion, pHPL significantly accelerated BM-MSC proliferation to yield clinically relevant numbers within the first two passages. MSC quality and functionality including cell surface marker expression, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and immunosuppressive action were similar in MSCs from all culture conditions. Importantly, spontaneous cell transformation was not observed in any of the culture conditions. Telomerase activity was not detected in any of the cultures at any passage. In contrast to previous data from adipose tissue-derived MSCs, pHPL was found to be the most suitable FBS substitute in clinical scale BM-MSC expansion. PMID:19544413

  7. Application of mesenchymal stem cells in bone regenerative procedures in oral implantology. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Viña, Jose A.; El-Alami, Marya; Gambini, Juan; Borras, Consuelo; Viña, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to review de literature about the role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone regenerative procedures in oral implantology, specifically, in the time require to promote bone regeneration. Study Design: A bibliographic search was carried out in PUBMED with a combination of different key words. Animal and human studies that assessed histomorphometrically the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration procedures in oral implantology surgeries were examined. Reults: - Alveolar regeneration: Different controlled histomorphometric animal studies showed that bone regeneration is faster using stem cells seeded in scaffolds than using scaffolds or platelet rich plasma alone. Human studies revealed that stem cells increase bone regeneration. - Maxillary sinus lift: Controlled studies in animals and in humans showed higher bone regeneration applying stem cells compared with controls. - Periimplantary bone regeneration and alveolar distraction: Studies in animals showed higher regeneration when stem cells are used. In humans, no evidence of applying mesenchymal stem cells in these regeneration procedures was found. Conclusion: Stem cells may promote bone regeneration and be useful in bone regenerative procedures in oral implantology, but no firm conclusions can be drawn from the rather limited clinical studies so far performed. Key words:Mesenchymal stem cells, bone regeneration, dental implants, oral surgery, tissue engineering. PMID:24596637

  8. Bone tissue engineering by using a combination of polymer/Bioglass composites with human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Ji, Kun; Kirkham, Jennifer; Yan, Yu; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kellett, Margaret; Jin, Yan; Yang, Xuebin B

    2014-04-01

    Translational research in bone tissue engineering is essential for "bench to bedside" patient benefit. However, the ideal combination of stem cells and biomaterial scaffolds for bone repair/regeneration is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the osteogenic capacity of a combination of poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) porous foams containing 5 wt% and 40 wt% of Bioglass particles with human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Live/dead fluorescent markers, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that PDLLA/Bioglass porous scaffolds supported ADSC attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation, as confirmed by enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Higher Bioglass content of the PDLLA foams increased ALP activity compared with the PDLLA only group. Extracellular matrix deposition after 8 weeks in the in vitro cultures was evident by Alcian blue/Sirius red staining. In vivo bone formation was assessed by using scaffold/ADSC constructs in diffusion chambers transplanted intraperitoneally into nude mice and recovered after 8 weeks. Histological and immunohistochemical assays indicated significant new bone formation in the 40 wt% and 5 wt% Bioglass constructs compared with the PDLLA only group. Thus, the combination of a well-developed biodegradable bioactive porous PDLLA/Bioglass composite scaffold with a high-potential stem cell source (human ADSCs) could be a promising approach for bone regeneration in a clinical setting. PMID:24408074

  9. A Study of the Role of Nell-1 Gene Modified Goat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Promoting New Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Aghaloo, Tara; Jiang, Xinquan; Soo, Chia; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xiuli; Hu, Jingzhou; Pan, Hongya; Hsu, Tiffany; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Zhang, Xinli

    2009-01-01

    Nell-1 is a recently discovered secreted protein with the capacity to promote osteoblastic calvarial cell differentiation and mineralization and induce calvarial bone overgrowth and regeneration in various rodent models. However, the extent of Nell-1 osteoinductivity in large animal cells remains unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of adenoviral encoding Nell-1 (AdNell-1) gene transfer into primary adult goat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro and in vivo and to compare the osteoinductive effects with those produced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a well established osteoinductive molecule currently utilized for regional gene therapy. AdNell-1-transduced BMSCs expressed Nell-1 protein and underwent osteoblastic differentiation within 2 weeks in vitro, which is comparable to AdBMP-2. After intramuscular injection of nude mice, the AdNell-1- and AdBMP-2-transduced BMSCs revealed new bone formation, while untransduced or AdLacZ-transduced BMSCs showed mainly fibrotic tissue proliferation. At 4 weeks, BMP-2 induced significantly larger bone mass with a mature bone margin and central cavity filled with primarily fatty marrow tissue. Nell-1 samples had significantly less bone mass but were histologically similar to newly formed trabecular bone mixed with chondroid bone-like areas verified by type X collagen (ColX) immunohistochemistry. This distinct difference in histomorphology from the bone mass induced by BMP-2 suggests that there is a potential clinical role/advantage for Nell-1 in skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:17653100

  10. Osteoinductive activity of insulin-functionalized cell culture surfaces obtained using diazonium chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulska, Anna; Filipowska, Joanna; Osyczka, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubia?ka, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Polymeric surfaces suitable for cell culture (DR/Pec) were constructed from diazoresin (DR) and pectin (Pec) in a form of ultrathin films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The surfaces were functionalized with insulin using diazonium chemistry. Such functionalized surfaces were used to culture human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. The activity of insulin immobilized on the surfaces (DR/Pec/Ins) was compared to that of insulin dissolved in the culture medium. Human MSC grown on insulin-immobilized DR/Pec surfaces displayed increased proliferation and higher osteogenic activity. The latter was determined by means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, which increases at early stages of osteoblasts differentiation. Insulin dissolved in the culture medium did not stimulate cell proliferation and its osteogenic activity was significantly lower. Addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) to the culture medium further increased ALP activity in hMSCs indicating additive osteogenic action of immobilized insulin and rhBMP-2

  11. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Differentiated Human Bone Marrow-derived Clonal Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, TacGhee; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Yun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate into different cell types. Additionally, the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs can downregulate inflammatory responses. The use of MSCs to repair injured tissues and treat inflammation, including in neuroimmune diseases, has been extensively explored. Although MSCs have emerged as a promising resource for the treatment of neuroimmune diseases, attempts to define the molecular properties of MSCs have been limited by the heterogeneity of MSC populations. We recently developed a new method, the subfractionation culturing method, to isolate homogeneous human clonal MSCs (hcMSCs). The hcMSCs were able to differentiate into fat, cartilage, bone, neuroglia, and liver cell types. In this study, to better understand the properties of neurally differentiated MSCs, gene expression in highly homogeneous hcMSCs was analyzed. Neural differentiation of hcMSCs was induced for 14 days. Thereafter, RNA and genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to microarray analysis and DNA methylation array analysis, respectively. We correlated the transcriptome of hcMSCs during neural differentiation with the DNA methylation status. Here, we describe and discuss the gene expression profile of neurally differentiated hcMSCs. These findings will expand our understanding of the molecular properties of MSCs and contribute to the development of cell therapy for neuroimmune diseases. PMID:24605081

  12. Easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from coagulated human bone marrow samples