These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Cell sheet transplantation of cultured mesenchymal stem cells enhances bone formation in a rat nonunion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic surgeons have long been troubled by cases involving nonunion of fractured bones. This study aimed to enhance bone union by cell sheet transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. A nonunion model was made in rat femur, and rat bone marrow cells were cultured in medium containing dexamethasone and ascorbic acid phosphate to create a cell sheet that could be scraped

Akifumi Nakamura; Manabu Akahane; Hideki Shigematsu; Mika Tadokoro; Yusuke Morita; Hajime Ohgushi; Yoshiko Dohi; Tomoaki Imamura; Yasuhito Tanaka

2010-01-01

2

The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural methods (conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, inununocytochemistry, stereomicroscopy, and 3D image reconstruction). The studies have provided new knowledge of aspects of bone cell development and structural regulation, extracellular matrix assembly, and mineralization during spaceflight and under normal gravity. The information has contributed to insights into the means in general by which cells respond and adapt to different conditions of gravity (loading). The data may as well have suggested an underlying basis for the observed loss of bone by vertebrates, including man, in microgravity; and these scientific results may have implications for understanding bone loss following fracture healing and extended periods of inactivity such as during long-term bedrest.

Landis, William J.

1999-01-01

3

Mineralization of Decalcified Bone Occurs Under Cell Culture Conditions and Requires Bovine Serum But Not Cells  

E-print Network

% fetal bovine serum (FBS) results in non-physiological mineral per- cipitation in the tibia because on the remineralization of demineralized bone in cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum. Demineralized newbornMineralization of Decalcified Bone Occurs Under Cell Culture Conditions and Requires Bovine Serum

Price, Paul A.

4

Giant eosinophil colonies from cultures of bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To date, the small size and slow growth of eosinophil colonies in vitro has hampered study of cloned eosinophils. We found\\u000a enhanced eosinophil colony size and numbers in methylcellulose cultures of bone marrow cells utilizing defined supplemented\\u000a bovine calf serum (DSBCS) in combination with EL4 conditioned medium (EL4-CM). At days 9, 16 and 23 significantly more eosinophil\\u000a colonies and more

J. H. Butterfield; D. Weiler

1986-01-01

5

Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells.  

PubMed

A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the same statistical levels as control counterparts. Flight cells elaborated a less extensive extracellular matrix, evidenced by a reduced collagen gene expression and collagen protein appearance compared with controls. Osteocalcin was expressed by all cells, a result indicating progressive differentiation of both flight and control osteoblasts, but its message levels also were reduced in flight cells compared with ground samples. This finding suggested that osteoblasts subjected to flight followed a slower progression toward a differentiated function. The summary of data indicates that spaceflight, including microgravity exposure, demonstrably affects bone cells by down-regulating type I collagen and osteocalcin gene expression and thereby inhibiting expression of the osteogenic phenotype notably by committed osteoblasts. The information is important for insight into the response of bone cells to changes of gravity and of force in general. PMID:10841178

Landis, W J; Hodgens, K J; Block, D; Toma, C D; Gerstenfeld, L C

2000-06-01

6

Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the same statistical levels as control counterparts. Flight cells elaborated a less extensive extracellular matrix, evidenced by a reduced collagen gene expression and collagen protein appearance compared with controls. Osteocalcin was expressed by all cells, a result indicating progressive differentiation of both flight and control osteoblasts, but its message levels also were reduced in flight cells compared with ground samples. This finding suggested that osteoblasts subjected to flight followed a slower progression toward a differentiated function. The summary of data indicates that spaceflight, including microgravity exposure, demonstrably affects bone cells by down-regulating type I collagen and osteocalcin gene expression and thereby inhibiting expression of the osteogenic phenotype notably by committed osteoblasts. The information is important for insight into the response of bone cells to changes of gravity and of force in general.

Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

2000-01-01

7

Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells  

PubMed Central

In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

2014-01-01

8

Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

1991-08-01

9

Benefits of hypoxic culture on bone marrow multipotent stromal cells.  

PubMed

Cultivation of cells is usually performed under atmospheric oxygen tension; however, such a condition does not replicate the hypoxic conditions of normal physiological or pathological status in the body. Recently, the effects of hypoxia on bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated. In a long-term culture, hypoxia can inhibit senescence, increase the proliferation rate and enhance differentiation potential along the different mesenchymal lineages. Hypoxia also modulates the paracrine effects of MSCs, causing upregulation of various secretable factors, including the vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6, and thereby promoting wound healing and diabetic fracture healing. Finally, hypoxia plays an important role in mobilization and homing of MSCs, primarily by its ability to induce stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression along with its receptor, CXCR4. After transplantation, an ischemic environment, that is the combination of hypoxia and lack of nutrition, can lead to apoptosis or cell death, which can be overcome by the hypoxic preconditioning of MSCs and overexpression of prosurvival genes like Akt, HO-1 and Hsp70. This review emphasizes that hypoxia is an important factor in all major aspects of stem cell biology, and the mechanism involved in the hypoxic inducible factor-1signaling pathway behind these responses is also discussed. PMID:23119226

Tsai, Chih-Chien; Yew, Tu-Lai; Yang, Der-Chi; Huang, Wei-Hua; Hung, Shih-Chieh

2012-01-01

10

Effect of temperature on cell population balance in Dexter's culture of murine bone marrow hematopoietic cells with stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature in the range from 25 to 37°C on the population balance of stromal and multiple-lineage hematopoietic cells from murine bone marrow at various stages of differentiation in Dexter's culture was investigated. The length of time required for stromal cells to reach confluence after inoculation of both cell types harvested from murine bone marrow was shorter at

Mutsumi Takagi; Daiki Kubomura; Toshiomi Yoshida

1999-01-01

11

Multilineage Differentiation Potential of Bone and Cartilage Cells Derived from Explant Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various tissues have been reported, but the yield and differentia- tion potential of different tissue-derived MSCs is still not clear. This study was undertaken in an attempt to investigate the multilineage stem cell potential of bone and cartilage explant cultures in comparison with bone marrow derived mesen- chymal stem cells (BMSCs). The results

Zareen Yameen; David Leavesley; Zee Upton; Yin Xiao

2009-01-01

12

Bone grafts engineered from human adipose-derived stem cells in perfusion bioreactor culture.  

PubMed

We report engineering of half-centimeter-sized bone constructs created in vitro using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), decellularized bone scaffolds, and perfusion bioreactors. The hASCs are easily accessible, can be used in an autologous fashion, are rapidly expanded in culture, and are capable of osteogenic differentiation. hASCs from four donors were characterized for their osteogenic capacity, and one representative cell population was used for tissue engineering experiments. Culture-expanded hASCs were seeded on fully decellularized native bone scaffolds (4 mm diameter x 4 mm thick), providing the necessary structural and mechanical environment for osteogenic differentiation, and cultured in bioreactors with medium perfusion. The interstitial flow velocity was set to a level necessary to maintain cell viability and function throughout the construct volume (400 microm/s), via enhanced mass transport. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the addition of osteogenic supplements (dexamethasone, sodium-beta-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid-2-phosphate) to culture medium significantly increased the construct cellularity and the amounts of bone matrix components (collagen, bone sialoprotein, and bone osteopontin). Medium perfusion markedly improved the distribution of cells and bone matrix in engineered constructs. In summary, a combination of hASCs, decellularized bone scaffold, perfusion culture, and osteogenic supplements resulted in the formation of compact and viable bone tissue constructs. PMID:19678762

Fröhlich, Mirjam; Grayson, Warren L; Marolt, Darja; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Kregar-Velikonja, Nevenka; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2010-01-01

13

Bone Grafts Engineered from Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Perfusion Bioreactor Culture  

PubMed Central

We report engineering of half-centimeter–sized bone constructs created in vitro using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), decellularized bone scaffolds, and perfusion bioreactors. The hASCs are easily accessible, can be used in an autologous fashion, are rapidly expanded in culture, and are capable of osteogenic differentiation. hASCs from four donors were characterized for their osteogenic capacity, and one representative cell population was used for tissue engineering experiments. Culture-expanded hASCs were seeded on fully decellularized native bone scaffolds (4?mm diameter?×?4?mm thick), providing the necessary structural and mechanical environment for osteogenic differentiation, and cultured in bioreactors with medium perfusion. The interstitial flow velocity was set to a level necessary to maintain cell viability and function throughout the construct volume (400??m/s), via enhanced mass transport. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the addition of osteogenic supplements (dexamethasone, sodium-?-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid-2-phosphate) to culture medium significantly increased the construct cellularity and the amounts of bone matrix components (collagen, bone sialoprotein, and bone osteopontin). Medium perfusion markedly improved the distribution of cells and bone matrix in engineered constructs. In summary, a combination of hASCs, decellularized bone scaffold, perfusion culture, and osteogenic supplements resulted in the formation of compact and viable bone tissue constructs. PMID:19678762

Frohlich, Mirjam; Grayson, Warren L.; Marolt, Darja; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Kregar-Velikonja, Nevenka

2010-01-01

14

[Suppressive effect of xenogenic bone marrow cells on antibody formation in a spleen cell culture in vitro].  

PubMed

Bone marrow cells from syngenetic and xenogeneic donors of different species were added to splenocyte culture to induce the primary immune response to sheep red blood cells. It has been shown that both xenogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow cells suppress the primary immune response in vitro. A conclusion is made that the suppressant effect exerted by bone marrow cells on the immune response of splenocytes is not liable to xenogenic restriction. PMID:7407376

Vlasov, A A; Sidorovich, I G; Khaitov, R M

1980-07-01

15

Vascularized Bone Tissue Formation Induced by Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cultured with Osteoblasts and Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The repair of the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease was still a problem. Current strategies including the use of autografts and allografts have the disadvantages, namely, diseases transmission, tissue availability and donor morbidity. Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute damaged or diseased ones. The main limitation in engineering in vitro tissues is the lack of a sufficient blood vessel system, the vascularization. In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold which was reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells was fabricated. General observation, histological observation, detection of the degree of vascularization, and X-ray examination had been done to learn the effect of vascularized bone repair materials on the regeneration of bone. The results show that new vessel and bone formed using implant cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Nanofiber-reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation. PMID:24369019

Liu, Xinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Hou, Chuanyong; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yelin; Guan, Guoping; Dong, Wei; Gao, Hongyang

2013-01-01

16

Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Protect Neurons and Modulate Microglia in Cell Culture Models of Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Although several studies have provided evidence for the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) in animal models of stroke, the mechanisms underlying their benefits remain largely unknown. We have determined the neuroprotective potential of MNCs in primary neuronal cultures exposed to various injuries in vitro. Methods Cortical neurons in culture were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation, hypoxia, or hydrogen peroxide and cell death was assayed by MTT, caspase-3 activation or TUNEL labelling at 24 hrs. Cultures were randomized to co-treatment with MNC-derived supernatants or media before injury exposure. In separate experiments, macrophage or microglial cultures were exposed to lipopolypolysacharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of MNC-derived supernatants. Neuronal cultures were then exposed to conditioned media derived from activated macrophages or microglia. Cytokines from the supernantants of MNC cultures exposed to normoxia or hypoxia were also estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results MNC-derived supernatants attenuated neuronal death induced by OGD, hypoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and conditioned macrophage/microglial media and contain a number of trophic factors including IL-10, IGF-1, VEGF, and SDF-1. Conclusion MNCs provide broad neuroprotection against a variety of injuries relevant to stroke. PMID:20629187

Sharma, Sushil; Yang, Bing; Strong, Roger; Xi, Xiao Pei; Brenneman, Miranda; Grotta, James C.; Aronowski, Jaroslaw; Savitz, Sean I.

2010-01-01

17

Bone culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

Partridge, Nicola C.

1993-01-01

18

Comparisons of Rabbit Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Isolation and Culture Methods In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical therapy, and various methods for isolation and cultivation of BMSCs have been reported. However, the best techniques are still uncertain. Therefore, we sought the most suitable among the four most common methods for BMSC separation from rabbits. BMSCs were obtained from untreated whole bone marrow (BM) adherent cultures, 3 volumes of red blood cells (RBC) lysed with ammonium chloride, 6 volumes of RBC lysed with ammonium chloride, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Then, isolated BMSCs were evaluated with respect to primary cell yield, number of CFU-F colonies, proliferative capacity, cell phenotype, and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Our data show that BMSCs were successfully isolated by all four methods, and each method was similar with regard to cell morphology, phenotype, and differentiation potential. However, BMSCs from untreated whole BM adherent cultures had greater primary cell yields, larger colonies, and the shortest primary culture time (P<0.05). Moreover, the 4th generation of cultured cells had the strongest proliferative activity, the fastest growth rate and the most numerous cells compared with other cell passage generations (P<0.05). In conclusion, untreated whole BM adherent cultures are best for rabbit BMSC isolation and the 4th generation of cells has the strongest proliferation capacity. PMID:24558428

Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Shi, Hongcan; Tan, Rongbang; Han, Shi; Ye, Gang; Pan, Shu; Sun, Fei; Liu, Xingchen

2014-01-01

19

Flow perfusion culture of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Due to the limited supply of and numerous potential complications associated with current bone grafting materials, a tremendous clinical need exists for alternative biologically active implant materials capable of promoting bone regeneration in orthopaedic applications. Recent advances in tissue engineering technology have enabled the coating of biologically inactive materials, such as titanium fiber meshes, with a biologically active bone-like extracellular matrix produced by mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture. The resulting constructs can then be implanted as acellular scaffolds or as transplantation vehicles for mesenchymal stem cell populations to guide bone tissue regeneration in vivo. Such a novel tissue engineering strategy marks a paradigmatic shift in drug delivery approaches from delivering bioactive factors from a scaffold to generating constructs that contain biological signaling moieties produced by cells under engineered conditions in vitro. This chapter provides a brief introduction to general bone tissue engineering strategies and an overview of the seminal work from our laboratory in the application of mesenchymal stem cells in the in vitro generation of biologically active bone-like extracellular matrix constructs for bone tissue engineering. PMID:259156

Kasper, F. Kurtis; Liao, Jiehong; Kretlow, James D.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; Mikos, Antonios G.

2011-01-01

20

Stimulation of Mucosal Mast Cell Growth in Normal and Nude Rat Bone Marrow Cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mast cells with the morphological and biochemical properties of mucosal mast cells (MMC) appear and proliferate to form the predominant cell type in rat bone marrow cultures stimulated with factors from antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Conditioned media causing a selective proliferation of MMC were derived from mesenteric lymph node cells of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats restimulated in vitro with specific antigen or from normal or infected rat mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated with concanavalin A. MMC growth factor is not produced by T-cell-depleted mesenteric lymph node cells or by the mesenteric lymph node cells of athymic rats. By contrast, MMC precursors are present in the bone marrow of athymic rats and are normally receptive to the growth factor produced by the lymphocytes of thymus-intact rats. The thymus dependence of MMC hyperplasia is thus based on the requirement of a thymus-independent precursor for a T-cell-derived growth promoter.

Haig, David M.; McMenamin, Christine; Gunneberg, Christian; Woodbury, Richard; Jarrett, Ellen E. E.

1983-07-01

21

Attachment of human bone cells to tissue culture polystyrene and to unmodified polystyrene: the effect of surface chemistry upon initial cell attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell culture studies have often been used in the determination of the suitability of biomaterials as surfaces for the attachment and growth of cells. For such studies of surfaces for potential use in bone implants, cells derived from bone may be maintained in culture on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). We have determined the contribution that serum fibronectin (FN) or vitronectin

John G. Steele; Clive McFarland; B. Ann Dalton; Graham Johnson; Margaret D. M. Evans; C. Rolfe Howlett; P. Anne Underwood

1994-01-01

22

Estradiol Synthesis and Release in Cultured Female Rat Bone Marrow Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into mature cell types of multiple tissues. Thus, they represent an alternative source for organ-specific cell replacement therapy in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that female rat BMSCs could differentiate into steroidogenic cells with the capacity for de novo synthesis of Estradiol-17? (E2) under high glucose culture conditions with or without retinoic acid (RA). The cultured BMSCs could express the mRNA and protein for P450arom, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. Moreover, radioimmunoassay revealed that BMSCs cultured in the present culture system produced and secreted significant amounts of testosterone, androstenedione, and E2. In addition, RA promoted E2 secretion but did not affect the levels of androgen. These results indicate that BMSCs can synthesize and release E2 and may contribute to autologous transplantation therapy for estrogen deficiency. PMID:23484106

Zhang, Dalei; Yang, Bei; Zou, Weiying; Lu, Xiaying; Xiong, Mingdi; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jinglei; Gao, Junhong; Xu, Sifan; Zou, Ting

2013-01-01

23

Dynamic cell culture on calcium phosphate microcarriers for bone tissue engineering applications  

PubMed Central

Developing appropriate cell culturing techniques to populate scaffolds has become a great challenge in tissue engineering. This work describes the use of spinner flask dynamic cell cultures to populate hydroxyapatite microcarriers for bone tissue engineering. The microcarriers were obtained through the emulsion of a self-setting aqueous ?-tricalcium phosphate slurry in oil. After setting, hydroxyapatite microcarriers were obtained. The incorporation of gelatin in the liquid phase of the ?-tricalcium phosphate slurry allowed obtaining hybrid gelatin/hydroxyapatite-microcarriers. Initial cell attachment on the microcarriers was strongly influenced by the speed of the dynamic culture, achieving higher attachment at low speed (40 r/min) as compared to high speed (80 r/min). Under moderate culture speeds (40 r/min), the number of cells present in the culture as well as the number of microcarrier-containing cells considerably increased after 3 days, particularly in the gelatin-containing microcarriers. At longer culture times in dynamic culture, hydroxyapatite-containing microcarriers formed aggregates containing viable and extracellular matrix proteins, with a significantly higher number of cells compared to static cultures. PMID:25383168

Perez, Roman A; Riccardi, Kiara; Altankov, George

2014-01-01

24

Response of osteoblast-like cells cultured on zirconia to bone morphogenetic protein-2  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to compare osteoblast behavior on zirconia and titanium under conditions cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2. Methods MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on sandblasted zirconia and sandblasted/etched titanium discs. At 24 hours after seeding MC3T3-E1, the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) gel alone and the DBM gel with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were added to the culture medium. The surface topography was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular proliferation was measured at 1, 4, and 7 days after gel loading. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured at 7 days after gel loading. The mRNA expression of ALPase, bone sialoprotein, type I collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin, and osterix were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 4 days and 7 days. Results At 1, 4, and 7 days after loading the DBM gel alone and the DBM gel with BMP-2, cellular proliferation on the zirconia and titanium discs was similar and that of the groups cultured with the DBM gel alone and the DBM gel with BMP-2 was not significantly different, except for titanium with BMP-2 gel. ALPase activity was higher in the cells cultured with BMP-2 than in the other groups, but there was no difference between the zirconia and titanium. In ALPase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, Runx-2 and osterix gene expression, that of cells on zirconia or titanium with BMP-2 gel was much more highly increased than titanium without gel at day 7. The gene expression level of cells cultured on zirconia with BMP-2 was higher than that on titanium with BMP-2 at day 7. Conclusions The data in this study demonstrate that the osteoblastic cell attachment and proliferation of zirconia were comparable to those of titanium. With the stimulation of BMP-2, zirconia has a more pronounced effect on the proliferation and differentiation of the osteoblastic cells compared with titanium. PMID:22087413

Han, Seung-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Han, Jung-Seok; Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Lee, Yong-Moo; Ku, Young

2011-01-01

25

Enhanced Differentiation of Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells to Liver Lineage in Aggregate Culture  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte-like cells derived from stem cells hold great potential for clinical and pharmaceutical applications, including high-throughput drug toxicity screening. We report a three-dimensional aggregate culture system for the directed differentiation of adult rat bone marrow-derived stem cells, rat multipotent adult progenitor cells, to hepatocyte-like cells. Compared to adherent monolayer cultures, differentiation in the aggregate culture system resulted in significantly higher expression level of liver-specific transcripts, including an increased albumin mRNA level, and higher levels of albumin and urea secretion. This coincides with the presence of significantly more cells that express intracellular albumin at levels found in primary hepatocytes. The differentiated cell aggregates exhibited cytochrome P450-mediated ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation activity. Consistent with these increased mature functions, cells within the aggregates were shown to have many ultrastructural features of mature hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy. With the scalability of the aggregate culture system and the enhanced differentiation capability, this system may facilitate translation of generating hepatocytes from stem cells to technology. PMID:21548835

Subramanian, Kartik; Owens, Derek Jason; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

2011-01-01

26

Nonspecific suppressor T cells cause decreased mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity in bone marrow transplant patients  

SciTech Connect

Decreased reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was observed in patients within 1 yr after allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Suppressor activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from transplant patients was studied by adding these cells as modulator cells to a bidirectional MLC with cells from normal individuals. PBMC from transplant patients markedly suppressed MLC reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppressor activity was present in cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. Treatment of modulator cells with monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens (OKT8, OKIa1) and complement completely abolished suppression of MLC. Suppressor activity was unaffected by 30 Gy irradiation. Suppressor activity declined gradually after transplantation and was inversely correlated with MLC reactivity of each patient at a significant level (p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that OKT8+ Ia+ radioresistant suppressor T cells play a role in the development of decreased MLC reactivity observed during the early post-transplant period.

Harada, M.; Ueda, M.; Nakao, S.; Kondo, K.; Odaka, K.; Shiobara, S.; Matsue, K.; Mori, T.; Matsuda, T.

1986-07-15

27

Free and polymerized tubulin in cultured bone cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells: the influence of cold and hormones  

PubMed Central

Free and polymerized tubulin were measured in bone cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured on plastic substrata. Polymerized tubulin was stabilized in a microtubule- stabilizing medium (MSM) containing 50 percent glycerol and separated from free tubulin by centrifugation. Tubulin content was assayed in both fractions by the colchicines- binding assay. The measured degree of polymerization in both bone cells and CHO cells varied with stabilixation conditions. The degree of polymerization in both bone cells and CHO cells varied with stabilization conditions. The degree of polymerization in both bone cells and CHO cells varied with stabilization conditions. The degree of polymerization in attached cells was found to increase up to 73 percent during the first 20 min after addition of the MSM at 24 degrees C, and remained constant thereafter. Stabilization of 0 degrees C resulted in a decrease down to 62 percent in the degree of constant thereafter. Stabilization at 0 degrees C resulted in a decrease down to 62 percent in the degree of polymerization during the first 20 min after addition of the MSM at 24 degrees C, and remained constant thereafter. Confluent bone cells maintained at 0 degrees C for 1 h before stabilization contained significantly less polymerized tubulin than control cells kept at 37 degrees C using stabilization both at 0 degrees C and at 24 degrees C. Changes in bone cell morphology induced by incubation of cells with prostaglandin E(1) or E(2), parthyroid hormone, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were not associated with a change in the degree of tubulin polymerization. This was confirmed morphologically by immunofluorescence using affinity-purified tubulin antibodies: microtubules in hormone- treated cells were not noticeably reorganized when compared to microtubule organization in control cells. They were, however, squeezed closer together in cellular pseudopods due to the altered cell shape. This altered cell shape appears to be correlated with disorganization of the microfilament system, since microfilaments, detected using affinity-purified actin antibodies, did alter drastically their appearance and distribution after hormone addition. PMID:6292234

Beertsen, W; Heersche, JNM; Aubin, JE

1982-01-01

28

A method for measurement of drug sensitivity of myeloma cells co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

The tumor microenvironment can profoundly affect tumor cell survival as well as alter antitumor drug activity. However, conventional anticancer drug screening typically is performed in the absence of stromal cells. Here, we analyzed survival of myeloma cells co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) using an automated fluorescence microscope platform, ScanR. By staining the cell nuclei with DRAQ5, we could distinguish between BMSC and myeloma cells, based on their staining intensity and nuclear shape. Using the apoptotic marker YO-PRO-1, the effects of drug treatment on the viability of the myeloma cells in the presence of stromal cells could be measured. The method does not require cell staining before incubation with drugs, and less than 5000 cells are required per condition. The method can be used for large-scale screening of anticancer drugs on primary myeloma cells. This study shows the importance of stromal cell support for primary myeloma cell survival in vitro, as half of the cell samples had a marked increase in their viability when cultured in the presence of BMSC. Stromal cell-induced protection against common myeloma drugs is also observed with this method. PMID:23446700

Misund, Kristine; Baranowska, Katarzyna A; Holien, Toril; Rampa, Christoph; Klein, Dionne C G; Břrset, Magne; Waage, Anders; Sundan, Anders

2013-07-01

29

Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells undergo malignant transformation via indirect co-cultured with tumour cells.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering as well as being potential carriers for tumour therapy. However, the safety of using MSCs in tumours is unknown. Herein, we analyse malignant transformation of MSCs in the tumour microenvironment. Rat bone marrow MSCs were cultured with malignant rat glioma C6 cells without direct cell-cell contact. After 7?days, the cells were assessed for transformation using flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and chromosomal analysis. In addition, wild-type (WT) p53, mutant p53 and mdm2 was determined using Western blotting. Almost all MSCs became phenotypically malignant cells, with significantly decreased WT p53 expression and increased expression of mutant p53 and mdm2, along with an aneuploid karyotype. To evaluate tumorigenesis in vivo, the MSCs indirect co-cultured with C6 cells for 7?days were transplanted subcutaneously into immuno-deficient mice. The cells developed into a large tumour at the injection site within 8?weeks, with systemic symptoms including cachexia and scoliosis. Pathological and cytological analysis revealed poorly differentiated pleomorphic cells with a dense vascular network and aggressive invasion into the adjacent muscle. These data demonstrate that MSCs became malignant cancer cells when exposed to the tumour microenvironment and suggest that factors released from the cancer cells have a critical role in the malignant transformation of MSCs. PMID:22763674

Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Yalan; Bai, Lu; Cui, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jing

2012-12-01

30

Bone marrow culture  

MedlinePLUS

... of your pelvic bone or front of your breast bone. This is done with a small needle inserted into your bone. The process is called a bone marrow aspiration or a biopsy. The tissue sample is sent to a lab. ...

31

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

32

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

33

An advanced culture method for generating large quantities of highly pure dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

As dendritic cells (DC) are rare populations in all organs, their generation from hematopoietic precursors in large quantities has proven critical to study their biology. From murine bone marrow about 5×106 cells at 70% purity are obtained per mouse after 8 days of culture with GM-CSF. We have improved this standard method and routinely achieve a 50-fold higher yield, i.e.,

Manfred B Lutz; Nicole Kukutsch; Alexandra L. J Ogilvie; Susanne Rößner; Franz Koch; Nikolaus Romani; Gerold Schuler

1999-01-01

34

Prevention of Liver Fibrosis by Intrasplenic Injection of High-Density Cultured Bone Marrow Cells in a Rat Chronic Liver Injury Model  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow have proven to be functional for the prevention of liver fibrosis in chronic liver injury. However, expansion of EPCs in culture is complicated and expansive. Previously, we have established a simple method that could enrich and expand EPCs by simple seeding bone marrow cells in high density dots. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether cells derived from high-density (HD) culture of rat bone marrow cells could prevent the liver fibrosis in a chronic liver injury rat model, induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Flow cytometric analysis showed that cells from HD culture were enriched for EPCs, expressing high levels of EPC markers. Intrasplenic injection of HD cultured bone marrow cells in the CCl4-induced liver injury rat showed an enhanced antifibrogenic effect compared with animals treated with cells from regular-density culture. The antifibrogenic effect was demonstrated by biochemical and histological analysis 4 weeks post-transplantation. Furthermore, cells from HD culture likely worked through increasing neovascularization, stimulating liver cell proliferation, and suppressing pro-fibrogenic factor expression. HD culture, which is a simple and cost-effective procedure, could potentially be used to expand bone marrow cells for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:25255097

Xu, Peng; Ai, Ai; Zhou, Guangdong; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Wen Jie

2014-01-01

35

Osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells regulated by osteoblasts under EMF exposure in a co-culture system.  

PubMed

This study examined the osteogenic effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) under the simulated in vivo conditions. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and rat osteoblasts were co-cultured and exposed to 50 Hz, 1.0 mT EMF for different terms. Unexposed single-cultured BMSCs and osteoblasts were set as controls. Cell proliferation features of single-cultured BMSCs and osteoblasts were studied by using a cell counting kit (CCK-8). For the co-culture system, cells in each group were randomly chosen for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining on the day 7. When EMF exposure lasted for 14 days, dishes in each group were randomly chosen for total RNA extraction and von Kossa staining. The mRNA expression of osteogenic markers was detected by using real-time PCR. Our study showed that short-term EMF exposure (2 h/day) could obviously promote proliferation of BMSCs and osteoblasts, while long-term EMF (8 h/day) could promote osteogenic differentiation significantly under co-cultured conditions. Under EMF exposure, osteogenesis-related mRNA expression changed obviously in co-cultured and single-cultured cells. It was noteworthy that most osteogenic indices in osteoblasts were increased markedly after co-culture except Bmp2, which was increased gradually when cells were exposed to EMF. Compared to other indices, the expression of Bmp2 in BMSCs was increased sharply in both single-cultured and co-cultured groups when they were exposed to EMF. The mRNA expression of Bmp2 in BMSCs was approximately four times higher in 8-h EMF group than that in the unexposed group. Our results suggest that Bmp2-mediated cellular interaction induced by EMF exposure might play an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:24710940

Yu, Ji-zhe; Wu, Hua; Yang, Yong; Liu, Chao-xu; Liu, Yang; Song, Ming-yu

2014-04-01

36

Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

2003-10-01

37

Culture and differentiation of osteoblasts on coral scaffold from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an approach that aims to provide fundamental information towards a scientific, biomechanical basis\\u000a for the use of natural coral scaffolds to initiate mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic differentiation for transplant purposes.\\u000a Biomaterial, such as corals, is an osteoconductive material that can be used to home human derived stem cells for clinical\\u000a regenerative purposes. In bone

Cong Toai Tran; Ciro Gargiulo; Huynh Duy Thao; Huynh Minh Tuan; Luis Filgueira; D. Michael Strong

38

Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

39

Culture Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds for Bone Repair  

PubMed Central

Because of its moldability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for craniofacial and orthopedic applications. The objectives of this study were to investigate the response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to a high-strength CPC-chitosan scaffold and to examine cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs were seeded onto CPC-chitosan composite, CPC control, and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and mineralization of hMSCs were measured. CPC-chitosan had a flexural strength (mean ± SD; n = 5) of (19.5 ± 1.4) MPa, higher than (8.0 ± 1.4) MPa of CPC control (p < 0.05). The percentage of live hMSCs on CPC-chitosan was (90.5 ± 1.3)% at 8 days, matching (90.7 ± 3.8)% of CPC control (p > 0.1). The CPC-chitosan surface area covered by the attached hMSCs increased from (51 ± 11)% at 1 day to (90 ± 4)% at 8 days (p < 0.05), matching those of CPC control (p > 0.1). Hence, the CPC strength was significantly increased via chitosan without compromising the hMSC response. At 8 days, there was a significant increase in ALP of cells in osteogenic media (10.99 ± 0.93) [(mM pNpp/min)/(?g DNA)] versus control media (3.62 ± 0.40) (p < 0.05). hMSCs in osteogenic media exhibited greater mineralization area of (47.5 ± 19.7)% compared with (6.1 ± 2.3)% in control medium on TCPS (p < 0.05). In conclusion, hMSCs showed excellent attachment and viability on the strong and tough CPC-chitosan scaffold, matching the hMSC response on CPC control. hMSCs were successfully differentiated down the osteogenic lineage. Hence, the strong, in situ hardening CPC-chitosan scaffold may be useful as a moderate load-bearing vehicle to deliver hMSCs for maxillofacial and orthopedic bone tissue engineering. PMID:20091907

Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

2010-01-01

40

Suspension cultures of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: effects of donor age and glucose level.  

PubMed

Both ageing and diabetes are associated with reduced numbers and functional viability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vivo which in turn lead to degenerative pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. The overall aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of age and raised glucose levels on the proliferation and self-renewal of rat nonadherent bone marrow MSCs (Na-BM-MSCs) in suspension cultures. MSC cultures isolated from 3- and 12-month-old rats were maintained using the "pour-off" method for up to 14 days in media containing different glucose levels and the phenotype, growth characteristics, colony forming unit-fibroblastic (CFU-f) numbers, and pluripotency characteristics of these cells were determined. This study indicates that rat adult bone marrow harbors pluripotent Na-BM-MSCs that seem to be unaffected by ageing during in vitro expansion. The Na-BM-MSCs express the pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. It was found that culture in high-glucose-containing medium had a negative effect on colony formation and differentiation. In contrast to classical MSC cultures, the generation of colonies by Na-BM-MSCs in suspension culture was not reduced in the older animals. The Na-BM-MSCs were found to express the pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, suggesting a more primitive stage of differentiation as compared with adherent MSCs. These data indicate that rat adult bone marrow harbors a population of pluripotent Na-BM-MSCs that appear to be relatively unaffected by ageing during in vitro expansion in suspension. PMID:22462498

Stolzing, Alexandra; Bauer, Eva; Scutt, Andrew

2012-09-20

41

Composite Scaffolds Containing Silk Fibroin, Gelatin, and Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Regeneration and 3D Cell Culturing  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) silk fibroin scaffolds were modified with one of the major bone tissue derivatives (nano-hydroxyapatite) and/or a collagen derivative (gelatin). Adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) within the scaffold were increased after modification with either nano-hydroxyapatite or gelatin. However, a significant increase in MEF adhesion and proliferation was observed when both additives were introduced into the scaffold. Such modified composite scaffolds provide a new and better platform to study wound healing, bone and other tissue regeneration, as well as artificial organ bioengineering. This system can further be applied to establish experimental models to study cell-substrate interactions, cell migration and other complex processes, which may be difficult to address using the conventional two-dimensional culture systems. PMID:24772332

Moisenovich, M. M.; Arkhipova, A. Yu.; Orlova, A. A.; Drutskaya, M. S; Volkova, S. V.; Zacharov, S. E.; Agapov, I. I.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

2014-01-01

42

Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) change their phenotype when cultured with fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

The heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) that reside in the connective tissues of the mouse, but not the chondroitin sulfate containing mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stain with safranin when exposed to alcian blue/safranin. Mouse BMMC (the presumptive in vitro counterpart of the in vivo differentiated mucosal mast cell) were cultured for 2-14 days with confluent skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and 50% WEHI-3 conditioned medium. Although the BMMC adhered to the fibroblast monolayer, they continued to divide, probably due to the presence of interleukin-3 in the conditioned medium. The mast cells remained viable throughout the period of co-culture, since they failed to release LDG and because they increased their histamine content per cell approx.15-fold. After 8-9 days of co-culture, >50% of the BMMC changed histochemically becoming safranin positive. At this time, 30-50% of the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycans synthesized by these co-cultured mass cells were heparin, whereas the initial BMMC synthesized proteoglycans containing only chondroitin sulfate E. That interleukin 3-dependent mouse BMMC can be induced to undergo a phenotypic change so as to express characteristics of a HP-MC suggests that the tissue microenvironment determines the differentiated characteristics of these cells.

Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Stevens, R.L.

1986-03-05

43

Bone-forming capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells when cultured in the presence of human platelet lysate as substitute for fetal bovine serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tissue engineering, strategies are being developed to repair large bone defects by combining biomaterials and\\u000abone marrow–derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). For expansion of MSCs under good\\u000amanufacturing practice conditions, human platelet lysate (PL) can serve as substitute for fetal bovine serum\\u000a(FBS) in culture media. We compared the in vivo bone-forming capacity of passage 3 MSCs cultured

Henk-Jan Prins; Henk Rozemuller; S. J. Vonk-Griffioen; Vivienne G. M. Verweij; Wouter J. A. Dhert; Ineke C. M. Slaper-Cortenbach; Anton C. M. Martens

2009-01-01

44

A Comparative Study on Morphochemical Properties and Osteogenic Cell Differentiation within Bone Graft and Coral Graft Culture Systems  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the morphological and chemical composition of bone graft (BG) and coral graft (CG) as well as their osteogenic differentiation potential using rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) in vitro. SEM analysis of BG and CG revealed that the pores in these grafts were interconnected, and their micro-CT confirmed pore sizes in the range of 107-315 µm and 103-514 µm with a total porosity of 92% and 94%, respectively. EDS analysis indicated that the level of calcium in CG was relatively higher than that in BG. FTIR of BG and CG confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to carbonyl, aromatic, alkyl, and alkane groups. XRD results revealed that the phase content of the inorganic layer comprised highly crystalline form of calcium carbonate and carbon. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed CG had better surface roughness compared to BG. In addition, significantly higher levels of osteogenic differentiation markers, namely, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osteocalcin (OC) levels, and Osteonectin and Runx2, Integrin gene expression were detected in the CG cultures, when compared with those in the BG cultures. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs is relatively superior in coral graft than in bone graft culture system. PMID:24151432

Puvaneswary, Subramaniam; Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao; Ibrahim, Nurul Syuhada; Murali, Malliga Raman; Merican, Azhar Mahmood; Kamarul, T.

2013-01-01

45

Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies  

PubMed Central

Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon. PMID:24874764

Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

2014-01-01

46

Stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bone cells by parathyroid hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on alkaline phosphatase activity was examined in confluent, serum-free primary cultures\\u000a of neonatal mouse calvarial cells. It was found that synthetic bPTH-(1-34) caused an increase in the specific activity of\\u000a skeletal alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme by 18 hours. Between 10 and 500 ng\\/ml, the mganitude of the change was directly related\\u000a to peptide concentration. The

John A. Yee

1985-01-01

47

Flow and nutrient transport through porous scaffolds used for the culture of bone cells in perfusion bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal is to understand via computation the behavior of the flow inside porous scaffolds that are used in bone tissue bioreactors. Fluid shear is an important stimulatory factor in preosteoblastic cells seeded in scaffolds and cultured under continuous flow perfusion. A Lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to simulate the flow field within porous scaffolds obtained with high resolution micro-CT. Lagrangian methods have also been used to determine the nutrient dispersion inside the scaffolds. The shear stresses calculated inside the scaffold architecture indicate that the shear stresses experienced by cells inside the scaffold can vary by orders of magnitude. This is important when designing scaffolds for bone tissue growth, since osteoblastic cells require to be stimulated by shear for growth. Moreover, cell detachment can occur when the fluid shear is too high, thus, placing a limit on the stresses that a particular scaffold design should allows. The talk will address the methodology, the validation and the correlation of scaffold structure characteristics with the shear stresses and with the rate of mass transfer.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Sikavitsas, Vassilios; Vangordon, Samuel

2009-03-01

48

Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell-conditioned Medium on Primary Cultures of Peripheral Nerve Tissues and Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) produces an improved functional outcome of peripheral nerve repair. In this\\u000a study, rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants, rat DRG neurons, and rat Schwann cells (SCs) were treated with monkey MSC-conditioned\\u000a medium, respectively, and then subjected to MTT assay, Bromodeoxyuridine\\/Hoechst 33342 double staining, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry,\\u000a real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blot analysis,

Jiajiong Yang; Hong Wu; Nan Hu; Xiaosong Gu; Fei Ding

2009-01-01

49

Effect of interleukin-1? treatment on co-cultures of human meniscus cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a major mediator of local inflammation present in injured joints. In this study, we aimed at comparing the effect of IL-1? on engineered tissues from MCs, BMSCs and co-cultured MCs and BMSCs. Methods We compared the effect of IL-1? in 3 groups: (1) MCs, (2) BMSCs and, (3) co-cultures of MCs and BMSCs. We selected 1 to 3 ratio of MCs to BMSCs for the co-cultures. Passage two (P2) human BMSCs were obtained from two donors. Human MCs were isolated from menisci of 4 donors. Mono-cultures of MCs and BMSCs, and co-cultures of MCs and BMSCs were cultured in chondrogenic medium with TGF?3, as cell pellets for 14 days. Thereafter, pellets were cultured for 3 more days in same medium as before with or without IL-1? (500 pg/ml). Pellets were assessed histologically, biochemically and by RT-PCR for gene expression of aggrecan, sox9, MMP-1, collagens I and II. Statistics was performed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-tests. Results Co-cultured pellets were the most intensely stained with safranin O and collagen II. Co-cultured pellets had the highest expression of sox9, collagen I and II. IL-1? treatment slightly reduced the GAG/DNA of co-cultured pellets but still exceeded the sum of the GAG/DNA from the proportion of MCs and BMSCs in the co-cultured pellets. After IL-1? treatment, the expression of sox9, collagen I and II in co-cultured pellets was higher compared to their expression in pure pellets. IL-1? induced MMP-1 expression in mono-cultures of MCs but not significantly in mono-cultures of BMSCs or in co-cultured pellets. IL-1? induced MMP-13 expression in mono-cultured pellets of BMSCs and in co-cultured pellets. Conclusions Co-cultures of MCs and BMSCs resulted in a synergistic production of cartilaginous matrix compared to mono-cultures of MCs and BMSCs. IL-1? did not abrogate the accumulated GAG matrix in co-cultures but mediated a decreased mRNA expression of aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. These results strengthen the combinatorial use of primary MCs and BMSCs as a cell source for meniscus tissue engineering by demonstrating retention of fibrochondrogenic phenotype after exposure to IL-1?. PMID:23875869

2013-01-01

50

Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMuch remains to be learned about the intimate relationship between bone marrow and its surrounding tissue: the bone. We hypothesized that bone marrow accessory cell populations might regulate the development of human bone precursor cells.

Peter G Eipers; Sujata Kale; Russell S Taichman; George G Pipia; Nancy A Swords; Kenneth G Mann; Michael W Long

2000-01-01

51

Improved expansion of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in microcarrier-based suspension culture.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) have potential clinical utility in the treatment of a multitude of ailments and diseases, due to their relative ease of isolation from patients and their capacity to form many cell types. However, hBM-MSCs are sparse, and can only be isolated in very small quantities, thereby hindering the development of clinical therapies. The use of microcarrier-based stirred suspension bioreactors to expand stem cell populations offers an approach to overcome this problem. Starting with standard culture protocols commonly reported in the literature, we have successfully developed new protocols that allow for improved expansion of hBM-MSCs in stirred suspension bioreactors using CultiSpher-S microcarriers. Cell attachment was facilitated by using intermittent bioreactor agitation, removing fetal bovine serum, modifying the stirring speed and manipulating the medium pH. By manipulating these parameters, we enhanced the cell attachment efficiency in the first 8 h post-inoculation from 18% (standard protocol) to 72% (improved protocol). Following microcarrier attachment, agitation rate was found to impact cell growth kinetics, whereas feeding had no significant effect. By serially subculturing hBM-MSCs using the new suspension bioreactor protocols, we managed to obtain cell fold increases of 10ł within 30 days, which was superior to the 200-fold increase obtained using the standard protocol. The cells were found to retain their defining characteristics after several passages in suspension. This new bioprocess represents a more efficient approach for generating large numbers of hBM-MSCs in culture, which in turn should facilitate the development of new stem cell-based therapies. PMID:22689330

Yuan, Yifan; Kallos, Michael S; Hunter, Christopher; Sen, Arindom

2014-03-01

52

Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity.

Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y. (Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1991-03-01

53

The influence of bone marrow-and synovium-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from osteoarthritis patients on regulatory T cells in co-culture  

PubMed Central

Summary There is increasing evidence that inflammation in the synovium plays a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the immunogenic properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which are considered to regulate immunity in various diseases, remain largely unknown in OA. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of MSCs from OA patients on regulatory T cells (Tregs) in an allogeneic co-culture model. Bone marrow (BM) and synovial membrane (SM) were harvested from hip joints of OA patients and co-cultured with lymphocytes enriched in CD4+CD25+CD127– regulatory T cells (Treg+LC) from healthy donors. Treg proportions and MSC markers were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were assessed after 2 and 5 days of co-cultivation. Additionally, Treg+LC cultures were analysed in the presence of interleukin (IL)-6 and MSC-supernatant complemented medium. B-MSCs and S-MSCs were able to retain the Treg proportion compared to lymphocyte monocultures. T cell–MSC co-cultures showed a significant increase of IL-6 compared to MSC cultures. S-MSCs produced higher amounts of IL-6 compared to B-MSCs, both in single and T cell co-cultures. The effect of retaining the Treg percentage could be reproduced partially by IL-6 addition to the medium, but could only be observed fully when using MSC culture supernatants. Our data demonstrate that retaining the Treg phenotype in MSC–T cell co-cultures can be mediated by MSC derived from OA patients. IL-6 plays an important role in mediating these processes. To our knowledge, this study is the first describing the interaction of MSCs from OA patients and Tregs in an allogeneic co-culture model. PMID:23607395

Hagmann, S; Gotterbarm, T; Muller, T; Baesig, A-M; Gantz, S; Dreher, T; Kammerer, P W; Frank, S; Zeifang, F; Moradi, B

2013-01-01

54

Optimization of culture condition of human bone marrow stromal cells in terms of purification, proliferation, and pluripotency.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) possess multilineage differentiation potential and play an important role in modern tissue engineering. However, the development of culture media to maintain hBMSCs in an undifferentiated, self-renewing state during their robust proliferation remains a challenge. We developed and tested modified growth medium [medium 1: epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), low glucose, 2% fetal calf serum (FCS)] on hBMSCs by comparing primary cell isolation, multipassage expansion, culture morphology, proliferation, and cellular phenotype, and performing an expression analysis of intrinsic-regulated genes to other two media. Cell morphology, proliferation, and phenotype varied among the media, while cells cultured in medium 1 displayed small, spindle-shaped morphology with the highest rate of growth capacities and the expected phenotype. RT-PCR analysis showed that medium 1 displayed the lowest expression levels of osteogenic genes, chondrogenic genes (osteonectin, runt-related transcription factor 2, cartilage oligo matrix protein, and SOX9), and adipogenic genes (lipoprotein lipase). The expression of another adipogenic gene, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-?2, was higher in medium 1 but did not reach significance. In addition, hBMSCs expanded in medium 1 showed the highest expression ratio of self-renewing-related genes Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and KLF5. In conclusion, medium 1 allows for better expansion and pluripotency maintenance of hBMSCs and serves as a preferred alternative to traditional serum-containing media for research applications and future clinical use. PMID:24934232

Zhou, Ying; Yu, Dan; Zhu, Huiyong

2014-10-01

55

Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells  

PubMed Central

Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of bone development, disease and drug discovery. A source of human cells that can be derived in large numbers from a small initial harvest and predictably differentiated into bone forming cells is critically important for engineering human bone grafts. We discuss the characteristics and limitations of various types of human embryonic and adult stem cells, and their utility for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20637059

2010-01-01

56

New vitamin D less-calcemic analog affect human bone cell line and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells similar to other less-calcemic analogs.  

PubMed

Primary cultures of human bone and vascular cells respond to vitamin D treatment by modulation of cell proliferation measured by DNA synthesis (DNA) and energy metabolism measured by creatine kinase specific activity (CK) via binding to vitamin D receptors (VDR) which are expressed in these cells. Vitamin D compounds also modulate the response to estradiol-17? (E?) and the expression mRNAs of estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), VDR, 25-hydroxy vitamin D? 1-? hydroxylase (1OHase) and lipoxygenases (12LO and 15LO). We now compared our newly synthesized analog: 1?,25-dihydroxy-9-methylene-19-norvitamin D? JK152 (JK), on bone and vascular cells compared to other analogs. Human bone cell line SaOS? respond to JK by increased DNA and stimulated CK dose-dependently, similar to the less-calcemic analogs CB 1093 (CB) and EB 1089 (EB). JK also up-regulated the response to E? in terms of DNA and CK. JK inhibited DNA synthesis and increased CK in primary human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) dose-dependently similar to EB and CB. JK up regulated the response to E? in terms of CK with no effect on DNA. JK similar to CB and EB stimulated mRNA expression of VDR and ER?, 12LO and 15LO, with no effect on ER? and 1OHase mRNA expression in SaOS? measured by real time PCR. Similar treatments of VSMC with JK, CB and EB stimulated 12LO and 15LO, VDR and ER? mRNA expression with no effect on ER? and 1OHase mRNA expression. The results presented here demonstrate that the new vitamin D less-calcemic analog JK is similar to other analogs in its effects on human cultured cells and therefore may be used in combined hormone replacement treatment (HRT) both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24269661

Somjen, D; Kulesza, U; Sharon, O; Knoll, E; Stern, N

2014-03-01

57

An exploratory clinical trial for idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head by cultured autologous multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells augmented with vascularized bone grafts.  

PubMed

Idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ION) is a painful disorder that progresses to collapse of the femoral head and destruction of the hip joint. Although its precise pathology remains unknown, the loss of blood supply causing the loss of living bone-forming cells is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. Transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising tool for regenerating the musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of transplantation of cultured autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs mixed with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in combination with vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of advanced stage ION in a clinical trial. Ten patients with stage 3 ION were enrolled in this study. Autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured with autologous serum, and cells (0.5-1.0×10(8)) were transplanted after mixing with ?-TCP granules in combination with vascularized iliac bone grafts. Patients were assessed 24 months after treatment. The primary and secondary endpoints were progression of the radiological stage and changes in bone volume at the femoral head, and clinical score, respectively. Nine of ten patients completed the protocol, seven of whom remained at stage 3, and the remaining two cases progressed to stage 4. The average bone volume increased from 56.5±8.5?cm(3) to 57.7±10.6?cm(3). The average clinical score according to the Japan Orthopaedic Association improved from 65.6±25.5 points to 87.9±19.0 points. One severe adverse event was observed, which was not related to the clinical trial. Although the efficacy of cell transplantation was still to be determined, all procedures were successfully performed and some young patients with extensive necrotic lesions with pain demonstrated good bone regeneration with amelioration of symptoms. Further improvements in our method using MSCs and the proper selection of patients will open a new approach for the treatment of this refractory disease. PMID:24593258

Aoyama, Tomoki; Goto, Koji; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Ueda, Michiko; Kasai, Yasunari; Maekawa, Taira; Tada, Harue; Teramukai, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya

2014-08-01

58

An Exploratory Clinical Trial for Idiopathic Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head by Cultured Autologous Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Augmented with Vascularized Bone Grafts  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ION) is a painful disorder that progresses to collapse of the femoral head and destruction of the hip joint. Although its precise pathology remains unknown, the loss of blood supply causing the loss of living bone-forming cells is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. Transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising tool for regenerating the musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of transplantation of cultured autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs mixed with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in combination with vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of advanced stage ION in a clinical trial. Ten patients with stage 3 ION were enrolled in this study. Autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured with autologous serum, and cells (0.5–1.0×108) were transplanted after mixing with ?-TCP granules in combination with vascularized iliac bone grafts. Patients were assessed 24 months after treatment. The primary and secondary endpoints were progression of the radiological stage and changes in bone volume at the femoral head, and clinical score, respectively. Nine of ten patients completed the protocol, seven of whom remained at stage 3, and the remaining two cases progressed to stage 4. The average bone volume increased from 56.5±8.5?cm3 to 57.7±10.6?cm3. The average clinical score according to the Japan Orthopaedic Association improved from 65.6±25.5 points to 87.9±19.0 points. One severe adverse event was observed, which was not related to the clinical trial. Although the efficacy of cell transplantation was still to be determined, all procedures were successfully performed and some young patients with extensive necrotic lesions with pain demonstrated good bone regeneration with amelioration of symptoms. Further improvements in our method using MSCs and the proper selection of patients will open a new approach for the treatment of this refractory disease. PMID:24593258

Aoyama, Tomoki; Goto, Koji; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Ueda, Michiko; Kasai, Yasunari; Maekawa, Taira; Tada, Harue; Teramukai, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi

2014-01-01

59

Differentiation-Inducing Factor Purified from Conditioned Medium of Mitogen-Treated Spleen Cell Cultures Stimulates Bone Resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spleen cells treated with mitogens produce a potent bone-resorbing factor called osteoclast-activating factor (OAF). To examine the relationship between the bone-resorbing factor and other protein factors produced by spleen cells, the colony-stimulating factor (CSF), the differentiation-inducing factor (DIF), the macrophage fusion factor (MFF), and the macrophage growth factor (MGF) were purified from 2.68 liters of conditioned medium of mouse spleen

Etsuko Abe; Hirofumi Tanaka; Yoshiko Ishimi; Chisato Miyaura; Takamune Hayashi; Hiroshi Nagasawa; Mikio Tomida; Yuri Yamaguchi; Motoo Hozumi; Tatsuo Suda

1986-01-01

60

Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Repeated Culture System: A New Device and Method for Obtaining Abundant Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

To date, various types of cells for seeding regenerative scaffolds have been used for bone tissue engineering. Among seed cells, the mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (hUCMSCs) represent a promising candidate and hold potential for bone tissue engineering due to the the lack of ethical controversies, accessibility, sourced by non-invasive procedures for donors, a reduced risk of contamination, osteogenic differentiation capacities, and higher immunomodulatory capacity. However, the current culture methods are somewhat complicated and inefficient and often fail to make the best use of the umbilical cord (UC) tissues. Moreover, these culture processes cannot be performed on a large scale and under strict quality control. As a result, only a small quantity of cells can be harvested using the current culture methods. To solve these problems, we designed and evaluated an UC Wharton’s jelly repeated culture device. Using this device, hUCMSCs were obtained from the repeated cultures and their quantities and biological characteristics were compared. We found that using our culture device, which retained all tissue blocks on the bottom of the dish, the total number of obtained cells increased 15–20 times, and the time required for the primary passage was reduced. Moreover, cells harvested from the repeated cultures exhibited no significant difference in their immunophenotype, potential for multilineage differentiation, or proliferative, osteoinductive capacities, and final osteogenesis. The application of the repeated culture frame (RCF) not only made full use of the Wharton’s jelly but also simplified and specified the culture process, and thus, the culture efficiency was significantly improved. In summary, abundant hUCMSCs of dependable quality can be acquired using the RCF. PMID:25329501

Xing, Junchao; Wu, Xuehui; Jin, Huiyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Deng, Moyuan; Xie, Zhao; Xu, Jianzhong

2014-01-01

61

Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation

S. Perkins; R. A. Fleischman

1988-01-01

62

The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type Ib Receptor Is a Major Mediator of Glial Differentiation and Cell Survival in Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. Little is known about functional differences between the three type I receptors. Here, we have investigated consequences of constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) type I receptor overexpression in adult-derived hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs). The dn receptors have a nonfunctional intracellular but functional extracellular domain. They thus trap BMPs that are endogenously produced by AHPs. We found that effects obtained by overexpression of dnAlk2 and dnAlk6 were similar, suggesting similar ligand binding patterns for these receptors. Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. No effect on neuronal differentiation was seen. Whereas the expression of Alk2 and Alk3 mRNA remained unchanged, the Alk6 mRNA was induced after impaired BMP signaling. After dnAlk3 overexpression, cell survival and astroglial differentiation increased in parallel to augmented Alk6 receptor signaling. We conclude that endogenous BMPs mediate cell survival, astroglial differentiation and the suppression of oligodendrocytic cell fate mainly via the Alk6 receptor in AHP culture. PMID:15194807

Brederlau, A.; Faigle, R.; Elmi, M.; Zarebski, A.; Sjöberg, S.; Fujii, M.; Miyazono, K.; Funa, K.

2004-01-01

63

In vitro quantitation of lethal and physiologic effects of total body irradiation on stromal and hematopoietic stem cells in continuous bone marrow cultures from Rf mice  

SciTech Connect

The effects of in vivo total body irradiation (TBI) and interval from TBI to explant of marrow on: stromal cell proliferation in vitro; stromal cell support of hematopoiesis in continuous bone marrow culture; and generation of WEHI-3 growth factor (GF)-dependent lines of hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated. Explant of marrow at 2, 4, 5, or 6 months after single fraction TBI (300-800 rad) was associated with decreased longevity of hemopoiesis and a decrease in the proliferative capacity of fibroblastic adherent-stromal colony forming cells (CFUf) as measured by colony size at 14 days and number of colonies per 10/sup 6/ cells plated. In contrast, explant of marrow 8 to 24 months after TBI produced cultures with longevity that was indistinguishable from age-matched control cultures (19-24 weeks). Marrow from irradiated first and second generation recipients of serially transferred marrow demonstrated a similar 7-month in vivo recovery period; however, the plateau maximum duration of hemopoiesis did not return to control levels. Purified stromal cell cultures were prepared by corticosteroid-deprivation of explanted marrow for 28 days and were then engrafted in vitro with marrow from C57BL/6J or RfM/UN mice that had been irradiated 1 month previously. Hemopoiesis in these cultures was restored, and they produced GM-CFUc and granulocytes for 15-24 weeks. Thus, healthy stroma supported growth of recently irradiated hemopoietic cells in vitro. Indirect effects of x-irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells through damage and repair in the stromal cell compartment can be effectively studied with the present bone marrow culture system. (JMT)

Greenberger, J.S. (Havard Medical School, Boston, MA); Eckner, R.J.; Otten, J.A.; Tennant, R.W.

1982-07-01

64

Dynamic perfusion bioreactor system for 3D culture of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 scaffold in vitro.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the biocompatibility and osteogenic effectiveness of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was cultured with the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), under the static culture condition and the dynamic perfusion culture condition in vitro, and to investigate whether the 3D perfusion culture condition was better in provoking proliferation of rBMSCs than the 3D static culture condition. The Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Osteocalcin (OCN) assay and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs. The samples were respectively harvested at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days and effect comparisons were made between the two of the culture conditions. The results showed that values of MTT, ALP, and OCN were increased continuously and revealed a significant difference between the two culture conditions (p < 0.05). On the 14th day, SEM revealed calcified nodules 2-8 ?m in diameter in the lamellar structure. Under the static culture condition, the pores were covered with the cells looking like a piece of blanket, but under the perfusion culture condition the cells were observed to have a 3D lamellar structure. In conclusion, the porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material can be used as a good candidate material for the bone scaffold construction in the tissue engineering because of its excellent 3D structure, which can greatly improve the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs and make them proliferate and osteogenesis even better under the perfusion culture condition. PMID:23362119

Qian, Xu; Yuan, Fang; Zhimin, Zhu; Anchun, Mo

2013-08-01

65

Culture system for bone metabolic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms governing bone remodelling is essential for a clear understanding of not only pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, but also microgravity-induced bone loss. The scope of this MAP project is the further development (including technical development and biological validation) of an ex vivo culture system for trabecular bone explants, which can be submitted to controlled mechanical stimuli. This should allow the evaluation of the causal relationship between biochemical and mechanical parameters and bone remodelling.

Vander Sloten, Jos; Jones, David; Richards, R. Geoff; Vico, Laurence; Gasser, Jürg A.; Koller, Bruno; Pugh, Sydney M.

2005-10-01

66

Retinoic acid induces mouse bone marrow-derived CD15?, Oct4? and CXCR4? stem cells into male germ-like cells in a two-dimensional cell culture system.  

PubMed

We have examined the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on differentiation of bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells into male germ cells. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated from the femur of 3-4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) system was used to sort CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells. RT-PCR was used to follow the expression of pluripotency markers. Sorted CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells were cultured in an undifferentiated condition on a feeder layer of mitomycin C-inactivated C2C12. The embryoid-like bodies were differentiated into male germ cells by retinoic acid. To identify the expression of male germ specific markers, differentiated cells were analysed by means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence staining. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence show that bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells express pluripotency markers, Oct4, Nanog, Rex-1, SOX-2 and AP. The purified CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) formed structures like embryoid bodies when plated over a feeder layer; these bodies were alkaline phosphatase positive. When cells were induced by RA, bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) were positive for Mvh, Dazl, Piwil2, Dppa3 and Stra8, that known molecular markers of male germ cells. Thus RA can induce differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells into male germ cells in vitro. Negative results for the gene expression analysis of female germ cells markers, GDF9 and ZP3, confirmed this conclusion. PMID:24677291

Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Nayernia, Karim; Shirazi, Reza

2014-06-01

67

Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone  

SciTech Connect

Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

1980-08-01

68

Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

Lu, Li, E-mail: luli7300@126.com [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Li, Ang [Department of Anatomy, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)] [Department of Anatomy, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Xiao, Zhi-Cheng, E-mail: zhicheng.xiao@monash.edu [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical College, Kunming 650031 (China) [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical College, Kunming 650031 (China); Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

2012-05-25

69

Advances in cell culture  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

Maramorosch, K. (Dept. of Entomology, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (US))

1987-01-01

70

Microarray and proteomic analysis of breast cancer cell and osteoblast co-cultures: role of osteoblast matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in bone metastasis.  

PubMed

Dynamic reciprocal interactions between a tumor and its microenvironment impact both the establishment and progression of metastases. These interactions are mediated, in part, through proteolytic sculpting of the microenvironment, particularly by the matrix metalloproteinases, with both tumors and stroma contributing to the proteolytic milieu. Because bone is one of the predominant sites of breast cancer metastases, we used a co-culture system in which a subpopulation of the highly invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, with increased propensity to metastasize to bone, was overlaid onto a monolayer of differentiated osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells in a mineralized osteoid matrix. CLIP-CHIP® microarrays identified changes in the complete protease and inhibitor expression profile of the breast cancer and osteoblast cells that were induced upon co-culture. A large increase in osteoblast-derived MMP-13 mRNA and protein was observed. Affymetrix analysis and validation showed induction of MMP-13 was initiated by soluble factors produced by the breast tumor cells, including oncostatin M and the acute response apolipoprotein SAA3. Significant changes in the osteoblast secretomes upon addition of MMP-13 were identified by degradomics from which six novel MMP-13 substrates with the potential to functionally impact breast cancer metastasis to bone were identified and validated. These included inactivation of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL7, activation of platelet-derived growth factor-C, and cleavage of SAA3, osteoprotegerin, CutA, and antithrombin III. Hence, the influence of breast cancer metastases on the bone microenvironment that is executed via the induction of osteoblast MMP-13 with the potential to enhance metastases growth by generating a microenvironmental amplifying feedback loop is revealed. PMID:21784845

Morrison, Charlotte; Mancini, Stephanie; Cipollone, Jane; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Roskelley, Calvin; Overall, Christopher

2011-09-30

71

Osteoblast-like Differentiation of Cultured Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells by Bone Morphogenetic Protein Endothelial Cell Precursor-derived Regulator (BMPER)*  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into osteoblast-like cells is considered to be a mechanism of vascular calcification. However, regulators of osteoblast-like differentiation of vascular SMCs are not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-binding endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator (BMPER), a vertebrate homologue of Drosophila crossveinless-2, in vascular SMCs and the role and mode of action of BMPER in osteoblast-like differentiation of human coronary artery SMCs (HCASMCs). BMPER was expressed in cultured human vascular SMCs, including HCASMCs. Silencing of endogenous BMPER expression by an RNA interference technique inhibited osteoblast-like differentiation of HCASMCs, as evaluated by up-regulation of osteoblast markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), by down-regulation of a SMC marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), and by mineralization. Treatment with recombinant BMPER enhanced, whereas BMP-2 reduced osteoblast-like differentiation. BMPER antagonized BMP-2-induced phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, suggesting that the effect of BMPER was mediated by antagonizing the action of BMP. BMPER increased I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B activity and specific NF-?B decoy oligonucleotides deteriorated osteoblast-like differentiation of HCASMCs by BMPER. In human coronary artery with atherosclerotic plaque containing calcification, the BMPER-positive signals were observed in the neointimal and medial SMCs in the vicinity of the plaque. These findings indicate that BMPER is a novel regulator of the osteoblast-like differentiation of HCASMCs. PMID:22778264

Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Kinugasa, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Reiko; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Kurogane, Yusuke; Ishida, Tatsuro; Emoto, Noriaki; Asada, Yujiro; Takai, Yoshimi; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

2012-01-01

72

In vitro cultivation of Anaplasma marginale in bovine bone marrow cells  

E-print Network

donor animals Bone marrow cells from exsanguinated animals ~Ana I ~ai I -I f ct d a d infect d erythrocyte cultures Initiation of bone marrow cultures Slide preparation Infection of bone marrow cultures with A mar inale Iitit ~ noma I I ifetinof... cultures inoculated with Ana lasma mar inale infected erythrocytes ca f ?13, 13. 7 parasi temi a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent parasitemias obtained from bone marrow cell cultures inoculated with Ana lasma mar inale infected erythrocytes ca...

Baradji, Issa

2012-06-07

73

Phenotypical and functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow: comparison of culture using different media supplemented with human platelet lysate or fetal bovine serum  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages, classically derived from bone marrow (BM) but potentially from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Although they are becoming a good tool for regenerative medicine, they usually need to be expanded in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented media. Human platelet lysate (HPL) has recently been proposed as substitute for safety reasons, but it is not yet clear how this supplement influences the properties of expanded MSCs. Methods In the present study, we compared the effect of various media combining autologous HPL with or without FBS on phenotypic, proliferative and functional (differentiation, cytokine secretion profile) characteristics of human BM-derived MSCs. Results Despite less expression of adipogenic and osteogenic markers, MSCs cultured in HPL-supplemented media fully differentiated along osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic and vascular smooth muscle lineages. The analyses of particular specific proteins expressed during osteogenic differentiation (calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and parathormone receptor (PTHR)) showed their decrease at D0 before any induction for MSC cultured with HPL mostly at high percentage (10%HPL). The cytokine dosage showed a clear increase of proliferation capacity and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion. Conclusions This study shows that MSCs can be expanded in media supplemented with HPL that can totally replace FBS. HPL-supplemented media not only preserves their phenotype as well as their differentiation capacity, but also shortens culture time by increasing their growth rate. PMID:22333342

2012-01-01

74

Differences between in vitro viability and differentiation and in vivo bone-forming efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on PCL-TCP scaffolds.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess great therapeutic potential for the treatment of bone disease and fracture non-union. Too often however, in vitro evidence alone of the interaction between hMSCs and the biomaterial of choice is used as justification for continued development of the material into the clinic. Clearly for hMSC-based regenerative medicine to be successful for the treatment of orthopaedic trauma, it is crucial to transplant hMSCs with a suitable carrier that facilitates their survival, optimal proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. This motivated us to evaluate the use of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds produced by fused deposition modeling for the delivery of hMSCs. When hMSCs were cultured on the PCL-TCP scaffolds and imaged by a combination of phase contrast, scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy, we observed five distinct stages of colonization over a 21-day period that were characterized by cell attachment, spreading, cellular bridging, the formation of a dense cellular mass and the accumulation of a mineralized extracellular matrix when induced with osteogenic stimulants. Having established that PCL-TCP scaffolds are able to support hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, we next tested the in vivo efficacy of hMSC-loaded PCL-TCP scaffolds in nude rat critical-sized femoral defects. We found that fluorescently labeled hMSCs survived in the defect site for up to 3 weeks post-transplantation. However, only 50% of the femoral defects treated with hMSCs responded favorably as determined by new bone volume. As such, we show that verification of hMSC viability and differentiation in vitro is not sufficient to predict the efficacy of transplanted stem cells to consistently promote bone formation in orthotopic defects in vivo. PMID:20688388

Rai, Bina; Lin, Jane L; Lim, Zophia X H; Guldberg, Robert E; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Cool, Simon M

2010-11-01

75

Bone scaffold architecture modulates the development of mineralized bone matrix by human embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Decellularized bone has been widely used as a scaffold for bone formation, due to its similarity to the native bone matrix and excellent osteoinductive and biomechanical properties. We have previously shown that human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells form functional bone matrix on such scaffolds, without the use of growth factors. In this study, we focused on differences in bone matrix that exist even among identical harvesting sites, and the effects of the matrix architecture and mineral content on bone formation by human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Mesenchymal progenitors derived from hESCs were cultured for 5 weeks in decellularized bone scaffolds with three different densities: low (0.281 ± 0.018 mg/mm3), medium (0.434 ± 0.015 mg/mm3) and high (0.618 ± 0.027 mg/mm3). The medium-density group yielded highest densities of cells and newly assembled bone matrix, presumably due to the best balance between the transport of nutrients and metabolites to and from the cells, space for cell infiltration, surface for cell attachment and the mechanical strength of the scaffolds, all of which depend on the scaffold density. Bone mineral was beneficial for the higher expression of bone markers in cultured cells and more robust accumulation of the new bone matrix. PMID:22901965

Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Marolt, Darja; Petridis, Petros; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Schmidt, Daniel; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2012-01-01

76

Single cell mutational analysis of PIK3CA in circulating tumor cells and metastases in breast cancer reveals heterogeneity, discordance, and mutation persistence in cultured disseminated tumor cells from bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic decisions in cancer are generally guided by molecular biomarkers or, for some newer therapeutics, primary tumor genotype. However, because biomarkers or genotypes may change as new metastases emerge, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood are being investigated for a role in guiding real-time drug selection during disease progression, expecting that CTCs will comprehensively represent the full spectrum of genomic changes in metastases. However, information is limited regarding mutational heterogeneity among CTCs and metastases in breast cancer as discerned by single cell analysis. The presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow also carry prognostic significance in breast cancer, but with variability between CTC and DTC detection. Here we analyze a series of single tumor cells, CTCs, and DTCs for PIK3CA mutations and report CTC and corresponding metastatic genotypes. Methods We used the MagSweeper, an immunomagnetic separation device, to capture live single tumor cells from breast cancer patients’ primary and metastatic tissues, blood, and bone marrow. Single cells were screened for mutations in exons 9 and 20 of the PIK3CA gene. Captured DTCs grown in cell culture were also sequenced for PIK3CA mutations. Results Among 242 individual tumor cells isolated from 17 patients and tested for mutations, 48 mutated tumor cells were identified in three patients. Single cell analyses revealed mutational heterogeneity among CTCs and tumor cells in tissues. In a patient followed serially, there was mutational discordance between CTCs, DTCs, and metastases, and among CTCs isolated at different time points. DTCs from this patient propagated in vitro contained a PIK3CA mutation, which was maintained despite morphological changes during 21 days of cell culture. Conclusions Single cell analysis of CTCs can demonstrate genotypic heterogeneity, changes over time, and discordance from DTCs and distant metastases. We present a cautionary case showing that CTCs from any single blood draw do not always reflect metastatic genotype, and that CTC and DTC analyses may provide independent clinical information. Isolated DTCs remain viable and can be propagated in culture while maintaining their original mutational status, potentially serving as a future resource for investigating new drug therapies. PMID:24947048

2014-01-01

77

Improved bone marrow stromal cell adhesion on micropatterned titanium surfaces.  

PubMed

Implant longevity is desired for all bone replacements and fixatives. Titanium (Ti) implants fail due to lack of juxtaposed bone formation, resulting in implant loosening. Implant surface modifications have shown to affect the interactions between the implant and bone. In clinical applications, it is crucial to improve osseointegration and implant fixation at the implant and bone interface. Moreover, bone marrow derived cells play a significant role for implant and tissue integration. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how surface micropatterning on Ti influences its interactions with bone marrow derived cells containing mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) have the capability of differentiating into osteoblasts that contribute to bone growth, and therefore implant/bone integration. Hematopoietic stem cell derivatives are precursor cells that contribute to inflammatory response. By using all three cells naturally contained within bone marrow, we mimic the physiological environment to which an implant is exposed. Primary rat bone marrow derived cells were seeded onto Ti with surfaces composed of arrays of grooves of equal width and spacing ranging from 0.5 to 50 µm, fabricated using a novel plasma-based dry etching technique. Results demonstrated enhanced total cell adhesion on smaller micrometer-scale Ti patterns compared with larger micrometer-scale Ti patterns, after 24-hr culture. Further studies are needed to determine bone marrow derived cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential on micropatterned Ti, and eventually nanopatterned Ti. PMID:23367215

Iskandar, Maria E; Cipriano, Aaron F; Lock, Jaclyn; Gott, Shannon C; Rao, Masaru P; Liu, Huinan

2012-01-01

78

Co?culture of human nucleus pulposus cells with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from human bone marrow reveals formation of tunnelling nanotubes.  

PubMed

Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is the main cause of age-related damage of spinal tissues. Using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) regenerative medicine intends to restore the IVD components of annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). In the present study NP cells (NPCs) and MSCs obtained from adolescent patients suffering from scoliosis were used. IVDs and vertebrae were obtained during surgery and subsequently processed in order to establish cultures of NPCs and MSCs. The two cell types were co-cultured in 1-µm pore size insert system (indirect co-culture) or on one surface (direct co-culture). Prior to co-culture in these systems one of the cell types was stained by lipophilic fluorescent dye DiD (red). The results demonstrated that regardless of the cell type, the flow of DiD from stained to non-stained cells was more efficient in the direct co-culture in comparison with the insert system. Moreover, in the direct system the DiD flow was more efficient from MSCs towards NPCs compared with that in the opposite direction. These data indicated that the membrane interchange between the two cell types was asymmetric. To discriminate the subpopulation of cells that underwent membrane interchange, cells were double stained with DiD and DiO (green). In the first part of the experiment NPCs were stained by DiO and MSCs by DiD. In the second, NPCs were stained by DiD and MSCs by DiO. The cells were co-cultured in the direct system for 8 days and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. This analysis revealed that >50% of cells were stained by the DiO and DiD dyes. NPCs and MSCs formed structures similar to tunnelling nanotubes (TnT). In conclusion, the formation of TnT-like structures is able to promote, phenotypic changes during the direct co-culture of NPCs with MSCs. PMID:24271232

Lehmann, Tomasz P; Filipiak, Krystyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Sujka-Kordowska, Patrycja; Jagodzi?ski, Pawe? P; Zabel, Maciej; G?owacki, Jakub; Misterska, Ewa; Walczak, Micha?; G?owacki, Maciej

2014-02-01

79

Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas of physiological need. The mechanism by which cells are precisely targeted to areas requiring repair is both clinically relevant and poorly understood. The osteocyte has been assumed to play a role in sensing damage and signaling for its removal, due largely to its abundance throughout the mineralized bone matrix. However, until recently there has been little evidence that osteocyte function is modified in the vicinity of the microdamage. Here I outline the possibility that the targeted removal of bone containing microcracks might involve signals derived from the apoptotic death of the osteocyte. I shall discuss data that support or refute this view and will consider the possible molecular mechanisms by which controlled cell death might contribute to the signals for repair in the light of work involving cells in bone and other tissue systems. PMID:14710370

Noble, B

2003-12-21

80

An assessment of the ability of human bone marrow cultures to generate osteoclasts.  

PubMed Central

Several groups have successfully generated osteoclasts in cultures of murine haemopoietic cells. This approach would clearly be useful in the analysis of mechanisms of regulation of human osteoclast formation if analogous results could be obtained in cultures of human bone marrow. This communication describes independent attempts by three groups to generate unequivocally defined osteoclasts from bone marrow obtained from human iliac crest, femoral neck, rib, and from foetuses. The haemopoietic tissue was incubated using techniques described by others for production of osteoclast-like cells, and with variants of this technique using strategies based on our experiences with murine osteoclastogenesis. Haemopoietic cells were incubated with calcium regulating hormones, cytokines, osteoblastic supernatants, and osteoblastic or bone marrow stromal cell layers. Formation of cells capable of excavation of bone slices was rarely seen. Despite the paucity of bone resorbing cells, multinucleate cells (MNCs) developed with similar characteristics to the MNCs that have been interpreted as osteoclast-like in human bone marrow cultures. The MNCs were, however, calcitonin-receptor (CTR) negative, and did not show the typical pattern of reactivity with osteoclast-specific antibodies. They possessed instead an antigenic profile characteristic of macrophage polykaryons. We conclude that the MNCs which consistently generate in human bone marrow cultures do not possess phenotypic characteristics specific for osteoclasts and appear to be macrophage polykaryons. The conditions required for osteoclast generation in cultures of human haemopoietic cells remain to be defined. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1320395

Flanagan, A. M.; Horton, M. A.; Dorey, E. L.; Collins, D. A.; Evely, R. S.; Moseley, J. M.; Firkin, F. C.; Chambers, T. J.; Helfrich, M. H.; Martin, T. J.

1992-01-01

81

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone  

E-print Network

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow immune cells, like all blood cells, arise in the bone marrow from so-called stem cells. Some develop. The bone marrow is the site of origin of red blood cells, white cells (including lymphocytes

Morante, Silvia

82

"In-bone" utricle cultures - A simplified, atraumatic technique for in situ cultures of the adult mouse (Mus musculus) utricle  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis The “in-bone” method of culturing utricles described here is a reliable and atraumatic technique for culturing mature mouse hair cells and studying hair cell death and protection. Background The current in vitro technique for studying hair cells of the mature mouse utricle involves removal from the temporal bone and free floating culture in media. This technique can be problematic due to variability in the preservation of the sensory epithelium and a steep learning curve that results in injury of the sensory epithelium in less experienced hands. We present a new atraumatic technique of culturing the utricle in situ within the temporal bone. Methods Leaving the temporal bone largely intact, a window is opened in the bony vestibule overlying the mouse utricle. The entire temporal bone is then placed into culture media. Utricles were cultured in situ for several days with minimal damage to the epithelium. The utricles are then fixed in situ, removed from the temporal bone, and processed. A standardized aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage protocol was developed. Results Mature mouse utricles maintained hair cell numbers for 3 days in culture. Exposure to neomycin resulted in significant dose-dependent hair cell toxicity (p<.0001, one-way ANOVA). Exposure to the protective drug tacrine resulted in significant protection against neomycin (p<.05, three-way ANOVA). Conclusion The “in-bone” technique is a reliable and atraumatic method for culturing mature mouse utricles and studying hair cell death and protection. It is easily mastered and can make in vitro study of hair cells accessible to more research groups. PMID:23444481

Ou, Henry C.; Lin, Vincent; Rubel, Edwin W

2013-01-01

83

Time-related changes in expression of collagen types I and III and of tenascin-C in rat bone mesenchymal stem cells under co-culture with ligament fibroblasts or uniaxial stretching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMSC) seem to be a potential cell source for tissue engineering of the\\u000a ligament. The objective of this work was to study the time-related changes in mRNA expression and protein levels of collagen\\u000a types I and III and of tenascin-C in BMSC under co-culture with fibroblasts or under a uniaxial cyclic condition. Rat BMSC\\u000a harvested

Lei Zhang; Nguyen Tran; Huai-Qing Chen; Cyril J.-F. Kahn; Sophie Marchal; Frederique Groubatch; Xiong Wang

2008-01-01

84

Direct cell contact influences bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell fate.  

PubMed

Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into various cell types of mesenchymal origin, but mechanisms regulating such cellular changes are unclear. We have conducted co-culture experiments to examine whether mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is influenced by indirect or direct contact with differentiated cells. Cultured adult mesenchymal stem cells showed some characteristics of synthetic state vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). When co-cultured with vascular endothelial cells (EC) without cell contact, they exhibited abundant well-organised smooth muscle alpha-actin (alpha-actin) filaments. Direct co-culture with endothelial cells resulted in increased smooth muscle alpha-actin mRNA and protein, yet also comprehensive disruption of smooth muscle alpha-actin filament organisation. In order to assess whether these cell contact effects on mesenchymal stem cells were cell type specific, we also analysed direct co-cultures of mesenchymal stem cells with dermal fibroblasts. However, these experiments were characterised by the appearance of abundant spindle-shaped myofibroblast-like cells containing organised smooth muscle alpha-actin filaments. Thus, direct contact with distinct differentiated cells may be a critical determinant of mesenchymal stem cell fate in blood vessels and other connective tissues. PMID:15010334

Ball, Stephen G; Shuttleworth, Adrian C; Kielty, Cay M

2004-04-01

85

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

86

Cell Culture Made Easy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

Dye, Frank J.

1985-01-01

87

ACTH promotes chondrogenic nodule formation and induces transient elevations in intracellular calcium in rat bone marrow cell cultures via MC2-R signaling  

PubMed Central

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is among the several melanocortin peptide hormones that are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). ACTH has been found to enhance osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We show that in the presence of dexamethasone, ACTH dose-dependently increases chondrogenic nodule formation in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from the Wystar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The nodules consist of condensed cells highly expressing alkaline phosphatase, Sox9 and type II collagen transcripts, and a proteoglycan rich matrix. Immunoblot analysis of crude membrane fractions was used to determine that these cells express three melanocortin receptors (MC-R); MC2-R, MC3-R and MC5-R, as well as the melanocortin 2-receptor accessory protein (MRAP). To determine which of these receptors mediate ACTH-induced effects, we used MC-R specific peptides and the known agonist profiles of the receptors. Neither ?-MSH, a strong agonist of the MC5-R nor ?2-MSH, a strong agonist of the MC3-R, duplicates ACTH effects in rat BMSC. In addition, calcium flux was examined as a mechanism for ACTH action at the MC2-R. Consistent with MC2-R and MRAP expression patterns in the BMSC cultures, ACTH-induced transient increases in intracellular calcium were increased with dexamethasone treatment. Neither ?-MSH nor ?2-MSH affected calcium flux. Dexamethasone increased MC2-R and MRAP expression as well as POMC peptide expression and cleavage to increase the production of the lipolytic ?-LPH product. Therefore the effects of ACTH in rat BMSC enriched for mesenchymal progenitors are consistent with an MC2-R signaling mechanism and dexamethasone is capable of regulating components of the melanocortin system in these cells. PMID:23358747

Evans, Jodi F.; Rodriguez, Sylvana; Ragolia, Louis

2013-01-01

88

Bone marrow culture in aplastic anemia.  

PubMed Central

Blood and bone marrow granulocyte colony forming units (CFUc) were assayed in 46 patients with aplastic anemia, and the serum was examined for its inhibitory action on normal CFUc growth. All patients showed a gross reduction in colonies and clusters in incidence and absolute number in the bone marrow and blood. Two proliferative abnormalities of CFUc in aplastic anaemia were identified: a significantly higher than normal cluster to colony ratio (P less than 0.05) and a higher than normal ratio of granulocytes to total aggregates in the bone marrow. Eleven out of 34 patients tested had serum inhibitory to normal CFUc. These patients were indistinguishable from the rest on haematological and CFUc culture characteristics, and no correlation between the results of CFUc assay and haematological severity was found. The results suggest that the CFUc is abnormal in aplastic anaemia, the reduction in pool size being related to a failure of self-renewal, but an immunological role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia remains unproven. The close relationship of CFUc incidence to the percentage of granulocyte precursors in the marrow, together with the failure of the CFUc assay to predict clinical severity, limits the practical use of the assay to the confirmation of diagnosis in aplastic anaemia. PMID:500837

Barrett, A J; Faille, A; Balitrand, N; Ketels, F; Najean, Y

1979-01-01

89

Generation of Large Numbers of Dendritic Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow Cultures Supplemented with Granulocyte\\/Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Antigen-presenting, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-rich dendritic cells are known to arise from bone marrow. However, marrow lacks mature dendritic cells, and substantial numbers of proliferating less-mature cells have yet to be identified. The methodology for inducing dendritic cell growth that was recently described for mouse blood now has been modified to MHC class II-negative precursors in marrow.

Kayo Inaba; Muneo Inaba; Nikolaus Romani; Hideki Aya; Masashi Deguchi; Susumu Ikehara; Shigeru Muramatsu; Ralph M. Steinmanll

1992-01-01

90

Basics of Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These manuals are used in the Stem Cell Culture Course at City College of San Francisco. This course is about general mammalian cell culture techniques but includes a laboratory exercise using stem cells (takes 3 weeks to complete). The course is taught to high school students but the materials are also used for college students. Laboratory exercises provide instruction in basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Photographs and explanations of common equipment (laminar flow hood, inverted microscope, etc.) and reagents are provided. Laboratory exercises include the following: Basic Aseptic Technique; Media Preparation; Plating cells from frozen stock; Cell counting and plating; Survival assay (UV); Live Cell Identification; Transfection; Freezing cells; Stem cell differentiation. A student lab manual and an instructor manual are provided.

Afshar, Golnar

2012-03-12

91

Cell isolation and culture.  

PubMed

Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

2013-01-01

92

Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture  

SciTech Connect

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

Miettinen, Johanna A., E-mail: johanna.miettinen@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Pietilae, Mika [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Salonen, Riikka J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ohlmeier, Steffen [Proteomics Core Facility, Biocenter Oulu, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)] [Proteomics Core Facility, Biocenter Oulu, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)] [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Lehenkari, Petri [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

2011-04-01

93

[Coupling and communication between bone cells].  

PubMed

Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Coupling has been understood as a balanced induction of osteoblastic bone formation in response to osteoclastic bone resorption. An imbalance of this coupling is often linked to various bone diseases. TGF-? and IGF released from bone matrix during osteoclastic bone resorption are the favored candidates as classical coupling factor. Recently, several reports suggest that osteoclast-derived molecules/cytokines (clastokine) mediate directional signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts into the bone microenvironment. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in bone cell communication and coupling is critical for a deeper understanding of the skeletal system in health and disease. PMID:24870836

Nakashima, Tomoki

2014-06-01

94

Bone marrow-derived mast cells in mice respond in co-culture to scorpion venom activation of superior cervical ganglion neurites according to level of expression of NK-1 receptors.  

PubMed

In virtually all tissues of the body, mast cells are closely associated with nerve fibers, mostly of sensory origin. While mast cells can be activated by substance P, evidence for the involvement of NK-1 receptors is very limited. To study functional interactions between mast cells and peripheral nerves, bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) and superior cervical ganglia (SCG) were co-cultured. Murine bone marrow-derived mast cells are homologues for mucosal mast cells and have recently been shown to express NK-1 receptors. Bi-directional interaction was studied using a fluorescent calcium indicator as an index of cellular activation. Scorpion venom, not affecting BMMC by itself, caused a rapid increase in neurite fluorescence subsequently followed by activation of the mast cell. The latter was inhibited by the NK-1 receptor antagonist SR140333, showing the direct involvement of substance P and its receptor in this co-culture system. Activation of BMMC seemed to be directly correlated with extent of NK-1 receptor expression. Immature c-kit positive cells not expressing NK-1 gave a negligible response to neurite activation. In addition, there was a maximum stimulation occurring when NK-1 expression exceeded 16% on BMMC after cytokine stimulation. Our findings show that the expression of NK-1 receptors appears to be important for nerve-mast cell communication. PMID:15542237

Furuno, Tadahide; Ma, Donglai; van der Kleij, Hanneke P M; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Bienenstock, John

2004-12-01

95

Mammalian Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on how to maintain mammalian cells in culture. Students will learn "basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells." Laboratories include Basic Aseptic Technique, Media Preparation, and Plating Cells from Frozen Stock. Materials include an Instructor Laboratory Manual, Student Laboratory Manual, Problem Sets, and Quizzes. A free login is required to access the materials.

2014-08-21

96

Differentiation of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells into endothelial cells in vitro and promotion of defective bone regeneration in vivo.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering strategies often fail to regenerate bones because of inadequate vascularization, especially in the reconstruction of large segmental bone defects. Large volumes of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) that functionally interact with osteoblasts during osteogenesis are difficult to obtain. In this study, we simulated bone healing by co-culturing differentiated ECs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) either on a culture plate or on a polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold in vitro. We also evaluated the effect of osteogenesis in repairing rabbit mandible defects in vivo. In this study, MSCs were separated from rabbit as the seed cells. After passage, the MSCs were cultured in an EC-conditioned medium to differentiate into ECs. Immunohistochemical staining analysis with CD34 showed that the induced cells had the characteristics of ECs and MSC. The induced ECs were co-cultured in vitro, and the induction of MSCs to osteoblast served as the control. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red (AZR) staining experiments were performed, and the Coomassie brilliant blue total protein and ALP activity were measured. The MSCs proliferated and differentiated into osteoblast-like cells through direct contact between the derived ECs and MSCs. The co-cultured cells were seeded on PLGA scaffold to repair 1 cm mandible defects in the rabbit. The effectiveness of the repairs was assessed through soft X-ray and histological analyses. The main findings indicated that MSCs survived well on the scaffold and that the scaffold is biocompatible and noncytotoxic. The results demonstrated that the co-cultured MSC-derived ECs improved MSC osteogenesis and promoted new bone formation. This study may serve as a basis for the use of in vitro co-culturing techniques as an improvisation to bone tissue engineering for the repair of large bone defects. PMID:23943083

Liu, Jinzhong; Liu, Chao; Sun, Bin; Shi, Ce; Qiao, Chunyan; Ke, Xiaoliang; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Xia; Sun, Hongchen

2014-04-01

97

Adipose cell differentiation in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of preadipocyte cell strains from adipose tissue and from bone marrow, and the establishment of preadipocyte cell lines from embryonic and adult mouse, have been useful tools to study the process of adipose cell differentiation.

G. Ailhaud

1982-01-01

98

Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines  

PubMed Central

In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

2013-01-01

99

Reversing bone loss by directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone.  

PubMed

Bone regeneration by systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is problematic due to the inability to control the MSCs' commitment, growth, and differentiation into functional osteoblasts on the bone surface. Our research group has developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by conjugating a synthetic peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) that has high affinity for activated ?4?1 integrin on the MSC surface, with a bisphosphonates (alendronate) that has high affinity for bone (LLP2A-Ale), to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that mobilization of LLP2A-Ale to hydroxyapatite accelerated MSC migration that was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase and osteoblastogenesis. LLP2A-Ale increased the homing of the transplanted MSCs to bone as well as the osteoblast surface, significantly increased the rate of bone formation and restored both trabecular and cortical bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency or advanced age in mice. These results support LLP2A-Ale as a novel therapeutic option to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone for the treatment of established bone loss related to hormone deficiency and aging. PMID:23818248

Yao, Wei; Guan, Min; Jia, Junjing; Dai, Weiwei; Lay, Yu-An E; Amugongo, Sarah; Liu, Ruiwu; Olivos, David; Saunders, Mary; Lam, Kit S; Nolta, Jan; Olvera, Diana; Ritchie, Robert O; Lane, Nancy E

2013-09-01

100

The performance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell – Implant complexes prepared by cell sheet engineering techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the hypothesis that cell sheets composed of multilayered rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could be assembled with two kinds of implants (surface-modified titanium and zirconia) for the construction of a MSC-implant. The MSC sheets were harvested from culture flasks, wrapped around implants to construct the complexes, and then cultured in osteogenic medium. The layered

Wei Zhou; Chun Han; Yingliang Song; Xingrong Yan; Dehua Li; Zhiguo Chai; Zhihong Feng; Yan Dong; Liwen Li; Xing Xie; Fulin Chen; Yimin Zhao

2010-01-01

101

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based HLA-Independent Cell Therapy for Tissue Engineering of Bone and Cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be obtained from human bone marrow aspirates and, thanks to their differentiation potential and excellent in vitro culture properties, represent an attractive cell line for the regeneration of mesenchymal tissue. Both in vitro and in vivo , they can differentiate into cartilage, bone, tendons and fat cells, and-in contrast to embryonic stem cells-they are not

Philipp Niemeyer; Ulf Krause; Philip Kasten; Peter C. Kreuz; Philipp Henle; Norbert P. Sudkamp; Alexander Mehlhorn

2006-01-01

102

A three-dimensional tissue culture model to study primary human bone marrow and its malignancies.  

PubMed

Tissue culture has been an invaluable tool to study many aspects of cell function, from normal development to disease. Conventional cell culture methods rely on the ability of cells either to attach to a solid substratum of a tissue culture dish or to grow in suspension in liquid medium. Multiple immortal cell lines have been created and grown using such approaches, however, these methods frequently fail when primary cells need to be grown ex vivo. Such failure has been attributed to the absence of the appropriate extracellular matrix components of the tissue microenvironment from the standard systems where tissue culture plastic is used as a surface for cell growth. Extracellular matrix is an integral component of the tissue microenvironment and its presence is crucial for the maintenance of physiological functions such as cell polarization, survival, and proliferation. Here we present a 3-dimensional tissue culture method where primary bone marrow cells are grown in extracellular matrix formulated to recapitulate the microenvironment of the human bone (rBM system). Embedded in the extracellular matrix, cells are supplied with nutrients through the medium supplemented with human plasma, thus providing a comprehensive system where cell survival and proliferation can be sustained for up to 30 days while maintaining the cellular composition of the primary tissue. Using the rBM system we have successfully grown primary bone marrow cells from normal donors and patients with amyloidosis, and various hematological malignancies. The rBM system allows for direct, in-matrix real time visualization of the cell behavior and evaluation of preclinical efficacy of novel therapeutics. Moreover, cells can be isolated from the rBM and subsequently used for in vivo transplantation, cell sorting, flow cytometry, and nucleic acid and protein analysis. Taken together, the rBM method provides a reliable system for the growth of primary bone marrow cells under physiological conditions. PMID:24637629

Parikh, Mukti R; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M; Kirshner, Julia

2014-01-01

103

Exogenous regucalcin suppresses osteoblastogenesis and stimulates adipogenesis in mouse bone marrow culture.  

PubMed

Regucalcin plays a pivotal role in regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis and consequently has a profound effect on multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways. The regucalcin transgenic rat displays pronounced bone loss and hyperlipidemia. Consistent with these effects exogenous regucalcin has been shown to promote osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures and to suppress the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 osteoblast precursors. Regucalcin may induce hyperlipidemia in vivo by suppressing osteoblast differentiation and stimulating adipogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The present study demonstrates that exogenous regucalcin suppresses differentiation to osteoblasts and stimulates adipogenesis in mouse bone marrow cell culture ex vivo. Moreover, exogenous regucalcin was found to enhance adipogenesis stimulated by insulin which is involved in the extracellular signal-related kinase pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. PMID:22868942

Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Weitzmann, M Neale; Baile, Clifton A; Murata, Tomiyasu

2012-10-01

104

Cell therapy in bone healing disorders  

PubMed Central

In addition to osteosynthetic stabilizing techniques and autologous bone transplantations, so-called orthobiologics play an increasing role in the treatment of bone healing disorders. Besides the use of various growth factors, more and more new data suggest that cell-based therapies promote local bone regeneration. For ethical and biological reasons, clinical application of progenitor cells on the musculoskeletal system is limited to autologous, postpartum stem cells. Intraoperative one-step treatment with autologous progenitor cells, in particular, delivered promising results in preliminary clinical studies. This article provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of the clinical application of cell-based therapy to treat osseous defects based on a review of existing literature and our own experience with more than 100 patients. Most clinical trials report successful bone regeneration after the application of mixed cell populations from bone marrow. The autologous application of human bone marrow cells which are not expanded ex vivo has medico-legal advantages. However, there is a lack of prospective randomized studies including controls for cell therapy for bone defects. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy seems to be a promising treatment option which may reduce the amount of bone grafting in future. PMID:21808710

Jager, Marcus; Hernigou, Philippe; Zilkens, Christoph; Herten, Monika; Li, Xinning; Fischer, Johannes; Krauspe, Rudiger

2010-01-01

105

Hematopoietic effects of benzene inhalation assessed by long-term bone marrow culture  

SciTech Connect

The strong and long-lasting hematotoxic effect after benzene exposure in vivo (300 ppm, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) was assessed in mice with bone marrow cells grown in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). Bone marrow cultures initiated 1 day after the last benzene exposure did not produce adequate numbers of hematopoietic cells over 3 weeks and, in most cases, no erythroid or myeloid clonogenic cells could be recovered. The adherent cell layer of these cultures had a lower capacity for supporting in vitro hematopoiesis after the second seeding with normal bone marrow cells compared with control cultures. Two weeks after the last benzene exposure, body weight, hematocrit, bone marrow cellularity, and committed hematopoietic progenitor content (BFU-E and CFU-GM) were regenerated to normal or subnormal values, whereas hematopoiesis in LTB MC was very poor. Over 8 weeks, little or no significant committed progenitor production was observed. Treatment of mice exposed to benzene with hemin (three doses of 3 {mu}g/g bw iv over 2 weeks for a total dose of 9 {mu}g/g) partially overcame the toxic effect of benzene on the hematopoietic system as measured by the LTBMC method. Cultures from mice treated with hemin had a modest recovery of BFU-E and CFU-GM clonogenic potential after 5 to 6 weeks in LTBMC. In contrast, little or no recovery was obtained for the adherent cell layer clonogenic capacity, even after hemin treatment. These results clearly indicate a strong, long-lasting toxic effect on the bone marrow stroma and a limited recovery of hematopoietic potential by clonogenic cells of the nonadherent population after in vivo hemin treatment. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Abraham, N.G. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1996-12-01

106

Differential bone-forming capacity of osteogenic cells from either embryonic stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

For more than a decade, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been used in bone tissue-engineering research. More recently some of the focus in this field has shifted towards the use of embryonic stem cells. While it is well known that hMSCs are able to form bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice, the osteogenic potential of embryonic stem cells has been mainly assessed in vitro. Therefore, we performed a series of studies to compare the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic capacities of human and mouse embryonic stem cells to those of hMSCs. Embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells showed all characteristic signs of osteogenic differentiation in vitro when cultured in osteogenic medium, including the deposition of a mineralized matrix and expression of genes involved in osteogenic differentiation. As such, based on the in vitro results, osteogenic ES cells could not be discriminated from osteogenic hMSCs. Nevertheless, although osteogenic hMSCs formed bone upon implantation, osteogenic cells derived from both human and mouse embryonic stem cells did not form functional bone, indicated by absence of osteocytes, bone marrow and lamellar bone. Although embryonic stem cells show all signs of osteogenic differentiation in vitro, it appears that, in contrast to mesenchymal stem cells, they do not possess the ability to form bone in vivo when a similar culture method and osteogenic differentiation protocol was applied. PMID:20718035

Both, Sanne K; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; Jukes, Jojanneke M; Englund, Mikael C O; Hyllner, Johan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

2011-03-01

107

Enhancement of ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery using heparin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles with transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine if a combination of previously undifferentiated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem\\u000a cells (BMMSCs) and exogenous bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivered via heparin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles (HCPNs)\\u000a would extensively regenerate bone in vivo. In vitro testing found that the HCPNs were able to release BMP-2 over a 2-week\\u000a period. Human BMMSCs cultured in medium containing BMP-2-loaded HCPNs

Sung Eun Kim; Oju Jeon; Jung Bok Lee; Min Soo Bae; Heoung-Jae Chun; Seong-Hwan Moon; Il Keun Kwon

2008-01-01

108

Physiological effects of microgravity on bone cells.  

PubMed

Life on Earth developed under the influence of normal gravity (1g). With evidence from previous studies, scientists have suggested that normal physiological processes, such as the functional integrity of muscles and bone mass, can be affected by microgravity during spaceflight. During the life span, bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks but also adapts for efficiency. The lack of weight-bearing forces makes microgravity an ideal physical stimulus to evaluate bone cell responses. One of the most serious problems induced by long-term weightlessness is bone mineral loss. Results from in vitro studies that entailed the use of bone cells in spaceflights showed modification in cell attachment structures and cytoskeletal reorganization, which may be involved in bone loss. Humans exposed to microgravity conditions experience various physiological changes, including loss of bone mass, muscle deterioration, and immunodeficiency. In vitro models can be used to extract valuable information about changes in mechanical stress to ultimately identify the different pathways of mechanotransduction in bone cells. Despite many in vivo and in vitro studies under both real microgravity and simulated conditions, the mechanism of bone loss is still not well defined. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent research on bone cells under microgravity conditions based on advances in the field. PMID:24687524

Arfat, Yasir; Xiao, Wei-Zhong; Iftikhar, Salman; Zhao, Fan; Li, Di-Jie; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

2014-06-01

109

Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, ? particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by ?H2AX-immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l ?-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). TGF-?1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to ? particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent permanent cell cycle blocks lead to a depletion of proliferation-competent cel

Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

110

Bone marrow stromal cells cultured on poly (lactide-co-glycolide)/nano-hydroxyapatite composites with chemical immobilization of Arg-Gly-Asp peptide and preliminary bone regeneration of mandibular defect thereof.  

PubMed

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used to create active groups on the poly (lactide-co-glycolide)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/NHA) surface and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was grafted on the active groups and novel PLGA/NHA 2-D membranes and 3D scaffolds modified with RGD were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results show that sulfur displays only on the modified surface. The RGD-modified PLGA/NHA materials also have much lower static water contact angle and much higher water-absorption ability, which shows that after chemical treatment, the modified materials show better hydrophilic properties. Atomic force microscope (AFM) shows that after surface modification, the surface morphology of PLGA is greatly changed. All these results indicate that RGD peptide has successfully grafted on the surface of PLGA. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) were seeded in the 2D membranes and 3D scaffolds materials. The influences of the RGD on the cell attachment, growth and differentiation, and proliferation on the different materials were studied. The modified scaffolds were implanted into rabbits to observe preliminary application in regeneration of mandibular defect. The PLGA/NHA-RGD presents better results in bone regeneration in rabbit mandibular defect. PMID:20872750

Huang, Yanxia; Ren, Jie; Ren, Tianbin; Gu, Shuying; Tan, Qinggang; Zhang, Lihong; Lv, Kaige; Pan, Kefeng; Jiang, Xinquan

2010-12-15

111

Urothelial cell culture.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the use of urothelial cells as a means to enhance tissue regeneration and wound healing in urinary tract system. It addresses the properties of urothelial cells, including their role as a permeability barrier to protect underlying muscle tissue from the caustic effects of urine and as one of the main cell types, along with smooth muscle cells, that are used in urethral or bladder tissue engineering today. This description includes a general overview of various isolation techniques and culture methods that have been developed to improve urinary tract reconstruction in vivo and aid the characterization of growth factor expression in vitro. The chapter then describes various applications using urothelial cells, including production of multilayer urothelial sheets, tissue engineered bladder mucosa, tissue engineered urethra, and tissue engineered bladder. It also outlines the advantages of sandwich and layered coculture of these cells and the effects of epithelial-stromal cell interactions during tissue regeneration or wound healing processes in the urinary tract. PMID:24029928

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Atala, Anthony

2013-01-01

112

Leptin-receptor-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells represent the main source of bone formed by adult bone marrow.  

PubMed

Studies of the identity and physiological function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been hampered by a lack of markers that permit both prospective identification and fate mapping in vivo. We found that Leptin Receptor (LepR) is a marker that highly enriches bone marrow MSCs. Approximately 0.3% of bone marrow cells were LepR(+), 10% of which were CFU-Fs, accounting for 94% of bone marrow CFU-Fs. LepR(+) cells formed bone, cartilage, and adipocytes in culture and upon transplantation in vivo. LepR(+) cells were Scf-GFP(+), Cxcl12-DsRed(high), and Nestin-GFP(low), markers which also highly enriched CFU-Fs, but negative for Nestin-CreER and NG2-CreER, markers which were unlikely to be found in CFU-Fs. Fate-mapping showed that LepR(+) cells arose postnatally and gave rise to most bone and adipocytes formed in adult bone marrow, including bone regenerated after irradiation or fracture. LepR(+) cells were quiescent, but they proliferated after injury. Therefore, LepR(+) cells are the major source of bone and adipocytes in adult bone marrow. PMID:24953181

Zhou, Bo O; Yue, Rui; Murphy, Malea M; Peyer, James G; Morrison, Sean J

2014-08-01

113

Bone repair using periodontal ligament progenitor cell-seeded constructs.  

PubMed

The success of tissue-engineering therapies is dependent on the ability of scaffolds to guide differentiation of progenitor cells. Here we present a new approach using a biomimetic construct composed of hydroxyapatite modified with an in vitro-derived extracellular matrix (HA-ECM) and seeded with periodontal ligament progenitor cells (PDLCs). The study aimed to investigate the effect of HA-ECM on osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs and in vivo evaluation of the PDLC-seeded HA-ECM constructs using a rat calvarial critical-sized defect model. After flow-cytometric phenotyping of PDLCs for typical mesenchymal stem cell markers, the PDLCs were cultured on HA-ECM or HA alone in osteogenic media and assessed by MTT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays, and real-time qPCR at different time intervals after seeding. New bone formation induced by PDLC-seeded constructs was assessed by histomorphometric analysis at 12 weeks post-operatively. The PDLCs seeded on HA-ECM showed significantly higher ALP activity and up-regulation of bone-related genes. The treatment with PDLC-seeded HA-ECM significantly improved calvarial bone repair, with the highest amount of newly formed bone elicited by cell-seeded constructs cultured for 14 days. Our results highlight the PDLC-seeded HA-ECM constructs as a promising tool for craniofacial bone regeneration. PMID:22736447

Tour, G; Wendel, M; Moll, G; Tcacencu, I

2012-08-01

114

Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells) and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells). Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics. PMID:23710460

Vianna, Verônica Fernandes; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos Santos; Fernandes, Marco Cury; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Lima, Inayá Correa; Murray, Samuel S.; Murray, Elsa J. Brochmann; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

2013-01-01

115

In VitroChondrogenesis of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture system that facilitates the chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells has been developed. Cells obtained in bone marrow aspirates were first isolated by monolayer culture and then transferred into tubes and allowed to form three-dimensional aggregates in a chemically defined medium. The inclusion of 10?7M dexamethasone in the medium induced chondrogenic differentiation of cells within

Brian Johnstone; Thomas M. Hering; Arnold I. Caplan; Victor M. Goldberg; Jung U. Yoo

1998-01-01

116

Make no bones about it: cells could soon be reprogrammed to grow replacement bones?  

PubMed

Recent developments in nuclear reprogramming allow the generation of patient-matched stem cells with broad potential for applications in cell therapies, disease modeling and drug discovery. An increasing body of work is reporting the derivation of lineage-specific progenitors from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which could in the near future be used to engineer personalized tissue substitutes, including those for reconstructive therapies of bone. Although the potential clinical impact of such technology is not arguable, significant challenges remain to be addressed before hiPSC-derived progenitors can be employed to engineer bone substitutes of clinical relevance. The most important challenge is indeed the construction of personalized multicellular bone substitutes for the treatment of complex skeletal defects that integrate fast, are immune tolerated and display biofunctionality and long-term safety. As recent studies suggest, the merging of iPSC technology with advanced biomaterials and bioreactor technologies offers a way to generate bone substitutes in a controllable, automated manner with potential to meet the needs for scale-up and requirements for translation into clinical practice. It is only via the use of state-of-the-art cell culture technologies, process automation under GMP-compliant conditions, application of appropriate engineering strategies and compliance with regulatory policies that personalized lab-made bone grafts can start being used to treat human patients. PMID:24053578

de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marolt, Darja

2014-01-01

117

Streamlining the generation of an osteogenic graft by 3D culture of unprocessed bone marrow on ceramic scaffolds.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stromal cells are present in very low numbers in the bone marrow, necessitating their selective expansion on tissue culture plastic prior to their use in tissue-engineering applications. MSC expansion is laborious, time consuming, unphysiological and not economical, thus calling for automated bioreactor-based strategies. We and others have shown that osteogenic grafts can be cultured in bioreactors by seeding either 2D-expanded cells or by direct seeding of the mononuclear fraction of bone marrow. To further streamline this protocol, we assessed in this study the possibility of seeding the cells onto porous calcium phosphate ceramics directly from unprocessed bone marrow. Using predetermined volumes of bone marrow from multiple human donors with different nucleated cell counts, we were able to grow a confluent cell sheath on the scaffold surface in 3 weeks. Cells of stromal, endothelial and haematopoietic origin were detected, in contrast to grafts grown from 2D expanded cells, where only stromal cells could be seen. Upon implantation in nude mice, similar quantities of bone tissue were generated as compared to that obtained by using the conventional number of culture expanded cells from the same donor. We conclude that human osteogenic grafts can be efficiently prepared by direct seeding of cells from unprocessed bone marrow. PMID:21337706

Chatterjea, Anindita; Renard, Auke J S; Jolink, Christel; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

2012-02-01

118

Novel pHEMA-gelatin SPHs as bone scaffolds in dynamic cultures.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-gelatin superporous hydrogels (pHEMA-gelatin SPHs) was investigated for bone tissue engineering. The cell culture studies were performed with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Dynamic culture conditions were provided using 100 ml spinner flask rotating at 50 rpm. According to the results of mitochondrial activity test (1-3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), there is no significant difference between proliferation behavior of cells cultured under static and dynamic conditions during 28 days. Observations by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that, cells attached well onto the scaffolds and spread through the pores for both culture conditions. However, it was found that, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity in the scaffolds cultured under dynamic conditions were higher than that of static conditions. The expression of osteogenic differentiation markers, i.e. collagen I and osteopontin, based on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated increased responses under the spinner flask culture conditions. The combination of dynamic culture conditions in spinner flask with the use of superporous pHEMA-gelatin scaffolds enhanced the outcomes related to bone tissue engineering. PMID:22872315

Cetin, Damla; Kahraman, A Sera; Gümü?derelio?lu, Menem?e

2012-11-01

119

Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

1988-01-01

120

Cell culture's spider silk road.  

PubMed

A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

Perkel, Jeffrey

2014-06-01

121

Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China) [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)] [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States)] [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China)] [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

2013-04-12

122

Generation of Functional Clonal Cell Lines from Human Bone Marrow Stroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five clonal human bone marrow stromal cell lines were isolated from the adherent cell populations in long-term liquid cultures after transfection with the recombinant plasmid pSV3gpt. All the cell-line feeder layers and their conditioned media stimulated the proliferation of committed granulomonocytic stem cells (CFUc) from human bone marrow. The size and number of early erythroid stem cell (BFUe)-derived colonies were

Kenichi Harigaya; Hiroshi Handa

1985-01-01

123

Biostimulation of bone marrow cells with a diode soft laser.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of low-intensity red light in regeneration of soft tissue has been increasingly pursued. As far as hard tissue is concerned, the biostimulating effect of laser has already been demonstrated successfully in more rapid healing of tibial bone fractures in mice at a dosage of 2.4 J. However, the effect of light of a low dose laser directly on osteoblasts has not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of continuous wave diode laser irradiation on osteoblasts derived mesenchymal cells. Three groups of 10 cultures each were irradiated 3 times (days 3, 5, 7) with a pulsed diode soft laser with a wavelength of 690 nm for 60 s. Another 3 groups of 10 cultures each were used as control groups. A newly developed method employing the fluorescent antibiotic tetracycline was used to compare bone growth on these culture substrates after a period of 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively. It was found that all lased cultures demonstrated significantly more fluorescent bone deposits than the non-lased cultures. The difference was significant, as tested by the Tukey Test (P < 0.0001) in the cultures examined after 16 days. Hence it is concluded that irradiation with a pulsed diode soft laser has a biostimulating effect on osteoblasts in vitro, which might be used in osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:11168247

Dörtbudak, O; Haas, R; Mallath-Pokorny, G

2000-12-01

124

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism  

E-print Network

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism Beata Obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis are major public health concerns. Current estimates indicate of bone homeostasis and energy metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent

Toledo, University of

125

Adult rat and human bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stromal cells exhibit multiple traits of a stem cell population. They can be greatly expanded in vitro and induced to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell types. However, differentiation to non-mesenchymal fates has not been demonstrated. Here, adult rat stromal cells were expanded as undifferentiated cells in culture for more than 20 passages, indicating their proliferative capacity. A simple

Dale Woodbury; Emily J. Schwarz; Darwin J. Prockop; Ira B. Black

2000-01-01

126

Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture  

SciTech Connect

Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1988-11-01

127

Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine-alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

2014-01-01

128

Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine-alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation.  

PubMed

Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine-alginate (PEI-al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI-al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI-al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

2014-01-01

129

Enhanced Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Adhesion and Growth on Segmented Poly(ether ester)s Based on Poly(ethylene oxide) and Poly(butylene terephthalate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies in rats and goats, hydrophilic compositions of the PEOT\\/PBT block copolymer family have shown in vivo calcification and bone bonding. These copolymers are therefore interesting candidates as scaffolding materials in bone tissue engineering applications. Model studies using goat bone marrow stromal cells, however, showed that it was not possible to culture bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

Menno B. Claase; Mark B. Olde Riekerink; Bruijn de Joost D; Dirk W. Grijpma; Gerard H. M. Engbers; Jan Feijen

2003-01-01

130

Predicting the pathogen of diabetic toe osteomyelitis by two consecutive ulcer cultures with bone contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate the accuracy of two consecutive ulcer cultures with bone contact compared to bone biopsy for\\u000a the diagnosis of diabetic toe osteomyelitis. The same nurse and orthopaedic surgeon obtained all samples: sample A-1: bone\\u000a contact swabbing through the ulcer; sample A-2: a second culture swabbing from the bone surface within 24 h; sample B: surgical\\u000a bone

L. Bernard; M. Assal; C. Garzoni; I. Uçkay

2011-01-01

131

Craniosynostosis-Associated Fgfr2C342Y Mutant Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Exhibit Cell Autonomous Abnormalities in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that cranial bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ craniosynostotic mice are diminished in density when compared to those of wild type mice, and that cranial bone cells isolated from the mutant mice exhibit inhibited late stage osteoblast differentiation. To provide further support for the idea that craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr mutations lead to cell autonomous defects in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized tissue formation, here we tested bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. Additionally, to determine if the low bone mass phenotype of Crouzon syndrome includes the appendicular skeleton, long bones were assessed by micro CT. Fgfr2C342Y/+ cells showed increased osteoblastic gene expression during early osteoblastic differentiation but decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and enzyme activity, and decreased mineralization during later stages of differentiation, when cultured under 2D in vitro conditions. Cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice also formed less bone when allowed to differentiate in a 3D matrix in vivo. Cortical bone parameters were diminished in long bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice. These results demonstrate that marrow stromal cells of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice have an autonomous defect in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization, and that the Fgfr2C342Y mutation influences both the axial and appendicular skeletons. PMID:23762837

Liu, J.; Kwon, T.-G.; Nam, H. K.; Hatch, N. E.

2013-01-01

132

Isolation and culture of primary osteocytes from the long bones of skeletally mature and aged mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to establish a methodology to enable the isolation and study of osteocytes from skeletally mature young (4-month-old) and old (22-month-old) mice. The location of osteocytes deep within bone is ideal for their function as mechanosensors. However, this location makes the observation and study of osteocytes in vivo technically difficult. Osteocytes were isolated from murine long bones through a process of extended collagenase digestions combined with EDTA-based decalcification. A tissue homogenizer was used to reduce the remaining bone fragments to a suspension of bone particles, which were placed in culture to yield an outgrowth of osteocyte-like cells. All of the cells obtained from this outgrowth that displayed an osteocyte-like morphology stained positive for the osteocyte marker E11/GP38. The osteocyte phenotype was further confirmed by a lack of staining for alkaline phosphatase and the absence of collagen1a1 expression. The outgrowth of osteocytes also expressed additional osteocyte-specific genes such as Sost and Mepe. This technique facilitates the isolation of osteocytes from skeletally mature bone. This novel enabling methodology should prove useful in advancing our understanding of the roles mature osteocytes play in bone health and disease. PMID:22668415

Stern, Amber Rath; Stern, Matthew M; Van Dyke, Mark E; Jähn, Katharina; Prideaux, Matthew; Bonewald, Lynda F

2012-06-01

133

eOSTEO: bone cell function in microgravity assessed in unmanned missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian OSTEO experiments on board the space shuttle in 1998 gave life scientists their first opportunity to examine bone cell cultures in space Results showed that isolated bone cells in space take longer to regenerate than on Earth This slower regeneration is aggravated by the hastened action of cells that cause bone deterioration The Canadian Space Agency CSA supported Millenium Biologix for the design of the OSTEO mini-lab which tested the growth of cells using a synthetic bone biomaterial Based on the success of the OSTEO mission an automated version of the OSTEO mini-lab eOSTEO has been designed by Millenium Biologix and will be used to perform experimental studies on board of a FOTON recoverable satellite on orbit for 12 days Several Canadian and European projects will allow to assess the influence of microgravity on bone cell survival differentiation metabolism intracellular organization and gene expression The function of various bone cell receptors in the space environment will be tested The automated mini-lab allows stimulating fixing and cooling of bone cells before satellite recovery and media samples can be stored for further analysis Two modules containing four eOSTEO trays will be integrated in the FOTON satellite along with other modules for scientific experiments in life and physical sciences This pioneering study using automated cell culture on board a satellite will provide new technological expertise for space life sciences and produce crucial information on bone cell behavior in the space environment

Cohen, L.; Johnson-Green, P.; Buckley, N.; Dufour, B.; Lefebvre, L.

134

MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS AND THEIR PROGENY: DEVELOPMENTAL PARADIGMS GOVERNING OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION & BONE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 . We will provide insights into the developmental paradigms governing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation from cellular and molecular analyses of developing bone colonies in vitro. METHODS: Cells were isolated from 21 day Wistar rat calvariae, plated at different densities and cultured for up to 3-4 weeks in differentiation medium (?MEM, with antibiotics, 10% FBS, 50 ?g\\/ml ascorbic acid,

Jane E. Aubin; Shulin Zhang; Soshi Uchida

135

Plant cell suspension culture rheology.  

PubMed

The results of rheological measurements on 10 different plant cell suspension cultures are presented. Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) suspension cultures grown in serial batch subculture display high viscosity and power law rheology. This "undesirable" rheology is shown to be a result of elongated cell morphology. The rheology of Papaver somniferum (poppy) cell suspensions is quite different; poppy suspensions behave as Newtonian fluids and have relatively low viscosity (less than 15 cP) at fresh cell densities up to 250 g/L. This flow behavior can be attributed to a lack of elongation in batch-grown poppy cells. A simple correlation for the viscosity as a function of cell density is developed for poppy suspensions up to 300 g fresh weight (FW)/L. It is shown that tobacco cells do not elongate when grown in semicontinuous culture (daily media replacement). These semicontinuously cultured cells have rheological behavior that is indistinguishable from that of poppy, further confirming the dependence of rheology on plant cell morphology. The rheology of a wide variety of other plant suspensions at 200 g FW/L is presented. Most cell suspensions, including soybean, cotton, bindweed, and potato, display low viscosities similar to poppy suspensions. Only carrot and atriplex exhibit slight pseudoplastic behavior which corresponded to a slight degree of cellular elongation for these cultures. This demonstrates that complex rheology associated with elongated cell morphology is much less common than low-viscosity Newtonian behavior. High viscosity in plant cell culture is therefore not an intrinsic characteristic of plant cells but, instead, is a result of the ability to grow cultures to extremely high cell densities due to low biological oxygen demand. PMID:18613057

Curtis, W R; Emery, A H

1993-08-01

136

High density cell culture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

1994-01-01

137

Pumps for microfluidic cell culture.  

PubMed

In comparison to traditional in vitro cell culture in Petri dishes or well plates, cell culture in microfluidic-based devices enables better control over chemical and physical environments, higher levels of experimental automation, and a reduction in experimental materials. Over the past decade, the advantages associated with cell culturing in microfluidic-based platforms have garnered significant interest and have led to a plethora of studies for high throughput cell assays, organs-on-a-chip applications, temporal signaling studies, and cell sorting. A clear concern for performing cell culture in microfluidic-based devices is deciding on a technique to deliver and pump media to cells that are encased in a microfluidic device. In this review, we summarize recent advances in pumping techniques for microfluidic cell culture and discuss their advantages and possible drawbacks. The ultimate goal of our review is to distill the large body of information available related to pumps for microfluidic cell culture in an effort to assist current and potential users of microfluidic-based devices for advanced in vitro cellular studies. PMID:23893649

Byun, Chang Kyu; Abi-Samra, Kameel; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Takayama, Shuichi

2014-02-01

138

T cells stimulate catabolic gene expression by the stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two T cell lines stimulate PTHrP, RANKL, MMP13 gene expression in GCT cell cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD40 expressed by stromal cells; CD40L detected in whole tumor but not cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of CD40L treatment on GCT cells increased PTHrP and MMP13 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTHrP treatment increased MMP13 expression, while inhibition decreased expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells may stimulate GCT stromal cells and promote the osteolysis of the tumor. -- Abstract: The factors that promote the localized bone resorption by giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) are not fully understood. We investigated whether T cells could contribute to bone resorption by stimulating expression of genes for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and the receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Two cell lines, Jurkat clone E6-1 and D1.1, were co-cultured with isolated GCT stromal cells. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated a significant increase of all three genes following 48 h incubation, and PTHrP and MMP-13 gene expression was also increased at 24 h. Further, we examined the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a protein expressed by activated T cells, and its receptor, CD40, in GCT. Immunohistochemistry results revealed expression of the CD40 receptor in both the stromal cells and giant cells of the tumor. RNA collected from whole GCT tissues showed expression of CD40LG, which was absent in cultured stromal cells, and suggests that CD40L is expressed within GCT. Stimulation of GCT stromal cells with CD40L significantly increased expression of the PTHrP and MMP-13 genes. Moreover, we show that inhibition of PTHrP with neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased MMP13 expression by the stromal cells compared to IgG-matched controls, whereas stimulation with PTHrP (1-34) increased MMP-13 gene expression. These results suggest that T cells may potentiate the catabolic effect of GCT.

Cowan, Robert W. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada) [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada); Ghert, Michelle [Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada) [Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada); Department of Surgery, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Singh, Gurmit, E-mail: gurmit.singh@jcc.hhsc.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada) [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada)

2012-03-23

139

Development of Collagen/Demineralized Bone Powder Scaffolds and Periosteum-Derived Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering Application  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate physical and biological properties of collagen (COL) and demineralized bone powder (DBP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. DBP was prepared and divided into three groups, based on various particle sizes: 75–125 ?m, 125–250 ?m, and 250–500 ?m. DBP was homogeneously mixed with type I collagen and three-dimensional scaffolds were constructed, applying chemical crosslinking and lyophilization. Upon culture with human periosteum-derived cells (PD cells), osteogenic differentiation of PD cells was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium assay kits. The physical properties of the COL/DBP scaffolds were obviously different from COL scaffolds, irrespective of the size of DBP. In addition, PD cells cultured with COL scaffolds showed significantly higher cell adhesion and proliferation than those with COL/DBP scaffolds. In contrast, COL/DBP scaffolds exhibited greater osteoinductive potential than COL scaffolds. The PD cells with COL/DBP scaffolds possessed higher ALP activity than those with COL scaffolds. PD cells cultured with COL/DBP scaffolds with 250–500 ?m particle size yielded the maximum calcium deposition. In conclusion, PD cells cultured on the scaffolds could exhibit osteoinductive potential. The composite scaffold of COL/DBP with 250–500 ?m particle size could be considered a potential bone tissue engineering implant. PMID:23337204

Thitiset, Thakoon; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Bunaprasert, Tanom; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Honsawek, Sittisak

2013-01-01

140

Heterogeneity of engrafted bone-lining cells after systemic and local transplantation  

PubMed Central

The outcome of various osteoprogenitor-cell transplantation protocols was assessed using Col1a1-GFP reporter transgenic mice. The model requires the recipient mice to undergo lethal total body irradiation (TBI) followed by rescue with whole bone marrow. When the mice are rescued with total bone marrow from a Col1a1-GFP transgenic mouse, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive donor cells can be observed on most endosteal and trabecular bone surfaces. Although the cells express an osteoblast-restricted GFP, they fail to progress to osteocytes, do not form a mineralized matrix, and do not generate bone nodules in vitro. However when calvarial progenitor cells derived from the same transgenic mice are injected into the bone marrow space, osteogenesis by the donor cells is observed. Using different GFP colors that distinguish the donor and recipient osteoblasts, commingling of the 2 cells types is observed along the mineralizing osteoblast surface as well as within the osteocyte population of the endosteal bone. Despite the ability of the injected progenitor cells to produce bone within the injected bone, they lack the ability to form mineralized bone nodules when explanted to primary osteoblast culture. These reagents and imaging protocols will be useful in evaluating other cells having a better progenitor potential than calvarial-derived stromal cells. PMID:16081694

Wang, Liping; Liu, Yaling; Kalajzic, Zana; Jiang, Xi; Rowe, David W.

2005-01-01

141

Differential influence of fluoride concentration on the synthesis of bone matrix glycoproteins within mineralizing bone cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study investigated the influence of fluoride levels on the temporal synthesis of bone-associated glycoproteins, which have been assigned prominent roles in regulating crystal growth, size and shape during the mineralization process. Materials and methods. Bone marrow stromal cells were isolated from male Wistar rats and cultured under mineralizing conditions, supplemented with 0 M, 10(-7) M or 10(-5) M sodium fluoride. The presence of bone-associated glycoproteins was examined 2-13 days post-reseeding by immunocytochemical localization. Results. All bone-associated glycoproteins increased in 10(-7) M fluoride, compared to untreated controls, particularly at days 6 and 13 in culture. Conversely, higher 10(-5) M fluoride concentrations decreased glycoprotein levels, compared to controls. Conclusions. Results highlight a differential effect of fluoride concentration on glycoprotein synthesis by osteoblasts. PMID:24460042

Antonarakis, Gregory S; Moseley, Ryan; Waddington, Rachel J

2014-11-01

142

Recent highlights on bone stem cells: a report from Bone Stem Cells 2009, and not only….  

PubMed

The use of stem cells has opened new prospects for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions characterized by large bone defects. However, many issues still exist to which answers are needed before routine, large-scale application becomes possible. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which are clonogenic, multipotential precursors present in the bone marrow stroma, are generally employed for bone regeneration. Stem cells with multilineage differentiation similar to MSC have also been demonstrated in adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Each source presents its own advantages and drawbacks. Unfortunately, no unique surface antigen is expressed by MSC, and this hampers simple MSC enrichment from heterogeneous populations. MSC are identified through a combination of physical, morphological and functional assays. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been described for the research on bone stem cells. These models should predict the in vivo bone healing capacity of MSC and if the induced osteogenesis is similar to the physiological one. Although stem cells offer an exciting possibility of a renewable source of cells and tissues for replacement, orthopaedic applications often represent case reports whereas controlled randomized trials are still lacking. Further biological aspects of bone stem cells should be elucidated and a general consensus on the best models, protocols and proper use of scaffolds and growth factors should be achieved. PMID:20874718

Cenni, Elisabetta; Perut, Francesca; Baglěo, Serena Rubina; Fiorentini, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola

2010-11-01

143

Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these

Ron Waksman; Richard Baffour

2003-01-01

144

Analysis of the dynamics of bone formation, effect of cell seeding density, and potential of allogeneic cells in cell-based bone tissue engineering in goats.  

PubMed

After decades of research, relatively little is known about the role of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering. Although homogeneous cell seeding is regarded optimal, cell survival in large constructs is unlikely, except for the very periphery. Also no minimal and optimal BMSC densities have been identified. An interesting development is the use of allogeneic BMSCs. These have not yet been compared directly to autologous BMSCs. Culture-expanded BMSCs of 10 Dutch milk goats were cryopreserved and peroperatively seeded on 7 mm cubic scaffolds of 65% porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). A range of BMSC densities (per cm3 scaffold) were prepared of 8E2 (= 8 x 10(2)), 8E3, 8E4, 8E5, 8E6 (considered the standard), and 1.6E7. Each goat received a control without cells, the six densities, and an 8E6 allogeneic BMSCs construct intramuscularly. After 3, 5, and 7 weeks, fluorochrome markers were administrated. At 9 weeks, implants were retrieved. The BCP scaffolds appeared to be autoinductive as the controls (without BMSCs) showed some bone. Early bone formation (before 3 weeks) appeared only at the peripheral 2mm of the BMSC-seeded constructs; the later 5- and 9-week labels were found more centrally, suggesting bone migration to the center. There was a minimum of 8E4 and optimum of 8E6 BMSCs/cm3. Allogeneic cells yielded comparable new bone. PMID:18558815

Kruyt, Moyo; De Bruijn, Joost; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Van Bliterswijk, Clemens; Oner, Cumhur; Verbout, Ab; Dhert, Wouter

2008-06-01

145

Signaling between tumor cells and the host bone marrow microenvironment.  

PubMed

Tumor cells with high skeletal homing affinity express numerous cell surface receptors that bind ligands produced in bone. Upon arrival, these cells survive in the host environment, encompassed in close proximity to bone marrow cells. Interactions between tumor cells and cells of the host microenvironment are essential to not only tumor cell survival but also their activation and proliferation into environment-modifying tumors. Through the production of RANKL, PTHrP, cytokines, and integrins, activated tumor cells stimulate osteoclastogenesis, enhance bone resorption, and subsequently release matrix-bound proteins that further promote tumor growth and bone resorption. In addition, alterations in the TGF-?/BMP and Wnt signaling pathways via tumor cell growth can either stimulate or suppress osteoblastic bone formation and function, leading to sclerotic or lytic bone disease, respectively. Hence, the presence of tumor cells in bone dysregulates bone remodeling, dramatically impairing skeletal integrity. Furthermore, through complex mechanisms, cells of the immune system interact with tumor cells to further impact bone remodeling. Lastly, with alterations in bone cell activity, the environment is permissive to promoting tumor growth further, suggesting an interdependence between tumor cells and bone cells in metastatic bone disease and multiple myeloma. PMID:24046000

Kovacic, Natasa; Croucher, Peter I; McDonald, Michelle M

2014-01-01

146

Acetate inhibition of chick bone cell proliferation and bone growth in vitro.  

PubMed

A hypothesis has been advanced that parenteral solutions as commonly formulated for use in clinical practice have a toxic effect on cell metabolism. A specific component of these solutions, sodium acetate, has been suggested to disrupt normal bone turnover and therefore to contribute to the osteopenia observed in patients receiving hemodialysis and parenteral nutrition (PN). We developed an in vitro model to test the hypothesis that sodium acetate at concentrations that are infused in PN solutions has a deleterious effect on bone metabolism. Osteoblasts and preosteoblasts from 16- to 17-day-old embryonic chick calvaria, and tibiae and femora from 10-day-old embryonic chicks were grown in BGJb medium (control) or in BGJb medium plus sodium acetate (5, 10, or 20 mM). Calvarial cell proliferation was quantified by direct cell counts as well as by incorporation of [3H]TdR into DNA as an index of cell proliferation. Calvarial cell alkaline phosphatase activity was quantified by the ability of extracts of the cultured cells to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol, and bone growth was determined by measuring final dry weight. Calvarial cell counts as well as DNA synthesis showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of sodium acetate (5-20 mM) compared with controls. [3H]TdR incorporation was decreased a mean 19% with 5 mM, 38% with 10 mM, and 63% with 20 mM acetate. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell increased 48% with 5 mM, 140% with 10 mM, and 355% with 20 mM acetate. Cell viability as assessed by trypan blue exclusion was identical for test and control media (greater than 95%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2763873

Saitta, J C; Lipkin, E W; Howard, G A

1989-06-01

147

Differential marker expression by cultures rich in mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells have properties that make them amenable to therapeutic use. However, the acceptance of mesenchymal stem cells in clinical practice requires standardized techniques for their specific isolation. To date, there are no conclusive marker (s) for the exclusive isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. Our aim was to identify markers differentially expressed between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. We compared and contrasted the phenotype of tissue cultures in which mesenchymal stem cells are rich and rare. By initially assessing mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, we established that bone marrow and breast adipose cultures are rich in mesenchymal stem cells while, in our hands, foreskin fibroblast and olfactory tissue cultures contain rare mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, olfactory tissue cells represent non-stem cell mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, the phenotype of the tissue cultures were thoroughly assessed using immuno-fluorescence, flow-cytometry, proteomics, antibody arrays and qPCR. Results Our analysis revealed that all tissue cultures, regardless of differentiation potential, demonstrated remarkably similar phenotypes. Importantly, it was also observed that common mesenchymal stem cell markers, and fibroblast-associated markers, do not discriminate between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. Examination and comparison of the phenotypes of mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures revealed three differentially expressed markers – CD24, CD108 and CD40. Conclusion We indicate the importance of establishing differential marker expression between mesenchymal stem cells and non-stem cell mesenchymal cells in order to determine stem cell specific markers. PMID:24304471

2013-01-01

148

Cellular attachment and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on natural cuttlefish bone.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe an approach that aims to provide fundamental information for the application of natural cuttlefish bone. Before applying cuttlefish bone as a bone defect filling material, we evaluated proliferation, adhesion, and cell viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on cuttlefish bone. Cuttlefish bone was separated into two parts (dorsal shield and lamellar region) and each part was used. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using the MTS assay and live/dead fluorescence staining method. The morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). hMSCs were stimulated with osteogenic medium and osteoblast differentiation was evaluated. The fluorescence images showed that the seeded cells grew well and that cell distribution was in accordance with the surface morphology of the cuttlefish bone. Compared with the dorsal shield, cells penetrated deeper into the three-dimensional inner space of the lamellar part. Furthermore, under osteogenic differentiation conditions, alkaline phosphatase activity increased and the mRNA expression of ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen type I ?1 was increased in hMSCs cultured on both the dorsal shield and lamellar block. These results indicate the potential of cuttlefish bone as an ideal scaffold for bone regenerative materials. PMID:22447716

Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Sung, Hark-Mo; You, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Jun

2012-07-01

149

Identification of a hypoxic population of bone marrow cells  

SciTech Connect

A technique using collagenase has been devised to release and separate, with reproducibility, hematopoietic cells (HC) from various microenvironments of mouse femurs. HC were assayed by an in vitro gel culture technique used traditionally to score granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (CFU-C). CFU-C which resided in the medullary cavity and endosteal regions were sensitive to ionizing radiation and resistant to misonidazole (MISO) cytotoxicity. CFU-C which resided within the compact bone were resistant to ionizing radiation and sensitive to the cytotoxic action of MISO. These results suggest that HC which reside in the bone are hypoxic and retain clonogenic potential. When animals were exposed to various treatments with MISO followed by myelotoxic doses of cyclophosphamide (CTX) or total body irradiation (TBI), the LD/sub 50/ of both agents was significantly reduced. This result suggests that a hypoxic component of HC could be important in the regenerative process within the marrow after such myelotoxic trauma.

Allalunis, M.J.; Chapman, J.D.; Turner, A.R.

1983-02-01

150

Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

2008-09-01

151

Human saliva exposure modulates bone cell performance in vitro.  

PubMed

Various situations encountered by a clinician during the daily routine including surgical periodontitis therapy, dental implant insertion, or tooth extraction involve the contact of saliva with the jaw bone. However, there are only sparse data concerning the influence of saliva on bone cells. Saliva specimens were incorporated within culture medium and administered to murine MC3T3 osteoblasts, of which the morphology (REM), proliferation (EZ4U), and differentiation (qRT-PCR, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix calcification) were assessed. Simultaneously, the composition of saliva media was analyzed with respect to the content of lactoferrin, activities of classical salivary enzymes, and the ability to provoke inflammatory cytokine production (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. The morphology, proliferation, and expression of differentiation-associated genes were seriously handicapped by saliva contact. Saliva-touched cells exhibited less alkaline phosphatase but normal levels of extracellular matrix mineralization. Saliva-containing culture media featured physiological activities of salivary enzymes and considerable amounts of lactoferrin but almost completely lacked salivary alkaline phosphatase and unspecific proteases. Upon saliva incubation, MC3T3 osteoblasts did not release noteworthy levels of interleukin-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although saliva is generally considered to vitalize oral tissues, this study reveals that it harms osteoblast-like cells more due to the presence of salivary enzymes than by triggering of inflammation. This issue is clinically relevant because it broadens the understanding of the bone cell fate within the rather complex cosmos of the oral cavity thereby providing a basis for clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. It seems to be reasonable to restrict the contact period between saliva and bone. PMID:21246386

Proksch, Susanne; Steinberg, Thorsten; Keller, Constantin; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Finkenzeller, Guenter; Hannig, Christian; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

2012-02-01

152

Stem cell-derived endochondral cartilage stimulates bone healing by tissue transformation.  

PubMed

Although bone has great capacity for repair, there are a number of clinical situations (fracture non-unions, spinal fusions, revision arthroplasty, segmental defects) in which auto- or allografts attempt to augment bone regeneration by promoting osteogenesis. Critical failures associated with current grafting therapies include osteonecrosis and limited integration between graft and host tissue. We speculated that the underlying problem with current bone grafting techniques is that they promote bone regeneration through direct osteogenesis. Here we hypothesized that using cartilage to promote endochondral bone regeneration would leverage normal developmental and repair sequences to produce a well-vascularized regenerate that integrates with the host tissue. In this study, we use a translational murine model of a segmental tibia defect to test the clinical utility of bone regeneration from a cartilage graft. We further test the mechanism by which cartilage promotes bone regeneration using in vivo lineage tracing and in vitro culture experiments. Our data show that cartilage grafts support regeneration of a vascularized and integrated bone tissue in vivo, and subsequently propose a translational tissue engineering platform using chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Interestingly, lineage tracing experiments show the regenerate was graft derived, suggesting transformation of the chondrocytes into bone. In vitro culture data show that cartilage explants mineralize with the addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) or by exposure to human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC)-conditioned medium, indicating that endothelial cells directly promote ossification. This study provides preclinical data for endochondral bone repair that has potential to significantly improve patient outcomes in a variety of musculoskeletal diseases and injuries. Further, in contrast to the dogmatic view that hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo apoptosis before bone formation, our data suggest cartilage can transform into bone by activating the pluripotent transcription factor Oct4A. Together these data represent a paradigm shift describing the mechanism of endochondral bone repair and open the door for novel regenerative strategies based on improved biology. PMID:24259230

Bahney, Chelsea S; Hu, Diane P; Taylor, Aaron J; Ferro, Federico; Britz, Hayley M; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Johnstone, Brian; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S

2014-05-01

153

Co-cultured tissue-specific scaffolds for tendon/bone interface engineering  

PubMed Central

The tendon/ligament-to-bone interface has a complex organization to enable transfer of forces through the tendon/ligament to the bone. The purpose of this study is to create a co-culture environment enabling a tissue-specific tendon region and tissue-specific bone region on a degradable scaffold, using NIH 3T3 fibroblast–deposited extracellular matrix and MC 3T3 osteoblast–deposited extracellular matrix, respectively. Before full characterization of the deposited extracellular matrix coating can be analyzed, co-culture parameters including culture medium and seeding technique should be addressed. An appropriate medium formulation was developed to reduce fibroblast to osteoblast mineralization by adjusting beta-glycerophosphate concentrations. Standard growth medium with fetal bovine serum + 3 mM beta-glycerophosphate + 25 µg/mL ascorbic acid was found to be the most suitable formulation evaluated in these study conditions. Seeding and cell migration studies of co-cultured fibroblast- and osteoblast-specific scaffolds were performed to identify whether tissue regions could be created on the scaffold. Fibroblast and osteoblast regions were successfully seeded and little to no cell migration was observed up to 42 h after seeding. Finally, a preliminary analysis of basic extracellular matrix components was measured in the fibroblast, osteoblast, and transition regions. Tissue-specific DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen were found in uniform amounts on the scaffolds and were not different significantly between scaffold regions. In conclusion, initial steps to create tissue-specific fibroblast and osteoblast regions on a degradable scaffold were successful in preparation for further characterization investigations as a tendon-to-bone interface scaffold. PMID:25383167

Bumgardner, Joel D; Cole, Judith A; Smith, Richard A; Haggard, Warren O

2014-01-01

154

Bone Marrow Cells and Myocardial Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years.\\u000a Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high\\u000a morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the\\u000a clinical application of HSC

Fu-sheng Wang; Cathy Trester

2004-01-01

155

TOPICAL REVIEW Stem cells in bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have

Jeong Min Seong; Byung-Chul Kim; Jae-Hong Park; Il Keun Kwon; Anathathios Mantalaris; Yu-Shik Hwang

2010-01-01

156

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Significance Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a key role in fracture repair by differentiating to become bone-forming osteoblasts and cartilage-forming chondrocytes. Cartilage then serves as a template for additional bone formation through the process of endochondral ossification. Recent Advances Endogenous MSCs that contribute to healing are primarily derived from the periosteum, endosteum, and marrow cavity, but also may be contributed from the overlying muscle or through systemic circulation, depending on the type of injury. A variety of growth factor signaling pathways, including BMP, Wnt, and Notch signaling, influence MSC proliferation and differentiation. These MSCs can be therapeutically manipulated to promote differentiation. Furthermore, MSCs can be harvested, cultivated, and delivered to promote bone healing. Critical Issues Pharmacologically manipulating the number and differentiation capacity of endogenous MSCs is one potential therapeutic approach to improve healing; however, ideal agents to influence signaling pathways need to be developed and additional therapeutics that activate endogenous MSCs are needed. Whether isolated and purified, MSCs participate directly in the healing process or serve a bystander effect and indirectly influence healing is not well defined. Future Directions Studies must focus on better understanding the regulation of endogenous MSCs durings fracture healing. This will reveal novel molecules and pathways to therapeutically target. Similarly, while animal models have demonstrated efficacy in the delivery of MSCs to promote healing, more research is needed to understand ideal donor cells, cultivation methods, and delivery before stem cell therapy approaches can be utilized to repair bone. PMID:24527352

Knight, M. Noelle; Hankenson, Kurt D.

2013-01-01

157

Echistatin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in culture  

PubMed Central

The venom protein, s-echistatin, originally derived from the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, was found to be a potent inhibitor of bone resorption by isolated osteoclasts. This Arg24-Gly25-Asp26-(RGD)- containing protein inhibited the excavation of bone slices by rat osteoclasts (IC50 = 0.1 nM). It also inhibited the release of [3H]proline from labeled bone particles by chicken osteoclasts (IC50 = 100 nM). By comparison, the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) inhibited resorption by rat or chicken osteoclasts with an IC50 of 0.1 mM while ala24-echistatin was inactive. Video microscopy showed that rat osteoclast attachment to substrate was more sensitive to s- echistatin than was the attachment of mononuclear cells or chicken osteoclasts. The difference in sensitivity of rat and chicken osteoclasts to s-echistatin may be due to differences between receptors on rat and chicken osteoclasts for s-echistatin. Antibody localization of echistatin on these cells showed much greater echistatin binding to rat osteoclasts than to chicken osteoclasts. Laser scanning confocal microscopy after immunohistochemical staining showed that s-echistatin binds to osteoclasts, that s-echistatin receptors are most abundant at the osteoclast/glass interface, and that s-echistatin colocalizes with vinculin. Confocal interference reflection microscopy of osteoclasts incubated with s-echistatin, demonstrated colocalization of s- echistatin with the outer edges of clusters of grey contacts at the tips of some lamellipodia. Identification of the echistatin receptor as an integrin was confirmed by colocalization of echistatin fluorescence with staining for an alpha-like subunit. Attachment of bone particles labeled with [3H]proline to chicken osteoclasts confirmed that the mechanism of action of echistatin was to inhibit osteoclast binding to bone presumably by disrupting adhesion structures. These data demonstrate that osteoclasts bind to bone via an RGD-sequence as an obligatory step in bone resorption, that this RGD-binding integrin is at adhesion structures, and that it colocalizes with vinculin and has an alpha-like subunit. PMID:2211834

1990-01-01

158

Paper-based bioactive scaffolds for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Bioactive, functional scaffolds are required to improve the regenerative potential of stem cells for tissue reconstruction and functional recovery of damaged tissues. Here, we report a paper-based bioactive scaffold platform for stem cell culture and transplantation for bone reconstruction. The paper scaffolds are surface-engineered by an initiated chemical vapor deposition process for serial coating of a water-repellent and cell-adhesive polymer film, which ensures the long-term stability in cell culture medium and induces efficient cell attachment. The prepared paper scaffolds are compatible with general stem cell culture and manipulation techniques. An optimal paper type is found to provide structural, physical, and mechanical cues to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). A bioactive paper scaffold significantly enhances in vivo bone regeneration of hADSCs in a critical-sized calvarial bone defect. Stacking the paper scaffolds with osteogenically differentiated hADSCs and human endothelial cells resulted in vascularized bone formation in vivo. Our study suggests that paper possesses great potential as a bioactive, functional, and cost-effective scaffold platform for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the feasibility of a paper material for stem cell application to repair tissue defects. PMID:25241158

Park, Hyun-Ji; Yu, Seung Jung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Cho, Ann-Na; Kim, Jin; Lee, Bora; Yang, Hee Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Cho, Seung-Woo

2014-12-01

159

Long term culture of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY investigators have been successful in the maintenance of long term tissue culture of human bone marrow-derived (B) cells. These cell lines have been established from both normal subjects1 and from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders2. In most cases, long term B-cell lines have been shown to harbour the Epstein-Barr virus genome which some investigators feel is required for establishment and

Steven Gillis; Kendall A. Smith

1977-01-01

160

The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

Lawless, Desales

1989-01-01

161

The culture of limbal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The transplantation of cultured limbal epithelial cells (LEC) has since its first application in 1997 emerged as a promising technique for treating limbal stem cell deficiency. The culture methods hitherto used vary with respect to preparation of the harvested tissue, choice of culture medium, culture time, culture substrates, and supplementary techniques. In this chapter, we describe a procedure for establishing human LEC cultures using a feeder-free explant culture technique with human amniotic membrane (AM) as the culture substrate. PMID:23690008

Utheim, Tor Paaske; Lyberg, Torstein; Rćder, Sten

2013-01-01

162

Ketamine is toxic to chondrocyte cell cultures.  

PubMed

Ketamine has been used in combination with a variety of other agents for intra-articular analgesia, with promising results. However, although it has been shown to be toxic to various types of cell, there is no available information on the effects of ketamine on chondrocytes. We conducted a prospective randomised controlled study to evaluate the effects of ketamine on cultured chondrocytes isolated from rat articular cartilage. The cultured cells were treated with 0.125 mM, 0.250 mM, 0.5 mM, 1 mM and 2 mM of ketamine respectively for 6 h, 24 hours and 48 hours, and compared with controls. Changes of apoptosis were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy with a 490 nm excitation wavelength. Apoptosis and eventual necrosis were seen at each concentration. The percentage viability of the cells was inversely proportional to both the duration and dose of treatment (p = 0.002 and p = 0.009). Doses of 0.5 mM, 1 mM and 2mM were absolutely toxic. We concluded that in the absence of solid data to support the efficacy of intra-articular ketamine for the control of pain, and the toxic effects of ketamine on cultured chondrocytes shown by this study, intra-articular ketamine, either alone or in combination with other agents, should not be used to control pain. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:989-94. PMID:24986956

Ozturk, A M; Ergun, M A; Demir, T; Gungor, I; Yilmaz, A; Kaya, K

2014-07-01

163

Bone Repair Cells for Craniofacial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of complex craniofacial deformities is a clinical challenge in situations of injury, congenital defects or disease. The use of cell-based therapies represents one of the most advanced methods for enhancing the regenerative response for craniofacial wound healing. Both Somatic and Stem Cells have been adopted in the treatment of complex osseous defects and advances have been made in finding the most adequate scaffold for the delivery of cell therapies in human regenerative medicine. As an example of such approaches for clinical application for craniofacial regeneration, Ixmyelocel-T or bone repair cells are a source of bone marrow derived stem and progenitor cells. They are produced through the use of single pass perfusion bioreactors for CD90+ mesenchymal stem cells and CD14+ monocyte/macrophage progenitor cells. The application of ixmyelocel-T has shown potential in the regeneration of muscular, vascular, nervous and osseous tissue. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight cell therapies used to repair bony and soft tissue defects in the oral and craniofacial complex. The field at this point remains at an early stage, however this review will provide insights into the progress being made using cell therapies for eventual development into clinical practice. PMID:22433781

Pagni, G; Kaigler, D; Rasperini, G; Avila-Ortiz, G; Bartel, R; Giannobile, WV

2012-01-01

164

Th17 and Treg Cells in Bone Related Diseases  

PubMed Central

Bone-related diseases share the process of immune response that targets bone tissue and bone marrow and then induce adverse effects on structure and function. In recent years, reciprocal relationship between immune cells and bone systems has been uncovered gradually. Regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells are newly identified subsets of CD4+ T cells, and the balance between them is particularly essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Accumulated data have demonstrated quantitative or functional imbalance between Th17 and Treg in bone related diseases, suggesting that Th17 and Treg cells are involved in these bone diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating Th17 and Treg cells will create opportunities for the development of therapeutic approaches. This review will present the role of Th17 and Treg cells in the inflammatory bone diseases and bone marrow malignancies and find the potential therapeutic target for immunotherapy. PMID:24187560

Wang, Min; Tian, Tian; Yu, Shuang; He, Na; Ma, Daoxin

2013-01-01

165

Basic Laboratory Techniques in Cell Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a reference and instructional manual for the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Course Number 8270-C, 'Basic Laboratory Techniques in Cell Culture.' It covers pertinent cell biology, cell culture terminology and definitions, the principles and meth...

B. R. Bird, F. T. Forrester

1981-01-01

166

Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH- which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J.

2012-12-01

167

Versatile, Fully Automated, Microfluidic Cell Culture System  

E-print Network

on a microfluidic chip that creates arbitrary culture media formulations in 96 independent culture chambersVersatile, Fully Automated, Microfluidic Cell Culture System Rafael Go´mez-Sjo1berg, Anne A. Leyrat and quantita- tive cell culture technology, driven both by the intense activity in stem cell biology

Chen, Christopher S.

168

Fidelity of micropatterned cell cultures.  

PubMed

Methods that enable the culture of micropatterned cells may help advance our fundamental understanding of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, while facilitating the development and implementation of cell-based biological assays. However, the long-term stability of the cell patterns can limit the time scales over which such methods can be informative. Here we used self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) to localize the adsorption of baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells as well as cells from a murine astrocytoma-derived cell line (delayed brain tumor) in linear arrays. We tested the effects of surface chemistries, fibronectin pre-treatments, array dimensions, and cell types on pattern fidelity. Changes in patterns were monitored by phase-contrast microscopy up to 96 h post-plating, followed by digital imaging, and these changes were quantified by measuring an "intrusion distance" or the average distance cells extend beyond the initial adhesive/non-adhesive boundary. Loss of pattern boundaries involved different mechanisms for different cells. Treatment of patterned surfaces with fibronectin prior to plating of cells tended to promote earlier loss of pattern fidelity, and the extent of pattern loss was further augmented for SAMs formed using hydrophobic monolayers. Finally, reduction of gap spacing between adjacent cell arrays promoted pattern loss. PMID:15920741

Endler, Elizabeth E; Nealey, Paul F; Yin, John

2005-07-01

169

Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells express glial markers and stimulate nerve regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can trans-differentiate into neuronal phenotypes. We examined the differentiation of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in culture and during nerve regeneration. MSCs from adult rats were exposed to glial growth factor (GGF) to stimulate glial differentiation. Subsequently differentiated MSCs were retrovirally labelled with green fluorescent protein and transplanted into 1 cm nerve conduits in the rat

Mel Tohill; Cristina Mantovani; Mikael Wiberg; Giorgio Terenghi

2004-01-01

170

In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation and In Vivo Bone-Forming Capacity of Human Isogenic Jaw Periosteal Cells and Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the in vitro osteogenic differentiation and in vivo ectopic bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and jaw periosteal cells (JPCs), and to identify molecular predictors of their osteogenic capacity. Summary Background Data: JPC could be an appealing alternative to BMSC for the engineering of cell-based osteoinductive grafts because of the relatively easy access to tissue with minimal morbidity. However, the extent of osteogenic capacity of JPC has not yet been established or compared with that of BMSC. Methods: BMSCs and JPCs from the same donors (N = 9), expanded for 2 passages, were cultured for 3 weeks in osteogenic medium either in monolayers (Model I) or within 3-dimensional porous ceramic scaffolds, following embedding in fibrin gel (Model II). Cell-fibrin-ceramic constructs were also implanted ectopically in nude mice for 8 weeks (Model III). Cell differentiation in vitro was assessed biochemically and by real-time RT-PCR. Bone formation in vivo was quantified by computerized histomorphometry. Results: JPCs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity, deposited smaller amounts of calcium (Model I), and expressed lower mRNA levels of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osterix (Models I and II) than BMSCs. JPCs produced ectopic bone tissue at lower frequency and amounts (Model III) than BMSCs. Bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osterix mRNA levels by BMSCs or JPCs in Model II were markedly higher than in Model I and significantly more expressed by cells that generated bone tissue in Model III. Conclusions: Our data indicate that JPCs, although displaying features of osteogenic cells, would not be as reliable as BMSCs for cell-based bone tissue engineering, and suggest that expression of osteoblast-related markers in vitro could be used to predict whether cells would be osteoinductive in vivo. PMID:16327496

Jaquiery, Claude; Schaeren, Stefan; Farhadi, Jian; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Kunz, Christoph; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Heberer, Michael; Martin, Ivan

2005-01-01

171

Intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as a non-peptide small molecule agonist of the PTH1 receptor inhibits adipocyte differentiation in human bone marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas continuous PTH infusion increases bone resorption and bone loss, intermittent PTH treatment stimulates bone formation, in part, via reactivation of quiescent bone surfaces and reducing osteoblast apoptosis. We investigated the possibility that intermittent and continuous PTH treatment also differentially regulates osteogenic and adipocytic lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal progenitor\\/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The MSC were cultured under mildly

David J. Rickard; Fei-Lan Wang; Ana-Maria Rodriguez-Rojas; Zining Wu; Wen J. Trice; Sandra J. Hoffman; Bartholomew Votta; George B. Stroup; Sanjay Kumar; Mark E. Nuttall

2006-01-01

172

Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Modulates the Oxidative Response in Bone Cells  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs), we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment) abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem) with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1) cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis. PMID:24224047

Ferrando, Mercedes; Wan, Xinhai; Meiss, Roberto; Yang, Jun; De Siervi, Adriana; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

2013-01-01

173

Connecting Mechanics and Bone Cell Activities in the Bone Remodeling Process: An Integrated Finite Element Modeling  

PubMed Central

Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain–damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.’s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone adaptation. The proposed FEM model gives insight into how bone cells adapt their architecture to the mechanical and biological environment. PMID:25152881

Hambli, Ridha

2014-01-01

174

Connecting mechanics and bone cell activities in the bone remodeling process: an integrated finite element modeling.  

PubMed

Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain-damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.'s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone adaptation. The proposed FEM model gives insight into how bone cells adapt their architecture to the mechanical and biological environment. PMID:25152881

Hambli, Ridha

2014-01-01

175

Mineralized bone nodules formed in vitro from enzymatically released rat calvaria cell populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Single-cell suspensions obtained from sequential enzymatic digestions of fetal rat calvaria were grown in long-term culture\\u000a in the presence of ascorbic acid, Na ?-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone to determine the capacity of these populations\\u000a to form mineralized bone. In cultures of osteoblastlike cells grown in the presence of ascorbic acid and ?-glycerophosphate\\u000a or ascorbic acid alone, three-dimensional nodules (?75 ?m thick)

C. G. Bellows; J. E. Aubin; J. N. M. Heersche; M. E. Antosz

1986-01-01

176

Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease.  

PubMed

Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease. PMID:25268740

Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; De Las Rivas, Javier; Ocio, Enrique M; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Montero, Juan C; Martín, Montserrat; Blanco, Juan F; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermín M; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesús F; Garayoa, Mercedes

2014-09-30

177

Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease. PMID:25268740

Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Las Rivas, Javier De; Ocio, Enrique M.; Diaz-Rodriguez, Elena; Montero, Juan C.; Martin, Montserrat; Blanco, Juan F.; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin M.; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesus F.; Garayoa, Mercedes

2014-01-01

178

Identification of Ror? targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Ror? in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Ror? mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Ror? may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (Ror?) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Ror? is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Ror? are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Ror? in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Ror?-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Ror?-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Ror?-GFP model system, suggesting that Ror? may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both ROR? and a subset of ROR?-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for ROR? in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Ror? regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

Roforth, Matthew M., E-mail: roforth.matthew@mayo.edu; Khosla, Sundeep, E-mail: khosla.sundeep@mayo.edu; Monroe, David G., E-mail: monroe.david@mayo.edu

2013-11-01

179

Unique cell culture systems for ground based research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

Lewis, Marian L.

1990-01-01

180

Mesenchymal stem cells markedly suppress inflammatory bone destruction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Recently, it was shown that MSCs also have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions. In this report, we investigated the regulatory function of MSCs in the development of inflammatory bone destruction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA rats). MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow tissues, expanded in the presence of basic FGF, and intraperitoneally injected into AA rats. MSC administration significantly suppressed inflammatory parameters: swelling score, swelling width, and thickness of hind paw. Radiographic evaluation indicated that MSC significantly suppressed bone destruction. Histological analysis showed that administration of MSCs markedly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in AA rats. To further delineate their effects on osteoclastogenesis, MSCs were added to in vitro bone marrow cultures undergoing osteoclastogenesis. MSCs significantly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in this system. Chemokine receptor expression in MSCs was assessed by RT-PCR, and a chemotactic assay was performed using a transwell culture system. MSCs showed significant chemotaxis to MIP-1? (CCL3) and SDF-1? (CXCL12), chemokines preferentially expressed in the area of inflammatory bone destruction. Furthermore, MSCs expressed IL-10 and osteoprotegerin, cytokines that suppress osteoclastogenesis. These data suggest that recruitment of MSC to the area of bone destruction in AA rats could suppress inflammatory bone destruction and raise the possibility that MSCs may have potential for the treatment of inflammatory bone destruction in arthritis. PMID:24395111

Takano, Toshio; Li, Yin-Ji; Kukita, Akiko; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Moriyama, Kanako; Uehara, Norihisa; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Kukita, Toshio

2014-03-01

181

Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells  

SciTech Connect

Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro.

Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

1987-11-01

182

A new stretching apparatus for applying anisotropic mechanical strain to bone cells in-vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone is adapting to in-vivo loading by modeling and remodeling processes. The sensors of the external forces acting on the bone matrix seem to be the bone cells. Osteocytes, osteoblasts, and bone lining cells have been shown to respond to mechanical forces in-vitro. In this work, we describe a new in-vitro system which applies anisotropic stress conditions to MC3T3-E1, osteoblast-like mouse calvaria derived cells. The system allows stretching of cell cultures under well-defined stretching conditions. Cells are grown on an elastic polyurethane culture support (PUCS) that is subjected to uniaxial tensile stress using a direct current (dc) motor-driven linear positioning stage, situated within the incubator. The physical stretching parameters, the maximum elongation of the PUCS (the maximum strain applied to the cells), the strain rate, and the number of cycles, can be varied. First, the actual strains occurring at different locations of the PUCS were determined using optical methods. The surface strain appeared to be uniform over the PUCS and biaxial with a Poisson contraction nearly 80% in magnitude to the axial extension. Second, we tested the behavior of the MC3T3-E1 cells on PUCS compared to the cells grown in petridishes (PD). After 11 days of culture, cell number per dish on PUCS was significantly reduced to PD cultures (20% of control). At that time, cultures on PUCS reached confluency as compared to day 4 for the PD cultures. However, histochemical staining of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and multilayer formation of the PUCS cultures appeared to be not significantly different from PD cultures. We also looked at the cytoskeleton by phalloidin staining, at vinculin, a protein of the cell-matrix and cell-cell interaction, and at fibronectin, a protein of the extracellular matrix using immuno staining methods. All these features tested so far seemed not to be different in cells cultured on PUCS compared to cultures in PD. Third, the responsiveness to the external force was tested using confluent cells on PUCS. A strain of 6.8 millistrain (6800 microstrain) was applied to the cells, using a strain rate of 4.9 millistrain/s and 350 cycles/h for a period of 48 h. These loading conditions led to significantly decreased cell proliferation, as measured by [3H] deoxythymidine ([3H] dT) incorporation, and significantly increased ALP activity. These data show that the stretching device introduced in this paper offers new possibilities to study the response of osteoblast-like cells to anisotropic forces.

Grabner, B.; Varga, F.; Fratzl-Zelman, N.; Luegmayr, E.; Glantschnig, H.; Rumpler, M.; Tatschl, A.; Fratzl, P.; Klaushofer, K.

2000-09-01

183

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 but not bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -6 stimulates chemotactic migration of human osteoblasts, human marrow osteoblasts, and U2OS cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have important functions for the differentiation of bone cells, but the exact role for bone remodeling and bone healing still needs to be defined. Migration of bone forming cells is an important physiological event both during bone healing and bone remodeling. The Chemotactic properties of the bone morphogenetic protein family of growth factors have not been

M. Lind; E. F. Eriksen; C. Bünger

1996-01-01

184

[Participation of transfused bone marrow cells in reparative osteohistogenesis].  

PubMed

The participation of skeletal tissue cell precursors in the repairing regeneration of bone tissue was studied. Bone marrow was taken from donor animals--mice of C57Bl/6-TgN(ACTbGFP) 1 Osb line (The Jackson Laboratory Bar Harbor ME USA line). Nucleated cell fraction was isolated by centrifugation on a density percoll gradient. Recipient mice C57Bl/6 line were irradiated by 7.0-7.5 Gr dose. Intravenous infusion of donor cells and osteoclasts of tibia was done after irradiation of recipient mice. Histological preparations of bone regenerate tissues were studied on 15, 30, and 60 days by confocal microscopy. Donor cells were found as skeletal tissue precursors into periost, endost, bone marrow, and as differentiated cells of newborn tissue of regenerate--osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes. The data obtained indicate that part of donor bone marrow cells are able to progressive differentiation under recipient bone fractures. PMID:16706204

Deev, R V; Tsupkina, N V; Serikov, V B; Gololobov, V G; Pinaev, G P

2005-01-01

185

Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-? family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-?, and third IGF-I. TGF-? enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-? affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-? mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-? is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-? and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

Seino, Yoshiki

186

Investigation of In Vitro Bone Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Ti Using Direct Current Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 µA, were used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell–materials interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 µA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 µA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell-materials interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model. PMID:23144532

Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

187

Implantation of autologous bone-marrow-derived cells reconstructs functional urethral sphincters in rabbits.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if implantation of autologous bone-marrow-derived cells has the potential to treat stress urinary incontinence caused by intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Bone marrow cells harvested from femurs of New Zealand White rabbits were cultured for 10 days. Seven days before implantation, the urethral sphincters located at the internal urethral orifice were cryo-injured by spraying liquid nitrogen for 15?s. The cultured autologous bone-marrow-derived cells were implanted 7 days after cryo-injury. For controls, cell-free solutions were injected. At 7 and 14 days after implantation, leak point pressures were determined and the urethral sphincters were examined by immunohistochemistry. At 7 and 14 days, the cell-implanted regions contained numerous striated and smooth muscle-like cells expressing myoglobin and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The proportions of myoglobin- and smooth muscle actin-expressing areas in both the 7- and 14-day cell-implanted regions were significantly higher than in controls. By 14 days, these differentiated cells formed contacts with similar cells, creating layered muscle structures. At that time, the leak point pressure of the cell-implanted rabbits was significantly higher than that of the controls. In conclusion, autologous bone-marrow-derived cells can reconstruct functional urethral sphincters. PMID:21091339

Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Kinebuchi, Yoshiaki; Kurizaki, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Nishizawa, Osamu

2011-04-01

188

Periarticular osteopenia in adjuvant induced arthritis: role of interleukin-1 in decreased osteogenic and increased resorptive potential of bone marrow cells.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To clarify the local osteogenic and bone resorptive potential of periarticular bone in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS--Formation of fibroblast colony forming units (FCFU; osteogenic precursor cells) and osteoclast-like cells in bone marrow culture was studied in AIA rats. Osteoclast-inducing activity in the AIA rat bone marrow was assayed by the addition of the marrow supernatant from rats with AIA to control cultures. Bone mineral density was determined by dual x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Marrow from AIA rats and that from animals receiving recombinant human interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta for seven days grew significantly fewer FCFU than control marrow. Formation of osteoclast-like cells was increased in bone marrow cultures from rats with AIA, especially when bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of marrow supernatant. Formation of resorption lacunae on ivory slices was increased in the marrow cultures from rats with AIA, especially from the right (adjuvant inoculated) tibia. AIA rat marrow supernatant promoted osteoclast-like cell formation in control culture, and this was significantly suppressed by an anti-IL-1 antibody. Rats with AIA showed a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of the periarticular regions of the tibia and femur. CONCLUSION--An uncoupled state in bone resorption-formation linkage, possibly mediated through an increase of IL-1 in the bone marrow, may contribute to the development of periarticular osteopenia in inflammatory arthritis. Images PMID:7632091

Suzuki, Y; Tanihara, M; Ichikawa, Y; Osanai, A; Nakagawa, M; Ide, M; Mizushima, Y

1995-01-01

189

Impaired Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Dysfunctional Bone Marrow Stroma in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired –at least partly– due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment. Methods Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1+Flk-1+ EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell–endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed. Results In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro. Conclusion EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients. PMID:23555959

Rafii, Shahin; Jaspers, Janneke E.; White, Ian A.; Hooper, Andrea T.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

2013-01-01

190

The Alliance of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone, and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Bone fragility has emerged as a new complication of diabetes. Several mechanisms in diabetes may influence bone homeostasis by impairing the action between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes and/or changing the structural properties of the bone tissue. Some of these mechanisms can potentially alter the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, the initial precursor of the osteoblast. In this review, we describe the main factors that impair bone health in diabetic patients and their clinical impact. PMID:25140176

Napoli, Nicola; Paladini, Angela; Briganti, Silvia I.; Pozzilli, Paolo; Epstein, Sol

2014-01-01

191

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2010-01-01

192

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2014-01-01

193

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2013-01-01

194

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2012-01-01

195

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2011-01-01

196

Chromosome preparation from cultured cells.  

PubMed

Chromosome (cytogenetic) analysis is widely used for the detection of chromosome instability. When followed by G-banding and molecular techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), this assay has the powerful ability to analyze individual cells for aberrations that involve gains or losses of portions of the genome and rearrangements involving one or more chromosomes. In humans, chromosome abnormalities occur in approximately 1 per 160 live births(1,2), 60-80% of all miscarriages(3,4), 10% of stillbirths(2,5), 13% of individuals with congenital heart disease(6), 3-6% of infertility cases(2), and in many patients with developmental delay and birth defects(7). Cytogenetic analysis of malignancy is routinely used by researchers and clinicians, as observations of clonal chromosomal abnormalities have been shown to have both diagnostic and prognostic significance(8,9). Chromosome isolation is invaluable for gene therapy and stem cell research of organisms including nonhuman primates and rodents(10-13). Chromosomes can be isolated from cells of live tissues, including blood lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, amniocytes, placenta, bone marrow, and tumor specimens. Chromosomes are analyzed at the metaphase stage of mitosis, when they are most condensed and therefore more clearly visible. The first step of the chromosome isolation technique involves the disruption of the spindle fibers by incubation with Colcemid, to prevent the cells from proceeding to the subsequent anaphase stage. The cells are then treated with a hypotonic solution and preserved in their swollen state with Carnoy's fixative. The cells are then dropped on to slides and can then be utilized for a variety of procedures. G-banding involves trypsin treatment followed by staining with Giemsa to create characteristic light and dark bands. The same procedure to isolate chromosomes can be used for the preparation of cells for procedures such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and spectral karyotyping (SKY)(14,15). PMID:24513647

Howe, Bradley; Umrigar, Ayesha; Tsien, Fern

2014-01-01

197

Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

2014-11-01

198

Osteogenic Effects of Dedifferentiated Fat Cell Transplantation in Rabbit Models of Bone Defect and Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have a high proliferative activity and the potential to differentiate into lineages of mesenchymal tissue similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we examined the effects of autologous DFAT cell transplantation on bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model. The formation of tissue-engineered bone (TEB) was observed when rabbit DFAT cells were loaded onto a ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen sponge and cultured in an osteogenic differentiation medium for 3 weeks. Autologous implantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs promoted bone regeneration in a rabbit tibial defect model. Regenerated bone tissue induced by transplantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs was histologically well differentiated and exhibited higher bone strength in a three-point bending test compared to that induced by the ?-TCP/collagen sponge alone. In OVX-induced osteoporosis model rabbits, DFAT cells were obtained with the osteogenic activity similar to cells from healthy rabbits. Intrabone marrow injection of autologous DFAT cells significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) at the injected site in the OVX rabbits. Transplanted DFAT cells remained mainly on the injection side of the bone marrow by at least 28 days after intrabone marrow injection and a part of them expressed osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that autologous implantation of DFAT cells contributed to bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. DFAT cells may be an attractive cell source for cell-based bone tissue engineering to treat nonunion fractures in all patients, including those with osteoporosis. PMID:23566022

Kikuta, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kazama, Minako; Kano, Koichiro; Ryu, Junnosuke; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

2013-01-01

199

Skin-derived precursors differentiate into skeletogenic cell types and contribute to bone repair.  

PubMed

Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent dermal precursors that share similarities with neural crest stem cells and that can give rise to peripheral neural and some mesodermal cell types, such as adipocytes. Here, we have asked whether rodent or human SKPs can generate other mesenchymally derived cell types, with a particular focus on osteocytes and chondrocytes. In culture, rodent and human foreskin-derived SKPs differentiated into alkaline-positive, collagen type-1-positive, mineralizing osteocytes, and into collagen type-II-positive chondrocytes that secreted chondrocyte-specific proteoglycans. Clonal analysis demonstrated that SKPs efficiently generated these skeletogenic cell types, and that they were multipotent with regard to the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. To ask if SKPs could generate these same lineages in vivo, genetically tagged, undifferentiated rat SKPs were transplanted into a tibial bone fracture model. Over the ensuing 6 weeks, many of the transplanted cells survived within the bone callus, where they were morphologically and phenotypically similar to the endogenous mesenchymal/osteogenic cells. Moreover, some transplanted cells adopted a mature osteocyte phenotype and integrated into the newly formed bone. Some transplanted cells also differentiated into chondrocytes and into smooth muscle cells and/or pericytes that were associated with blood vessels. Thus, both rodent and human SKPs generate skeletogenic cell types in culture, and the injured bone environment is sufficient to instruct SKPs to differentiate down an osteogenic lineage, in a fashion similar to the endogenous mesenchymal precursors. PMID:18834279

Lavoie, Jean-Francois; Biernaskie, Jeffrey A; Chen, Yan; Bagli, Darius; Alman, Benjamin; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

2009-01-01

200

Intraosseous injection of RM1 murine prostate cancer cells promotes rapid osteolysis and periosteal bone deposition  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression within bone remain a topic of intense investigation. With the availability of transgenic mouse strains, a model of PCa for use in immune competent/transgenic mice would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to explore the utility of RM1 mouse PCa cells in investigations of tumor:bone interactions. The efficacies of several implantation techniques were examined for reliably producing intra-bone RM1 tumor growth and bone lesion formation in immune competent mice. Longitudinal monitoring of bone remodeling and lesion phenotypes was conducted by microcomputed tomography (?CT) and histological analyses. Our results indicate that direct intrabone injections of RM1 cells are necessary for tumor growth within bone and direct implantation promotes the rapid development of osteolytic bone lesions with periosteal bone deposition post-cortical breach. In vitro, RM1 cells promote the proliferation of osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) and osteoclast (Raw264.7) progenitors in a dose dependent manner. Conditioned culture media from RM1 cells appears to promote earlier expression of genes/proteins associated with osteoblastic differentiation. While clearly stimulating osteoclast function in vivo, RM1 cells had little effect on differentiation and tartate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression by Raw264.7 cells. These data, coupled with in vivo ?CT images, indicate the ability of RM1 cells to induce mixed, yet predominentally osteolytic, responses in bone and illustrate the potential of RM1 cells as a model of investigating prostate tumor:stroma interactions in immune competent/transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background. PMID:18506587

McCabe, N. Patrick; Madajka, Maria; Vasanji, Amit

2010-01-01

201

Formation of engineered bone with adipose stromal cells from buccal fat pad.  

PubMed

A robust method for inducing bone formation from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) has not been established. Moreover, the efficacy of strong osteogenic inducers including BMP-2 for ADSC-mediated bone engineering remains controversial. Meanwhile, the buccal fat pad (BFP), which is found in the oral cavity as an adipose-encapsulated mass, has been shown to have potential as a new accessible source of ADSCs for oral surgeons. However, to date, there have been no reports that define the practical usefulness of ADSCs from BFP (B-ADSCs) for bone engineering. Here, we report an efficient method of generating bone from B-ADSCs using rhBMP-2. The analyses show that B-ADSCs can differentiate in vitro toward the osteoblastic lineage by the addition of rhBMP-2 to culture medium, regardless of the presence of osteoinductive reagents (OSR), as demonstrated by measurements of ALP activity, in vitro calcification, and osteogenic gene expression. Interestingly, adipogenic genes were clearly detectable only in cultures with rhBMP-2 and OSR. However, in vivo bone formation was most substantial when B-ADSCs cultured in this condition were transplanted. Thus, B-ADSCs reliably formed engineered bone when pre-treated with rhBMP-2 for inducing mature osteoblastic differentiation. This study supports the potential translation for B-ADSC use in the clinical treatment of bone defects. PMID:22538411

Shiraishi, T; Sumita, Y; Wakamastu, Y; Nagai, K; Asahina, I

2012-06-01

202

Characterization of Bone Resorption in Novel In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy in humans and cats and frequently invades bone. The objective of this study was to determine if feline OSCC serves as a relevant model of human OSCC in terms of osteolytic behavior and expression of bone resorption agonists. Materials and Methods Novel feline OSCC cell lines (SCCF2 and SCCF3) were derived from spontaneous carcinomas. Gene expression and osteolytic behavior were compared to an established feline OSCC cell line (SCCF1) and three human OSCC cell lines (UMSCC-12, A253 and SCC25). Interaction of OSCC with bone and murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3) was investigated using in vitro co-culture techniques. In vivo bioluminescent imaging, faxitron radiography and microscopy were used to measure xenograft growth and bone invasion in nude mice. Results Human and feline OSCC expressing the highest levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) were associated with in vitro and in vivo bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. MC3T3 cells had increased receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) expression and reduced osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in conditioned medium from bone-invasive SCCF2 cells compared to minimally bone invasive SCCF3 cells, which was partially reversed with a neutralizing anti-PTHrP antibody. Human and feline OSCC cells cultured in bone-conditioned medium had increased PTHrP secretion and proliferation. Conclusion Feline OSCC-induced bone resorption was associated with tumor cell secretion of PTHrP and with increased RANKL : OPG expression ratio in mouse preosteoblasts. Bone-CM increased OSCC proliferation and secretion of PTHrP. The preclinical models of feline OSCC recapitulated the bone-invasive phenotype characteristic of spontaneous OSCC and will be useful to future preclinical and mechanistic studies of bone invasive behavior. PMID:22265717

Martin, Chelsea K.; Dirksen, Wessel P.; Shu, Sherry T.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Thudi, Nanda K.; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Wolfe, Tobie D.; Heller, Kristin N.; Rosol, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

203

Characterization of bone resorption in novel in vitro and in vivo models of oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy in humans and cats and frequently invades bone. The objective of this study was to determine if feline OSCC serves as a relevant model of human OSCC in terms of osteolytic behavior and expression of bone resorption agonists. Novel feline OSCC cell lines (SCCF2 and SCCF3) were derived from spontaneous carcinomas. Gene expression and osteolytic behavior were compared to an established feline OSCC cell line (SCCF1) and three human OSCC cell lines (UMSCC-12, A253 and SCC25). Interaction of OSCC with bone and murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3) was investigated using in vitro co-culture techniques. In vivo bioluminescent imaging, Faxitron radiography and microscopy were used to measure xenograft growth and bone invasion in nude mice. Human and feline OSCC expressing the highest levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) were associated with in vitro and in vivo bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. MC3T3 cells had increased receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) expression and reduced osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in conditioned medium from bone-invasive SCCF2 cells compared to minimally bone invasive SCCF3 cells, which was partially reversed with a neutralizing anti-PTHrP antibody. Human and feline OSCC cells cultured in bone-conditioned medium had increased PTHrP secretion and proliferation. Feline OSCC-induced bone resorption was associated with tumor cell secretion of PTHrP and with increased RANKL:OPG expression ratio in mouse preosteoblasts. Bone-CM increased OSCC proliferation and secretion of PTHrP. The preclinical models of feline OSCC recapitulated the bone-invasive phenotype characteristic of spontaneous OSCC and will be useful to future preclinical and mechanistic studies of bone invasive behavior. PMID:22265717

Martin, Chelsea K; Dirksen, Wessel P; Shu, Sherry T; Werbeck, Jillian L; Thudi, Nanda K; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Wolfe, Tobie D; Heller, Kristin N; Rosol, Thomas J

2012-06-01

204

Identification of Ror? targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone  

PubMed Central

Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (Ror?) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Ror? is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Ror? are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Ror? in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Ror?-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Ror?-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Ror?-GFP model system, suggesting that Ror? may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both ROR?and a subset of ROR?-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for ROR? in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Ror? regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss. PMID:24125721

Roforth, Matthew M.; Khosla, Sundeep; Monroe, David G.

2013-01-01

205

Suppressor cells in transplantation tolerance. II. maturation of suppressor cells in the bone marrow chimera  

SciTech Connect

Histoincompatible bone marrow allografts were established in lethally irradiated rats. At various times after transplantation, the spleen cells were harvested, subjected to mixed lymphocyte cultures, and assayed for suppressor cells in vitro and in vivo by adoptive transfer studies. Alloantigen-nonspecific suppressor cells appeared in the chimera at 40 days after grafting, coinciding with the resolution of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At 250 days the nonspecific suppressor cells were replaced by suppressor cells specifically suppressing donor-versus-host alloantigen responses. At 720 days suppressor cells could no longer be identified by in vitro methods but were identified by in vivo adoptive transfer of transplantation tolerance. After injection of host-type antigen into chimeras, the suppressor cells could be again demonstrated by in vitro methods.

Tutschka, P.J.; Ki, P.F.; Beschorner, W.E.; Hess, A.D.; Santos, G.W.

1981-10-01

206

CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction.

Oue, Erika [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)] [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Iimura, Tadahiro [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Kazuhiro [Section of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)] [Section of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Kayamori, Kou [Section of Diagnostic Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) [Section of Diagnostic Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Pathology, Ome Municipal General Hospital, Ome, Tokyo (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)] [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-08-03

207

Modulation of the human bone cell cycle by calcium ion-implantation of titanium.  

PubMed

Ca ion implantation of Ti surfaces has previously been reported to enhances osseointegration in vivo. Although the mechanisms underlying the response of bone cells to these novel surfaces still remain unclear, it is possible that Ca ion-implanted Ti (Ca-Ti) may influence the growth of new bone by modulating the progression of the cell cycle. In the present study we have, therefore, examined the precise effects of Ca ion-implantation of Ti on the bone-like MG-63 cell line in vitro. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that this surface markedly enhanced the proportion of cells which expressed Ki-67, a cell proliferation-associated nuclear antigen, compared with cells grown on the non-implanted Ti (control) surface. In addition, cultures grown on Ca-Ti and synchronized at the G1/S boundary by hydroxyurea more rapidly re-entered and progressed through the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle than their counterparts on Ti. Ca ion-implantation also significantly increased the numbers of mitotic cells. These results thus show that alteration of the surface chemistry of Ti by high-energy implantation with Ca ion was able to substantially modulate the progression of the bone cell cycle, and suggest a possible means of enhancing the response of bone cells to implant materials. PMID:16952393

Nayab, Saima N; Jones, Frances H; Olsen, Irwin

2007-01-01

208

A microfluidic system for automatic cell culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new chip capable of automating the cell culture process by using microfluidic technology. This microfluidic cell culture system comprising microheaters, a micro temperature sensor, micropumps, microvalves, microchannels, a cell culture area and several reservoirs was fabricated by using micro-electro-mechanical-systems' fabrication processes. Traditional manual cell culture processes can be performed on this chip. A uni-directional pneumatic micropump was developed to transport the culture reagents and constraint the solutions to flow only in one direction, safeguarding the entire culture process from contamination. A new micro check valve was also used to prevent the culture solutions from flowing back into the microchannels. The microheaters and the micro temperature sensor were used to maintain a constant temperature during the cell culturing process. The pH value suitable for cell growth was also regulated during the cell culture process. A typical cell culturing process for human lung cancer cells (A549) was successfully performed to demonstrate the capability of the developed microfluidic system. This automatic cell culturing system can be eventually integrated with subsequent microfluidic modules for cell purification, collection, counting and lysis to form a cell-based micro-total-analysis system. Preliminary results have been presented in The Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (APCOT), 25-28 June 2006

Huang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin

2007-07-01

209

Unique biomechanical interactions between myeloma cells and bone marrow stroma cells  

E-print Network

Review Unique biomechanical interactions between myeloma cells and bone marrow stroma cells 17 October 2009 Keywords: Myeloma Bone marrow stroma cell Stiffness Niche a b s t r a c t We observed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 2.1. Isolation and expansion of bone marrow stroma cell

Athanasiou, Kyriacos

210

Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. PMID:18955237

Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran; Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija

2009-01-01

211

LANTHANUM IN HEART CELL CULTURE  

PubMed Central

Correlation of the localization of La+++ with its effects on Ca++ exchange in cultured rat heart cells is examined with the use of a recently developed technique. 75% of cellular Ca++ is exchangeable and is completely accounted for by two kinetically defined phases. The rapidly exchangeable phase has a t ˝ = 1.15 min and accounts for 1 1 mmoles Ca++/kg wet cells or 43% of the exchangeable Ca++ (cells perfused with [Ca++]o = 1 mM) Phase 2 has a t ˝ = 19.2 min and accounts for 1.5 mmoles Ca++/kg wet cells or 57% of the exchangeable Ca++. 0.5 mM [La+++]o displaces 0 52 mmoles Ca++/kg wet cells—all from phase 1—and almost completely abolishes subsequent Ca++ influx and efflux The presence of La+++ in the washout converts the washout pattern to a single phase system with a t ˝ = 124 min. The effects upon Ca++ exchange are coincident with abolition of contractile tension but regenerative depolarization of the tissue is maintained Electron microscope localization of the La+++ places it exclusively in the external lamina or basement membrane of the cells. The study indicates that negatively charged sites in the basement membrane play a crucial role in the E-C coupling process in heart muscle PMID:5044754

Langer, G. A.; Frank, J. S.

1972-01-01

212

Characterization of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Isolated from Human Bone Marrow by Negative Selection  

PubMed Central

Studies on the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases would be greatly facilitated by the development of approaches to assess changes in gene expression in osteoblast/osteoprogenitor populations in vivo without the potentially confounding effects of in vitro culture and expansion of the cells. While positive selection to identify a progenitor population in human marrow can be used to select for cells capable of osteoblast differentiation, each of the markers that have been used to identify marrow mesenchymal populations (alkaline phosphatase [AP], Stro-1, CD29, CD49a, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, CD44, CD146 and CD271) may be expressed on distinct subsets of marrow mesenchymal cells. Thus, positive selection with one or more of these markers could exclude a possibly relevant cell population that may undergo important changes in various clinical conditions. In the present report, we describe the isolation and characterization of human osteoprogenitor cells obtained by depletion of bone marrow cells of all hematopoietic lineage/hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial/endothelial precursor cells (lin?/CD34/CD31?). The yield of lin?/CD34/CD31? cells from ~10 mL of bone marrow (~ 80 million mononuclear cells) was ~80,000 cells (0.1% of mononuclear cells). While not selected on the basis of expression for the mesenchymal marker, Stro-1, 68% of these cells were Stro-1+. Using linear whole transcriptome amplification followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis, we also demonstrated that, compared to lin? cells (which are already depleted of hematopoietic cells), lin?/CD34/31? cells expressed markedly lower mRNA levels for the endothelial/hematopoietic markers, CD34, CD31, CD45, and CD133. Lin?/CD34/31? cells were also enriched for the expression of mesenchymal/osteoblastic markers, with a further increase in runx2, osterix, and AP mRNA expression following in vitro culture under osteogenic conditions. Importantly, lin?/CD34/31? cells contained virtually all of the mineralizing cells in human marrow: while these cells displayed robust calcium deposition in vitro, lin?/CD34/31+ cells demonstrated little or no mineralization when cultured under identical osteogenic conditions. Lin?/CD34/31? cells thus represent a human bone marrow population highly enriched for mesenchymal/osteoblast progenitor cells that can be analyzed without in vitro culture in various metabolic bone disorders, including osteoporosis and aging. PMID:22226689

Modder, Ulrike I.; Roforth, Matthew M.; Nicks, Kristy M.; Peterson, James M.; McCready, Louise K.; Monroe, David G.; Khosla, Sundeep

2012-01-01

213

Construction of functional tissue-engineered bone using cell sheet technology in a canine model  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to construct functional tissue-engineered bone with cell sheet technology and compare the efficacy of this method with that of traditional bone tissue engineering techniques. Canine bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and then cultured. The BMSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and cultured in temperature-responsive culture dishes. The BMSCs detached automatically from the temperature-responsive culture dishes when the temperature was reduced to 20°C, forming an intact cell sheet. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were prepared and used to construct a DBM/PRP/BMSC cell sheet/BMSC complex, which was implanted under the left latissimus dorsi muscle in a dog model. A DBM/PRP/BMSC complex was used as a control and implanted under the right latissimus dorsi muscle in the dog model. Immunoblot assays were performed to detect the levels of growth factors. Osteogenesis was observed to be induced significantly more effectively in the DBM/PRP/BMSC cell sheet/BMSC implants than in the DBM/PRP/BMSC implants. Immunoblot assay results indicated that the levels of the growth factors platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the experimental group were 3.2- and 2.5-fold higher compared with those in the control group, respectively. These results indicated that the BMSC cell sheets were functional and more effective than the control cell complex. Therefore, cell sheet technology may be used for the effective construction of functional tissue-engineered bone with ideal properties. PMID:24669258

CHEN, TAO; WANG, YANHUI; BU, LINGXUE; LI, NINGYI

2014-01-01

214

Mechanical Behavior of Bone Cells micrograph view of bone  

E-print Network

Press. #12;6 14 A parallel-plate flow chamber of the type used by Frangos et al., 1988 From: Brown, 2001 actuator From: Brown, 2001, In: Bone Mechanics , S. Cowin, Ed., CRC Press. 9 The longitudinal substrate., CRC Press. 12 Conceptual schematic con-and-plate shear stress mechanostimulus used by Dewey, 1984 From

Gefen, Amit

215

Cell-Based Approaches to the Engineering of Vascularized Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes recent efforts to create vascularized bone tissue in vitro and in vivo using cell-based therapy approaches. The treatment of large and recalcitrant bone wounds is a serious clinical problem, and in the United States approximately 10% of all fractures are complicated by delayed or non-union. Treatment approaches using growth factor and gene delivery have shown some promise, but results are variable and clinical complications have arisen. Cell-based therapies offer the potential to recapitulate key components of the bone healing cascade, which involves concomitant regeneration of vasculature and new bone tissue. For this reason, osteogenic and vasculogenic cell types have been combined in co-cultures to capitalize on the function of each cell type, and to promote heterotypic interactions. Experiments in both 2D and 3D systems have provided insight into the mechanisms by which osteogenic and vasculogenic cells interact to form vascularized bone, and these approaches have been translated to ectopic and orthotopic models in small animal studies. The knowledge generated by these studies will inform and facilitate the next generation of pre-clinical studies, which are needed to move cell-based orthopaedic repair strategies into the clinic. The science and application of cytotherapy for repair of large and ischemic bone defects is developing rapidly, and promises to provide new treatment methods for these challenging clinical problems. PMID:23999157

Rao, Rameshwar R.; Stegemann, Jan P.

2013-01-01

216

Regeneration of large bone defects in sheep using bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Bone repair was addressed in a critical-sized defect model in sheep, combining a ceramic biomaterial and mesenchymal progenitor cells. The defects in the tibial mid-diaphysis were treated with autologous bone or with a silicon-stabilized tricalcium phosphate biomaterial, implemented or not by the addition of expanded bone marrow stromal cells. An internal locking compression plate and an external fixator were applied for stabilization. Radiographies were taken during the 8 months follow-up: the pixel grey levels of the lesion areas were determined to evaluate the repair process radiologically. Microradiography, histology and vascular density tests were performed. The autologous bone-treated group performed best, as assessed radiologically, within 20-24 weeks after surgery. Very limited healing was detected in the other experimental group: a partial bone deposition occurred at the periphery of the bony stumps only in the cell-seeded scaffolds. Interestingly, this effect ended within 20-24 weeks, as for the autologous bone, suggesting similar kinetics of the repair processes involved. Moreover, bone deposition was located where a significant reduction of the ceramic scaffold was detected. Faxitron microradiography and histology data confirmed these results. Vascular density analysis evidenced that cell-seeded scaffolds supported an increased vascular ingrowth. Thus, the interactions with the proper microenvironment and the oxygen and nutrient supply in the inner part of the constructs seem fundamental to initiate scaffold substitution and to improve cell performance in tissue-engineered approaches to bone repair. PMID:18537203

Giannoni, P; Mastrogiacomo, M; Alini, M; Pearce, S G; Corsi, A; Santolini, F; Muraglia, A; Bianco, P; Cancedda, R

2008-07-01

217

Culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Techniques are described for the culture of murine embryonic stem cells in the absence of heterologous feeder cells and for the induction of differentiation programs. The regulatory factor differentiation inhibiting activity\\/ leukaemia inhibitory factor (DIA\\/LIF) is produced at high concentration by transient expression in Cos cells and is used to suppress stem cell differentiation by addition to the culture

Austin G. Smith

1991-01-01

218

Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats  

PubMed Central

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106; intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions.

Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

2014-01-01

219

Therapeutic potential of adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in diseases of the skeleton  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most popular among the adult stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since their discovery and functional characterization in the late sixties and early seventies, MSCs or MSC-like cells have been obtained from various mesodermal and non-mesodermal tissues, although majority of the therapeutic applications involved bone marrow derived MSCs. Based on its mesenchymal origin, it was predicted earlier that MSCs only can differentiate into mesengenic lineages like bone, cartilage, fat or muscle. However, varied isolation and cell culturing methods identified subsets of MSCs in the bone marrow which not only differentiated into mesenchymal lineages, but also into ectodermal and endodermal derivatives. Although, true pluripotent status is yet to be established, MSCs have been successfully used in bone and cartilage regeneration in osteoporotic fracture and arthritis respectively and in the repair of cardiac tissue following myocardial infarction. Immunosuppressive properties of MSCs extend utility of MSCs to reduce complications of graft versus host disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Homing of MSCs to sites of tissue injury, including tumor, is well established. In addition to their ability in tissue regeneration, MSCs can be genetically engineered ex vivo for delivery of therapeutic molecule(s) to the sites of injury or tumorigenesis as cell therapy vehicles. MSCs tend to lose surface receptors for trafficking and have been reported to develop sarcoma in long-term culture. In this article, we reviewed the current status of MSCs with special emphasis to therapeutic application in bone-related diseases. PMID:20506559

Chanda, Diptiman; Kumar, Sanjay; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2010-01-01

220

Unloading induces osteoblastic cell suppression and osteoclastic cell activation to lead to bone loss via sympathetic nervous system.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is one of the major health problems in our modern world. Especially, disuse (unloading) osteoporosis occurs commonly in bedridden patients, a population that is rapidly increasing due to aging-associated diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying such unloading-induced pathological bone loss have not yet been fully understood. Since sympathetic nervous system could control bone mass, we examined whether unloading-induced bone loss is controlled by sympathetic nervous tone. Treatment with beta-blocker, propranolol, suppressed the unloading-induced reduction in bone mass. Conversely, beta-agonist, isoproterenol, reduced bone mass in loaded mice, and under such conditions, unloading no longer further reduced bone mass. Analyses on the cellular bases indicated that unloading-induced reduction in the levels of osteoblastic cell activities, including mineral apposition rate, mineralizing surface, and bone formation rate, was suppressed by propranolol treatment and that isoproterenol-induced reduction in these levels of bone formation parameters was no longer suppressed by unloading. Unloading-induced reduction in the levels of mineralized nodule formation in bone marrow cell cultures was suppressed by propranolol treatment in vivo. In addition, loss of a half-dosage in the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene suppressed the unloading-induced bone loss and reduction in mineralized nodule formation. Unloading-induced increase in the levels of osteoclastic activities such as osteoclast number and surface as well as urinary deoxypyridinoline was all suppressed by the treatment with propranolol. These observations indicated that sympathetic nervous tone mediates unloading-induced bone loss through suppression of bone formation by osteoblasts and enhancement of resorption by osteoclasts. PMID:15961387

Kondo, Hisataka; Nifuji, Akira; Takeda, Shu; Ezura, Yoichi; Rittling, Susan R; Denhardt, David T; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Karsenty, Gerard; Noda, Masaki

2005-08-26

221

Chemical potential of Aphelandra sp. cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six different callus lines and three different suspension culture lines were established from plants of two Aphelandra species (Acanthaceae). All established lines were analyzed for secondary metabolite accumulation. A discrepancy between secondary\\u000a metabolites accumulated in the plants and in the cell cultures could be observed. All established Aphelandrasp. cell cultures produced verbascoside (acteoside) as the major extractable metabolite. Time course

Lenka Nezbedová; Manfred Hesse; Jaroslav Dušek; Christa Werner

1999-01-01

222

A feeder-free differentiation system identifies autonomously proliferating B cell precursors in human bone marrow.  

PubMed

The peripheral B cell compartment is maintained by homeostatic proliferation and through replenishment by bone marrow precursors. Because hematopoietic stem cells cycle at a slow rate, replenishment must involve replication of precursor B cells. To study proliferation of early human B cell progenitors, we established a feeder cell-free in vitro system allowing the development of B cells from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells up to the stage of immature IgM(+) B cells. We found that pro-B and pre-B cells generated in vitro can proliferate autonomously and persist up to 7 wk in culture in the absence of signals induced by exogenously added cytokines. Nevertheless, addition of IL-7 enhanced pre-B cell expansion and inhibited maturation into IgM(+) B cells. The B cell precursor subsets replicating in vitro were highly similar to the bone marrow B cell precursors cycling in vivo. The autonomous proliferation of B cell precursor subsets in vitro and their long-term persistence implies that proliferation during pro-B and pre-B cell stages plays an important role in the homeostasis of the peripheral B cell compartment. Our in vitro culture can be used to study defects in B cell development or in reconstitution of the B cell pool after depletion and chemotherapy. PMID:24379121

Kraus, Helene; Kaiser, Sandra; Aumann, Konrad; Bönelt, Peter; Salzer, Ulrich; Vestweber, Dietmar; Erlacher, Miriam; Kunze, Mirjam; Burger, Meike; Pieper, Kathrin; Sic, Heiko; Rolink, Antonius; Eibel, Hermann; Rizzi, Marta

2014-02-01

223

Catechin production in cultured Polygonum hydropiper cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus and suspension-cultured cells were induced from hypocotyls of Polygonum hydropiper seedlings. Both the callus and suspension-cultured cells produced mainly (+)-catechin accompanied by (?)-epicatechin and (?)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. The (+)-catechin production of suspension-cultured cells increased with cell growth and reached the maximal value (29.0mgg?1 dry wt) after 6days from the start of subculture. This is the highest value of (+)-catechin content among

Kanji Ono; Mayumi Nakao; Masao Toyota; Yoshimi Terashi; Masashi Yamada; Tetsuya Kohno; Yoshinori Asakawa

1998-01-01

224

Carrot Embryogenesis from Frozen Cultured Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY plant tissue cultures change in growth rate, chromosome cytology and morphogenic potential during repeated subculture1-3. Controlled freezing and low temperature storage of cultured plant cells might enable the characters of newly initiated cultures to be preserved. Cell preservation at the temperature of liquid N2 (-196° C) has been successful with animal cells4 and preliminary work with plant cells has

K. K. Nag

1973-01-01

225

Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms and role in bone regeneration  

PubMed Central

Stimulating bone growth and regeneration, especially in patients with delayed union or non-union of bone, is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Treatments employed for bone regeneration are based on the use of cells, biomaterials and factors. Among these therapies, cell treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a number of advantages as MSCs: (1) are multipotent cells that can migrate to sites of injury; (2) are capable of suppressing the local immune response; and (3) are available in large quantities from the patients themselves. MSC therapies have been used for stimulating bone regeneration in animal models and in patients. Methods of application range from direct MSC injection, seeding MSCs on synthetic scaffolds, the use of gene-modified MSCs, and hetero-MSCs application. However, only a small number of these cell-based strategies are in clinical use, and none of these treatments has become the gold standard treatment for delayed or non-union of bone. PMID:25335795

Qin, Yunhao; Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Changqing

2014-01-01

226

Bioreactor Strategy in Bone Tissue Engineering: Pre-Culture and Osteogenic Differentiation Under Two Flow Configurations  

PubMed Central

Since robust osteogenic differentiation and mineralization are integral to the engineering of bone constructs, understanding the impact of the cellular microenvironments on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation is crucial to optimize bioreactor strategy. Two perfusion flow conditions were utilized in order to understand the impact of the flow configuration on hMSC construct development during both pre-culture (PC) in growth media and its subsequent osteogenic induction (OI). The media in the in-house perfusion bioreactor was controlled to perfuse either around (termed parallel flow [PF]) the construct surfaces or penetrate through the construct (termed transverse flow [TF]) for 7 days of the PC followed by 7 days of the OI. The flow configuration during the PC not only changed growth kinetics but also influenced cell distribution and potency of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization during the subsequent OI. While shear stress resulted from the TF stimulated cell proliferation during PC, the convective removal of de novo extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors (GFs) reduced cell proliferation on OI. In contrast, the effective retention of de novo ECM proteins and GFs in the PC constructs under the PF maintained cell proliferation under the OI but resulted in localized cell aggregations, which influenced their osteogenic differentiation. The results revealed the contrasting roles of the convective flow as a mechanical stimulus, the redistribution of the cells and macromolecules in 3D constructs, and their divergent impacts on cellular events, leading to bone construct formation. The results suggest that the modulation of the flow configuration in the perfusion bioreactor is an effective strategy that regulates the construct properties and maximizes the functional outcome. PMID:22690750

Kim, Junho

2012-01-01

227

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Cell Division in Neuroblastoma Cells and Bone Marrow Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix and carry out key functions in cell development, cancer, injury, and regeneration. In addition to its well recognized extracellular action, functional intracellular MMP activity under certain conditions is supported by increasing evidence. In this study, we observed higher gelatinase activity by in situ zymography and increased MMP-9 immunoreactivity in human neuroblastoma cells and in bone marrow macrophages undergoing mitosis compared with resting cells. We studied the pattern of immunoreactivity at the different stages of cell division by confocal microscopy. Immunostaining with different monoclonal antibodies against MMP-9 revealed a precise, dynamic, and well orchestrated localization of MMP-9 at the different stages of cell division. The cellular distribution of MMP-9 staining was studied in relation to that of microtubules. The spatial pattern of MMP-9 immunoreactivity suggested some participation in both the reorganization of the nuclear content and the process of chromatid segmentation. We then used several MMP-9 inhibitors to find out whether MMP-9 might be involved in the cell cycle. These drugs impaired the entry of cells into mitosis, as revealed by flow cytometry, and reduced cell culture growth. In addition, the silencing of MMP-9 expression with small interfering RNA also reduced cell growth. Taken together, these results suggest that intracellular MMP-9 is involved in the process of cell division in neuroblastoma cells and in primary cultures of macrophages. PMID:20971732

Sans-Fons, M. Gloria; Sole, Sonia; Sanfeliu, Coral; Planas, Anna M.

2010-01-01

228

Osteoclast-independent bone resorption by fibroblast-like cells  

PubMed Central

To date, mesenchymal cells have only been associated with bone resorption indirectly, and it has been hypothesized that the degradation of bone is associated exclusively with specific functions of osteoclasts. Here we show, in aseptic prosthesis loosening, that aggressive fibroblasts at the bone surface actively contribute to bone resorption and that this is independent of osteoclasts. In two separate models (a severe combined immunodeficient mouse coimplantation model and a dentin pit formation assay), these cells produce signs of bone resorption that are similar to those in early osteoclastic resorption. In an animal model of aseptic prosthesis loosening (i.e. intracranially self-stimulated rats), it is shown that these fibroblasts acquire their ability to degrade bone early on in their differentiation. Upon stimulation, such fibroblasts readily release acidic components that lower the pH of their pericellular milieu. Through the use of specific inhibitors, pericellular acidification is shown to involve the action of vacuolar type ATPases. Although fibroblasts, as mesenchymal derived cells, are thought to be incapable of resorbing bone, the present study provides the first evidence to challenge this widely held belief. It is demonstrated that fibroblast-like cells, under pathological conditions, may not only enhance but also actively contribute to bone resorption. These cells should therefore be considered novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of bone destructive disorders. PMID:12723988

Pap, Thomas; Claus, Anja; Ohtsu, Susumu; Hummel, Klaus M; Schwartz, Peter; Drynda, Susanne; Pap, Geza; Machner, Andreas; Stein, Bernhard; George, Michael; Gay, Renate E; Neumann, Wolfram; Gay, Steffen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

2003-01-01

229

Embryonic stem cells in bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increased life expectancy of humans the number of patients with age related skeletal compliciations has increased. These patients but also patients suffering from complications due to trauma or disease often need surgical interventions in which additional bone is required for optimal recovery. Currently the most frequently used bone replacement is autologous or allogeneic bone, but both methods have

Sanne Karijn Both

2008-01-01

230

Stem Cell-Calcium Phosphate Constructs for Bone Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

While human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been investigated, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are a relatively new cell source. Little has been reported on hUCMSC encapsulation in scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs and hUCMSCs in calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. Stem-cell-encapsulating

H. H. K. Xu; L. Zhao; M. D. Weir

2010-01-01

231

The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells.  

PubMed

Emdogain® is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain® on expression profiles of human-derived bone cells with the help of the micro-array, and subsequent validation. Bone was harvested from non-smoking patients during dental implant surgery. After outgrowth, cells were cultured until subconfluence, treated for 24?h with either Emdogain® (100?µg/ml) or control medium, and subsequently RNA was isolated and micro-array was performed. The most important genes demonstrated by micro-array data were confirmed by qPCR and ELISA tests. Emdogain tipped the balance between genes expressed for bone formation and bone resorption towards a more anabolic effect, by interaction of the PGE2 pathway and inhibition of IL-7 production. In addition the results of the present study indicate that Emdogain possibly has an effect on gene expression for extracellular matrix formation of human bone cells, in particular on bone matrix formation and on proliferation and differentiation. With the micro-array and the subsequent validation, the genes possibly involved in Emdogain action on bone cells were identified. These results can contribute to establishing new products and pathways promoting bone formation. PMID:22689476

Yan, X Z; Rathe, F; Gilissen, C; van der Zande, M; Veltman, J; Junker, R; Yang, F; Jansen, J A; Walboomers, X F

2014-06-01

232

Bone marrow cells adopt the phenotype of other cells by spontaneous cell fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that transplanted bone marrow cells can turn into unexpected lineages including myocytes, hepatocytes, neurons and many others. A potential problem, however, is that reports discussing such `transdifferentiation' in vivo tend to conclude donor origin of transdifferentiated cells on the basis of the existence of donor-specific genes such as Y-chromosome markers. Here we demonstrate that mouse bone

Naohiro Terada; Takashi Hamazaki; Masahiro Oka; Masanori Hoki; Diana M. Mastalerz; Yuka Nakano; Edwin M. Meyer; Laurence Morel; Bryon E. Petersen; Edward W. Scott

2002-01-01

233

Resveratrol increases the bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell capacity.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that has shown protective effects against many disorders including, several types of cancers and other age-associated diseases as well as blood disorders in cultured cells and/or animal models. However, whether resveratrol has any impact specifically on normal blood stem cells remains unknown. Here, we show that a 3-week treatment of resveratrol increases the frequency and total numbers of normal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) without any impact on their competitive repopulation capacity. In addition, we show that resveratrol enhances the bone marrow multipotent progenitor capacity in vivo. These results have therapeutic value for disorders of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) as well as for bone marrow transplantation settings. Am. J. Hematol. 89:E235-E238, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25163926

Rimmelé, Pauline; Lofek-Czubek, Sébastien; Ghaffari, Saghi

2014-12-01

234

Connexin 43 hemichannels and intracellular signaling in bone cells  

PubMed Central

Cell function and survival are controlled by intracellular signals, and modulated by surrounding cells and the extracellular environment. Connexin channels participate in these processes by mediating cell-to-cell communication. In bone cells, gap junction channels were detected in the early 1970s, and are present among bone resorbing osteoclasts, bone forming osteoblasts, and osteocytes - mature osteoblasts embedded in the mineralized matrix. These channels are composed mainly by Cx43, although the expression of other connexins (45, 46, and 37) has also been reported. It is now believed that undocked Cx43 hemichannels (connexons) formed in unopposed cell membranes facing the extracellular environment participate in the interaction of bone cells with the extracellular environment, and in their communication with neighboring cells. Thus, we and others demonstrated the presence of active hemichannels in osteoblastic and osteocytic cells. These hemichannels open in response to pharmacological and mechanical stimulation. In particular, preservation of the viability of osteoblasts and osteocytes by the anti-osteoporotic drugs bisphosphonates depends on Cx43 expression in vitro and in vivo, and is mediated by undocked hemichannels. Cx43 hemichannels are also required for the release of prostaglandins and ATP by osteocytes, and for cell survival induced by mechanical stimulation in vitro. Moreover, they are required for the anti-apoptotic effect of parathyroid hormone in osteoblastic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the presence and function of undocked connexons, and the role of hemichannel regulation for the maintenance of bone cell viability and, potentially, bone health. PMID:24772090

Plotkin, Lilian I.

2014-01-01

235

Primary cell cultures from Drosophila gastrula embryos.  

PubMed

Here we describe a method for preparing and culturing primary cells dissociated from Drosophila gastrula embryos. In brief, a large amount of staged embryos from young and healthy flies are collected, sterilized, and then physically dissociated into a single cell suspension using a glass homogenizer. After being plated on culture plates or chamber slides at an appropriate density in culture medium, these cells can further differentiate into several morphologically-distinct cell types, which can be identified by their specific cell markers. Furthermore, we present conditions for treating these cells with double stranded (ds) RNAs to elicit gene knockdown. Efficient RNAi in Drosophila primary cells is accomplished by simply bathing the cells in dsRNA-containing culture medium. The ability to carry out effective RNAi perturbation, together with other molecular, biochemical, cell imaging analyses, will allow a variety of questions to be answered in Drosophila primary cells, especially those related to differentiated muscle and neuronal cells. PMID:21403631

Perrimon, Norbert; Zirin, Jonathan; Bai, Jianwu

2011-01-01

236

REVERSING BONE LOSS BY DIRECTING MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS TO THE BONE  

PubMed Central

Bone regeneration by systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is problematic due to the inability to control the MSCs’ commitment, growth and differentiation into functional osteoblasts on the bone surface. Our research group has developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by conjugating a synthetic peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) that has high affinity for activated ?4?1 integrin on the MSC surface, with a bisphosphonates (alendronate) that has high affinity for bone (LLP2A-Ale), to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that mobilization of LLP2A-Ale to hydroxyapatite accelerated MSC migration that was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase and osteoblastogenesis. LLP2A-Ale increased the homing of the transplanted MSCs to bone as well as the osteoblast surface, significantly increased the rate of bone formation and restored both trabecular and cortical bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency or advanced age in mice. These results support LLP2A-Ale as a novel therapeutic option to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone for the treatment of established bone loss related to hormone deficiency and aging. PMID:23818248

Yao, Wei; Guan, Min; Jia, Junjing; Dai, Weiwei; Lay, Yu-An E.; Amugongo, Sarah; Liu, Ruiwu; Olivos, David; Saunders, Mary; Lam, Kit; Nolta, Jan; Olvera, Diana; Ritchie, Robert O.; Lane, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

237

How B Cells Influence Bone Biology in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

It is now well established that important regulatory interactions occur between the cells in the hematopoietic, immune and skeletal systems (osteoimmunology). B lymphocytes (B cells) are responsible for the generation and production of antibodies or immunoglobulins in the body. Together with T cells these lymphocytes comprise the adaptive immune system, which allows an individual to develop specific responses to an infection and retain memory of that infection, allowing for a faster and more robust response if that same infection occurs again. In addition to this immune function, B cells have a close and multifaceted relationship with bone cells. B cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in supportive niches found on endosteal bone surfaces. Cells in the osteoblast lineage support HSC and B cell differentiation in these niches. B cell differentiation is regulated, at least in part, by a series of transcription factors that function in a temporal manner. While these transcription factors are required for B cell differentiation, their loss causes profound changes in the bone phenotype. This is due, in part, to the close relationship between macrophage/osteoclast and B cell differentiation. Cross talk between B cells and bone cells is reciprocal with defects in the RANKL-RANK, OPG signaling axis resulting in altered bone phenotypes. While the role of B cells during normal bone remodeling appears minimal, activated B cells play an important role in many inflammatory diseases with associated bony changes. This review examines the relationship between B cells and bone cells and how that relationship affects the skeleton and hematopoiesis during health and disease. PMID:20601290

Horowitz, Mark C.; Fretz, Jackie A.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

238

Bone marrow processing for transplantation using Cobe Spectra cell separator.  

PubMed

Concentration of bone marrow aspirates is an important prerequisite prior to infusion of ABO incompatible allogeneic marrow and prior to cryopreservation and storage of autologous marrow. In this paper we present our experience in processing 15 harvested bone marrow for ABO incompatible allogeneic and autologous bone marrow (BM) transplantation using Cobe Spectra® cell separator. BM processing resulted in the median recovery of 91.5% CD34+ cells, erythrocyte depletion of 91% and volume reduction of 81%. BM processing using cell separator is safe and effective technique providing high rate of erythrocyte depletion and volume reduction, and acceptable recovery of the CD34+ cells. PMID:23628356

Veljkovi?, Dobrila; Nonkovi?, Olivera Šerbi?; Radonji?, Zorica; Kuzmanovi?, Miloš; Ze?evi?, Zeljko

2013-06-01

239

Epitheliomesenchymal Transdifferentiation of Cultured RPE Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells of the proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) membrane take on the shape of fibroblasts and participate in fibrosis, thus deviating from the character of epithelial cells. This study was undertaken to evaluate RPE cell transdifferentiation in vitro. During the culture of porcine RPE cells, primary and 10th-passaged RPE cells were investigated for cell growth in response to

Sung-Chul Lee; Oh-Woong Kwon; Gong-Je Seong; Soon-Hyun Kim; Jae-Eun Ahn; Eun-Duck P. Kay

2001-01-01

240

Controlled, Scalable Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are of significant interest as a renewable source of therapeutically useful cells. ES cell aggregation is important for both human and mouse embryoid body (EB) formation and the subse- quent generation of ES cell derivatives. Aggregation between EBs (agglomeration), however, inhibits cell growth and differentiation in stirred or high-cell-den- sity static cultures. We demonstrate that the

STEPHEN M. DANG; SHARON GERECHT-NIR; JINNY CHEN; JOSEPH ITSKOVITZ-ELDOR; PETER W. ZANDSTRAa

2004-01-01

241

Three-dimensional perfused cell culture.  

PubMed

Compelling evidence suggests the limitation and shortcomings of the current and well established cell culture method using multi-well plates, flasks and Petri dishes. These are particularly important when cell functions are sensitive to the local microenvironment, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. There is a clear need for advanced cell culture systems which mimic in vivo and more physiological conditions. This review summarises and analyses recent progress in three dimensional (3D) cell culture with perfusion as the next generation cell culture tools, while excluding engineered tissue culture where three dimensional scaffold has to be used for structural support and perfusion for overcoming mass transfer control. Apart from research activities in academic community, product development in industry is also included in this review. PMID:24184152

Li, Zhaohui; Cui, Zhanfeng

2014-01-01

242

Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

Nardone, Roland M.

1990-01-01

243

Cell culture from sponges: pluripotency and immortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponges are a source of compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. In this article, methods of sponge cell culture for production of these bioactive compounds are reviewed, and new approaches for overcoming the problem of metabolite supply are examined. The use of embryos is proposed as a new source of sponge material for cell culture. Stem cells are present in high

Caralt Bosch de S; María J. Uriz; René H. Wijffels

2007-01-01

244

Human perivascular stem cell-based bone graft substitute induces rat spinal fusion.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of its abundance and accessibility. We have previously defined a population of native MSCs termed perivascular stem cells (PSCs), purified from diverse human tissues, including adipose tissue. Human PSCs (hPSCs) are a bipartite cell population composed of pericytes (CD146+CD34-CD45-) and adventitial cells (CD146-CD34+CD45-), isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and with properties identical to those of culture identified MSCs. Our previous studies showed that hPSCs exhibit improved bone formation compared with a sample-matched unpurified population (termed stromal vascular fraction); however, it is not known whether hPSCs would be efficacious in a spinal fusion model. To investigate, we evaluated the osteogenic potential of freshly sorted hPSCs without culture expansion and differentiation in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. We compared increasing dosages of implanted hPSCs to assess for dose-dependent efficacy. All hPSC treatment groups induced successful spinal fusion, assessed by manual palpation and microcomputed tomography. Computerized biomechanical simulation (finite element analysis) further demonstrated bone fusion with hPSC treatment. Histological analyses showed robust endochondral ossification in hPSC-treated samples. Finally, we confirmed that implanted hPSCs indeed differentiated into osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the majority of the new bone formation was of host origin. These results suggest that implanted hPSCs positively regulate bone formation via direct and paracrine mechanisms. In summary, hPSCs are a readily available MSC population that effectively forms bone without requirements for culture or predifferentiation. Thus, hPSC-based products show promise for future efforts in clinical bone regeneration and repair. PMID:25154782

Chung, Choon G; James, Aaron W; Asatrian, Greg; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; Le, Khoi; Bayani, Georgina; Lee, Robert; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Péault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

2014-10-01

245

J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Optimizing stem cell culture  

E-print Network

cell culture is widely used in basic research for studying stem cell biology, but also owingJ Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Optimizing stem cell culture Boudewijn Van Der Sanden * Correspondence should be adressed to: Didier Wion Abstract Stem cells always

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting axonal growth and anti-autophagy  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes after transplantation in the spinal cord of rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are known to protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic effects, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and proliferated, then transplanted into rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury via retro-orbital injection. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with subsequent quantification revealed that the expression of the axonal regeneration marker, growth associated protein-43, and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein 2, significantly increased in rats with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, the expression of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B, and Beclin 1, was significantly reduced in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament-H increased but light chain 3B and Beclin 1 decreased in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Our results therefore suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes neurite growth and regeneration and prevents autophagy. These responses may likely be mechanisms underlying the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25374587

Yin, Fei; Meng, Chunyang; Lu, Rifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hao; Qin, Yonggang; Guo, Li

2014-01-01

247

A novel single pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and bone repair.  

PubMed

Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been successfully applied to accelerate fracture repair since 1979. Recent studies suggest that PEMF might be used as a nonoperative treatment for the early stages of osteonecrosis. However, PEMF treatment requires a minimum of ten hours per day for the duration of the treatment. In this study, we modified the protocol of the single-pulsed electromagnetic field (SPEMF) that only requires a 3-minute daily treatment. In the in vitro study, cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in the hBMSCs. In the in vivo study, new bone formation and revascularization were evaluated in the necrotic bone graft. Results from the in vitro study showed no significant cytotoxic effects on the hBMSCs after 5 days of SPEMF treatment (1 Tesla, 30 pulses per day). hBMSC proliferation was enhanced in the SPEMF-treated groups after 2 and 4 days of treatment. The osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs was significantly increased in the SPEMF-treated groups after 3-7 days of treatment. Mineralization also increased after 10, 15, 20, and 25 days of treatment in SPEMF-treated groups compared to the control group. The 7-day short-course treatment achieved similar effects on proliferation and osteogenesis as the 25-day treatment. Results from the in vivo study also demonstrated that both the 7-day and 25-day treatments of SPEMF increased callus formation around the necrotic bone and also increased new vessel formation and osteocyte numbers in the grafted necrotic bone at the 2nd and 4th weeks after surgery. In conclusion, the newly developed SPEMF accelerates osteogenic differentiation of cultured hBMSCs and enhances bone repair, neo-vascularization, and cell growth in necrotic bone in mice. The potential clinical advantage of the SPEMF is the short daily application and the shorter treatment course. We suggest that SPEMF may be used to treat fractures and the early stages of osteonecrosis. PMID:24632682

Fu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Chih-Chun; Chang, Je-Ken; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Ho, Mei-Ling

2014-01-01

248

A Novel Single Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulates Osteogenesis of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bone Repair  

PubMed Central

Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been successfully applied to accelerate fracture repair since 1979. Recent studies suggest that PEMF might be used as a nonoperative treatment for the early stages of osteonecrosis. However, PEMF treatment requires a minimum of ten hours per day for the duration of the treatment. In this study, we modified the protocol of the single-pulsed electromagnetic field (SPEMF) that only requires a 3-minute daily treatment. In the in vitro study, cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in the hBMSCs. In the in vivo study, new bone formation and revascularization were evaluated in the necrotic bone graft. Results from the in vitro study showed no significant cytotoxic effects on the hBMSCs after 5 days of SPEMF treatment (1 Tesla, 30 pulses per day). hBMSC proliferation was enhanced in the SPEMF-treated groups after 2 and 4 days of treatment. The osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs was significantly increased in the SPEMF-treated groups after 3–7 days of treatment. Mineralization also increased after 10, 15, 20, and 25 days of treatment in SPEMF-treated groups compared to the control group. The 7-day short-course treatment achieved similar effects on proliferation and osteogenesis as the 25-day treatment. Results from the in vivo study also demonstrated that both the 7-day and 25-day treatments of SPEMF increased callus formation around the necrotic bone and also increased new vessel formation and osteocyte numbers in the grafted necrotic bone at the 2nd and 4th weeks after surgery. In conclusion, the newly developed SPEMF accelerates osteogenic differentiation of cultured hBMSCs and enhances bone repair, neo-vascularization, and cell growth in necrotic bone in mice. The potential clinical advantage of the SPEMF is the short daily application and the shorter treatment course. We suggest that SPEMF may be used to treat fractures and the early stages of osteonecrosis. PMID:24632682

Chang, Je-Ken; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Ho, Mei-Ling

2014-01-01

249

Engineering tubular bone constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-sheet techniques have been proven effective in various soft tissue engineering applications. In this experiment, we investigated the feasibility of bone tissue engineering using a hybrid of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets and PLGA meshes. Porcine MSCs were cultured to a thin layer of cell sheets via osteogenic induction. Tube-like long bones were constructed by wrapping the cell sheet on

Fulin Chen; Yefang Zhou; Saey Tuan Barnabas; Maria Ann Woodruff; Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2007-01-01

250

[Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris].  

PubMed

Callus and suspension cultures of campion (Silene vulgaris) produced pectin polysaccharides, similar in structure to the polysaccharides of intact plants. The major components of the pectins were D-galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose residues. The maximum content of pectins was found in callus. The monosaccharide composition of arabinogalactans isolated from cells and a culture medium of callus cultures were similar, with the ratio between arabinose and galactose of 1: (2.3-6.5) being retained. The arabinogalactans from the cells and culture medium of the suspension cultures also had a similar structure, and the arabinose to galactose ratio was 1: (1.5-1.8). In contrast to the callus cultures, the suspension cultures produced arabinogalactans with an increased content of arabinose residues and a decreased content of galactose residues. The greatest content of arabinogalactan was detected in the culture medium of the suspension cultures. PMID:17345866

Giunter, E A; Ovodov, Iu S

2007-01-01

251

Fatal attraction: why breast cancer cells home to bone  

PubMed Central

Osteolytic metastases due to breast cancer are serious events. The interactions between breast cancer cells with the microenvironment of bone have been thought to provide an ideal milieu for cancer cells. Recent data now indicate that migration of breast cancer cells into bone and their subsequent growth into metastases depends upon the interaction of the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) with its receptor RANK. PMID:18226190

Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman; Singh, Shiv K

2008-01-01

252

Bone marrow stem cell transplant into intra-bone cavity prevents type 2 diabetes: Role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin  

E-print Network

Review Bone marrow stem cell transplant into intra-bone cavity prevents type 2 diabetes: Role progenitors in diabetic subjects are well known phenomena. We hypothesized that transplantation of bone marrow with induction of HO-1 (a cytoprotective antioxidant system) in the recipient, would further improve bone marrow

Abraham, Nader G.

253

Clonal analysis of bone marrow and macrophage cultures  

SciTech Connect

To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Stewart, C.C.; Walker, E.B.; Johnson, C.; Little, R.

1984-01-01

254

Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.

Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.

1984-01-01

255

Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

2005-01-01

256

BMEC-1: a human bone marrow microvascular endothelial cell line with primary cell characteristics.  

PubMed

Bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are a functional component of the bone marrow stroma and have been shown to release hematopoietic regulatory factors as well as to selectively adhere and support the proliferation and differentiation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. An early passage of these cells was immortalized by transfection with a vector (pSVT) encoding the large T antigen of SV40. The transformed cell line (CDC/CU.BMEC-1) expresses the SV40 transcript, retains the primary cell expression of Ulex europeaus and vWF/ FVIII, and incorporates acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, BMEC-1 mirrors the phenotype of the primary cells with only a few exceptions. Both cell populations express the cellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and PECAM and also VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 after upregulation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The fibronectin receptor, hyaluronate receptor, collagen receptor, integrins VLA-alpha 3, VLA-alpha 4, and beta 4, endoglin, collagen IV, CD58, and CD61 are also expressed. The only differences are that BMEC-1 expresses higher levels of ICAM-1, CD58, CD34, CD36, and c-kit than the primary cells. The supernatants of primary cell and BMEC-1 contain stem cell factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1 alpha, IL-11, and G-CSF. The functional significance of these hematopoietic cytokines was demonstrated in transwell cultures. Both cell populations supported the expansion of progeny from CD34+ cell-enriched cord blood mononuclear cells suspended in the upper chamber. These characteristics, plus the fact that BMEC-1 can be maintained independently of exogenous growth factors and exhibit contact inhibition, indicate that this cell line can be used to further define the role of BMEC in hematopoiesis. PMID:8954864

Candal, F J; Rafii, S; Parker, J T; Ades, E W; Ferris, B; Nachman, R L; Kellar, K L

1996-11-01

257

High abundance of CD271+ multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) in intramedullary cavities of long bones  

PubMed Central

Aspiration of iliac crest bone marrow (ICBM) remains the most frequent technique used in harvesting multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) for bone regeneration. Although this tissue type is easily accessed by a surgeon, it has a low frequency of MSCs, which is significant given the high cell numbers required for bone regeneration strategies. Lipoaspirates possess higher MSC frequencies, albeit cells with a differentiation profile less suited to orthopaedic interventions. Intra-medullary cavities of long bones have previously been shown to harbour MSCs in animals, however evaluation of their frequency, differentiation capacity and phenotype in humans had not previously been performed. Long bone fatty bone marrow (LBFBM) was collected prior to harvesting bone graft. Basic cellular compositions of donor-matched LBFBM and ICBM aspirates, including the numbers of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and CD31+ endothelial cells, were similar. MSCs were enumerated using colony-forming-unit-fibroblast assays and flow cytometry for the presence of a resident LBFBM CD45?/low CD271+ MSC population and revealed a trend for higher MSC numbers (average 5 fold, n = 6) per millilitre of LBFBM compared to donor-matched ICBM. Functional characteristics of resident MSCs, including their growth rates, differentiation potentials and surface phenotypes (CD73+CD105+CD90+) before and after culture-amplification, were similar. Enhanced numbers of MSCs could be recovered following brief enzymatic treatment of solid fragments of LBFBM. Our findings therefore reveal that the intramedullary cavity of the human femur is a depot of MSCs, which, although closely associated with fat, have a differentiation profile equivalent to ICBM. This anatomical site is frequently accessed by the orthopaedic/trauma surgeon and aspiration of the intramedullary cavity represents a ‘low-tech’ method of harvesting potentially large numbers of MSCs for regenerative therapies and research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions Between Bone, Adipose Tissue and Metabolism. PMID:21807134

Cox, George; Boxall, Sally A.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Buckley, Conor T.; Roshdy, Tarek; Churchman, Sarah M.; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena

2012-01-01

258

Glycosaminoglycans enhance osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Extracellular matrix plays an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The biomimetic approach of cell-based tissue engineering is based on mirroring this in vivo micro environment for developing a functional tissue engineered construct. In this study, we treated normal tissue culture plates with selected extracellular matrix components consisting of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-4-sulphate, dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, heparin and hyaluronic acid. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adult human bone marrow were cultured on the glycosaminoglycan treated culture plates to evaluate their regulatory role in cell growth and osteoblast differentiation. Although no significant improvement on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation was observed on the glycosaminoglycan-treated tissue culture plates, there was selective osteoblast differentiation, indicating its potential role in differentiation rather than proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation studies showed high osteogenic potential for all tested glycosaminoglycans except chondroitin-4-sulphate. Osteoblast differentiation-associated genes such as osterix, osteocalcin, integrin binding sialoprotein, osteonectin and collagen, type 1, alpha 1 showed significant upregulation. We identified osterix as the key transcription factor responsible for the enhanced bone matrix deposition observed on hyaluronic acid, heparin and chondroitin-6-sulphate. Hyaluronic acid provided the most favourable condition for osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Our results confirm and emphasise the significant role of extracellular matrix in regulating cell differentiation. To summarise, glycosaminoglycans of extracellular matrix played a significant role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and could be exploited in the biomimetic approach of fabricating or functionalizing scaffolds for stem cell based bone tissue engineering. PMID:22499338

Mathews, Smitha; Mathew, Suja Ann; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh; Totey, Satish

2014-02-01

259

Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

Rodionova, Natalia

260

The impact of simulated and real microgravity on bone cells and mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such as the random positioning machine (RPM), the 2D-clinostat, or the NASA-developed rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) to create tissue from bone, tumor, and mesenchymal stem cells. To understand the development of 3D structures, in vitro experiments using s-µg devices can provide valuable information about modulations in signal-transduction, cell adhesion, or extracellular matrix induced by altered gravity conditions. These systems also facilitate the analysis of the impact of growth factors, hormones, or drugs on these tissue-like constructs. Progress has been made in bone tissue engineering using the RWV, and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), formed in both r- and s-µg, have been reported and were analyzed in depth. Currently, these MCTS are available for drug testing and proteomic investigations. This review provides an overview of the influence of µg on the aforementioned cells and an outlook for future perspectives in tissue engineering. PMID:25110709

Ulbrich, Claudia; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Magnusson, Nils; Infanger, Manfred; Grosse, Jirka; Eilles, Christoph; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Grimm, Daniela

2014-01-01

261

The Impact of Simulated and Real Microgravity on Bone Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such as the random positioning machine (RPM), the 2D-clinostat, or the NASA-developed rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) to create tissue from bone, tumor, and mesenchymal stem cells. To understand the development of 3D structures, in vitro experiments using s-µg devices can provide valuable information about modulations in signal-transduction, cell adhesion, or extracellular matrix induced by altered gravity conditions. These systems also facilitate the analysis of the impact of growth factors, hormones, or drugs on these tissue-like constructs. Progress has been made in bone tissue engineering using the RWV, and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), formed in both r- and s-µg, have been reported and were analyzed in depth. Currently, these MCTS are available for drug testing and proteomic investigations. This review provides an overview of the influence of µg on the aforementioned cells and an outlook for future perspectives in tissue engineering. PMID:25110709

Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Magnusson, Nils; Infanger, Manfred; Grosse, Jirka; Eilles, Christoph

2014-01-01

262

Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

2003-09-01

263

Comparison of osteogenic ability of rat mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, periosteum, and adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in many types of tissue and are able to differentiate into various functional cells including osteoblasts. Recently, adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AMSCs) have been shown to differentiate into many lineages, and they are considered a source for tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenic differentiation capability of MSCs from bone marrow (BMSCs), MSCs from periosteum (PMSCs), and AMSCs using in vitro culture and in vivo implantation experiments. We harvested these MSCs from 7-week-old rats. The cells were seeded and cultured for 7 days in primary culture to assay a colony-forming unit. The frequency of the unit was the smallest in the BMSCs (P < 0.001). After primary culture, subculture was performed under osteogenic differentiation conditions for 1 and 2 weeks to detect mineralization as well as the bone-specific proteins of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as osteogenic markers. BMSCs and PMSCs showed distinct osteogenic differentiation capability in comparison with other MSCs (P < 0.001). For the in vivo assay, composites of these cells and hydroxyapatite ceramics were subcutaneously implanted into syngeneic rats and harvested after 6 weeks. Micro-computed tomographic (CT) and histological analyses demonstrated that new bone formation was detected in the composites using BMSCs and PMSCs, although it was hard to detect in other composites. The CT analyses also demonstrated that the bone volume of BMSC composites was more than that of AMSC composites (P < 0.001). These results indicate that BMSCs and PMSCs could be ideal candidates for utilization in practical bone tissue regeneration. PMID:18305886

Hayashi, Ousuke; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohgushi, Hajime; Ito, Hiromoto

2008-03-01

264

Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

2013-01-01

265

Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation.  

PubMed

Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann Emdogain, a clinical preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). MSCs were isolated and ex vivo-expanded from human bone marrow and periodontal ligament and, in culture, allowed to attach to Bone Ceramic in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Gene expression of bone-related proteins was investigated by real time RT-PCR for 72 h, and ectopic bone formation was assessed histologically in subcutaneous implants of Bone Ceramic containing MSCs with or without Emdogain in NOD/SCID mice. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed in vitro, in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Collagen-I mRNA was up-regulated in both MSC populations over the 72-h time course with Emdogain. Expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 showed early stimulation in both MSC types after 24 h. In contrast, expression of BMP-4 was consistently down-regulated in both MSC types with Emdogain. Up-regulation of osteopontin and periostin mRNA was restricted to BMSCs, while higher levels of bone sialoprotein-II were observed in PDLFs with Emdogain. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity levels were reduced in both BMSCs and PDLFs in the presence of Emdogain. Very little evidence was found for ectopic bone formation following subcutaneous implantation of MSCs with Emdogain-coated or -uncoated Bone Ceramic in NOD/SCID mice. The early up-regulation of several important bone-related genes suggests that Emdogain may have a significant stimulatory effect in the commitment of mesenchymal cells to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. While Emdogain inhibited AP activity and appeared not to induce ectopic bone formation, longer-term studies are required to determine whether it promotes the final stages of osteoblast formation and mineralization at gene and protein levels. While used in clinical applications, whether Emdogain and other commercial preparations of EMPs truly possess the capacity to induce the regeneration of bone or other components of the periodontium remains to be established. PMID:21584694

Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Gronthos, Stan; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

2012-06-01

266

Scaffold preferences of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose-derived stem cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice influence the tissue engineering of bone.  

PubMed

We have analysed the growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow, and of adipose derived stem cells (ASC) from murine abdominal fat tissue, of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic animals grown directly on two types of hydroxyapatite ceramic bone substitutes. BONITmatrix® and NanoBone® have specific mechanical and physiochemical properties such as porosity and an inner surface that influence cellular growth. Both MSC and ASC were separately seeded on 200mg of each biomaterial and cultured for 3 weeks under osteogenic differentiation conditions. The degree of mineralisation was assessed by alizarin red dye and the specific alkaline phosphatase activity of the differentiated cells. The morphology of the cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cells was confirmed by analysing the expression of bone-specific genes (Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin) by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Comparison of BONITmatrix® and NanoBone® showed cell type-specific preferences in terms of osteogenic differentiation. MSC-derived osteoblast-like cells spread optimally on the surface of NanoBone® but not BONITmatrix® granules. In contrast BONITmatrix® granules conditioned the growth of osteoblast-like cells derived from ASC. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cultured cells on all matrices was confirmed by specific gene expression. Our results show that the in vitro growth and osteogenic differentiation of murine MSC or ASC of GFP transgenic mice are distinctly influenced by the ceramic substratum. While NanoBone® granules support the proliferation and differentiation of murine MSC isolated from bone marrow, the growth of murine ASC is supported by BONITmatrix® granules. NanoBone® is therefore recommended for use as scaffold in tissue engineering that requires MSC, whereas ASC can be combined with BONITmatrix® for in vitro bone engineering. PMID:24685477

Wittenburg, Gretel; Flade, Viktoria; Garbe, Annette I; Lauer, Günter; Labudde, Dirk

2014-05-01

267

Dimethyloxaloylglycine Improves Angiogenic Activity of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in the Tissue-Engineered Bone  

PubMed Central

One of the big challenges in tissue engineering for treating large bone defects is to promote the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone. Hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) plays an important role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration, and can activate a broad array of angiogenic factors. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) can activate HIF-1? expression in cells at normal oxygen tension. In this study, we explored the effect of DMOG on the angiogenic activity of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the tissue-engineered bone. The effect of different concentrations of DMOG on HIF-1a expression in BMSCs was detected with western blotting, and the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in DMOG-treated BMSCs were respectively analyzed using qRT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The tissue-engineered bone constructed with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and DMOG-treated BMSCs were implanted into the critical-sized calvarial defects to test the effectiveness of DMOG in improving the angiogenic activity of BMSCs in the tissue-engineered bone. The results showed DMOG significantly enhanced the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1?. More newly formed blood vessels were observed in the group treated with ?-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs than in other groups. And there were also more bone regeneration in the group treated with ?-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs. Therefore, we believed DMOG could enhance the angiogenic activity of BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1?, thereby improve the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone and its bone healing capacity. PMID:25013382

Ding, Hao; Chen, Song; Song, Wen-Qi; Gao, You-Shui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Chang-Qing

2014-01-01

268

Characterization of Distinct Classes of Differential Gene Expression in Osteoblast Cultures from Non-Syndromic Craniosynostosis Bone  

PubMed Central

Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more skull sutures, occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 infants, with the majority of cases non-syndromic and of unknown etiology. Two common reasons proposed for premature suture fusion are abnormal compression forces on the skull and rare genetic abnormalities. Our goal was to evaluate whether different sub-classes of disease can be identified based on total gene expression profiles. RNA-Seq data were obtained from 31 human osteoblast cultures derived from bone biopsy samples collected between 2009 and 2011, representing 23 craniosynostosis fusions and 8 normal cranial bones or long bones. No differentiation between regions of the skull was detected, but variance component analysis of gene expression patterns nevertheless supports transcriptome-based classification of craniosynostosis. Cluster analysis showed 4 distinct groups of samples; 1 predominantly normal and 3 craniosynostosis subtypes. Similar constellations of sub-types were also observed upon re-analysis of a similar dataset of 199 calvarial osteoblast cultures. Annotation of gene function of differentially expressed transcripts strongly implicates physiological differences with respect to cell cycle and cell death, stromal cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and ribosomal activity. Based on these results, we propose non-syndromic craniosynostosis cases can be classified by differences in their gene expression patterns and that these may provide targets for future clinical intervention.

Rojas-Pena, Monica L.; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon; Arafat, Dalia; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.; Williams, Joseph; Gibson, Greg

2014-01-01

269

Glucosylation of taxifolin with cultured plant cells.  

PubMed

Cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana glucosylated taxifolin to its 3'- and 7-O-beta-D-glucosides and 3',7-O-beta-D-diglucoside. On the other hand, taxifolin was converted into 3'- and 7-O-beta-D-glucosides by cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus. PMID:23980419

Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Hamada, Manabu; Sugamoto, Masahiro; Ishihara, Kohji; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

2013-07-01

270

AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEDIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolites such as ammonia and lactic formed during mammalian cell culture can frequently be toxic to the cells themselves beyond a threshold concentration of the metabolites. ell culture conducted in the presence of such accumulated metabolites is therefore limited in productiv...

271

Marine Invertebrate Cell Cultures: New Millennium Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review analyzes activities in the field of marine invertebrate cell culture during the years 1999 to 2004 and compares the outcomes with those of the preceding decade (1988 to 1998). During the last 5 years, 90 reports of primary cell culture studies of marine organisms belonging to only 6 taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Urochordata) have been

Baruch Rinkevich

2005-01-01

272

Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin  

PubMed Central

Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385745

Ozcivici, Engin

2013-01-01

273

Studying cell-cell communication in co-culture  

PubMed Central

Heterotypic and homotypic cellular interactions are essential for biological function, and co-culture models are versatile tools for investigating these cellular interactions in vitro. Physiologically relevant co-culture models have been used to elucidate the effects of cell-cell physical contact and/or secreted factors, as well as the influence of substrate geometry and interaction scale on cell response. Identifying the relative contribution of each cell population to co-culture is often experimentally challenging for these cellular interactions studies. In this issue of Biotechnology Journal, Hamilton et al. [1] report on a hydrogel-based co-culture system, that enables paracrine interactions. A simple and elegant method for enzymatic separation of cell populations post co-culture is introduced, thereby enhancing the ease for post-culture analysis of the effects of co-culture on individual cell populations. PMID:23554248

Bogdanowicz, Danielle R.; Lu, Helen H.

2014-01-01

274

N-cadherin/wnt interaction controls bone marrow mesenchymal cell fate and bone mass during aging.  

PubMed

Age-related bone loss is characterized by reduced osteoblastogenesis and excessive bone marrow adipogenesis. The mechanisms governing bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (BMSC) differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts during aging are unknown. We show here that overexpressing N-cadherin (Cadh2) in osteoblasts increased BMSC adipocyte differentiation and reduced osteoblast differentiation in young transgenic (Tg) mice whereas this phenotype was fully reversed with aging. The reversed phenotype with age was associated with enhanced Wnt5a and Wnt10b expression in osteoblasts and a concomitant increase in BMSC osteogenic differentiation. Consistent with this mechanism, conditioned media from young wild type osteoblasts inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation in BMSC from old Cadh2 Tg mice, and this response was abolished by Wnt5a and Wnt10b silencing. Transplantation of BMSC from old Cadh2 Tg mice into young Tg recipients increased Wnt5a and Wnt10b expression and rescued BMSC osteogenic differentiation. In senescent osteopenic mice, blocking the CADH2-Wnt interaction using an antagonist peptide increased Wnt5a and Wnt10b expression, bone formation, and bone mass. The data indicate that Cadh2/Wnt interaction in osteoblasts regulates BMSC lineage determination, bone formation, and bone mass and suggest a therapeutic target for promoting bone formation in the aging skeleton. PMID:24664975

Ha˙, Eric; Dieudonné, François-Xavier; Saidak, Zuzana; Marty, Caroline; Brun, Julia; Da Nascimento, Sophie; Sonnet, Pascal; Marie, Pierre J

2014-11-01

275

High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient. PMID:23585968

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.

2013-01-01

276

Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Bone Forming Cells in Pleomorphic Adenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out in a case of pleomorphic adenoma with bone formation, occurring in the chin of a 34-year-old Japanese man. Examination results showed the modified neoplastic myoepithelial cells reacted positively to S-100 protein. The S-100-positive modified neoplastic myoepithelial cells were proliferated in the closely related area of the bone tissue. Furthermore, positive reaction was detected

Keisuke Nakano; Takehiro Watanabe; Takako Shimizu; Toshiyuki Kawakami

277

Treatment with at Homeopathic Complex Medication Modulates Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

A homeopathic complex medication (HCM), with immunomodulatory properties, is recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the medication induces an increase in leukocyte number. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of growth factors, stromal cells, an extracellular matrix and progenitor cells that differentiate into mature blood cells. Mice were our biological model used in this research. We now report in vivo immunophenotyping of total bone marrow cells and ex vivo effects of the medication on mononuclear cell differentiation at different times. Cells were examined by light microscopy and cytokine levels were measured in vitro. After in vivo treatment with HCM, a pool of cells from the new marrow microenvironment was analyzed by flow cytometry to detect any trend in cell alteration. The results showed decreases, mainly, in CD11b and TER-119 markers compared with controls. Mononuclear cells were used to analyze the effects of ex vivo HCM treatment and the number of cells showing ring nuclei, niche cells and activated macrophages increased in culture, even in the absence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cytokines favoring stromal cell survival and differentiation in culture were induced in vitro. Thus, we observe that HCM is immunomodulatory, either alone or in association with other products. PMID:19736221

Cesar, Beatriz; Abud, Ana Paula R.; de Oliveira, Carolina C.; Cardoso, Francolino; Bernardi, Raffaello Popa Di; Guimaraes, Fernando S. F.; Gabardo, Juarez; de Freitas Buchi, Dorly

2011-01-01

278

PATHOGENESIS OF H-1 VIRUS INFECTION OF EMBRYONIC HAMSTER BONE IN ORGAN CULTURE  

PubMed Central

H-1 virus infection of hamsters has been shown to produce runting, microcephaly, cranial lacunae, and deformed teeth in animals inoculated during the suckling period and to cause various abnormalities, including skeletal defects, in embryos infected transplacentally. To explore the pathogenesis of these effects of viral infection on bone, the response of embryonic hamster tibiae in organ culture to inoculation with the H-1 strain of picodna virus was studied. This system made possible the direct observation of the reaction of bone to virus in a regulated environment. During a period of 7–17 days after inoculation the following observations were made: (a) H-1 virus was found to infect and replicate in bone. (b) Infected bones became more translucent, slender, and elongated than control bones. (c) Bone growth as measured by increase in wet weight was reduced in infected tibiae. (d) Infected bones showed periosteal and perichondral degeneration and diminished deposits of subperiosteal bone. It was concluded that the skeletal abnormalities which develop in embryonic and suckling hamsters after H-1 virus inoculation are the direct result of viral replication in bone, and that indirect phenomena such as those associated with chronic infection need not be postulated to explain the deformities seen in these animals. PMID:5111440

Heggie, Alfred D.

1971-01-01

279

Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on bone formation and resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae: Role of prostaglandin E2 production  

SciTech Connect

Although most studies show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most potent and effective of the prostanoids in bone, recent data in cell culture suggest that PGF2 alpha may have unique effects, particularly on cell replication. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 in cultured neonatal mouse parietal bones by simultaneous measurement of bone resorption as release of previously incorporated 45Ca, bone formation as incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagen protein, and DNA synthesis as incorporation of (3H)thymidine. PGF2 alpha was less effective than PGE2 as a stimulator of bone resorption, and its effects were partially inhibited by indomethacin and markedly inhibited by glucocorticoids. In contrast, the resorptive response to PGE2 was unaffected by indomethacin and only partially inhibited by cortisol. PGF2 alpha had little effect on bone formation, in contrast to the biphasic effect of PGE2, which inhibited labeling of CDP in the absence of cortisol and stimulated CDP labeling in the presence of cortisol. PGF2 alpha increased thymidine incorporation into DNA, but the effect was smaller than that of PGE2 and was inhibited by indomethacin. These observations suggested that PGF2 alpha might act in part by stimulating PGE2 production. By RIA, PGE2 concentrations were increased in the medium of bones treated with PGF2 alpha, and this increase was blocked by indomethacin. By HPLC, bones prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid showed an increase in labeled PGE2 release, and RIA showed an increase in PGE2 after PGF2 alpha treatment. These results indicate that PGF2 alpha is a relatively weak agonist in bone compared to PGE2 and that some of the effects of PGF2 alpha on bone resorption, formation, and cell replication may be mediated by an increase in endogenous PGE2 production.

Raisz, L.G.; Alander, C.B.; Fall, P.M.; Simmons, H.A. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

1990-02-01

280

Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in bone marrow stromal cells and promotes interleukin-7-dependent B lymphopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Hematopoiesis occurs in a complex bone marrow microenvironment in which bone marrow stromal cells provide critical support to the process through direct cell contact and indirectly through the secretion of cytokines and growth factors. We report that connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, also known as Ccn2) is highly expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells. In contrast, connective tissue growth factor is barely detectable in unfractionated adult bone marrow cells. While connective tissue growth factor has been implicated in hematopoietic malignancies, and is known to play critical roles in skeletogenesis and regulation of bone marrow stromal cells, its role in hematopoiesis has not been described. Here we demonstrate that the absence of connective tissue growth factor in mice results in impaired hematopoiesis. Using a chimeric fetal liver transplantation model, we show that absence of connective tissue growth factor has an impact on B-cell development, in particular from pro-B to more mature stages, which is linked to a requirement for connective tissue growth factor in bone marrow stromal cells. Using in vitro culture systems, we demonstrate that connective tissue growth factor potentiates B-cell proliferation and promotes pro-B to pre-B differentiation in the presence of interleukin-7. This study provides a better understanding of the functions of connective tissue growth factor within the bone marrow, showing the dual regulatory role of the growth factor in skeletogenesis and in stage-specific B lymphopoiesis. PMID:24727816

Cheung, Laurence C.; Strickland, Deborah H.; Howlett, Meegan; Ford, Jette; Charles, Adrian K.; Lyons, Karen M.; Brigstock, David R.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Cole, Catherine H.; Alexander, Warren S.; Kees, Ursula R.

2014-01-01

281

Dendritic Cell-Mediated In Vivo Bone Resorption  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts are resident cells of the bone that are primarily involved in the physiological and pathological remodeling of this tissue. Mature osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells that are generated from the fusion of circulating precursors originating from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. During inflammatory bone conditions in vivo, de novo osteoclastogenesis is observed but it is currently unknown whether, besides increased osteoclast differentiation from undifferentiated precursors, other cell types can generate a multinucleated giant cell phenotype with bone resorbing activity. In this study, an animal model of calvaria-induced aseptic osteolysis was used to analyze possible bone resorption capabilities of dendritic cells (DCs). We determined by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy that injected GFP-labeled immature DCs were readily recruited to the site of osteolysis. Upon recruitment, the cathepsin K-positive DCs were observed in bone-resorbing pits. Additionally, chromosomal painting identified nuclei from female DCs, previously injected into a male recipient, among the nuclei of giant cells at sites of osteolysis. Finally, osteolysis was also observed upon recruitment of CD11c-GFP conventional DCs in Csf1r–/– mice, which exhibit a severe depletion of resident osteoclasts and tissue macrophages. Altogether, our analysis indicates that DCs may have an important role in bone resorption associated with various inflammatory diseases. PMID:20581147

Maitra, Radhashree; Follenzi, Antonia; Yaghoobian, Arash; Montagna, Cristina; Merlin, Simone; Cannizzo, Elvira S.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil; Stanley, E. Richard; Santambrogio, Laura

2013-01-01

282

Mammalian cell cultures for biologics manufacturing.  

PubMed

Biopharmaceuticals represent a growing sector of the pharmaceutical industry, and are used for a wide range of indications, including oncology and rheumatology. Cultured mammalian cells have become the predominant expression system for their production, partly due to their ability to complete the posttranslational modifications required for drug safety and efficacy. Over the past decade, the productivity of mammalian cell culture production processes has growth dramatically through improvements in both volumetric and specific productivities. This article presents an overview of the biologics market, including analysis of sales and approvals; as well as a review of industrial production cell lines and cell culture operations. PMID:24258145

Kantardjieff, Anne; Zhou, Weichang

2014-01-01

283

Autologous bone marrow cells and ischemic cardiomyopathy Jerome Roncalli1  

E-print Network

1 Autologous bone marrow cells and ischemic cardiomyopathy Jerome Roncalli1 , MD, PhD, Patricia: Intramyocardial stem cell injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: functional recovery and reverse of ischemic cardiomyopathy. A variety of adult stem and progenitor cells from different sources have already

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

1990-01-01

285

Accelerated Bone Mass Senescence After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis and avascular necrosis (AVN) are long-lasting and debilitating complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the magnitude of bone loss, AVN and impairment in osteogenic cell compartment following autologous (auto) and allogeneic (allo) HSCT, through the retrospective bone damage revaluation of 100 (50 auto- and 50 allo-HSCT) long-term survivors up to 15 years after transplant. Current treatment options for the management of these complications are also outlined. We found that auto- and allo-HSCT recipients show accelerated bone mineral loss and micro-architectural deterioration during the first years after transplant. Bone mass density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, but not at the femur neck, may improve in some patients after HSCT, suggesting more prolonged bone damage in cortical bone. Phalangeal BMD values remained low for even more years, suggesting persistent bone micro-architectural alterations after transplant. The incidence of AVN was higher in allo-HSCT recipients compared to auto-HSCT recipients. Steroid treatment length, but not its cumulative dose was associated with a higher incidence of bone loss. Allo-HSCT recipients affected by chronic graft versus host disease seem to be at greater risk of continuous bone loss and AVN development. Reduced BMD and higher incidence of AVN was partly related to a reduced regenerating capacity of the normal marrow osteogenic cell compartment. Our results suggest that all patients after auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT should be evaluated for their bone status and treated with anti-resorptive therapy as soon as abnormalities are detected. PMID:23905076

Serio, B; Pezzullo, L; Fontana, R; Annunziata, S; Rosamilio, R; Sessa, M; Giudice, V; Ferrara, I; Rocco, M; De Rosa, G; Ricci, P; Tauchmanovŕ, L; Montuori, N; Selleri, C.

2013-01-01

286

Oxygen Control in Static Cell Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen control in static cell cultures is one of the most critical parameters of a process, influencing the metabolism of\\u000a the cells and ultimately the final yield of the product. With the aim to improve the cultures of different types of cells,\\u000a both anchorage dependent and suspension, we have carried out several experiments evaluating the behaviour of some types of

Nadia De Bernardi; Edwin Schwander; Antonio Orlandi; Ilaria Tano; Sonia Castiglioni; Elena Muru; Fausto Gaspari; Marta Galgano; Claudia Mattei; Luigi Cavenaghi; Maria Nolli

287

Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

288

Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans. PMID:24921024

Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

2014-01-01

289

VEGF and BMP-2 promote bone regeneration by facilitating bone marrow stem cell homing and differentiation.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) have been widely used in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to stimulate angiogenesis and bone formation. The goal of this study was to determine whether VEGF and BMP-2 are involved in the homing of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for bone regeneration and to provide insights into their mechanism of action. The chemoattraction of BMSCs to VEGF and BMP-2 was analysed in vitro using a checkerboard assay. VEGF and BMP-2 stimulated the chemotaxis of BMSCs but not chemokinesis. In vivo, both VEGF and BMP-2 also have been confirmed to induce the homing of tail vein injected BMSCs to the site of silk scaffold subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. When the scaffolds were implanted in the rabbit skull defects, more SSEA+ mesenchymal stem cells were mobilised and homed to silk scaffolds containing VEGF and/or BMP-2. More importantly, autogenic BMSCs were reinjected via the ear vein after labelling with lenti-GFP, and the cells were detected to home to the defects and differentiate into endothelial cells and osteogenic cells induced by VEGF and BMP-2. Finally, perfusion with Microfil showed that initial angiogenesis was enhanced in tissue-engineered complexes containing VEGF. Observations based on µCT assay and histological study revealed that bone formation was accelerated on BMP-2-containing scaffolds. These findings support our hypothesis that the localised release of VEGF and BMP-2 promote bone regeneration, in part by facilitating the mobilisation of endogenous stem cells and directing the differentiation of these cells into endothelial and osteogenic lineages. PMID:24425156

Zhang, W; Zhu, C; Wu, Y; Ye, D; Wang, S; Zou, D; Zhang, X; Kaplan, D L; Jiang, X

2014-01-01

290

21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications...

2010-04-01

291

Effective combination of aligned nanocomposite nanofibers and human unrestricted somatic stem cells for bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Aim: Bioartificial bone tissue engineering is an increasingly popular technique to solve bone defect challenges. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between matrix composition and appropriate cell type, focusing on hydroxyapatite (HA), to achieve a more effective combination for bone regeneration. Methods: Human unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) were isolated from placental cord blood. The cellular and molecular events during the osteo-induction of USSCs were evaluated for 21 d under the following conditions: (1) in basal culture, (2) supplemented with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) suspension, and (3) seeded on electrospun aligned nanofibrous poly-?-caprolactone/poly-L-lactic acid/nHA (PCL/PLLA/nHA) scaffolds. The scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tensile test. Results: Maintenance of USSCs for 21 d in basal or osteogenic culture resulted in significant increase in osteoblast differentiation. With nHA suspension, even soluble osteo-inductive additives were ineffective, probably due to induced apoptosis of the cells. In contrast to the hindrance of proliferation by nHA suspension, the scaffolds improved cell growth. The scaffolds mimic the nanostructure of natural bone matrix with the combination of PLLA/PCL (organic phase) and HA (inorganic phase) offering a favorable surface topography, which was demonstrated to possess suitable properties for supporting USSCs. Quantitative measurement of osteogenic markers, enzymatic activity and mineralization indicated that the scaffolds did not disturb, but enhanced the osteogenic potential of USSCs. Moreover, the alignment of the fibers led to cell orientation during cell growth. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the synergism of PCL/PLLA/nHA nanofibrous scaffolds and USSCs in the augmentation of osteogenic differentiation. Thus, nHA grafted into PCL/PLLA scaffolds can be a suitable choice for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:21516135

Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Soleimani, Masoud; Ghaemi, Nasser; Shabani, Iman

2011-01-01

292

Possible involvement of tumor-producing VEGF-A in the recruitment of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow.  

PubMed

Lymphatic metastasis of human malignant adenocarcinomas is a critical determinant of prognosis. Lymphangiogenesis, the growth of lymphatic vessels, is closely involved in lymphatic metastasis. However, the mechanisms of tumor lymphangiogenesis are not clearly understood. In a previous study, we showed that human gastric cancer MKN45 cells organize neighboring lymphatic vessels via recruitment of bone marrow-derived lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells in a nude mouse xenograft model. The present results also indicated that human colorectal cancer LS174T and breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells promoted lymphangiogenesis as well as the recruitment of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow. Among growth factors, which are reported to be involved in lymphangiogenesis, only vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was extensively secreted by these three types of adenocarcinoma cells in culture. The well-characterized lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D in the culture medium of these three types of adenocarcinoma cells were below the detectable levels in ELISA assay. Secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was not detected. In in vitro culture assay, VEGF-A directly induced the differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells into LYVE-1-positive lymphatic endothelial lineage cells. These data collectively suggest the possibility that VEGF-A-rich human adenocarcinomas induce tumor lymphangiogenesis via recruitment of lymphangiogenic endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow. PMID:25242215

Tawada, Masahiro; Hayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Ikegame, Yuka; Nakashima, Shigeru; Yoshida, Kazuhiro

2014-12-01

293

Incidence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose as revealed by bone marrow culture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Techniques are described for the cultural isolation of trypanosomes from avian bone marrow obtained from living birds or at autopsy. A new medium SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood) is described. In addition to being a good medium for growing avian trypanosomes, it is excellent for growing trypanosomes of amphibians and mammals. 2. Evidence is presented demonstrating the superiority of (a) cultures over stained smears for detecting the presence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose, and (b) bone marrow over heart blood of this species as a source of trypanosomes for culture. 3. In April 1952, from cultures of bone marrow collected at autopsy it was demonstrated that trypanosome infection occurred in 33 (40.2%) of 82 Canada geese from the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. On February 17, 1953, cultures of bone marrow obtained from living birds revealed presence of trypanosomes in 12 (20.7%) of 58 geese from the same refuge. On February 26, 1953, by employing the latter method, 9 (20.4%) of 44 geese from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge were shown to harbor the parasites. In another survey ninety-two geese from seven national wildlife refuges subjected to the biopsy technique showed evidence of infection in 13 (14.1 %) birds and indicated that trypanosome infection is widely distributed in this host.

Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

1954-01-01

294

Bone marrow stroma from refractory anemia of myelodysplastic syndrome is defective in its ability to support normal CD34-positive cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the supportive function of stromal cells from patients with refractory anemia (RA) of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) on CD34-positive hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation using a long-term bone marrow culture (LTMC) system. Primary marrow stromal cells were obtained from 11 MDS RA patients and 12 healthy volunteers, and freshly prepared CD34-positive bone marrow cells from a normal subject were

Shin Aizawa; Masaru Nakano; Osamu Iwase; Makoto Yaguchi; Masaki Hiramoto; Hajime Hoshi; Ryusuke Nabeshima; Daisuke Shima; Hiroshi Handa; Keisuke Toyama

1999-01-01

295

In-vivo effects of interleukin 1. I. bone marrow cells are induced to cycle after administration of interleukin 1  

SciTech Connect

The authors previously reported that interleukin 1 (IL-1) administration 20 hr before irradiation protects mice from lethal effects of radiation. The recovery of total nucleated bone-marrow cells and of hematopoietic progenitor cells was enhanced in IL-1 treated, as compared to untreated, irradiated mice. This suggests that IL-1 administration may affect the cells in the bone marrow of normal mice. Intraperitoneal administration of recombinant IL-1 resulted in bone marrow cell enlargement and increased cycling of these enlarged cells. In addition, mice to proliferate in response to granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in cell suspension cultures was enhanced. The authors have also previously shown that IL-1 induces the appearance of high titers of CSF in the serum. Consequently, hematopoietic growth factors that are generated at local sites following IL-1 administration may mediate the observed cell cycling effect.

Neta, R.; Sztein, M.B.; Oppenheim, J.J.; Gillis, S.; Douches, S.D.

1987-09-15

296

Rotating Cell Culture Systems for Human Cell Culture: Human Trophoblast Cells as a Model  

PubMed Central

The field of human trophoblast research aids in understanding the complex environment established during placentation. Due to the nature of these studies, human in vivo experimentation is impossible. A combination of primary cultures, explant cultures and trophoblast cell lines1 support our understanding of invasion of the uterine wall2 and remodeling of uterine spiral arteries3,4 by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs), which is required for successful establishment of pregnancy. Despite the wealth of knowledge gleaned from such models, it is accepted that in vitro cell culture models using EVT-like cell lines display altered cellular properties when compared to their in vivo counterparts5,6. Cells cultured in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) display morphological, phenotypic, and functional properties of EVT-like cell lines that more closely mimic differentiating in utero EVTs, with increased expression of genes mediating invasion (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)) and trophoblast differentiation7,8,9. The Saint Georges Hospital Placental cell Line-4 (SGHPL-4) (kindly donated by Dr. Guy Whitley and Dr. Judith Cartwright) is an EVT-like cell line that was used for testing in the RCCS. The design of the RCCS culture vessel is based on the principle that organs and tissues function in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment. Due to the dynamic culture conditions in the vessel, including conditions of physiologically relevant shear, cells grown in three dimensions form aggregates based on natural cellular affinities and differentiate into organotypic tissue-like assemblies10,11,12 . The maintenance of a fluid orbit provides a low-shear, low-turbulence environment similar to conditions found in vivo. Sedimentation of the cultured cells is countered by adjusting the rotation speed of the RCCS to ensure a constant free-fall of cells. Gas exchange occurs through a permeable hydrophobic membrane located on the back of the bioreactor. Like their parental tissue in vivo, RCCS-grown cells are able to respond to chemical and molecular gradients in three dimensions (i.e. at their apical, basal, and lateral surfaces) because they are cultured on the surface of porous microcarrier beads. When grown as two-dimensional monolayers on impermeable surfaces like plastic, cells are deprived of this important communication at their basal surface. Consequently, the spatial constraints imposed by the environment profoundly affect how cells sense and decode signals from the surrounding microenvironment, thus implying an important role for the 3-D milieu13. We have used the RCCS to engineer biologically meaningful 3-D models of various human epithelial tissues7,14,15,16. Indeed, many previous reports have demonstrated that cells cultured in the RCCS can assume physiologically relevant phenotypes that have not been possible with other models10,17-21. In summary, culture in the RCCS represents an easy, reproducible, high-throughput platform that provides large numbers of differentiated cells that are amenable to a variety of experimental manipulations. In the following protocol, using EVTs as an example, we clearly describe the steps required to three-dimensionally culture adherent cells in the RCCS. PMID:22297395

Machado, Heather L.; Morris, Cindy A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin

2012-01-01

297

Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells for Bone Regereneration: State of the Art  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue represents a hot topic in regenerative medicine because of the tissue source abundance, the relatively easy retrieval, and the inherent biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells residing in its stroma. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are indeed multipotent somatic stem cells exhibiting growth kinetics and plasticity, proved to induce efficient tissue regeneration in several biomedical applications. A defined consensus for their isolation, classification, and characterization has been very recently achieved. In particular, bone tissue reconstruction and regeneration based on ASCs has emerged as a promising approach to restore structure and function of bone compromised by injury or disease. ASCs have been used in combination with osteoinductive biomaterial and/or osteogenic molecules, in either static or dynamic culture systems, to improve bone regeneration in several animal models. To date, few clinical trials on ASC-based bone reconstruction have been concluded and proved effective. The aim of this review is to dissect the state of the art on ASC use in bone regenerative applications in the attempt to provide a comprehensive coverage of the topics, from the basic laboratory to recent clinical applications. PMID:24307997

Cicione, Claudia; Bernardini, Camilla; Michetti, Fabrizio; Lattanzi, Wanda

2013-01-01

298

The Nell-1 Growth Factor Stimulates Bone Formation by Purified Human Perivascular Cells  

PubMed Central

The search for novel sources of stem cells other than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone regeneration and repair has been a critical endeavor. We previously established an effective protocol to homogeneously purify human pericytes from multiple fetal and adult tissues, including adipose, bone marrow, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, and identified pericytes as a primitive origin of human MSCs. In the present study, we further characterized the osteogenic potential of purified human pericytes combined with a novel osteoinductive growth factor, Nell-1. Purified pericytes grown on either standard culture ware or human cancellous bone chip (hCBC) scaffolds exhibited robust osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Using a nude mouse muscle pouch model, pericytes formed significant new bone in vivo as compared to scaffold alone (hCBC). Moreover, Nell-1 significantly increased pericyte osteogenic differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Nell-1 significantly induced pericyte proliferation and was observed to have pro-angiogenic effects, both in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that pericytes are a potential new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine, and that Nell-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce pericyte osteogenic differentiation. PMID:21615216

Zhang, Xinli; Péault, Bruno; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Weiming; Corselli, Mirko; James, Aaron W.; Lee, Min; Siu, Ronald K.; Shen, Pang; Zheng, Zhong; Shen, Jia; Kwak, Jinny; Zara, Janette N.; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Hong; Yin, Zack; Wu, Ben; Ting, Kang

2011-01-01

299

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

300

Mechanical unloading of bone in microgravity reduces mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Mechanical loading of mammalian tissues is a potent promoter of tissue growth and regeneration, whilst unloading in microgravity can cause reduced tissue regeneration, possibly through effects on stem cell tissue progenitors. To test the specific hypothesis that mechanical unloading alters differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell lineages, we studied cellular and molecular aspects of how bone marrow in the mouse proximal femur responds to unloading in microgravity. Trabecular and cortical endosteal bone surfaces in the femoral head underwent significant bone resorption in microgravity, enlarging the marrow cavity. Cells isolated from the femoral head marrow compartment showed significant down-regulation of gene expression markers for early mesenchymal and hematopoietic differentiation, including FUT1(-6.72), CSF2(-3.30), CD90(-3.33), PTPRC(-2.79), and GDF15(-2.45), but not stem cell markers, such as SOX2. At the cellular level, in situ histological analysis revealed decreased megakaryocyte numbers whilst erythrocytes were increased 2.33 fold. Furthermore, erythrocytes displayed elevated fucosylation and clustering adjacent to sinuses forming the marrow-blood barrier, possibly providing a mechanistic basis for explaining spaceflight anemia. Culture of isolated bone marrow cells immediately after microgravity exposure increased the marrow progenitor's potential for mesenchymal differentiation into in-vitro mineralized bone nodules, and hematopoietic differentiation into osteoclasts, suggesting an accumulation of undifferentiated progenitors during exposure to microgravity. These results support the idea that mechanical unloading of mammalian tissues in microgravity is a strong inhibitor of tissue growth and regeneration mechanisms, acting at the level of early mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. PMID:25011075

Blaber, E A; Dvorochkin, N; Torres, M L; Yousuf, R; Burns, B P; Globus, R K; Almeida, E A C

2014-09-01

301

Bioprocessing technology for plant cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering various forms of in vitro plant tissue cultures, cell suspension culture is most amenable to large-scale production\\u000a of natural compounds, owing primarily to its superior culture homogeneity. This fact has already been demonstrated in several\\u000a largescale applications, including the commercial shikonin process. The scope of this work is to review the state of the art\\u000a in bioprocessing technologies pertinent

Wei wen Su

1995-01-01

302

Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures  

PubMed Central

Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell contact interactions. In order to fully understand how cells behave in the 3-D body, it is important to develop a well-controlled 3-D cell culture system where every single ingredient is known. Here we report the development of a 3-D cell culture system using a designer peptide nanofiber scaffold with mouse adult neural stem cells. We attached several functional motifs, including cell adhesion, differentiation and bone marrow homing motifs, to a self-assembling peptide RADA16 (Ac-RADARADARADARADA-COHN2). These functionalized peptides undergo self-assembly into a nanofiber structure similar to Matrigel. During cell culture, the cells were fully embedded in the 3-D environment of the scaffold. Two of the peptide scaffolds containing bone marrow homing motifs significantly enhanced the neural cell survival without extra soluble growth and neurotrophic factors to the routine cell culture media. In these designer scaffolds, the cell populations with ?-Tubulin+, GFAP+ and Nestin+ markers are similar to those found in cell populations cultured on Matrigel. The gene expression profiling array experiments showed selective gene expression, possibly involved in neural stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Because the synthetic peptides are intrinsically pure and a number of desired function cellular motifs are easy to incorporate, these designer peptide nanofiber scaffolds provide a promising controlled 3-D culture system for diverse tissue cells, and are useful as well for general molecular and cell biology. PMID:17205123

Gelain, Fabrizio; Bottai, Daniele; Vescovi, Angleo; Zhang, Shuguang

2006-01-01

303

ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland); Aarnisalo, Piia, E-mail: piia.aarnisalo@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland) [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

2010-05-28

304

Culture and manipulation of embryonic cells.  

PubMed

The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

Edgar, Lois G; Goldstein, Bob

2012-01-01

305

Isolation of mitochondria from tissue culture cells.  

PubMed

The number of mitochondria per cell varies substantially from cell line to cell line. For example, human HeLa cells contain at least twice as many mitochondria as smaller mouse L cells. This protocol starts with a washed cell pellet of 1-2 mL derived from ?10(9) cells grown in culture. The cells are swollen in a hypotonic buffer and ruptured with a Dounce or Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer using a tight-fitting pestle, and mitochondria are isolated by differential centrifugation. PMID:25275104

Clayton, David A; Shadel, Gerald S

2014-01-01

306

Verbascoside production by plant cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbascoside was found to be produced in all calli derived from eleven species that contained the compound in their leaves. Cell suspension cultures were also established in three species, i.e., Leucosceptrum japonicum f. barbinerve, Syringa josikaea, and Sy. vulgaris, all of which were found to produce verbascoside at more than 1 g\\/l. Of the three species, suspension cultures of L.

Nobuyuki Inagaki; Hiroaki Nishimura; Minoru Okada; Hiroshi Mitsuhashi

1991-01-01

307

Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells  

E-print Network

Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Massachusetts General Hospital Fernando Camargo, PhD Assistant Professor of Stem Cell Regenerative Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Children's Hospital Boston Stem Cell Program #12

Chou, James

308

Development of an In Vitro Cell System from Zebrafish Suitable to Study Bone Cell Differentiation and Extracellular Matrix Mineralization  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mechanisms of bone formation and skeletal development have been successfully investigated in zebrafish using a variety of in vivo approaches, but in vitro studies have been hindered due to a lack of homologous cell lines capable of producing an extracellular matrix (ECM) suitable for mineral deposition. Here we describe the development and characterization of a new cell line termed ZFB1, derived from zebrafish calcified tissues. ZFB1 cells have an epithelium-like phenotype, grow at 28°C in a regular L-15 medium supplemented with 15% of fetal bovine serum, and are maintained and manipulated using standard methods (e.g., trypsinization, cryopreservation, and transfection). They can therefore be propagated and maintained easily in most cell culture facilities. ZFB1 cells show aneuploidy with 2n=78 chromosomes, indicative of cell transformation. Furthermore, because DNA can be efficiently delivered into their intracellular space by nucleofection, ZFB1 cells are suitable for gene targeting approaches and for assessing gene promoter activity. ZFB1 cells can also differentiate toward osteoblast or chondroblast lineages, as demonstrated by expression of osteoblast- and chondrocyte-specific markers, they exhibit an alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of bone formation in vivo, and they can mineralize their ECM. Therefore, they represent a valuable zebrafish-derived in vitro system for investigating bone cell differentiation and extracellular matrix mineralization. PMID:23909483

Vijayakumar, Parameswaran; Laizé, Vincent; Cardeira, Joăo; Trindade, Marlene

2013-01-01

309

Immune Cell Redistribution After Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity of a limb transplant lies in its anatomy. It is a graft of an organ, in analogy to the kidney or heart transplant,\\u000a but in addition, it is a graft of bone marrow (BM) whose cells (BMC) do not only proliferate and mature in the graft but also\\u000a migrate to the recipient bone marrow cavities and lymphoid organs

Waldemar L. Olszewski; Marek Durlik

310

Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review  

E-print Network

Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods ...

Ni, Ming

311

Cytokine production by bone marrow mononuclear cells in inherited bone marrow failure syndromes  

PubMed Central

Summary Fanconi anaemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are characterized by the progressive development of bone marrow failure. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, TNF) from activated bone marrow T-cells has been proposed as a mechanism of FA-related aplasia. Whether such overproduction occurs in the other syndromes is unknown. We conducted a comparative study on bone marrow mononuclear cells to examine the cellular subset composition and cytokine production. We found lower proportions of haematopoietic stem cells in FA, DC, and SDS, and a lower proportion of monocytes in FA, DC, and DBA compared with controls. The T- and B-lymphocyte proportions were similar to controls, except for low B-cells in DC. We did not observe overproduction of TNF-? or IFN-? by T-cells in any patients. Induction levels of TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6 (IL6), IL-1?, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in monocytes stimulated with high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were similar at 4 h but lower at 24 h when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, patient samples showed a trend toward higher cytokine level in response to low-dose (0.001 ?g/ml) LPS. Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. PMID:23889587

Matsui, Ken; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P.; Pinto, Ligia A.

2013-01-01

312

Combining erythropoeitin and bone marrow stromal cell therapy after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Erythropoietin (EPO) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve outcome after stroke. EPO may improve\\u000a outcome after stroke through its actions on blood progenitor cells, angiogenesis, or direct action in the CNS. BMSCs may improve\\u000a outcome after stroke by regeneration, altering plasticity of viable cells, or prevention of cell death. Sorting out these\\u000a potential modes

Laura J. Arias; Shaoyi Chen; Bingren Hu; Thomas J. Sick

2011-01-01

313

Bone marrow–derived stem cells initiate pancreatic regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that transplantation of adult bone marrow–derived cells expressing c-kit reduces hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced pancreatic damage. Although quantitative analysis of the pancreas revealed a low frequency of donor insulin-positive cells, these cells were not present at the onset of blood glucose reduction. Instead, the majority of transplanted cells were localized to ductal and islet structures, and their

David Hess; Li Li; Matthew Martin; Seiji Sakano; David Hill; Brenda Strutt; Sandra Thyssen; Douglas A Gray; Mickie Bhatia

2003-01-01

314

Ectopic bone regeneration by human bone marrow mononucleated cells, undifferentiated and osteogenically differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering approaches using the combination of porous ceramics and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) represent a promising bone substitute for repairing large bone defects. Nevertheless, optimal conditions for constructing tissue-engineered bone have yet to be determined. It remains unclear if transplantation of predifferentiated BMSCs is superior to undifferentiated BMSCs or freshly isolated bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMNCs) in terms of new bone formation in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in vitro osteogenic differentiation (?-glycerophosphate, dexamethasone, and l-ascorbic acid) of human BMSCs on the capability to form tissue-engineered bone in unloaded conditions after subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. After isolation from human bone marrow aspirates, BMNCs were divided into three parts: one part was seeded onto porous beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics immediately and transplanted in a heterotopic nude mice model; two parts were expanded in vitro to passage 2 before cell seeding and in vivo transplantation, either under osteogenic conditions or not. Animals were sacrificed for micro-CT and histological evaluation at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks postimplantation. The results showed that BMSCs differentiated into osteo-progenitor cells after induction, as evidenced by the altered cell morphology and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition, but their clonogenicity, proliferating rate, and seeding efficacy were not significantly affected by osteogenic differentiation, compared with undifferentiated cells. Extensive new bone formed in the pores of all the scaffolds seeded with predifferentiated BMSCs at 4 weeks after implantation, and maintained for 20 weeks. On the contrary, scaffolds containing undifferentiated BMSCs revealed limited bone formation only in 1 out of 6 cases at 8 weeks, and maintained for 4 weeks. For scaffolds with BMNCs, woven bone was observed sporadically only in one case at 8 weeks. Overall, this study suggests that ectopic osteogenesis of cell/scaffold composites is more dependent on the in vitro expansion condition, and osteo-differentiated BMSCs hold the highest potential concerning in vivo bone regeneration. PMID:22250840

Ye, Xinhai; Yin, Xiaofan; Yang, Dawei; Tan, Jian; Liu, Guangpeng

2012-07-01

315

Sustained Engraftment of Cryopreserved Human Bone Marrow CD34+ Cells in Young Adult NSG Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are defined by their ability to repopulate the bone marrow of myeloablative conditioned and/or (lethally) irradiated recipients. To study the repopulating potential of human HSCs, murine models have been developed that rely on the use of immunodeficient mice that allow engraftment of human cells. The NSG xenograft model has emerged as the current standard for this purpose allowing for engraftment and study of human T cells. Here, we describe adaptations to the original NSG xenograft model that can be readily implemented. These adaptations encompass use of adult mice instead of newborns and a short ex vivo culture. This protocol results in robust and reproducible high levels of lympho-myeloid engraftment. Immunization of recipient mice with relevant antigen resulted in specific antibody formation, showing that both T cells and B cells were functional. In addition, bone marrow cells from primary recipients exhibited repopulating ability following transplantation into secondary recipients. Similar results were obtained with cryopreserved human bone marrow samples, thus circumventing the need for fresh cells and allowing the use of patient derived bio-bank samples. Our findings have implications for use of this model in fundamental stem cell research, immunological studies in vivo and preclinical evaluations for HSC transplantation, expansion, and genetic modification. PMID:24940562

Wiekmeijer, Anna-Sophia; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Brugman, Martijn H.; Salvatori, Daniela C.F.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Bredius, Robbert G.M.; Fibbe, Willem E.

2014-01-01

316

Signal transduction pathways involved in mechanotransduction in bone cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several in vivo and in vitro studies with different loading regimens showed that mechanical stimuli have an influence on proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. Prerequisite for this influence is the transduction of mechanical signals into the cell, a phenomenon that is termed mechanotransduction, which is essential for the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis in adults. Mechanoreceptors, such as the integrins,

Astrid. Liedert; Daniela Kaspar; Robert Blakytny; Lutz Claes; Anita Ignatius

2006-01-01

317

Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhances osteogenic gene expression in de-differentiated fat cells.  

PubMed

In recent decades, de-differentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) have emerged in regenerative medicine because of their trans-differentiation capability and the fact that their characteristics are similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Even so, there is no evidence to support the osteogenic induction using DFAT cells in periodontal regeneration and also the co-culture system. Consequently, this study sought to evaluate the DFAT cells co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro in terms of gene expression by comparing runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR?2) genes. We isolated DFAT cells from mature adipocytes and compared proliferation with PDLSCs. After co-culture with PDLSCs, we analyzed transcriptional activity implying by DNA methylation in all adipogenic gene promoters using combined bisulfite restriction analysis. We compared gene expression in RUNX2 gene with the PPAR?2 gene using quantitative RT-PCR. After being sub-cultured, DFAT cells demonstrated morphology similar to fibroblast-like cells. At the same time, PDLSCs established all stem cell characteristics. Interestingly, the co-culture system attenuated proliferation while enhancing osteogenic gene expression in RUNX2 gene. Using the co-culture system, DFAT cells could trans-differentiate into osteogenic lineage enhancing, but conversely, their adipogenic characteristic diminished. Therefore, DFAT cells and the co-culture system might be a novel cell-based therapy for promoting osteogenic differentiation in periodontal regeneration. PMID:24573839

Tansriratanawong, Kallapat; Tamaki, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Soh

2014-10-01

318

Encapsulated dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an injectable and biodegradable scaffold for applications in bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Bone grafts are currently the major family of treatment options in modern reconstructive dentistry. As an alternative, stem cell-scaffold constructs seem to hold promise for bone tissue engineering. However, the feasibility of encapsulating dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells in scaffold biomaterials such as alginate hydrogel remains to be tested. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to: (1) develop an injectable scaffold based on oxidized alginate microbeads encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs); and (2) investigate the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells in the microbeads both in vitro and in vivo. Microbeads with diameters of 1?±?0.1 mm were fabricated with 2 × 10(6) stem cells/mL of alginate. Microbeads containing PDLSCs, GMSCs, and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a positive control were implanted subcutaneously and ectopic bone formation was analyzed by micro CT and histological analysis at 8-weeks postimplantation. The encapsulated stem cells remained viable after 4 weeks of culturing in osteo-differentiating induction medium. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the stem cells. In vivo, ectopic mineralization was observed inside and around the implanted microbeads containing the immobilized stem cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that immobilization of PDLSCs and GMSCs in alginate microbeads provides a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23983201

Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chen, Chider; Akiyama, Kentaro; Xu, Xingtian; Chee, Winston W L; Schricker, Scott R; Shi, Songtao

2013-11-01

319

Decisions to donate bone marrow: The role of attitudes and subjective norms across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a field investigation of the determinants of decisions to donate bone marrow. Predictions are made on the basis of a modification of the theory of reasoned action wherein attitudes are operational-ized in separate affective and evaluative components. Boundary conditions of the theory of reasoned action are further explored by examining the effects of culture

Richard P. Bagozzi; Kam-Hon Lee; M. Frances Van Loo

2001-01-01

320

Hematopoietic regulatory factors produced in long-term murine bone marrow cultures and the effect of in vitro irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The nature of hematopoietic regulatory factors elaborated by the adherent (stromal) cells of long-term murine bone marrow cultures and the effect of in vitro stromal irradiation (XRT) on the production of these factors was investigated. Using an in situ stromal assay it was possible to demonstrate stromal elaboration of at least two colony-stimulating activities, ie, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating activity (G/M-CSA) and megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity (Meg-CSA). Exposure of the stroma to XRT resulted in dose-dependent elevations of both activities that correlated inversely with total myeloid cell mass. Mixture experiments that combined control and irradiated stroma revealed that the hematopoietically active control stroma could block detection of XRT-related G/M-CSA elevations. Antiserum directed against purified L cell colony-stimulating factor (CSF) reduced granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in the target layer but did not effect the increased Meg-CSA. While a radioimmunoassay for L-cell type CSF was unable to detect significant differences in concentrated media from control and irradiated cultures, bioassays of these media revealed XRT-related G/M-CSA elevations. These results indicate that the G/M-CSA elaborated in these cultures is immunologically distinct from the Meg-CSA produced, and although distinct from L cell CSF, the G/M-CSA is crossreactive with the L cell CSF antiserum. Morphologic, histochemical, and factor VII antigen immunofluorescent studies were performed on the stromal cell population responsible for production of these stimulatory activities. In addition to ''fat'' cells, the stromal cells remaining after XRT were composed of two predominant cell populations. These included a major population of acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase-positive macrophage-like cells and a minor population of factor VII antigen negative epithelioid cells.

Gualtieri, R.J.; Shadduck, R.K.; Baker, D.G.; Quesenberry, P.J.

1984-08-01

321

Cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus.  

PubMed

Due to the obligatory intracellular lifestyle of viruses, cell culture systems for efficient viral propagation are crucial to obtain a detailed understanding of the virus-host cell interaction. For hepatitis C virus (HCV) the development of permissive and authentic culture models continues to be a challenging task. The first efforts to culture HCV had limited success and range back to before the virus was molecularly cloned in 1989. Since then several major breakthroughs have gradually overcome limitations in culturing the virus and sequentially permitted analysis of viral RNA replication, cell entry, and ultimately the complete replication cycle in cultured cells in 2005. Until today, basic and applied HCV research greatly benefit from these tremendous efforts which spurred multiple complementary cell-based model systems for distinct steps of the HCV replication cycle. When used in combination they now permit deep insights into the fascinating biology of HCV and its interplay with the host cell. In fact, drug development has been much facilitated and our understanding of the molecular determinants of HCV replication has grown in parallel to these advances. Building on this groundwork and further refining our cellular models to better mimic the architecture, polarization and differentiation of natural hepatocytes should reveal novel unique aspects of HCV replication. Ultimately, models to culture primary HCV isolates across all genotypes may teach us important new lessons about viral functional adaptations that have evolved in exchange with its human host and that may explain the variable natural course of hepatitis C. PMID:23463196

Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

322

Mechanisms of apoptosis induction by simultaneous inhibition of PI3K and FLT3-ITD in AML cells in the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antileukemia effects and molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by simultaneous blockade of PI3K and mutant FLT3 in AML cells grown under hypoxia in co-cultures with bone marrow stromal cells. Combined treatment with selective class I PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 and sorafenib reversed the protective effects of bone marrow stromal cells on FLT3-mutant AML cells in hypoxia, which was associated with downregulation of Pim-1 and Mcl-1 expression levels. These findings suggest that combined inhibition of PI3K and FLT3-ITD may constitute a targeted approach to eradicating chemoresistant AML cells sequestered in hypoxic bone marrow niches. PMID:23036488

Jin, Linhua; Tabe, Yoko; Lu, Hongbo; Borthakur, Gautam; Miida, Takashi; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

2013-01-01

323

Damaged epithelia regenerated by bone marrow–derived cells in the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that bone marrow cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Here we show that bone marrow cells can repopulate the epithelia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Epithelial cells of male donor origin were distributed in every part of the gastrointestinal tract of female bone marrow transplant recipients. Donor-derived epithelial cells substantially repopulated

Ryuichi Okamoto; Tomoharu Yajima; Motomi Yamazaki; Takanori Kanai; Makio Mukai; Shinichiro Okamoto; Yasuo Ikeda; Toshifumi Hibi; Johji Inazawa; Mamoru Watanabe

2002-01-01

324

Stimulation of host bone marrow stromal cells by sympathetic nerves promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in mice.  

PubMed

Bone and lung metastases are responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with breast cancer. Following treatment of the primary cancer, emotional and psychosocial factors within this population precipitate time to recurrence and death, however the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Using a mouse model of bone metastasis, we provide experimental evidence that activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is one of many pathophysiological consequences of severe stress and depression, promotes MDA-231 breast cancer cell colonization of bone via a neurohormonal effect on the host bone marrow stroma. We demonstrate that induction of RANKL expression in bone marrow osteoblasts, following ?2AR stimulation, increases the migration of metastatic MDA-231 cells in vitro, independently of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling. We also show that the stimulatory effect of endogenous (chronic stress) or pharmacologic sympathetic activation on breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo can be blocked with the ?-blocker propranolol, and by knockdown of RANK expression in MDA-231 cells. These findings indicate that RANKL promotes breast cancer cell metastasis to bone via its pro-migratory effect on breast cancer cells, independently of its effect on bone turnover. The emerging clinical implication, supported by recent epidemiological studies, is that ?AR-blockers and drugs interfering with RANKL signaling, such as Denosumab, could increase patient survival if used as adjuvant therapy to inhibit both the early colonization of bone by metastatic breast cancer cells and the initiation of the "vicious cycle" of bone destruction induced by these cells. PMID:22815651

Campbell, J Preston; Karolak, Matthew R; Ma, Yun; Perrien, Daniel S; Masood-Campbell, S Kathryn; Penner, Niki L; Munoz, Steve A; Zijlstra, Andries; Yang, Xiangli; Sterling, Julie A; Elefteriou, Florent

2012-07-01

325

Counting cell number in situ by quantification of dimethyl sulphide in culture headspace.  

PubMed

A novel, non-invasive technique is reported for determining the numbers of cells in a culture by quantifying dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the culture headspace as produced by the cellular enzymatic reduction of dissolved dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Measured DMS concentrations, as performed using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), in the headspace of 2D and 3D cultures of four cell lines, viz. HEK293 (kidney), MG63 (bone), hepG2 (liver) and CALU-1 (lung), linearly correlate with starting cell number. Clear differences in the rates of production of DMS by the four cell types in both the 2D and 3D situations are seen. This novel analytical technique for cell enumeration offers a significant contribution to quality assessment across cell-based research and industry, including analysis of large scale culture systems, and for routine cell biology research. PMID:25083513

Chippendale, Thomas W E; Span?l, Patrik; Smith, David; El Haj, Alicia J

2014-08-26

326

Parathyroid hormone-related protein is a gravisensor in lung and bone cell biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) has been shown to be essential for the development and homeostatic regulation of lung and bone. Since both lung and bone structure and function are affected by microgravity, we hypothesized that 0 × g down-regulates PTHrP signaling. To test this hypothesis, we suspended lung and bone cells in the simulated microgravity environment of a Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor, which simulates microgravity, for up to 72 hours. During the first 8 hours of exposure to simulated 0 × g, PTHrP expression fell precipitously, decreasing by 80-90%; during the subsequent 64 hours, PTHrP expression remained at this newly established level of expression. PTHrP production decreased from 12 pg/ml/hour to 1 pg/ml/hour in culture medium from microgravity-exposed cells. The cells were then recultured at unit gravity for 24hours, and PTHrP expression and production returned to normal levels. Based on these findings, we have obtained bones from rats flown in space for 2 weeks (Mission STS-58, SL-2). Analysis of PTHrP expression by femurs and tibias from these animals (n=5) revealed that PTHrP expression was 60% lower than in bones from control ground-based rats. Interestingly, there were no differences in PTHrP expression by parietal bone from space-exposed versus ground-based animals, indicating that the effect of weightlessness on PTHrP expression is due to the unweighting of weight-bearing bones. This finding is consistent with other studies of microgravity-induced osteoporosis. The loss of the PTHrP signaling mechanism may be corrected using chemical agents that up-regulate this pathway. In conclusion, PTHrP represents a stretch-sensitive paracrine signaling mechanism that may sense gravity.

Torday, J. S.

2003-10-01

327

Comparison of human bone marrow stromal cells seeded on calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate and demineralized bone matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare three resorbable biomaterials regarding seeding efficacy with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), cell penetration into the matrix, cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) were seeded with human BMSCs and kept in human serum and osteogenic supplements for 3 weeks. Morphologic and

P. Kasten; R. Luginbühl; M. van Griensven; T. Barkhausen; C. Krettek; M. Bohner; U. Bosch

2003-01-01

328

Potentiation of osteoclastogenesis by adipogenic conversion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the indispensable component of the bone marrow, being the common precursors for adipocytes and osteoblasts. We show here that adipogenic differentiation resulted in increase in the production of adipocyte markers, such as adiponectin,fatty-acid binding proteins (FABP4), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), as well as the receptor activator of nuclear-?B ligand (RANKL). Co-culture of osteoclast precursors (OCPs) with BMSCs-derived adipocytes significantly enhanced osteoclast differentiation with low-dose RANKL, whose levels alone could not promote osteoclastogenesis. These results demonstrate for the first time that adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs plays a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis. PMID:24759183

Mori, Keisuke; Suzuki, Keiji; Hozumi, Akira; Goto, Hisataka; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Osaki, Makoto

2014-01-01

329

Bone Marrow Stem Cell as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The chronic hyperglycemia damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Curative therapies mainly include diet, insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, these therapies fail to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range all the time. Although pancreas or islet-cell transplantation achieves better glucose control, a major obstacle is the shortage of donor organs. Recently, research has focused on stem cells which can be classified into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and tissue stem cells (TSCs) to generate functional ? cells. TSCs include the bone-marrow-, liver-, and pancreas-derived stem cells. In this review, we focus on treatment using bone marrow stem cells for type 1 and 2 DM. PMID:23671865

Li, Ming; Ikehara, Susumu

2013-01-01

330

Characteristics and response of mouse bone marrow derived novel low adherent mesenchymal stem cells acquired by quantification of extracellular matrix  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of present study was to identify characteristic and response of mouse bone marrow (BM) derived low-adherent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) obtained by quantification of extracellular matrix (ECM). MATERIALS AND METHODS Non-adherent cells acquired by ECM coated dishes were termed low-adherent BMMSCs and these cells were analyzed by in vitro and in vivo methods, including colony forming unit fibroblast (CFU-f), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), multi-potential differentiation, flow cytometry and transplantation into nude mouse to measure the bone formation ability of these low-adherent BMMSCs. Titanium (Ti) discs with machined and anodized surfaces were prepared. Adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs were cultured on the Ti discs for testing their proliferation. RESULTS The amount of CFU-f cells was significantly higher when non-adherent cells were cultured on ECM coated dishes, which was made by 7 days culturing of adherent BMMSCs. Low-adherent BMMSCs had proliferation and differentiation potential as adherent BMMSCs in vitro. The mean amount bone formation of adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs was also investigated in vivo. There was higher cell proliferation appearance in adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs seeded on anodized Ti discs than machined Ti discs by time. CONCLUSION Low-adherent BMMSCs acquired by ECM from non-adherent cell populations maintained potential characteristic similar to those of the adherent BMMSCs and therefore could be used effectively as adherent BMMSCs in clinic. PMID:25352957

Zheng, Ri-Cheng; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Lee, Joo-Hee; Park, Ji-Man

2014-01-01

331

Comparison of Chondrogenic Potential in Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the chondrogenic potential of adult equine mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (MSCs) or adipose tissue (ASCs). Study Design In vitro experimental study. Animals Adult Thoroughbred horses (n = 11). Methods BM (5 horses; mean [± SD] age, 4 ± 1.4 years) or adipose tissue (6 horses; mean age, 3.5 ± 1.1 years) samples were obtained. Cryopreserved MSCs and ASCs were used for pellet cultures in stromal medium (C) or induced into chondrogenesis ± transforming growth factor-3 (TGF?3) and bone morphogenic factor-6 (BMP-6). Pellets harvested after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days were examined for cross-sectional size and tissue composition (hematoxylin and eosin), glycosaminoglycan (GAG) staining (Alcian blue), collagen type II immunohistochemistry, and by transmission electron microscopy. Pellet GAG and total DNA content were measured using dimethylmethylene blue and Hoechst DNA assays. Results Collagen type II synthesis was predominantly observed in MSC pellets from Day 7 onward. Unlike ASC cultures, MSC pellets had hyaline-like matrix by Day 14. GAG deposition occurred earlier in MSC cultures compared with ASC cultures and growth factors enhanced both MSC GAG concentrations (P<.0001) and MSC pellet size (P<.004) after 2 weeks in culture. Conclusion Equine MSCs have superior chondrogenic potential compared with ASCs and the equine ASC growth factor response suggests possible differences compared with other species. Clinical Relevance Elucidation of equine ASC and MSC receptor profiles will enhance the use of these cells in regenerative cartilage repair. PMID:19121166

Vidal, Martin A.; Robinson, Sandra O.; Lopez, Mandi J.; Paulsen, Daniel B.; Borkhsenious, Olga; Johnson, Jill R.; Moore, Rustin M.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

2009-01-01

332

Automated adherent human cell culture (mesenchymal stem cells).  

PubMed

Human cell culture processes developed at research laboratory scale need to be translated to large-scale production processes to achieve commercial application to a large market. To allow this transition of scale with consistent process performance and control of costs, it will be necessary to reduce manual processing and increase automation. There are a number of commercially available platforms that will reduce manual process intervention and improve process control for different culture formats. However, in many human cell-based applications, there is currently a need to remain close to the development format, usually adherent culture on cell culture plastic or matrix-coated wells or flasks due to deterioration of cell quality in other environments, such as suspension. This chapter presents an example method for adherent automated human stem cell culture using a specific automated flask handling platform, the CompacT SelecT. PMID:22057466

Thomas, Robert; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

333

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases.  

PubMed

Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening. PMID:25253978

Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua

2014-09-21

334

Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

1981-05-01

335

Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

1981-05-01

336

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases  

PubMed Central

Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening. PMID:25253978

Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua

2014-01-01

337

Folinic acid attenuates methotrexate chemotherapy-induced damages on bone growth mechanisms and pools of bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy often induces bone growth defects in pediatric cancer patients; yet the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear and currently no preventative treatments are available. Using an acute chemotherapy model in young rats with the commonly used antimetabolite methotrexate (MTX), this study investigated damaging effects of five once-daily MTX injections and potential protective effects of supplementary treatment with antidote folinic acid (FA) on cellular activities in the tibial growth plate, metaphysis, and bone marrow. MTX suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of chondrocytes, and reduced collagen-II expression and growth plate thickness. It reduced production of primary spongiosa bone, volume of secondary spongiosa bone, and proliferation of metaphyseal osteoblasts, preosteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells, with the cellular activities being most severely damaged on day 9 and returning to or towards near normal levels by day 14. On the other hand, proliferation of marrow pericytes was increased early after MTX treatment and during repair. FA supplementation significantly suppressed chondrocyte apoptosis, preserved chondrocyte proliferation and expression of collagen-II, and attenuated damaging effects on production of calcified cartilage and primary bone. The supplementation also significantly reduced MTX effects on proliferation of metaphyseal osteoblastic cells and of bone marrow stromal cells, and enhanced pericyte proliferation. These observations suggest that FA supplementation effectively attenuates MTX damage on cellular activities in producing calcified cartilage and primary trabecular bone and on pools of osteoblastic cells and marrow stromal cells, and that it enhances proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells during bone/bone marrow recovery. PMID:17786974

Xian, Cory J; Cool, Johanna C; Scherer, Michaela A; Fan, Chiaming; Foster, Bruce K

2008-03-01

338

CCN3 and bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CCN3 expression was observed in a broad variety of tissues from the early stage of development. However, a kind of loss of\\u000a function in mice (CCN3 del VWC domain -\\/-) demonstrated mild abnormality, which indicates that CCN3 may not be critical for the normal embryogenesis\\u000a as a single gene. The importance of CCN3 in bone marrow environment becomes to be

Ken-ichi Katsube; Saki Ichikawa; Yuko Katsuki; Tasuku Kihara; Masanori Terai; Lester F. Lau; Yoshihiro Tamamura; Shin’ichi Takeda; Akihiro Umezawa; Kei Sakamoto; Akira Yamaguchi

2009-01-01

339

Bone Marrow Cells Differentiate in Cardiac Cell Lineages After Infarction Independently of Cell Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Recent studies in mice have challenged the ability of bone marrow,cells (BMCs) to differentiate into myocytes and coronary vessels. The claim has also been made,that BMCs acquire a cell phenotype,different from the blood

Jan Kajstura; Marcello Rota; Brian Whang; Stefano Cascapera; Toru Hosoda; Claudia Bearzi; Daria Nurzynska; Hideko Kasahara; Elias Zias; Massimiliano Bonafe; Bernardo Nadal-Ginard; Daniele Torella; Angelo Nascimbene; Federico Quaini; Konrad Urbanek; Annarosa Leri; Piero Anversa

2010-01-01

340

Mandible versus Long Bone Marrow Cells  

E-print Network

STRO-1 sorted rat dental pulp stem cells in vitro. Journalmesenchymal stem cells. Journal of dental research, 90(3),dental pulp tissue with self-renewal and multipotency for dentinogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis. Stem Cells,

Chaichanasakul, Thawinee

2012-01-01

341

Enhanced maintenance and retroviral transduction of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells using a novel three-dimensional culture system.  

PubMed

Current techniques for the in vitro maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells often lead to loss of pluripotency. Overcoming the technical difficulties that result in alterations in stem cells in vitro has important implications for areas of basic science and clinical medicine such as cell expansion, bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. Recent insights into hematopoietic stem cell biology have demonstrated that the three-dimensional architecture of the culture environment may influence the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency in vitro. An intriguing hypothesis is that the utilization of three-dimensional culture systems may improve the maintenance and manipulation of these cells in vitro. We report that a novel, three-dimensional, tantalum-coated porous biomaterial (TCPB) may be employed effectively as a hematopoietic progenitor cell culture device that offers distinct advantages over conventional culture systems. Specifically, we demonstrate that the use of TCPB for culturing hematopoietic progenitor cells in the absence of exogenous cytokines results in enhanced hematopoietic progenitor cell survival, improved maintenance of the immature CD34+/38- phenotype, and improved retroviral transduction of CD34+ cells and long-term culture initiating cells (LTCIC), without compromising multipotency, as compared with cultures in plastic dishes or bone marrow stroma. These findings suggest that this three-dimensional culture system may be useful in advancing the in vitro culture and transduction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. PMID:9349429

Rosenzweig, M; Pykett, M; Marks, D F; Johnson, R P

1997-09-01

342

Glycosylation of hesperetin by plant cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of hesperetin by cultured cells of Ipomoea batatas and Eucalyptus perriniana was investigated. Three glycosides, hesperetin 3?-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (33?g\\/g fr. wt of cells), hesperetin 3?,7-O-?-d-diglucopyranoside (217?g\\/g fr. wt of cells), and hesperetin 7-O-[6-O-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)]-?-d-glucopyranoside (?-gentiobioside, 22?g\\/g fr. wt of cells), together with three hitherto known glycosides, hesperetin 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (23?g\\/g fr. wt of cells), hesperetin 7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (57?g\\/g fr. wt of cells),

Kei Shimoda; Hatsuyuki Hamada; Hiroki Hamada

2008-01-01

343

In vitro comparison of feline bone marrow-derived and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic option for a variety of different diseases in human and veterinary medicine. At present, MSC are most often collected from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT) and enriched and expanded in vitro before being transferred into recipients. However, little is known regarding the culture characteristics of feline BM-derived

Tracy L Webb; Jessica M Quimby; Steven W Dow

2012-01-01

344

Fetal and Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells Require ?1 Integrin Function for Colonizing Fetal Liver, Spleen, and Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that ?1 integrin–deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult

Alexandre J Potocnik; Cord Brakebusch; Reinhard Fässler

2000-01-01

345

Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model  

PubMed Central

New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum) was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 ?g/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin). Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly in the group with autologous serum and after 12 weeks in every experimental group. This study clearly demonstrates the positive effects of autologous serum in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 on bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nano-HA bone grafting material in the sheep model. In further experiments, the results will be transferred to the sheep arteriovenous loop model in order to engineer an axially vascularized primary stable bone replacement in clinically relevant size for free transplantation.

Boos, Anja M; Weigand, Annika; Deschler, Gloria; Gerber, Thomas; Arkudas, Andreas; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

2014-01-01

346

Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells Improves Mechanical Hyperalgesia, Cold Allodynia and Nerve Function in Diabetic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief from painful diabetic neuropathy is an important clinical issue. We have previously shown that the transplantation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in rats. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) alleviates neuropathic pain in the early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after

Keiko Naruse; Jun Sato; Megumi Funakubo; Masaki Hata; Nobuhisa Nakamura; Yasuko Kobayashi; Hideki Kamiya; Taiga Shibata; Masaki Kondo; Tatsuhito Himeno; Tatsuaki Matsubara; Yutaka Oiso; Jiro Nakamura

2011-01-01

347

Comparison of human dental pulp and bone marrow stromal stem cells by cDNA microarray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the gene expression profiles of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs) as representative populations of odontoprogenitor and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Total RNA from primary cultures was reverse-transcribed to generate cDNA probes and then hybridized with the Research Genetics human gene microarray filter GF211. The microarrays were analyzed using the Pathways software

S. Shi; P. G. Robey; S. Gronthos

2001-01-01

348

THE GROWTH OF MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple in vitro technique is described for the growth of colonies from single cell suspensions of mouse bone marrow. The system involves the plating of marrow cells in agar on feeder layers of other cells, those from 8-day-old mouse kidney and 17th day mouse embryo being shown to be the most efficient types of feeder layers.Approximalely 400 colonies per

TR Bradley; D Metcalf

1966-01-01

349

Henrietta Lacks, HeLa cells, and cell culture contamination.  

PubMed

Henrietta Lacks died in 1951 of an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A tissue biopsy obtained for diagnostic evaluation yielded additional tissue for Dr George O. Gey's tissue culture laboratory at Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, Maryland). The cancer cells, now called HeLa cells, grew rapidly in cell culture and became the first human cell line. HeLa cells were used by researchers around the world. However, 20 years after Henrietta Lacks' death, mounting evidence suggested that HeLa cells contaminated and overgrew other cell lines. Cultures, supposedly of tissues such as breast cancer or mouse, proved to be HeLa cells. We describe the history behind the development of HeLa cells, including the first published description of Ms Lacks' autopsy, and the cell culture contamination that resulted. The debate over cell culture contamination began in the 1970s and was not harmonious. Ultimately, the problem was not resolved and it continues today. Finally, we discuss the philosophical implications of the immortal HeLa cell line. PMID:19722756

Lucey, Brendan P; Nelson-Rees, Walter A; Hutchins, Grover M

2009-09-01

350

Toward modeling the bone marrow niche using scaffold-based 3D culture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bone marrow, specialized microenvironments, called niches, regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and function through a complex crosstalk between different cell types. Although in vivo studies have been instrumental to elucidate some of the mechanisms by which niches exert their function, the establishment of an in vitro model that recapitulates the fundamental interactions of the niche components in

Nunzia Di Maggio; Elia Piccinini; Maike Jaworski; Andreas Trumpp; David J. Wendt; Ivan Martin

2011-01-01

351

Bone marrow stromal cell adhesion and morphology on micro- and sub-micropatterned titanium.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs) on bulk titanium (Ti) substrates with precisely-patterned surfaces consisting of groove-based gratings with groove widths ranging from 50 micro m down to 0.5 micro m (500 nm). Although it is well known that certain surface patterning enhances osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions, past studies on cell-pattern interactions reported in the literature have heavily relied on surface patterning on materials with limited clinical relevance for orthopedic applications, such as polymeric substrates. The clinical need for improving osseointegration and juxtaposed bone formation around load-bearing Ti implants motivated this in vitro study. BMSCs were selected as model cells due to their important role in bone regeneration. The results showed significantly greater BMSC adhesion density and more favorable cell morphology on sub-micropatterned gratings when compared with larger micropatterned gratings and non-patterned control surfaces after both 24 hr and 72 hr cultures. We observed increasing cellular alignment and elongation with decreasing feature size. We also identified two distinctive cellular morphologies: Type I-Attached and spread cells that elongated along the pattern axes; and Type II-Superficially adhered round cells. Sub-micropatterned gratings demonstrated significantly greater Type I cell density than the non-patterned control, and lower Type II cell density than the larger micropatterned gratings. Collectively, these results suggest potential for rationally designing nano-scale surface topography on Ti implants to improve osseointegration. PMID:24734518

Cipriano, Aaron F; De Howitt, Natalie; Gott, Shannon C; Miller, Christopher; Rao, Masaru P; Liu, Huinan

2014-04-01

352

Novel biomimetic tripolymer scaffolds consisting of chitosan, collagen type 1, and hyaluronic acid for bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells-based bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an ideal osteogenic cell source for bone tissue engineering (BTE). A scaffold, in the context of BTE, is the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides the unique microenvironment and play significant role in regulating cell behavior, differentiation, and development in an in vitro culture system. In this study, we have developed novel biomimetic tripolymer scaffolds for BTE using an ECM protein, collagen type 1; an ECM glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid; and a natural osteoconductive polymer, chitosan. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling ratio. The scaffolds were seeded with hMSCs and tested for cytocompatibility and osteogenic potential. The scaffolds supported cell adhesion, enhanced cell proliferation, promoted cell migration, showed good cell viability, and osteogenic potential. The cells were able to migrate out from the scaffolds in favorable conditions. SEM, alkaline phosphatase assay, and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the differentiation of hMSCs to osteogenic lineage in the scaffolds. In conclusion, we have successfully developed biomimetic scaffolds that supported the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs. These scaffolds hold great promise as a cell-delivery vehicle for regenerative therapies and as a support system for enhancing bone regeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1825-1834, 2014. PMID:24723571

Mathews, Smitha; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Totey, Satish

2014-11-01

353

Arsenic induces cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts through endoplasmic reticulum stress  

SciTech Connect

Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Therefore, decreased bone formation by osteoblasts may lead to the development of osteoporosis, and rate of apoptosis is responsible for the regulation of bone formation. Arsenic (As) exists ubiquitously in our environment and increases the risk of neurotoxicity, liver injury, peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the effect of As on apoptosis of osteoblasts is mostly unknown. Here, we found that As induced cell apoptosis in osteoblastic cell lines (including hFOB, MC3T3-E1 and MG-63) and mouse bone marrow stromal cells (M2-10B4). As also induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and dysfunction of mitochondria in osteoblasts. As also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic-calcium levels. We found that As increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced As-mediated cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. Therefore, our results suggest that As increased cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts and increased the risk of osteoporosis.

Tang, C.-H., E-mail: chtang@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Pharmacology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung Taiwan (China); Chiu, Y.-C. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Huang, C.-F. [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-W. [Department of Physiology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, P.-C. [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-01

354

Multiscale patterned transplantable stem cell patches for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Stem cell-based therapy has been proposed as an enabling alternative not only for the treatment of diseases but also for the regeneration of tissues beyond complex surgical treatments or tissue transplantation. In this study, we approached a conceptual platform that can integrate stem cells into a multiscale patterned substrate for bone regeneration. Inspired by human bone tissue, we developed hierarchically micro- and nanopatterned transplantable patches as synthetic extracellular matrices by employing capillary force lithography in combination with a surface micro-wrinkling method using a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The multiscale patterned PLGA patches were highly flexible and showed higher tissue adhesion to the underlying tissue than did the single nanopatterned patches. In response to the anisotropically multiscale patterned topography, the adhesion and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were sensitively controlled. Furthermore, the stem cell patch composed of hMSCs and transplantable PLGA substrate promoted bone regeneration in vivo when both the micro- and nanotopography of the substrate surfaces were synergistically combined. Thus, our study concludes that multiscale patterned transplantable stem cell patches may have a great potential for bone regeneration as well as for various regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25123924

Kim, Jangho; Bae, Won-Gyu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki Taek; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Suh, Khap-Yang; Jeon, Noo Li; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

2014-11-01

355

Nerve growth factor induces development of connective tissue-type mast cells in vitro from murine bone marrow cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on proliferation/differentiation of mast cells was investigated in vitro. Although NGF alone neither supported colony formation of bone marrow- derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC) nor induced development of mast cell colonies from nonadherent bone marrow cells (NBMC), addition of NGF to the suboptimal dose of interleukin 3 (IL-3) significantly increased the numbers of mast cell colonies produced by BMCMC or NBMC in methylcellulose. When stimulated by IL-3 alone, cells in mast cell colonies were not stained by berberine sulfate, a fluorescent dye. In contrast, mast cells developing in methylcellulose cultures obtaining both IL-3 and NGF were stained by berberine sulfate. The fluorescence was abolished by the treatment of heparinase but not of chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that mast cells stimulated by IL-3 and NGF produced and stored heparin proteoglycan. The histamine content of BMCMC maintained by IL-3 was also increased by addition of NGF. Since BMCMC showed mucosal mast cell-like phenotype, NGF appeared to induce the phenotypic change to connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). In the culture containing BMCMC, 3T3 fibroblasts, and IL-3, the phenotypic change of BMCMC to CTMC was observed as well. Since NGF was detected in this coculture and since addition of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody suppressed the phenotypic change, NGF produced by fibroblasts appeared to induce the phenotypic change. Neither BMCMC alone nor IL-3 alone increased the concentration of NGF. Therefore, there is a pos