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Sample records for bone density comparison

  1. Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone health. It compares your bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is ... Whether your osteoporosis treatment is working Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis ...

  2. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  3. Comparison of gross and histopathologic findings with quantitative computed tomographic bone density in the distal third metacarpal bone of racehorses.

    PubMed

    Drum, Martha G; Kawcak, Christopher E; Norrdin, Robert W; Park, Richard D; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Les, Clifford M

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of subchondral bone density determined by quantitative computed tomography (CT) with gross and histopathologic changes have not been made in horses. The goal of this study was to determine if mean quantitative CT density and mean voxel standard deviation are associated with the presence and severity of osteochondral lesions in the palmar aspect of the distal third metacarpal bone in racing horses. Metacarpophalangeal joints from nine racehorses were imaged using CT and scored for gross damage. Four-millimeter-thick sagittal and 30 degrees palmar dorsal plane sections were cut, decalcified and stained with hematoxylin and eosin from the distal third metacarpal bone. Microscopic osteochondral lesions and subchondral remodeling were scored on a scale of 0-3. Percent subchondral bone, expressed as the ratio of bone volume to tissue volume, was also measured. Mean quantitative CT density and mean voxel standard deviation were measured from three-dimensional models of CT images comparable with histologic sections. Mean quantitative CT density was not associated with lesion severity or number of lesions. A weak correlation between mean quantitative CT density and gross score was found, but mean quantitative CT density was not predictive for gross score. Mean voxel standard deviation was not correlated with gross or histopathologic measures, but was predictive of mild osteochondral lesions. Results support the association of subchondral remodeling with the development of palmar metacarpal lesions. However, there was not a strong correlation between mean quantitative CT density or mean voxel standard deviation and histopathologic lesions of the distal third metacarpal bone. PMID:18018722

  4. Genetics of Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...

  5. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mahesh Chand; Hemal, Alok; Satija, Mukul; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Bano, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC) and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high. PMID:26880923

  6. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  7. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  8. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  9. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several ways. The most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x- ...

  10. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  11. Local variations in bone mineral density: a comparison of OCT versus x-ray micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Stevens-Smith, Jenna; Scutt, Andrew; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2008-02-01

    We describe variations in the degree of mineralisation within the subchondral bone plate of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. A comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography, Micro CT, and SEM techniques was performed. These data are compared between sites on a healthy sample and at points on an osteoarthritically degenerated sample. No significant correlation was found between the optical scattering coefficient and the micro-CT derived BMD for comparisons between different sites on the bone surface. Also OCT demonstrated a larger regional variation in scattering coefficient than did micro CT for bone mineral density. This suggests that the optical scattering coefficient of bone is not related solely to the volume-density of calcium-phosphate. Patches of lower optical scattering coefficient were found in the bone structure that was related to the osteoarthritic lesion area on the overlying cartilage. Areas of microcracking, as revealed by both SEM and micro CT produced distinctive granularity in the OCT images. In further experiments, OCT was compared with micro CT and mechanical strength testing (3-point bending) in a small animal model of cardiovascular disease (cholesterol overload in mice). In the cardiovascular diseased mice, micro-CT of the trabecular bone did not demonstrate a significant change in trabecular bone mineral density before and after administration of the high cholesterol diet. However mechanical testing demonstrated a decrease in mechanical strength and OCT demonstrated a corresponding statistically significant decrease in optical scattering of the bone.

  12. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjanomennahary, P.; Ghalila, S. Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A.; Rachidi, M.; Benhamou, Cl.; Chappard, C.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (D{sub app}) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV{sub Arch}) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 {mu}m of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV{sub Arch}. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  13. Comparisons of bone mineral density and bone quality in adult rock climbers, resistance-trained men, and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2010-09-01

    The nature of muscular contractions and episodes of impact loading during technical rock climbing are often varied and complex, and the resulting effects on bone health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibia and forearm bone quality in male rock climbers (RC) (n = 15), resistance trained men (RT) (n = 16), and untrained male controls (CTR) (n = 16). Total body, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm aBMD and body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy, v. 10.50.086; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.). Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone content, bone area, and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the tibia and forearm were measured using pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Stratec XCT 3000, Pforzheim, Germany). No significant group differences were seen in bone-free lean body mass. CTR had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body fat % than RC and RT and significantly (p < 0.05) greater fat mass than RC. Lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in RT compared to both RC and CTR. RC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower aBMD at the 33% radius site than CTR. Forearm MCSA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CTR than in the other groups. No significant differences were seen between groups for vBMD or bone area of the tibia and forearm. In conclusion, resistance-trained men had higher bone density at the central skeletal sites than rock climbers; however, bone quality variables of the peripheral limbs were similar in rock climber and resistance-trained groups. PMID:20093970

  14. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  15. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  16. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. PMID:27203576

  17. Comparison of DXA and MRI methods for interpreting femoral neck bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Arokoski, Merja H; Arokoski, Jari P A; Vainio, Pauli; Niemitukia, Lea H; Kröger, Heikki; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the practical implementation of the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by converting the areal bone mineral density BMD (BMD(areal)) to volumetric BMD using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) because a failure to control for the femoral neck size can lead to erroneous interpretation of BMD values. We also evaluated the feasibility of MR T2* relaxation time in assessing bone mineral status of the femoral neck. Twenty-eight randomly selected 47- to 64-yr-old healthy men were studied. The men had neither unilateral nor bilateral hip osteoarthritis according to radiographs. Bone width, mineral content (BMC), BMD(areal), and apparent volumetric BMD (BMD(vol)) of the right femoral neck were measured with DXA. The BMD(vol) was calculated by approximating the femoral neck to be cylindrical with a circular cross-section (Vol(dxa)). Volumetric measurements from MR (Vol(mri)) images of the femoral neck were also used to create a BMD measure that was corrected for the femoral neck volume (BMD(mri)). T2* measurements were performed with a 1.5-T scanner (Siemens Magnetom 63SP, Erlangen, Germany). A single 10-mm-thick coronal slice was generated on the femur with a repetition time of 60 ms, and nine echo times (4-20 ms) were used to derive T2* values. Vol(mri) correlated positively (r = 0.828, p < 0.001) with Vol(dxa). However, the Vol(mri) of the femoral neck was 18% lower than the Vol(dxa). Similarly, the BMD(mri) was related to the BMD(vol) (r = 0.737, p < 0.001). Because of the difference in the volumetric measures, the BMD(mri) of the femoral neck was 21% higher than the BMD(vol) (p < 0.001). T2* relaxation time showed a significant negative correlation with BMC, BMD(areal), BMD(vol), and BMD(mri) (r = -0.423 to -0.757, p < 0.05-0.001). In conclusion, these results are evidence that DXA-derived volume approximations by the cylinder with circular cross-section geometry may lead to lower DXA-derived BMD(vol) values, as compared to true MRI

  18. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  19. Bone mineral density reference range in Estonia: a comparison with the standard database (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2009-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accepted as a standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. Several databases are available for T-score calculation worldwide. Our aim was to compare hip bone mineral density (BMD) in young Estonian adults with the mean BMD in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) femur database and to compare the performance of these 2 databases. A population sample of 304 subjects was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ DXA machine (GE Lunar Co., Madison, WI). Seventy-seven healthy young individuals were selected based on their age (25-39 yr). Their femur neck, trochanter, and total hip mean standardized BMD was compared with the corresponding data from the NHANES III database. Diagnostic agreement was assessed in a population sample of adults and in a clinical convenience sample from the densitometry unit. The BMD in the proximal femur in healthy young Estonian adults did not differ from the mean BMD in the NHANES subjects (p > 0.05). Differences in diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia are present if the Estonian reference database is used instead of the US standard database. Prospective studies with fracture data for assessing the predictive capability of these reference databases and the additional benefit of adding the FRAX (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK) tool to fracture prediction and osteoporosis diagnosis are needed in Estonia. PMID:19880053

  20. Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

  1. Comparison of calcium and phosphorus excretion with bone density changes during restraint in immature Macaca nemestrina primates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Hood, W. N.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus balance data on Macaca nemestrina monkeys during immobilization are presented and correlated with X-ray bone densitometry findings. A positive mineral balance was maintained during the immobilized period. A reduced bone density was observed in most skeletal sites examined with increased density observed in epiphyseal regions. Migration of mineral from one site to another is suggested as a possible explanation for the findings.

  2. Bone Density in Patients with Cervical Cancer or Endometrial Cancer in comparison with Healthy Control; According to the stages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yubin; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol; Eo, Wan Kyu; Lee, Eun Sil; Chun, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with cervical cancer and endometrial cancer without bone metastasis in comparison with that in healthy control postmenopausal women, and to assess the loss of BMD according to the cancer stage. Materials and methods: We analyzed the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 218 patients with cervical cancer, 85 patients with endometrial cancer, and 259 healthy controls. The serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), osteocalcin (OSC), and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urine deoxypyridinoline(DPL) were measured in all participants. Results: Age, body mass index, parity, and time since menopause were not significantly different between the three groups. Serum Ca level was higher in the cervical cancer group (p = 0.000), however, urine DPL was lower in endometrial cancer group (p = 0.000). The T-scores of basal BMD at the second and fourth lumbar vertebra (L2, L4) were significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer (p = 0.038, 0.000, respectively) compared to those in the healthy control groups. Additionally, the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia basal status of bone mass was significantly higher in patients with cervical cancer compared to that in controls (p = 0.016). No differences in basal BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were observed between patients with cervical cancer according to their stages. Conclusion: Our results suggest that postmenopausal women with cervical cancer have a lower BMD and are at increased risk of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine before receiving anticancer treatment compared with postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26185529

  3. Comparison of bone tissue trace-element concentrations and mineral density in osteoporotic femoral neck fractures and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mutlu, Mahmut; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Saçmaci, Şerife; Kartal, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the role of trace elements in osteoporosis by comparing the trace-element concentrations in bone and the radiographic bone density and bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with osteoporotic femur fractures and osteoarthritis. Patients and methods The study enrolled 30 patients operated on for proximal femoral fractures after falls, and another 30 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at the same center for hip osteoarthritis. Bone samples were obtained during the surgical procedures. The density of the bone samples was assessed using computed tomography and the Hounsfield scale. The levels of Ca(II), Mg(II), and other trace elements in the bone samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, BMD, Z-scores, and T-scores were measured in the unaffected hips of all patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Magnesium (1,908±507 versus 2,540±435, P<0.05), calcium (10.4±3.5 versus 13.9±3.7, P<0.05), and zinc (2,342±1,252 versus 3,145±1,604, P<0.05) μg g−1, levels were significantly lower in the bone samples in the fracture group. The groups did not differ in the other biochemical parameters. All dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry findings were significantly worse in the fracture group than in the osteoarthritis group. However, the groups did not differ in femoral neck density assessed radiologically using the Hounsfield scale. The following parameters were negatively correlated with age: magnesium, r=−0.436, P<0.001; calcium, r=−0.331, P=0.01; T-score, r=−0.381, P=0.003; Z-score, r=−0.267, P=0.043; and BMD, r=−0.365, P=0.004. Conclusion Ca(II), Mg(II), and Zn(II) appear to play important roles in bone breakdown/synthesis. Further studies of the roles of trace elements in the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis are warranted. We found decreased bone levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn in patients with osteoporotic fractures compared to

  4. Bone Density in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Christine Murray; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.1 Osteoporosis remains a major health problem worldwide, costing an estimated $13.8 billion in health care each year in the United States. Despite advances in treating osteoporosis in the elderly, no cure exists. Osteoporosis has its roots in childhood. Accrual of bone mass occurs throughout childhood and early adulthood, and peak bone mass is a key determinant of the lifetime risk of osteoporosis. Because the foundation for skeletal health is established so early in life, osteoporosis prevention begins by optimizing gains in bone mineral throughout childhood and adolescence.2,3 Osteoporosis evaluation and prevention is relevant to children with cerebral palsy (CP). CP is the most prevalent childhood condition associated with osteoporosis. Bone density is significantly decreased, and children with CP often sustain painful fractures with minimal trauma that impair their function and quality of life. Preventing or improving osteoporosis and maximizing bone accrual during critical stages of growth will minimize the future lifelong risks of fractures in children with CP. This article addresses the anatomy and structure of bone and bone metabolism, the clinical assessment of bone mass, the causes of osteoporosis and its evaluation and treatment in children with CP. PMID:19643349

  5. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  6. Bone Density Testing (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Bone density testing (Beyond the Basics) Author Michael Kleerekoper, MD ... last updated: Sep 22, 2015. WHAT DOES BONE DENSITY TESTING DO AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? — People ...

  7. Comparison of mechanical stress and change in bone mineral density between two types of femoral implant using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasuhide; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Ike, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-01

    Stress shielding after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains an unsolved issue. Various patterns of mechanical stress appear according to the type of femoral stem used. To compare differences in mechanical stress conditions between Zweymuller type and fit-and-fill type stems, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the femur were also compared. Maximum stress was confirmed in Gruen zone 4, whereas zone 1 had the minimum amount of stress with both types of implant. The Zweymuller stem group had less mechanical stress and lower BMD in zone 7 than the fit-and-fill stem group. In conclusion, differences in mechanical stress may be related to changes in BMD after THA. PMID:23683518

  8. [Hyperprolactinaemia and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Kostrzak, Anna; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common endocrinological disorder at women at the reproductive age. Prolactin is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.The main role of prolactin is associated with mamotrophic action and lactogenesis. Hyperprolactinaemia causes several symptoms such as menstrual disorders, infertility, decrease of sexual function, galactorrhea in women and gynecomasty, impotence and decrease of semen quality in men. Recent studies have presented prolactin as a homone involved in many metabolic processes. Long-term consequences of high prolactin serum concentration are related to higher risk of cardiovascular system disease, disturbances in lipid profile and immunological system. Hyperprolactiaemia causes decrease of bone mass density (BMD). High serum prolactin levels lead to increase of the risk of osteopenia or/and osteoporosis. Decrease of BMD results from hypoestrogenism induced by hyperprolactinaemia and also by the direct negative influence of prolactin on bone. Hyperprolactinaemia related to prolactinoma significantly (more than functional hyperprolactiaemia) increases the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures. Important group of patients threatened by osteoporosis and bone fracture is constituted by women which use antipsychotic drugs (which induce hyperprolactinaemia). Hyperprolactinaemia diagnosed in patients should be treated as soon as possible. Hyperprolactinaemic patients should be diagnosed in the direction of osteopenia and osteoporosis. When diagnosis is confirmed proper treatment is indicated. PMID:26319389

  9. Effect of odanacatib on bone turnover markers, bone density and geometry of the spine and hip of ovariectomized monkeys: a head-to-head comparison with alendronate.

    PubMed

    Williams, Donald S; McCracken, Paul J; Purcell, Mona; Pickarski, Maureen; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Szumiloski, John; Jayakar, Richa Y; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Krause, Stephen; Brown, Keenan; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Scott, Boyd B; Cook, Lynn; Motzel, Sherri L; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Cabal, Antonio; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; Duong, Le T

    2013-10-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective and reversible Cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor currently being developed as a once weekly treatment for osteoporosis. Here, effects of ODN compared to alendronate (ALN) on bone turnover, DXA-based areal bone mineral density (aBMD), QCT-based volumetric BMD (vBMD) and geometric parameters were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys. Treatment was initiated 10 days after ovariectomy and continued for 20 months. The study consisted of four groups: L-ODN (2 mg/kg, daily p.o.), H-ODN (8/4 mg/kg daily p.o.), ALN (15 μg/kg, twice weekly, s.c.), and VEH (vehicle, daily, p.o.). L-ODN and ALN doses were selected to approximate the clinical exposures of the ODN 50-mg and ALN 70-mg once-weekly, respectively. L-ODN and ALN effectively reduced bone resorption markers uNTx and sCTx compared to VEH. There was no additional efficacy with these markers achieved with H-ODN. Conversely, ODN displayed inversely dose-dependent reduction of bone formation markers, sP1NP and sBSAP, and L-ODN reduced formation to a lesser degree than ALN. At month 18 post-OVX, L-ODN showed robust increases in lumbar spine aBMD (11.4%, p<0.001), spine trabecular vBMD (13.7%, p<0.001), femoral neck (FN) integral (int) vBMD (9.0%, p<0.001) and sub-trochanteric proximal femur (SubTrPF) int vBMD, (6.4%, p<0.001) compared to baseline. L-ODN significantly increased FN cortical thickness (Ct.Th) and cortical bone mineral content (Ct.BMC) by 22.5% (p<0.001) and 21.8% (p<0.001), respectively, and SubTrPF Ct.Th and Ct.BMC by 10.9% (p<0.001) and 11.3% (p<0.001) respectively. Compared to ALN, L-ODN significantly increased FN Ct. BMC by 8.7% (p<0.05), and SubTrPF Ct.Th by 7.6% (p<0.05) and Ct.BMC by 6.2% (p<0.05). H-ODN showed no additional efficacy compared to L-ODN in OVX-monkeys in prevention mode. Taken together, the results from this study have demonstrated that administration of ODN at levels which approximate clinical exposure in OVX-monkeys had comparable efficacy to ALN in

  10. [Inflammatory bowel disease and bone decreased bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Wada, Yasuyo; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic bone diseases such as osteopenia and osteoporosis increase the risk of bone fracture that negatively affects quality of life of individuals. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), including ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn's disease(CD), have been shown to be at increased risk of decreased bone mineral density, however frequency of metabolic bone disease in IBD and identified risk factors are varied among reports. PMID:26503868

  11. Bone density and its importance in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Tina; Jain, Abhay Kumar; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Mehrotra, Praveen; Mehrotra, Rachita

    2013-01-01

    Background Researchers have generally focused on tissue reactions occurring within the periodontal ligament and bone to find possible explanation for various clinical phenomena, with less attention being paid to the inherent bone density. Recently, regional differences in jaw anatomy and bone structure including bone density have become important issue to explain some of the variation in clinical practice with respect to tooth movement, implant success rate, anchorage loss etc. Materials and methods The intent of this review is to discuss various methods and classification proposed to determine bone density in particular area and its importance in field of orthodontia. Various clinical studies and research done in relation to bone density were searched using PubMed. Results and conclusion This review endeavours to compile the research of bone density in maxilla and mandible. Many clinical studies have demonstrated relation between bone density and various clinical phenomena in dentistry. Knowledge of bone density in particular area of oral cavity may help the clinician to plan proper site for implant placement and various anchorage augmentation techniques in order to increase success rate of the treatment. PMID:25737892

  12. Quantitative assessment of interradicular bone density in the maxilla and mandible: implications in clinical orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone density at the interradicular area plays an important role during orthodontic treatment. In view of this fact, the study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the bone density at the interradicular areas of the alveolar and basal bones of maxilla and mandible by computed tomography. Methods One hundred and nine computed tomographic images were randomly selected, and bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) with bone mineral density software (Siemens VA20A_SP3A). The sample consisted of 78 males (mean age 29.5 years, range 20 to 40 years) and 31 females (mean age 27.6 years, range 20 to 40 years). Cortical and cancellous bone density was measured at the interradicular areas at the alveolar and basal bone levels of the maxilla and mandible, and the data was subjected to statistical analysis for comparisons. Results The highest cortical bone density was observed between the second premolar and first molar at the alveolar bone level and between the first and second molars at the basal bone level in the maxilla. Maxillary tuberosity showed the least bone density. The density of the cortical bone was greater in the mandible than in the maxilla and showed a progressive increase from the incisor to the retromolar area. The basal bone showed a higher density thanthe alveolar bone. Conclusion Different qualities of the bone were found in the anatomic regions studied, which confirms the importance of knowledge of site-specific bone tissue density to correlate with various clinical findings. PMID:24325883

  13. Physical Activity and Bone Density in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowley, Susan M.; Whalen, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of bone density regulation as a function of the daily tissue "effective" stress has been derived. Using the model, the influence of daily activity in the form of a daily loading history has been related to bone density of the calcaneus. The theory incorporates a stress exponent m to account for differences in the importance of magnitude and number of load cycles experienced during daily activity. We have derived a parameter from the model, the "Bone Density Index" (BDI). We have developed a method of collecting daily habitual loading histories using an insole force sensor interfaced to a portable digital data logger carried in a fanny pack. Our goal for this study was to determine a stress exponent, m, relating GRFz history to Calcaneal Bone Mineral Density (CBMD).

  14. Bone-density changes after stroke.

    PubMed

    Beaupre, Gary S; Lew, Henry L

    2006-05-01

    It has been many years since bone loss and fracture risk were first recognized as serious complications of stroke. Hip fracture is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality for stroke survivors, and therefore, assessing and maintaining skeletal health after stroke should be an important clinical goal. Recent long-term, prospective studies have illustrated a highly nonuniform pattern of bone changes after stroke. In general, there is significant bone loss on the paretic side, which is greatest in those patients with the most severe functional deficits. In some patients, bone loss in the paretic arm during the first year after stroke is the equivalent of >20 yrs of bone loss in healthy individuals of comparable age. Bone density in the nonparetic upper limb can actually increase after stroke, consistent with an increase in habitual use of the nonparetic hand. Bone density in the paretic lower limb can decrease by >10% in <1 yr, with smaller decreases being typical for the nonparetic lower limb. Despite the recent increase in the number of prospective, longitudinal studies, important questions about bone changes after stroke remain unanswered. Longer-term studies quantifying bone loss for periods of >12 mos poststroke are needed to determine how long excess bone loss continues after stroke. Studies with more subjects and with more varied disability levels are needed to better understand the relationships between functional deficits and bone loss. New metrics are needed to quantify the intensity and duration of physical activity in the upper and lower limbs that are consistent with previous research on the role of mechanical stimuli in bone adaptation. Finally, an assessment of skeletal health and the factors that affect bone quantity and quality should be a standard component in the clinical management of all survivors of stroke. PMID:16628156

  15. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  16. Restoring Bone Density in Women with Ovarian Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Ovarian Disorder Hormone replacement therapy restored bone mineral density to normal in young women with primary ... no menstrual cycles. They also have reduced bone mineral density, which can lead to osteoporosis and bone ...

  17. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  18. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  19. Is miniscrew primary stability influenced by bone density?

    PubMed

    Marquezan, Mariana; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Primary stability is absence of mobility in the bone bed after mini-implant placement and depends on bone quality among other factors. Bone quality is a subjective term frequently considered as bone density. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate bone density in two bovine pelvic regions and verify the primary stability of miniscrews inserted into them. Forty bone blocks were extracted from bovine pelvic bones, 20 from iliac and 20 from pubic bone, all of them containing cortical bone about 1 mm thick. Half of the sections extracted from each bone were designated for histological evaluation of bone density (trabecular bone area - TBA) and the other half for bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation by means of central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Then, twenty self-drilling miniscrews (INP®, São Paulo, Brazil) 1.4 mm in diameter and 6 mm long were inserted into the bone blocks used for BMD evaluation. Peak implant insertion torque (IT) and pull-out strength (PS) were used for primary stability evaluation. It was found that iliac and pubic bones present different bone densities, iliac bone being less dense considering BMD and TBA values (P > 0.05). However, the miniscrew primary stability was not different when varying the bone type (P < 0.05). IT and PS were not influenced by these differences in bone density when cortical thickness was about 1 mm thick. PMID:22031056

  20. Construction and simplification of bone density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Taylor, Russell H.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical tetrahedral mesh model to represent the bone density atlas. We propose and implement an efficient and automatic method to construct hierarchical tetrahedral meshes from CT data sets of bony anatomy. The tetrahedral mesh is built based on contour tiling between CT slices. The mesh is then smoothed using an enhanced Laplacian algorithm. And we approximate bone density variations by means of continuous density functions written as smooth Bernstein polynomial spline expressed in terms of barycentric coordinates associated with each tetrahedron. We further perform the tetrahedral mesh simplification by collapsing the tetrahedra and build hierarchical structure with multiple resolutions. Both the shape and density error bound are preserved during the simplification. Furthermore a deformable prior model is computed from a collection of training models. Point Distribution Model is used to compute the variability of the prior model. Both the shape information and the density statistics are parameterized in the prior model. Our model demonstrates good accuracy, high storage efficiency and processing efficiency. We also compute the Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs from our model and use them to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of our model. Our method has been tested on femur and pelvis data sets. This research is part of our effort of building density atlases for bony anatomies and applying them in deformable density based registrations.

  1. DXA parameters: beyond bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) to diagnose osteoporosis. However, BMD measurement alone does not reliably predict the fracture risk. DXA can be used to assess other parameters (e.g. presence of vertebral fractures, bone microarchitecture, bone geometry, and body composition) simultaneously with BMD measurements, to help identify individuals at high fracture risk. Among these parameters, some are suitable for use in clinical practice, whereas others are reserved for research. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a very low radiation-dose method for detecting thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures. Compared to standard radiography, VFA can be used in a broader population to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures. The very good negative predictive value of VFA leads, in one-third of cases, to changes in patient management (drug treatment and prescription of radiographs). The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a noninvasively measured texture parameter that correlates with 3D bone microarchitecture parameters independently from BMD and that can be determined from lumbar-spine DXA images. Several cross-sectional studies and a prospective study established that the TBS was effective in identifying individuals with fractures. Additional studies will have to be performed to determine whether TBS determination can be recommended for everyday practice when treatment decisions are difficult. PMID:23622733

  2. Comparison of Correlates of Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Adhering to Lacto-Ovo, Vegan, or Omnivore Diets: A Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knurick, Jessica R.; Johnston, Carol S.; Wherry, Sarah J.; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  3. Comparison of correlates of bone mineral density in individuals adhering to lacto-ovo, vegan, or omnivore diets: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Knurick, Jessica R; Johnston, Carol S; Wherry, Sarah J; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-05-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  4. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...

  5. Biomechanical comparison between CentraLoc and Intrafix fixation of quadrupled semitendinosus-gracilis allografts in cadaveric tibiae with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Krupp, R; Nyland, J; Smith, C; Nawab, A; Burden, R; Caborn, D N M

    2007-08-01

    Supplementary or back-up tibial tunnel fixation of a quadruple semitendinosus-gracilis (STG) graft is often performed when the knee surgeon questions the integrity of intra-tunnel fixation. Back-up fixation devices such as staples however may contribute to increased knee pain and dysfunction. Both primary extra-tunnel and intra-tunnel fixation devices may provide sufficient quadruple STG graft fixation in a tibial tunnel to preclude the need for back-up fixation. This biomechanical study compared the fixation of quadruple STG allografts in standard drilled tunnels prepared in low apparent bone mineral density (BMD) cadaveric tibiae using either an Intrafix device with primary intra-tunnel fixation in a region of predominantly cancellous trabecular bone, or a CentraLoc device with primary extra-tunnel fixation in a region of predominantly cortical bone. The study hypothesis was that the CentraLoc device would display superior fixation in these low apparent BMD cadaveric tibiae. Matched pair tibiae and quadruple STG allografts were divided into two groups of seven specimens each. Extraction drilled tunnels matched allograft diameter. Constructs were pretensioned on a servo hydraulic device between 10 and 50 N for 10 cycles and isometric pretensioned at 50 N for 1 min prior to undergoing 500 loading cycles (50-250 N) and load to failure testing (20 mm/min). The CentraLoc group displayed superior load at failure (448.4+/-171 N vs. 338.4+/-119 N, P=0.04) and survived more loading cycles (410+/-154 cycles vs. 196+/-230 cycles, P=0.04) than the Intrafix group. Most CentraLoc group specimens (6/7, 85.7%) failed by device pullout with intact quadruple STG allograft strands while all Intrafix group specimens (7/7, 100%) failed by slippage of one or more strands (P=0.005). PMID:17490882

  6. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH- which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  7. Volumetric measurements of bone mineral density of the lumbar spine: comparison of three geometrical approximations using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    PubMed

    Schreuder, M F; van Driel, A P; van Lingen, A; Roos, J C; de Ridder, C M; Manoliu, R A; David, E F; Netelenbos, J C

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) gives area values (g cm-2) rather than true volumetric values (g cm-3). To calculate the vertebral volume using planar postero-anterior and lateral DXA values, several different geometrical approximations were used: cubic, cylindrical with a circular cross-section and cylindrical with an elliptical cross-section. The aim of this study was to compare these geometrical approximations with each other and with a reference standard, defined as the volume found on a computed tomographic (CT) scan. L2 and L3 were evaluated in a phantom study. Volume approximations by the cube or cylinder with circular cross-section geometry showed more than a 50% overestimation (range 54-74%). However, the elliptical cylinder approach showed very good agreement: 2.1% and 1.2% for L2 and L3, respectively, when compared to the CT volumes. In addition, we performed four patient studies with both CT and DXA to evaluate the elliptical cylinder estimate in a clinical setting. For L2 and L3, the mean relative difference was less than 2%. We conclude that the elliptical cylinder approach results in the most accurate bone volume estimates in both the phantom and patients. PMID:9751926

  8. Space: The Final Frontier of Bone Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    It is a medical requirement at NASA to evaluate the skeletal integrity of "long-duration" astronauts by measuring bone mineral density [BMD] with DXA technology. A long-duration mission is a spaceflight that is greater than 30 days but is typically the continuous 120-180 day missions aboard the International Space Station [ISS]. Not only does NASA use the BMD index to monitor fracture risk in this astronaut population, but these measures are also used to describe the effects of spaceflight, to certify skeletal health readiness for flight, to monitor the recovery of lost bone mass after return to earth, and to evaluate the efficacy of countermeasures to bone loss. However, despite the fact that DXA-based BMD is a widely-applied surrogate for bone strength that is grounded in an abundance of population-based fracture data, its applicability to the long-duration astronaut is limited. The cohort of long-duration astronauts is not the typical group for evaluating osteoporosis or determining age-related fracture risk. The cohort is young (< 55 years), predominantly male and exposed to novel risk factors for bone loss besides the weightlessness of space. NASA is concerned about early onset osteoporosis in the astronaut exposed to long-duration spaceflight, especially since any detectable symptoms are likely to manifest after return to earth and perhaps years after space travel. This risk raises the question: is NASA doing enough now to mitigate a fracture event that may manifest later? This presentation will discuss the limitations and constraints to understanding skeletal changes due to prolonged spaceflight and the recommendations, by clinical experts in osteoporosis and BMD, to transition research technologies for clinical decision-making by NASA.

  9. Comparison between mechanical stress and bone mineral density in the femur after total hip arthroplasty by using subject-specific finite element analyses.

    PubMed

    Ike, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Hirata, Yasuhide; Yukizawa, Yohei; Aoki, Chie; Choe, Hyonmin; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism underling bone mineral density (BMD) loss that occurs in the femur after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains unknown. We compared the equivalent stress and strain energy density (SED) to BMD in the femur after THA using subject-specific finite element analyses. Twenty-four patients who had undergone primary cementless THA were analysed. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 1 week and 3, 6 and 12 months after THA. Seven regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in accordance with Gruen's system (ROIs 1-7). Computed tomography images of the femurs were acquired pre- and postoperatively, and the images were converted into three-dimensional finite element (FE) models. Equivalent stress and SED were analysed and compared with DEXA data. BMD was maintained 1 year after THA in ROIs 3, 4, 5 and 6, whereas BMD decreased in ROIs 1, 2 and 7. FE analysis revealed that equivalent stress in ROIs 3, 4, 5 and 6 was much higher than that in ROIs 1, 2 and 7. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of changes in BMD and equivalent stress. Reduction of equivalent stress may contribute to decrease in BMD in the femur after THA. PMID:24661022

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  11. Accurate Measurement of Bone Density with QCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Matsubara, Miki; Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of bone density measurement with a new OCT technology. A phantom was fabricated using two materials, a water-equivalent compound and hydroxyapatite (HA), combined in precise proportions (QRM GrnbH, Germany). The phantom was designed to have the approximate physical size and range in bone density as a human calcaneus, with regions of 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/cc HA. The phantom was scanned at 80, 120 and 140 KVp with a GE CT/i HiSpeed Advantage scanner. A ring of highly attenuating material (polyvinyl chloride or teflon) was slipped over the phantom to alter the image by introducing non-axi-symmetric beam hardening. Images were corrected with a new OCT technology using an estimate of the effective X-ray beam spectrum to eliminate beam hardening artifacts. The algorithm computes the volume fraction of HA and water-equivalent matrix in each voxel. We found excellent agreement between expected and computed HA volume fractions. Results were insensitive to beam hardening ring material, HA concentration, and scan voltage settings. Data from all 3 voltages with a best fit linear regression are displays.

  12. A Randomised Comparison Evaluating Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Luteinising Hormone-releasing Hormone Agonists Versus Transdermal Oestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Ruth E.; Kynaston, Howard G.; Alhasso, Abdulla A.; Duong, Trinh; Paez, Edgar M.; Jovic, Gordana; Scrase, Christopher D.; Robertson, Andrew; Cafferty, Fay; Welland, Andrew; Carpenter, Robin; Honeyfield, Lesley; Abel, Richard L.; Stone, Michael; Parmar, Mahesh K.B.; Abel, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa), used as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) management, reduce serum oestradiol as well as testosterone, causing bone mineral density (BMD) loss. Transdermal oestradiol is a potential alternative to LHRHa. Objective To compare BMD change in men receiving either LHRHa or oestradiol patches (OP). Design, setting, and participants Men with locally advanced or metastatic PCa participating in the randomised UK Prostate Adenocarcinoma TransCutaneous Hormones (PATCH) trial (allocation ratio of 1:2 for LHRHa:OP, 2006–2011; 1:1, thereafter) were recruited into a BMD study (2006–2012). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline, 1 yr, and 2 yr. Interventions LHRHa as per local practice, OP (FemSeven 100 μg/24 h patches). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary outcome was 1-yr change in lumbar spine (LS) BMD from baseline compared between randomised arms using analysis of covariance. Results and limitations A total of 74 eligible men (LHRHa 28, OP 46) participated from seven centres. Baseline clinical characteristics and 3-mo castration rates (testosterone ≤1.7 nmol/l, LHRHa 96% [26 of 27], OP 96% [43 of 45]) were similar between arms. Mean 1-yr change in LS BMD was −0.021 g/cm3 for patients randomised to the LHRHa arm (mean percentage change −1.4%) and +0.069 g/cm3 for the OP arm (+6.0%; p < 0.001). Similar patterns were seen in hip and total body measurements. The largest difference between arms was at 2 yr for those remaining on allocated treatment only: LS BMD mean percentage change LHRHa −3.0% and OP +7.9% (p < 0.001). Conclusions Transdermal oestradiol as a single agent produces castration levels of testosterone while mitigating BMD loss. These early data provide further supporting evidence for the ongoing phase 3 trial. Patient summary This study found that prostate cancer patients treated with transdermal oestradiol

  13. Attractor comparisons based on density

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-15

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling.

  14. Comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with dual-photon absorptiometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the measurement of thoracic vertebral bone mineral density: compressive force versus bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Myers, T J; Battocletti, J H; Mahesh, M; Gulati, M; Wilson, C R; Pintar, F; Reinartz, J

    1994-05-01

    31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) measurements were made on human T2 and T3 vertebral bodies. The bone mineral content (BMC) of isolated vertebral bodies minus the posterior elements and disks was measured using (1) NMRS on a 3.5 T, 85 mm bore GE Medical Systems NT-150 superconducting spectrometer, (2) a Lunar Corporation DPX-L dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner in an anterior-posterior (AP) orientation, (3) a Norland Corporation XR26 DXA scanner, also in an AP direction, and (4) a Norland Corporation model 2600 dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) densitometer in both the AP and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Vertebral body volumes were measured using a water displacement technique to determine volume bone mineral densities (VBMD). They were then compressed to failure using an electrohydraulic testing device, followed by ashing in a muffle furnace at 700 degrees C for 18 h. Correlations of BMC between NMRS and DPA, DXA and ashing were excellent (0.96 < or = r < or = 0.99); in a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, means were not statistically different at a p level of 0.757. The correlations of VBMD between NMRS and the other methods were not as good (0.83 < or = r < or = 0.95); in a one-way ANOVA test, means were not statistically different at a p level of 0.089. BMC was a better predictor of ultimate compressive failure than VBMD for all six methods. For NMRS, the regression coefficient for BMC was r2 = 0.806, compared with r2 = 0.505 for VBMD. NMRS may prove an alternative to present methods of determining bone mineral. PMID:8069051

  15. Method for improved prediction of bone fracture risk using bone mineral density in structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher E. (Inventor); Faulkner, Kenneth G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive in-vivo method of analyzing a bone for fracture risk includes obtaining data from the bone such as by computed tomography or projection imaging which data represents a measure of bone material characteristics such as bone mineral density. The distribution of the bone material characteristics is used to generate a finite element method (FEM) mesh from which load capability of the bone can be determined. In determining load capability, the bone is mathematically compressed, and stress, strain force, force/area versus bone material characteristics are determined.

  16. Partial Reductions in Mechanical Loading Yield Proportional Changes in Bone Density, Bone Architecture, and Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, Rachel; Spatz, Jordan; Cloutier, Alison; Palme, Rupert; Christiansen, Blaine A; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal system is known to be sensitive to changes in its mechanical environment, the relationship between functional adaptation and below-normal mechanical stimuli is not well defined. We investigated bone and muscle adaptation to a range of reduced loading using the partial weight suspension (PWS) system, in which a two-point harness is used to offload a tunable amount of body weight while maintaining quadrupedal locomotion. Skeletally mature female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to partial weight bearing at 20%, 40%, 70%, or 100% of body weight for 21 days. A hindlimb unloaded (HLU) group was included for comparison in addition to age-matched controls in normal housing. Gait kinematics was measured across the full range of weight bearing, and some minor alterations in gait from PWS were identified. With PWS, bone and muscle changes were generally proportional to the degree of unloading. Specifically, total body and hindlimb bone mineral density, calf muscle mass, trabecular bone volume of the distal femur, and cortical area of the femur midshaft were all linearly related to the degree of unloading. Even a load reduction to 70% of normal weight bearing was associated with significant bone deterioration and muscle atrophy. Weight bearing at 20% did not lead to better bone outcomes than HLU despite less muscle atrophy and presumably greater mechanical stimulus, requiring further investigation. These data confirm that the PWS model is highly effective in applying controllable, reduced, long-term loading that produces predictable, discrete adaptive changes in muscle and bone of the hindlimb. PMID:23165526

  17. Differences in peak bone density between male and female students.

    PubMed

    Avdagić, Selma Cvijetić; Barić, Irena Colić; Keser, Irena; Cecić, Ivana; Satalić, Zvonimir; Bobić, Jasminka; Gomzi, Milica

    2009-03-01

    As an important determinant of osteoporotic fracture risk, peak bone density tends to be higher in men than in women. The aim of this study was to see whether young men and women differed in the time and skeletal region of peak bone density. We also investigated the influence of diet and physical activity on bone mass. The study group included 51 male and 75 female students aged 19 to 25 years. Bone mineral density was measured for the spine, total femur, and the distal third of the radius using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary data were obtained using a specially designed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD; g cm(-2)) was higher in boys than in girls at all measured sites, while bone mineral apparent density (BMAD; g cm(-3)) was higher in girls. Age negatively correlated with bone mineral density in all measured sites except in the boys' spine. Sodium, protein, and fibres were nutrients that significantly correlated with bone mineral density. The study suggests that boys achieve peak bone density later than girls, and that this delay is the most prominent in the spine. In our study group, this difference could not be explained by different nutrition or the level of physical activity. PMID:19329379

  18. Bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Athanassiadou, Fani; Tragiannidis, Athanassios; Rousso, Israel; Katsos, Georgios; Sidi, Vassiliki; Papageorgiou, Theodotis; Papastergiou, Christos; Tsituridis, Ioannis; Koliouskas, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate bone metabolism with measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) after management (chemo-, radiotherapy) for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone mineral density (g/cm2) of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Norland bone densitometer) in 18 children with ALL and a median of 34 months' post-diagnosis with no history of relapse, secondary malignancy, or transplantation. In addition, patients' BMDs were correlated with particular attention to age, sex and time (years) from completion of chemotherapy. The results were compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls of the same population and expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS). Mean age of children was 9.8 +/- 3.7 years. Of 18 children (10 boys and 8 girls), 13 were grouped as standard and 5 as high-risk, respectively. Based on z-score values, 9 were classified as normal (z-score <1 SD), 7 as osteopenic (z-score 1-2.5 SD) and 2 as osteoporotic (z-score >2.5 SD). Children with ALL had reduced lumbar BMDs (z score -0.99) in comparison to healthy controls (z score -0.14) (p=0.011), which is indicative of relative osteopenia. Moreover, the reduced BMD was associated with patient age (z score -0.14 and -1.52 for ages <10 and >10 years, respectively, p=0.016). Reduced BMD was not correlated with time from completion of chemotherapy (p=0.33), risk group (p=0.9) and sex (p=0.3). We conclude that children's BMDs are reduced after completion of chemotherapy for ALL. The causes are multifactorial and mainly related to antineoplastic treatments, such as corticosteroids and methotrexate, physical inactivity and cranial irradiation. We suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effect on BMD in these children and to prevent pathological fractures later in life. PMID:16848106

  19. Usefulness of bone density measurement in fallers.

    PubMed

    Blain, Hubert; Rolland, Yves; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Audran, Maurice; Bendavid, Sauveur; Bousson, Valérie; Briot, Karine; Brazier, Michel; Breuil, Véronique; Chapuis, Laure; Chapurlat, Roland; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Cortet, Bernard; Dargent, Patricia; Fardellone, Patrice; Feron, Jean-Marc; Gauvain, Jean-Bernard; Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Hanon, Olivier; Laroche, Michel; Kolta, Sami; Lespessailles, Eric; Letombe, Brigitte; Mallet, Eric; Marcelli, Christian; Orcel, Philippe; Puisieux, François; Seret, Patrick; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Sutter, Bruno; Trémollières, Florence; Weryha, Georges; Roux, Christian; Thomas, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this systematic literature review is to discuss the latest French recommendation issued in 2012 that a fall within the past year should lead to bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This recommendation rests on four facts. First, osteoporosis and fall risk are the two leading risk factors for nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. Second, BMD measurement using DXA supplies significant information on the fracture risk independently from the fall risk. Thus, when a fall occurs, the fracture risk increases as BMD decreases. Third, osteoporosis drugs have been proven effective in preventing fractures only in populations with osteoporosis defined based on BMD criteria. Finally, the prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients who fall and increases in the presence of markers for frailty (e.g., recurrent falls, sarcopenia [low muscle mass and strength], limited mobility, and weight loss), which are risk factors for both osteoporosis and falls. Nevertheless, life expectancy should be taken into account when assessing the appropriateness of DXA in fallers, as osteoporosis treatments require at least 12months to decrease the fracture risk. Another relevant factor is the availability of DXA, which may be limited due to geographic factors, patient dependency, or severe cognitive impairments, for instance. Studies are needed to better determine how the fall risk and frailty should be incorporated into the fracture risk evaluation based on BMD and the FRAX® tool. PMID:24703626

  20. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  1. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  2. Multiple vibration intensities and frequencies for bone mineral density improvement.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Bertram; Burns, Edith; Wilson, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Devices that deliver controlled quantum vibration intensities at multiple frequencies (QVIMF) provide optimal stress to the musculoskeletal system for improved bone mineral density and muscle strength. This paper presents development of a QVIMF system and pilot study to determine device performance. Development is centered on specially-designed actuators that comprise multiple nodes of controlled and smooth, but variable rates of contact on a telescoping platform through sets of damping subsystems. The combination of specially-designed actuators and damping subsystems, powered by a DC controlled motor, delivers quantum busts of vibration at multiple frequencies resulting in whole body vibration. An initial feasibility study involved a 79 year old adult male. After IRB approval from both the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and the Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, the subject's bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA) at baseline. The subject then visited the UWM laboratory for two fifteen-minute vibration sessions per visit, three times a week for a total of 60 visits. Post-vibration BMD was again measured by DXA. Comparison pre- and post-vibration test results showed increases in BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, forearm and lower lumbar spine (L1-4). PMID:19163635

  3. [Effect of calcitonin on regional blood flow in bones, serum levels of IGF-I and osteocalcin, density and weight of bone ash in oophorectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Zák, J; Kapitola, J; Wallischová, J

    2003-01-01

    It is known that in cases of increased bone remodelation rate, i.e. after castration, local bone blood flow is also increased. But in case of adequate hormonal substitution, bone blood flow, similarly as the remodelation rate, return to normal ranges. Until now, there is no knowledge, if other drug can influence enhanced bone blood flow in oophorectomized animals. In this study authors treated oophorectomized female rats with calcitonin and followed bone blood flow, together with biochemical parameters of bone remodelation activity (osteocalcine), IGF-I levels, weight of bone ash and bone density. The female rats were divided in four groups: controls, oophorectomized, with calcitonin and oophorectomized with calcitonin. The bone blood flow was determined by method of body dispersion of radioactive strontium labelled microspheres. The results of this study show, that, in comparison with controls, the bone remodelation rate (documented with increased osteocalcine levels) and radioactive strontium labelled microspheres capture in bone in increased after oophorectomy (p < 0.05). Ash weight and bone density were decreased (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, the blood IGF-I levels were increased (p < 0.05). After oophorectomized animals were treated with calcitonin, all parameters mentioned above headed towards normal ranges in comparison with group of oophorectomized female rats without calcitonin (p < 0.05). Changes of serum IGF-I levels follow changes of microspheres capture in each group of animals. Authors support the hypothesis, that blood levels of IGF-I could influence local bone blood flow. Calcitonin treatment of oophorectomized animals diminishes also decrement of ash weight and bone density. Results of this work show, that similarly as hormonal substitution therapy after oophorectomy, calcitonin also diminishes increased bone blood flow and bone remodelation parameters. The degree of bone blood flow is probably connected with activity of bone remodelling. PMID

  4. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    PubMed Central

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  5. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology. PMID:27114259

  6. Factors associated with low bone density in patients referred for assessment of bone health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify factors that predict low bone mineral density (BMD) in pediatric patients referred for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 304 children and adolescents referred for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments at a tertiary care center. Outcomes included risk factors which predicted a significant low bone density for age, defined as BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0 SD. A univariate analysis involved Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test, and analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to determine predictors of low bone mineral density. Results In the multivariate logistic regression model, predictors of low bone mineral density included low body mass index Z-score (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.39 – 0.69), low height Z-score (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 – 0.88), vitamin D insufficiency (OR 3.97, 95% CI 2.08 – 7.59), and history of bone marrow transplant (OR 5.78, 95% CI 1.00 – 33.45). Conclusions Underlying health problems and associated treatments can impair bone mineral accrual. We identified risk factors most predictive of low bone mineral density in subjects referred for bone density measurement. Recognition of these factors may allow for earlier assessment to maximize bone mass in at-risk children. PMID:23388217

  7. High-intensity exercise of short duration alters bovine bone density and shape.

    PubMed

    Hiney, K M; Nielsen, B D; Rosenstein, D; Orth, M W; Marks, B P

    2004-06-01

    The ability of short-duration high-intensity exercise to stimulate bone formation in confinement was investigated using immature Holstein bull calves as a model. Eighteen bull calves, 8 wk of age, were assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) group-housed (GR, which served as a control), 2) confined with no exercise (CF), or 3) confined with exercise (EX). The exercise protocol consisted of running 50 m on a concrete surface once daily, 5 d/wk. Confined calves remained stalled for the 42-d duration of the trial. Blood samples were taken to analyze concentrations of osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline, markers of bone formation and resorption. At the completion of the trial, calves were humanely killed, and both forelegs were collected. The fused third and fourth metacarpal bone was scanned using computed tomography for determination of cross-sectional geometry and bone mineral density. Three-point bending tests to failure were performed on metacarpal bones. The exercise protocol resulted in the formation of a rounder bone in EX as well as in increased dorsal cortex thickness compared with those in the GR and CF. The exercised calves had a significantly smaller medullary cavity than CF and GR (P < 0.01) and a larger percentage of cortical bone area than CF (P < 0.01). Dorsal, palmar, and total bone mineral density was greater in EX than in CF (P < 0.05), and palmar and total bone mineral densities were greater (P < 0.05) in EX than in GR. There was a trend for the bones of EX to have a higher fracture force than CF (P < 0.10). Osteocalcin concentrations normalized from d 0 were higher in EX than CF (P < 0.05). Therefore, the exercise protocol altered bone shape and seemed to increase bone formation comparison with the stalled and group-housed calves. PMID:15216986

  8. Total body bone mineral density in young children: influence of head bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Konrad, P T; Norman, M E; Harcke, H T

    1997-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy have made this technique particularly suitable for measuring total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in children. Other published reports have related TBMD to age in children 2-18 years of age. However, in young normal children aged 2-9 years (51 girls, 43 boys), we found that regression equations for TBMD with age as the predictor did not explain enough of the variance to warrant their use for predicting TBMD (adjusted R2 0.47, females; 0.41, males). Subtotal BMD (TBMD-head BMD) is predicted better by age because of a possibly invalid adult algorithm for head BMD (adjusted R2 0.73, females; 0.71, males). PMID:9101377

  9. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Reduced Bone Density and Cortical Bone Indices in Female Adiponectin-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Naot, Dorit; Watson, Maureen; Callon, Karen E; Tuari, Donna; Musson, David S; Choi, Ally J; Sreenivasan, Dharshini; Fernandez, Justin; Tu, Pao Ting; Dickinson, Michelle; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Cornish, Jillian

    2016-09-01

    A positive association between fat and bone mass is maintained through a network of signaling molecules. Clinical studies found that the circulating levels of adiponectin, a peptide secreted from adipocytes, are inversely related to visceral fat mass and bone mineral density, and it has been suggested that adiponectin contributes to the coupling between fat and bone. Our study tested the hypothesis that adiponectin affects bone tissue by comparing the bone phenotype of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) female mice between the ages of 8-37 weeks. Using a longitudinal study design, we determined body composition and bone density using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. In parallel, groups of animals were killed at different ages and bone properties were analyzed by microcomputed tomography, dynamic histomorphometry, 3-point bending test, nanoindentation, and computational modelling. APN-KO mice had reduced body fat and decreased whole-skeleton bone mineral density. Microcomputed tomography analysis identified reduced cortical area fraction and average cortical thickness in APN-KO mice in all the age groups and reduced trabecular bone volume fraction only in young APN-KO mice. There were no major differences in bone strength and material properties between the 2 groups. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive effect of adiponectin on bone geometry and density in our mouse model. Assuming adiponectin has similar effects in humans, the low circulating levels of adiponectin associated with increased fat mass are unlikely to contribute to the parallel increase in bone mass. Therefore, adiponectin does not appear to play a role in the coupling between fat and bone tissue. PMID:27384302

  11. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Szymczak, W.; Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R.

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  12. The Factors Affecting Bone Density in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajiabbasi, Asghar; Shafaghi, Afshin; Fayazi, Haniyeh Sadat; Shenavar Masooleh, Irandokht; Hedayati Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Ghavidel Parsa, Pooneh; Amir Maafi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone loss is common in cirrhosis. However, the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been heterogeneous in different reports. Reduction in bone formation with or without increase in bone resorption appears to be responsible for bone loss in these patients. Objectives: We aimed to investigate bone loss in patients with cirrhosis at different anatomical sites and key factors that might affect it. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 97 patients with cirrhosis who were referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from 2008 to 2010, were studied. Cirrhosis was diagnosed using biopsy and/or clinical and paraclinical findings. Bone mineral densitometry was done in L2 through L4 lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (QDR 1000, Hologic DEXA Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, the United States). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 97 patients with cirrhosis (55.7% male) and the mean age of 51 ± 13 years and median body mass index (BMI) of 22.7 kg/m2 were recruited over a two-year period. Etiologies of cirrhosis were hepatitis C (40.2%), hepatitis B (26.8%), cryptogenic (21.6%), and other causes (11.4%). Child A, B, and C, were seen in 16.5%, 47.4%, and 36.1% of patients, respectively. The DEXA results were abnormal in 78.4% of our participants (osteopenia, 45.4%; osteoporosis, 33%). BMI and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFRc) had moderate positive and Child score had moderate negative significant correlation with T score in both anatomical sites. There was no significant association between abnormal DEXA and the causes of cirrhosis. The univariate analysis showed that the risk of abnormal results in DEXA was significantly higher in those with low BMI, current smoking, higher Child score, and low GFRc; however, in multivariate analysis, the abnormal results were more frequent in those with lower

  13. Treatment of Premenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, because the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt an evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In some cases in which the secondary cause cannot be addressed, such as glucocorticoid therapy or cancer chemotherapy, treatment with a bone-active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD may not signify compromised bone strength. BMD is likely to remain stable in these women, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely justified. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:18430399

  14. Limited Trabecular Bone Density Heterogeneity in the Human Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chirchir, Habiba

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for variation in trabecular bone density and volume within an individual skeleton, albeit in a few anatomical sites, which is partly dependent on mechanical loading. However, little is known regarding the basic variation in trabecular bone density throughout the skeleton in healthy human adults. This is because research on bone density has been confined to a few skeletal elements, which can be readily measured using available imaging technology particularly in clinical settings. This study comprehensively investigates the distribution of trabecular bone density within the human skeleton in nine skeletal sites (femur, proximal and distal tibia, third metatarsal, humerus, ulna, radius, third metacarpal, and axis) in a sample of N = 20 individuals (11 males and 9 females). pQCT results showed that the proximal ulna (mean = 231.3 mg/cm3) and axis vertebra (mean = 234.3 mg/cm3) displayed significantly greater (p < 0.01) trabecular bone density than other elements, whereas there was no significant variation among the rest of the elements (p > 0.01). The homogeneity of the majority of elements suggests that these sites are potentially responsive to site-specific genetic factors. Secondly, the lack of correlation between elements (p > 0.05) suggests that density measurements of one anatomical region are not necessarily accurate measures of other anatomical regions. PMID:27148458

  15. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P < 0.001), an effect attributable to a decrease in cortical thickness and, thus, cortical bone mass (no significant effect on cancellous vBMD, week 10) attributed to an increase in endosteal bone resorption (nominally increased endosteal circumference). Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) decreased significantly in both CMA groups at 6 and 10 wk, associated with a decrease in trabecular number. CMA significantly decreased muscle cross-sectional area in the proximal hindlimb at 6 and 10 wk. In conclusion, chronic metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number. PMID:24352505

  16. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  17. Bone-Density Tests: When You Need Them - and When You Don't

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Lists Search Patient Resources Bone-Density Tests Bone-Density Tests When you need a test and ... FROM CONSUMER REPORTS How can you keep your bones strong? The following steps can help you build ...

  18. [Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Shagina, N B; Peremyslova, L M; Degteva, M O

    2010-01-01

    Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years. PMID:20968060

  19. Parametric analysis of orthopedic screws in relation to bone density.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Elisabetta M; Salaorno, Massimiliano; Grasso, Giovanni; Audenino, Alberto L

    2009-01-01

    A global study of geometry and material properties of orthopedic screws was performed, considering not only the effect of each single factor (screw pitch, number of threads, fillet angle, etc.) but also their interactions with respect to bone density.The stress patterns resulting from different screw geometries and bone densities were analyzed using finite element techniques, taking into account different levels of osseointegration between the screw and the bone. These numerical models where validated through experimental pull-out tests, where a pull out force of 120 N produced localized failure of the last thread (stresses above 0.42 MPa). The results of the numerical simulations were then summarised using a multi-factorial parametric analysis. This demonstrated the great relevance of the interaction between bone density and screw pitch, showing that the optimal screw pitch can vary by more than 25% for different densities (0.35 g/cm(3) and 0.47 g/cm(3), respectively).The parameters calculated by means of the multi-factorial analysis allow the pull out force to be estimated for different osseointegration levels, different screw geometries and material properties, and for different bone densities. The final objective is to determine the best choice of implant for each individual patient. PMID:19587807

  20. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  1. Can Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assess Bone Mineral Density?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mineral density distribution of bone tissue is altered by active bone modeling and remodeling due to bone complications including bone disease and implantation surgery. Clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been examined whether it can assess oral bone mineral density (BMD) in patient. It has been indicated that CBCT has disadvantages of higher noise and lower contrast than conventional medical computed tomography (CT) systems. On the other hand, it has advantages of a relatively lower cost and radiation dose but higher spatial resolution. However, the reliability of CBCT based mineral density measurement has not yet been fully validated. Thus, the objectives of this review are to discuss 1) why assessment of BMD distribution is important and 2) whether the clinical CBCT can be used as a potential tool to measure the BMD. Brief descriptions of image artefacts associated with assessment of gray value, which has been used to account for mineral density, in CBCT images are provided. Techniques to correct local and conversion errors in obtaining the gray values in CBCT images are also introduced. This review can be used as a quick reference for users who may encounter these errors during analysis of CBCT images. PMID:25006568

  2. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD. PMID:26910501

  3. Aging bone in men and women: beyond changes in bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Russo, C R; Lauretani, F; Bandinelli, S; Bartali, B; Di Iorio, A; Volpato, S; Guralnik, J M; Harris, T; Ferrucci, L

    2003-07-01

    Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) we assessed trabecular and cortical bone density, mass and geometric distribution at the tibia level in 512 men and 693 women, age range 20-102 years, randomly selected from the population living in the Chianti area, Tuscany, Italy. Total, trabecular and cortical bone density decreased linearly with age ( p<0.0001 in both sexes), and the slope of age-associated decline was steeper in women than in men. In men, the cortical bone area was similar in different age groups, while in women older than 60 years it was significantly smaller by approximately 1% per year. The total cross-sectional area of the bone became progressively wider with age, but the magnitude of the age-associated increment was significantly higher in men than in women ( p<0.001). The minimum moment of inertia, an index of mechanical resistance to bending, remained stable with age in men, while it was significantly lower in older compared with younger women (0.5% per year). The increase in bone cross-sectional area in aging men may contribute to the maintenance of adequate bone mechanical competence in the face of declining bone density. In women this compensatory mechanism appears to be less efficient and, accordingly, the bone mechanical competence declines with age. The geometric adaptation of increasing cross-sectional bone size is an important component in the assessment of bone mechanical resistance which is completely overlooked, and potentially misinterpreted, by traditional planar densitometry. PMID:12827220

  4. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  5. Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  6. Menatetrenone ameliorates reduction in bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki-Ishizuka, Yoshiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Murayama, Hisashi; Abe, Masako; Takahashi, Kei; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Ezawa, Ikuko

    2003-08-01

    Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) acts on the bone metabolism. Menatetrenon (MK-4) is a vitamin K2 homologue that has been used as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. Rat models of immobilization induced by sciatic neurectomy are characterized by transiently increased bone resorption and sustained reduction in bone formation. Using such a rat model, we investigated the efficacy of MK-4 on bone loss. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral sciatic neurectomy and administered MK-4 for 28 d beginning day 21 after operation. The effect of MK-4 on the immobilized bone was assessed by measuring the bone mineral density of the femur, breaking force of the femoral diaphysis, and bone histomorphometry in tibial diaphysis. The BMD on both the femoral distal metaphysis and diaphysis was reduced by sciatic neurectomy. The administration of MK-4 ameliorated this reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The administration of 30 mg/kg MK-4 ameliorated the reduction in bone strength. An improvement in bone formation was observed following the administration of MK-4. These results suggest that MK-4 has a therapeutic potential for immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:14598912

  7. Abnormal bone mineral density and bone turnover marker expression profiles in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lixin; Hou, Shengcai; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Liqiang; Miao, Jinbai; Wang, Yang; Li, Tong; Zhang, Zhenkui; You, Bin; Pang, Baosen; Liang, Yufang; Zhao, Yi; Hao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and the role of bone biomarkers, including bone formation marker procollagen type I aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) and N-terminal midmolecule fragment osteocalcin (N-MID), bone resorption marker b-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (b-CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) in the pathogenesis of PSP. Methods Eighty-three consecutive primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) patients (PSP group) and 87 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in this study. General data, including gender, age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), were recorded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and ELISA were used to evaluate bone mineral density and expression levels of bone metabolism markers, including PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, N-MID, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH VD). Results Mean height was significantly greater in the PSP group compared with the control group, whereas weight and BMI were lower. Patients in the PSP group had significantly lower average bone mineral density, which mainly manifested as osteopenia (11/12, 91.7%); however, only one patient (8.3%) developed osteoporosis. Serum overexpression of PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, and N-MID were found in PSP patients. Expression of 25-OH VD was low in PSP patients. Bone resorption markers showed positive linear relationships with bone formation markers in all participants; whereas only TRACP5b expression negatively correlated with 25-OH VD. Expression levels of all bone turnover markers negatively correlated with BMI. Regression analysis identified risk factors of PSP as age, height, weight, and TRACP5b and 25-OH VD expression levels; whereas gender and PINP, b-CTX, and N-MID expression levels were not significantly associated with the onset of PSP. Conclusions It had lower bone mineral density in PSP patients. Bone formation marker PINP, N-MID and bone resorption marker b-CTX, TRACP5b were upregulated in

  8. [The effect of prolonged acenocoumarol therapy on bone density].

    PubMed

    Kiss, J; Tihanyi, L; Nagy, E; Végh, Z; Deli, A; Tahy, A; Korányi, L

    1995-09-24

    The effect of chronic cumarin treatment on bone mineral content was investigated. Bone mineral density was determined by double photon densitometry (Lunar DPXL). The density data (mean +/- SE) of 45 cardiac patients (age: 57.0 = +/- 6.3 y, body mass index: 26.7 +/- 3.8 kp/m2, cardiac stadium score, according to New York Heart Association: 2-3), had been treated by acenocumarol at least for 2 years (duration of treatment: 75.0 +/- 52 months), were compared to the values of 45 age, body mass index, cardiac status matched patients not treated by anticoagulant. The density values of L2-L4 lumbar regions were lower in the treated group (1.041 +/- 0.17 vs. controlls: 1.13 +/- 0.15 g/cm2, p < 0.05), while no differences in ultradistal ulnar and radial regions were detected. No correlation between bone mineral density and the length, or the dose of the cumarin treatment were observed. This observation suggests the importance of the regular bone densitometry control of cumarin treated patient. PMID:7566945

  9. PRECISION OF SINGLE VERSUS BILATERAL HIP BONE MINERAL DENSITY SCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the hip and lumbar spine are currently the "gold standard" for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). DXA allows swift, noninvasive measurements with minimal radiation for both clinical practice and research. Traditional testing has used results ...

  10. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  11. Race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density in men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of osteoporosis in male and minority populations is understudied. To address this concern, we conducted a study of skeletal health in a diverse population of adult males, comparing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in 367 Black, 401 Hispanic, and 451 White men aged 30-79 years who were ran...

  12. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  13. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  14. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  15. Key comparison of liquid density standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Christian; Zelenka, Zoltan; Kajastie, Heikki; Madec, Tanguy; Wolf, Henning; Vámossy, Csilla; Lorefice, Salvatore; Garberg, Torgunn; Lenard, Elżbieta; Spohr, Isabel; Mares, Gabriela; Spurný, Robert; Lumbreras, Angel; Medina, Nieves; Y Akçadağ, Ümit; Perkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determination for liquids is mainly performed by laboratories to provide means for calibrating liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. From 2002 to 2005 the CIPM key comparison CCM.D-K2 'comparison of liquid density standards' was carried out piloted by the PTB. The aim was to compare the results of the density determination by the participating laboratories to support entries to the CMC tables in this sub-field. To provide further laboratories the possibility to support their entries to the CMC tables at the meeting of the EUROMET Working Group on Density in 2007 this comparison was agreed on. BEV (Austria) organized the comparison supported by the PTB (Germany). For the comparison samples of pentadecane, water, tetrachloroethylene and of an oil of high viscosity were measured in the temperature range from 5 °C to 60 °C at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing. The measurements were completed in 2008. The reference values of the first reports based on the draft of the CCM.D-K2. After the official publication of the CCM.D-K2 the reference values were recalculated and the report was finalised in 2015. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Correlation of cervical endplate strength with CT measured subchondral bone density

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Nathaniel R.; Lu, Yen-Mou; Zhang, Xingkai; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Fang, Huang

    2007-01-01

    Cervical interbody device subsidence can result in screw breakage, plate dislodgement, and/or kyphosis. Preoperative bone density measurement may be helpful in predicting the complications associated with anterior cervical surgery. This is especially important when a motion preserving device is implanted given the detrimental effect of subsidence on the postoperative segmental motion following disc replacement. To evaluate the structural properties of the cervical endplate and examine the correlation with CT measured trabecular bone density. Eight fresh human cadaver cervical spines (C2–T1) were CT scanned and the average trabecular bone densities of the vertebral bodies (C3–C7) were measured. Each endplate surface was biomechanically tested for regional yield load and stiffness using an indentation test method. Overall average density of the cervical vertebral body trabecular bone was 270 ± 74 mg/cm3. There was no significant difference between levels. The yield load and stiffness from the indentation test of the endplate averaged 139 ± 99 N and 156 ± 52 N/mm across all cervical levels, endplate surfaces, and regional locations. The posterior aspect of the endplate had significantly higher yield load and stiffness in comparison to the anterior aspect and the lateral aspect had significantly higher yield load in comparison to the midline aspect. There was a significant correlation between the average yield load and stiffness of the cervical endplate and the trabecular bone density on regression analysis. Although there are significant regional variations in the endplate structural properties, the average of the endplate yield loads and stiffnesses correlated with the trabecular bone density. Given the morbidity associated with subsidence of interbody devices, a reliable and predictive method of measuring endplate strength in the cervical spine is required. Bone density measures may be used preoperatively to assist in the prediction of the strength

  17. Bone Mineral Density of the Tarsals and Metatarsals With Reloading

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Mary Kent; Gelber, Judy; Commean, Paul K; Prior, Fred; Sinacore, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases rapidly with prolonged non–weight bearing. Maximizing the BMD response to reloading activities after NWB is critical to minimizing fracture risk. Methods for measuring individual tarsal and metatarsal BMD have not been available. This case report describes tarsal and metatarsal BMD with a reloading program, as revealed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Case Description: A 24-year-old woman was non–weight bearing for 6 weeks after right talocrural arthroscopy. Tarsal and metatarsal BMD were measured with QCT 9 weeks (before reloading) and 32 weeks (after reloading) after surgery. A 26-week progressive reloading program was completed. Change scores were calculated for BMD before reloading and BMD after reloading for the total foot (average of all tarsals and metatarsals), tarsals, metatarsals, bones of the medial column (calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms 1 and 2, and metatarsal 1), and bones of the lateral column (calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 3, and metatarsals 2–5). The percent differences in BMD between the involved side and the uninvolved side were calculated. Outcomes: Before reloading, BMD of the involved total foot was 9% lower than that on the uninvolved side. After reloading, BMD increased 22% and 21% for the total foot, 16% and 14% for the tarsals, 29% and 30% for the metatarsals, 14% and 15% for the medial column bones, and 28% and 26% for the lateral column bones on the involved and uninvolved sides, respectively. After reloading, BMD of the involved total foot remained 8% lower than that on the uninvolved side. Discussion: The increase in BMD with reloading was not uniform across all pedal bones; the metatarsals showed a greater increase than the tarsals, and the lateral column bones showed a greater increase than the medial column bones. PMID:18388153

  18. Reducing the Risk of Bone Fracture: A Review of the Research for Adults with Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone density is a condition where the tissue inside your bones begins to thin, or becomes less ... include: Dairy foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt. Dark green leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale. Bread, ...

  19. Effects of risedronate on femoral bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized young rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Seki, Azusa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Harumoto

    2005-01-01

    Immobilization induces a rapid loss of bone density and bone strength in rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of risedronate (Ris) on the femoral bone density and bone strength of sciatic neurectomized young rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 6 weeks of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following four treatment groups of 10 rats each: sham-operation, bilateral sciatic neurectomy (NX), NX + low-dose Ris (0.25 mg/kg/day, orally), and NX + high-dose Ris (0.5 mg/kg/day, orally). After 8 weeks of feeding, the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and stress strain index (SSI) of the femoral distal metaphysis and middiaphysis of the rats were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The mechanical properties of the femoral distal metaphysis and middiaphysis were measured by the compression and three-point bending tests, respectively. The femoral length was also measured. As compared with the findings in the sham-operated controls, NX resulted in a loss of femoral length, cancellous vBMD, SSI, maximum load, stiffness, and breaking energy of the femoral distal metaphysis; there was also loss of cortical thickness, SSI, maximum load, and stiffness of the femoral middiaphysis, with no significant effects on the cortical vBMD or breaking energy of the femoral middiaphysis. High-dose Ris increased the vBMD to values higher than those in the sham-operated controls, and prevented the loss of SSI, maximum load, and stiffness of the femoral distal metaphysis, while low-dose Ris prevented the loss of cancellous vBMD of the femoral distal metaphysis. Neither high- nor low-dose Ris affected any of the cortical bone parameters of the femoral middiaphysis, except for cortical thickness, or the femoral length. These findings suggest that Ris may prevent immobilization-induced loss of cancellous bone density and bone strength in a dose-dependent manner without interfering with bone growth, but has no apparent

  20. Optical studies of changes in bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.; Attenburrow, Don P.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to measure changes in bone-mineral-density (BMD) in-vivo has potential applications in monitoring stress-induced bone remodelling in, for example, competition race horses. In this study we have begun to investigate the potential of optical techniques to monitor such changes via changes in bone optical scattering. Using integrating spheres, we have investigated the optical properties of bone samples taken from the leg of the horse. Since our samples have stable characteristics over the time, we are able to use a single integrating-sphere technique. Diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients have been measured over the wavelength range 520 to 960 nm. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time; this was to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. The experimental results and a Monte-Carlo based inversion method were used to extract the absorption coefficient and unmodified scattering coefficient of the samples. After full demineralisation scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. This shows that the calcium-content in bone influences its optical properties considerably. Our experiments confirm the possibility of using optical techniques to determine changes in the BMD of samples.

  1. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  2. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the effects of hormone treatment on bone mineral density of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Researchers ... insufficiency (POI) led to increases in their bone mineral density, restoring levels to normal. The study was ...

  3. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    PubMed

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  4. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  5. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the operated and contralateral knee after anterior cruciate ligament and reconstruction: A 1-year follow-up study using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mündermann, Annegret; Payer, Nina; Felmet, Gernot; Riehle, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the tibial plateau of the operated and contralateral leg measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The ACL was reconstructed with a hamstring tendon autograft using press-fit fixation. pQCT measurements of the proximal tibia were obtained in 61 patients after ACL reconstruction, and total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD were calculated. vBMD in the operated leg decreased from baseline to 3 months (-12% [total], -11% [cortical], and -12.6% [trabecular]; p<0.001) and remained below baseline for 12 months after surgery (6 months: -9.5%, -9.4%, and -9.6%, p<0.001; 12 months: -8%, -5%, and -11%, p<0.001). vBMD in the contralateral leg was slightly reduced only 6 months after surgery. Including age and sex as covariates into the analysis did not affect the results. ACL reconstruction contributed to loss in bone mineral density within the first year after surgery. The role of factors such as time of weight-bearing, joint mechanics, post-traumatic inflammatory reactions, or genetic predisposition in modulating the development of posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury should be further elucidated. PMID:26123943

  6. Axial and appendicular bone density predict fractures in older women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. M.; Cummings, S. R.; Genant, H. K.; Nevitt, M. C.; Palermo, L.; Browner, W.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether measurement of hip and spine bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) predicts fractures in women and to compare the predictive value of DEXA with that of single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of appendicular sites, we prospectively studied 8134 nonblack women age 65 years and older who had both DEXA and SPA measurements of bone mass. A total of 208 nonspine fractures, including 37 wrist fractures, occurred during the follow-up period, which averaged 0.7 years. The risk of fracture was inversely related to bone density at all measurement sites. After adjusting for age, the relative risks per decrease of 1 standard deviation in bone density for the occurrence of any fracture was 1.40 for measurement at the proximal femur (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.63) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58) for measurement at the spine. Results were similar for all regions of the proximal femur as well as SPA measurements at the calcaneus, distal radius, and proximal radius. None of these measurements was a significantly better predictor of fractures than the others. Furthermore, measurement of the distal radius was not a better predictor of wrist fracture (relative risk 1.64: 95% CI 1.13-2.37) than other sites, such as the lumbar spine (RR 1.56; CI 1.07-2.26), the femoral neck (RR 1.65; CI 1.12-2.41), or the calcaneus (RR 1.83; CI 1.26-2.64). We conclude that the inverse relationship between bone mass and risk of fracture in older women is similar for absorptiometric measurements made at the hip, spine, and appendicular sites.

  7. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  8. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  9. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females Using Injectable or Oral Contraceptives: A 24 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Barbara A.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Stager, Margaret; Lazebnik, Rina; Rome, Ellen; Ziegler, Julie; Camlin-Shingler, Kelly; Secic, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective To determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in hormonal contraceptive users than that in an untreated, comparison group. Design Observational, prospective cohort; duration: 24 months. Setting Adolescent clinics in a midwestern, metropolitan setting. Patients 433 postmenarcheal girls, aged 12–18 years, on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) [n=58], oral contraceptives (OC) [n=187], or untreated (n=188). Intervention DMPA and OC containing 100 mcg levonorgestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Main Outcome Measure BMD measurements at spine and femoral neck were obtained with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 6-month intervals. Results Over 24 months, mean percent change in spine BMD was: DMPA −1.5%, OC +4.2%, and untreated +6.3%. Mean percent change in femoral neck BMD was: DMPA −5.2%, OC +3.0%, untreated +3.8%. Statistical significance was found between the DMPA group and other two groups (p<.001). In the DMPA group, mean percent change in spine BMD over the first 12 months was −1.4%; the rate of change slowed to −0.1% over the second 12 months. No bone density loss reached the level of osteopenia. Conclusions Adolescent girls receiving DMPA had significant loss in BMD compared with bone gain in the OC and untreated group. However, its clinical significance is mitigated by slowed loss after the first year of DMPA use and general maintenance of bone density values within the normal range. PMID:18222431

  11. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied. PMID:25961322

  12. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied. PMID:25961322

  13. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  14. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  15. Bone Density Following Long Duration Space Flight and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Shreyasee; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Khosla, Sundeep; Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    At approx.12 months, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at most sites in men remained lower than would be predicted, raising concerns for long-term bone health consequences following space flight. Additional analyses based on longer follow-up are being conducted. Although the N is too small for definitive conclusions, women had lower rates of loss at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine immediately post-flight relative to men and smaller differences between observed vs. predicted BMD at most sites, both immediately and 12 months post-flight, relative to men. The role of other exposures/risk factors need to be explored to further understand these possible gender differences in BMD loss and recovery following long-duration space flight.

  16. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Gantz, M.; Punyanitya, M.; Heymsfield, S. B.; Gallagher, D.; Albu, J.; Engelson, E.; Kotler, D.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Shapses, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. Introduction It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. Conclusions An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. PMID

  17. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. PMID:25418909

  18. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Effects on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Geometry Architecture in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group. PMID:22489160

  19. New Osseodensification Implant Site Preparation Method to Increase Bone Density in Low-Density Bone: In Vivo Evaluation in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Trisi, Paolo; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new surgical technique for implant site preparation that could allow to enhance bone density, ridge width, and implant secondary stability. Materials and Methods: The edges of the iliac crests of 2 sheep were exposed and ten 3.8 × 10-mm Dynamix implants (Cortex) were inserted in the left sides using the conventional drilling method (control group). Ten 5 × 10-mm Dynamix implants (Cortex) were inserted in the right sides (test group) using the osseodensification procedure (Versah). After 2 months of healing, the sheep were killed, and biomechanical and histological examinations were performed. Results: No implant failures were observed after 2 months of healing. A significant increase of ridge width and bone volume percentage (%BV) (approximately 30% higher) was detected in the test group. Significantly better removal torque values and micromotion under lateral forces (value of actual micromotion) were recorded for the test group in respect with the control group. Conclusion: Osseodensification technique used in the present in vivo study was demonstrated to be able to increase the %BV around dental implants inserted in low-density bone in respect to conventional implant drilling techniques, which may play a role in enhancing implant stability and reduce micromotion. PMID:26584202

  20. Bone density and hemoglobin levels in older persons: results from the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Lauretani, Fulvio; Penninx, Brenda W H J; Bartali, Benedetta; Russo, Roberto; Cherubini, Antonio; Woodman, Richard; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    Hypoxemia has been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of bone mass and density measures with anemia and hemoglobin levels in a large sample of older community-dwelling persons. The study is based on data from 950 participants enrolled in the "Invecchiare in Chianti" (Aging in the Chianti area, InCHIANTI) study. All the analyses were performed considering continuous hemoglobin levels as well as the dichotomous anemia variable (defined according to WHO criteria as hemoglobin < 12 g/dl in women and < 13 g/dl in men). A peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) scan of the right calf was performed in all participants to evaluate total bone density, trabecular bone density, cortical bone density, and the ratio between cortical and total bone area. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the multivariate relationship of pQCT bone measures with anemia and hemoglobin levels after adjustment for demographics, chronic conditions, muscle strength and biological variables. Participants were 75.0 (SD 6.9) years old. In our sample, 101 participants (10.6%) were anemic. In women, coefficients from adjusted linear regression analyses evaluating the association between pQCT bone measures (per SD increase) and hemoglobin levels/anemia showed significant associations of anemia with total bone density (beta = -0.335, SE = 0.163; P = 0.04) and cortical bone density (beta = -0.428, SE = 0.160; P = 0.008). Relationships with borderline significance were found for the associations of anemia with trabecular bone density and the ratio between cortical and total bone area. Significant associations were found between hemoglobin levels and trabecular bone density (beta = 0.112, SE = 0.049; P = 0.02), total bone density (beta = 0.101, SE = 0.046; P = 0.03), cortical bone density (beta = 0.100, SE = 0.046; P = 0.03) and the ratio between cortical bone and total area (beta = 0.092, SE = 0.045; P = 0

  1. Quantitative CT for determination of bone mineral density: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Cann, C.E.

    1988-02-01

    One of the major uses of quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) at various skeletal sites. The published literature on this subject from 1974 to the present is extensive. Because many investigators and clinicians are just now starting to explore the utility of this technique, the author reviewed this literature to provide both the historic perspective and current status of BMD measurement with CT. The physical and physiologic bases of the method, accuracy, reproducibility, radiation dose, and clinical utility are all discussed.103 references.

  2. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  3. Bone mineral density and survival of elements and element portions in the bones of the Crow Creek massacre victims.

    PubMed

    Willey, P; Galloway, A; Snyder, L

    1997-12-01

    The interpretation of archaeologically-derived skeletal series is dependent on the elements and portions of elements preserved for examination. Bone and bone portion survival is affected by factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the elements themselves, that influence deterioration and preservation. Among the intrinsic variables, the density of the element and element portion are particularly important with respect to the degree of preservation. Recently reported bone mineral density values from a contemporary human sample are compared to the survival of prehistoric limb bones of the Crow Creek specimens, a fourteenth-century massacre skeletal series. The contemporary density values are positively correlated with Crow Creek element and element portion survival. Two calculations of bone mineral density, however, are more closely related to preservation than a third. Such density information has implications for assessing minimum number of elements and individuals and documenting taphonomic processes. PMID:9453699

  4. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  5. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values. PMID:26966961

  6. Low bone density and abnormal bone turnover in patients with atherosclerosis of peripheral vessels.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, P; Signorelli, S S; Riccobene, S; Celotta, G; Di Pino, L; La Malfa, T; Fiore, C E

    2004-05-01

    Patients with vascular calcifications often have low bone mineral density (BMD), but it is still uncertain if osteoporosis and peripheral vascular disease (VD) are interrelated and linked by a common pathomechanism. Moreover, data on bone turnover in patients with advanced atherosclerosis are lacking. We measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS), as well as the serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand RANKL, and the urinary concentration of the C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CrossLaps), in 36 patient (20 male and 16 female) with serious atherosclerotic involvement of the carotid and/or femoral artery to investigate the underlying mechanism of vascular and osseous disorders. Thirty age-matched and gender matched healthy individuals served as controls. After adjustment for age, BMD was significantly reduced at the lumbar spine in 23/36 (63%) patients (mean T score -1.71+/-1.42) and at the proximal femur in 34/36 (93%) patients (neck mean T score -2.5+/-0.88). Ten patients (27%) had abnormal QUS parameters. Gender and diabetes had no effect on the relationship between vascular calcification and bone density at any site measured. VD subjects had OC and BAP serum levels lower than controls (13.3+/-3.1 vs 27.7+/-3.3 ng/ml, P<0.01, and 8.4+/-2.3 vs 12.5+/-1.4 microg/l, P<0.01, respectively). Urinary CrossLaps excretion was not significantly different in patients with VD and in controls (257.9+/-138.9 vs 272.2+/-79.4 micro g/mmol Cr, respectively). Serum OPG and RANKL levels were similar in patients and in controls (3.5+/-1.07 vs 3.4+/-1.05 pmol/l, and 0.37+/-0.07 vs 0.36+/-0.06 pmol/l, respectively). We proved high occurrence of osteoporosis in VD, with evidence of age and gender independence. Negative bone remodelling balance would be a consequence of reduced bone formation, with no apparent increased activation of the OPG-RANKL system

  7. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  8. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  9. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, AZ; Mumford, SL; Wactawski-Wende, J; Yeung, E; Mendola, P; Mattison, DR; Schisterman, EF

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was, 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages. PMID:23122770

  10. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  11. Dietary strontium increases bone mineral density in intact zebrafish (Danio rerio): a potential model system for bone research.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, Anthony J; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W; Nagy, Tim R; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2010-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  12. Lack of association between free testosterone and bone density separate from age in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Drinka, P J; Olson, J; Bauwens, S; Voeks, S K; Carlson, I; Wilson, M

    1993-01-01

    It is unclear what proportion of the variance in bone density in elderly males is accounted for by testosterone status. We studied 112 ambulatory, elderly volunteers (mean age 71.7 years) and determined free testosterone (FT), as well as bone density measurements by photon absorptiometry at multiple sites. Our studies of 35 of these subjects 4 years later included morning FT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no significant correlations between FT and bone density at multiple scanning sites with the effects of age partialed out. We suspect that our inability to detect a significant effect of FT on bone density was related to the relative strength of other determinants of bone density, as well as to the fact that FT values are far more dynamic than bone density. PMID:8453508

  13. Bone mineral density of healthy Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran; Coker, Mahmut; Kose, Timur

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to gain reference values of lumbar and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) for healthy Turkish children. Three hundred forty-five children aged 2-18 years were examined. Weight and height development were normal for age according to national growth charts. Areal BMD (aBMD) was corrected using the model of Kroger et al (9). The results of the lumbar and femoral aBMD increased progressively from childhood to adulthood. Statistically significant correlation was found between lumbar and femoral neck aBMD and age and height (p<0.01). Lumbar volumetric (vBMD) data were similar between males and females. Femoral vBMD was only significantly different at the ages of 8 and 16 (p<0.05) in girls and boys and did not increase with age. A significant increase in aBMD L1-L4 values according to puberty was observed between all Tanner stages, except Tanner stages 3 and 4 (p>0.05). A significant difference was found between stages 1 and 2, and 2 and 3 in femoral neck aBMD (p<0.05). This data provides a tool for the investigation and follow-up of Turkish children at risk for low-bone mineralization. PMID:16731436

  14. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  15. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcio José da Silva; de Souza, Thainara Salgueiro; Mota Júnior, Sergio Luiz; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has often been used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in these exams. This study aims to provide a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, Hounsfield Units values obtained with medical computed tomography, and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry. However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures because these images show inconsistencies and arbitrariness in the gray values, particularly when related to abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCT devices, changes in the volume of the field of view (FOV), and changes in the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed; however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the examination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, particularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the regions of interest are the same. PMID:25170398

  16. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

    PubMed

    Wölfl, Christoph; Schweppenhäuser, Daniela; Gühring, Thorsten; Takur, Caner; Höner, Bernd; Kneser, Ulrich; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kolios, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD. PMID:24788647

  17. Effects of Statins on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongze; Li, Ying; Zhou, Fengxin; Piao, Zhe; Hao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although observational studies have identified the protective effect of statins on bone health, the effects remain controversial in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk among adults. We searched electronic databases of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published until May, 2015. Studies included in this meta-analysis should be randomized controlled trials conducted in adults, using statins in the intervention group. Information on changes in BMD or odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio (HR) for fracture risk with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was provided. Two investigators independently reviewed the title or abstract, further reviewed the full-texts and extracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates of BMD and pooled HR of fracture risk comparing the intervention group with the control group were estimated across trials using random-effects models. Of the relevant 334 citations, 7 trials (including 27,900 randomized participants in total) meeting the eligibility criteria were included. Of the 7 trials, 5 were conducted to assess the association of statins use with BMD change and 2 with fracture risk. Compared with the control group, statins use was associated with significant increase in BMD of 0.03 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.006, 0.053; I2 = 99.2%; P < 0.001), but null association with fracture risk, with the pooled HR of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.15; I2 = 0; P = 0.396). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the associations were consistent and robust. The effect of statins use on bone health among subpopulation could not be identified due to limited number of trials. These findings provide evidence that statins could be used to increase BMD other than decreasing fracture

  18. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and

  19. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone-turn over markers. Methods It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN). For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Results Mean age of patients was 58.7 ± 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2%) were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. Conclusion In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for the assessment of

  20. Short-Term Effects of TNF Inhibitors on Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Giovanni; Adami, Giovanni; Adami, Silvano; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Gatti, Davide; Rossini, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    TNFα inhibitors (TNFαI) exert positive effects on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Bone involvement is a major determinant of functional impairment in this disease. Here we investigated the short-term effects of TNFαI therapy on bone metabolism and density. We studied 54 patients with RA starting a TNFαI biologic drug, in whom any factor known to interfere with bone metabolism was excluded or rigorously accounted for. We measured at baseline and after 6-month therapy bone turnover markers: N-propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP), and bone alkaline phosphates for bone formation and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) for bone resorption. We also evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and lumbar by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All bone markers rose significantly and these changes were not dependent on steroid dosage. A significant decrease in femoral neck BMD was also observed. These results indicate that TNFαI therapy in RA over 6 months is associated with an early increase in bone turnover and a decline in hip BMD. PMID:26887973

  1. Effects of a high fat diet on bone of growing rats. Correlations between visceral fat, adiponectin and bone mass density

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Gerard; Cavalie, Helian; Ebal, Edmond; Michaux, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated some bone parameters (bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area) in growing rats fed with a high fat diet. Correlations between bone and body composition parameters are reported. Two groups of Wistar male rats (35 days old, body mass 80 ± 6 g) were used. Water and food were given "ad libitum" during 10 weeks. Sixteen rats (L) were given a lipid enriched diet and were compared to 16 rats (S) fed with a standard diet. Body composition and bone parameters were assessed using DXA. Results indicated that L rats had lower body mass, lean body mass; fat mass was not different between the two groups. Bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area of L rats were lower compared with S rats. Significant correlations were noted between body composition, adiponectin and bone parameters. High fat diet intake during the growing period has deleterious effects on bone parameters in rats. This study confirms in growing rats that a high fat diet is pathogenic, including bone metabolism. PMID:18442361

  2. Correlations Between Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density or Bone Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Kang, Ming-Yang; Dong, Rong-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Wu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the correlations of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified using computerized and manual search strategies. The included studies were in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). RESULTS Our present meta-analysis initially searched 844 studies, and 7 studies were eventually incorporated in the present meta-analysis. These 7 cohort studies included 1123 subjects altogether (560 patients with AGM and 563 healthy controls). The results showed that bone mass index (BMI), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR) of patients with AGM were significantly higher than that of the population with normal glucose metabolism (BMI: SMD=1.658, 95% CI=0.663~2.654, P=0.001; insulin: SMD=0.544, 95% CI=0.030~1.058, P=0.038; IR: SMD=8.767, 95% CI=4.178~13.356, P<0.001). However, the results also indicated there was no obvious difference in osteocalcin (OC) and BMD in patients with AGM and the population with normal glucose metabolism (OC: SMD=0.293, 95% CI=-0.023~0.609, P=0.069; BMD: SMD=0.805, 95% CI=-0. 212~1.821, P=0.121). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis results suggest that AGM might lead to increased BMI, insulin, and IR, while it has no significant correlation with BMD or bone metabolism. PMID:26970713

  3. Correlations Between Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density or Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yang; Kang, Ming-Yang; Dong, Rong-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the correlations of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified using computerized and manual search strategies. The included studies were in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Results Our present meta-analysis initially searched 844 studies, and 7 studies were eventually incorporated in the present meta-analysis. These 7 cohort studies included 1123 subjects altogether (560 patients with AGM and 563 healthy controls). The results showed that bone mass index (BMI), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR) of patients with AGM were significantly higher than that of the population with normal glucose metabolism (BMI: SMD=1.658, 95% CI=0.663~2.654, P=0.001; insulin: SMD=0.544, 95% CI=0.030~1.058, P=0.038; IR: SMD=8.767, 95% CI=4.178~13.356, P<0.001). However, the results also indicated there was no obvious difference in osteocalcin (OC) and BMD in patients with AGM and the population with normal glucose metabolism (OC: SMD=0.293, 95% CI=−0.023~0.609, P=0.069; BMD: SMD=0.805, 95% CI=−0. 212~1.821, P=0.121). Conclusions Our meta-analysis results suggest that AGM might lead to increased BMI, insulin, and IR, while it has no significant correlation with BMD or bone metabolism. PMID:26970713

  4. Comparison of Speed of Sound Measures Assessed by Multisite Quantitative Ultrasound to Bone Mineral Density Measures Assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in a Large Canadian Cohort: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Olszynski, Wojciech P; Adachi, Jonathon D; Hanley, David A; Davison, Kenneth S; Brown, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important tool for the estimate of fracture risk through the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Similarly, multisite quantitate ultrasound can prospectively predict future fracture through the measurement of speed of sound (SOS). This investigation compared BMD (at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine) and SOS measures (at the distal radius, tibia, and phalanx sites) in a large sample of randomly-selected and community-based individuals from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Furthermore, mass, height, and age were also compared with both measures. There were 4123 patients included with an age range of 30-96.8 yr. Pearson product moment correlations between BMD and SOS measures were low (0.21-0.29; all p<0.001), irrespective of site. Mass was moderately correlated with BMD measures (0.40-0.58; p<0.001), but lowly correlated with SOS measures (0.03-0.13; p<0.05). BMD and SOS were negatively correlated to age (-0.17 to -0.44; p<0.001). When regression analyses were performed to predict SOS measures at the 3 sites, the models predicted 20%-23% of the variance, leaving 77%-80% unaccounted for. The SOS measures in this study were found to be largely independent from BMD measures. In areas with no or limited access to DXA, the multisite quantitative ultrasound may act as a valuable tool to assess fracture risk. In locales with liberal access to DXA, the addition of SOS to BMD and other clinical risk factors may improve the identification of those patients at high risk for future fracture. PMID:26050876

  5. Depo-Provera and bone density: what should you tell teen users?

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of use of Depo-Provera (DMPA) among long-term users on bone density in the US. Depo-Provera suppresses ovarian estradiol production, which maintains bone density by slowing bone resorption. Young women reach peak density of spinal bone about 16 years of age, and the greatest increase in bone density occurs during the first 2 years after menstruation begins. Depro-Provera is particularly attractive to teenagers. The manufacturer, Pharmacia and Upjohn of Kalamazoo, Michigan, conducted a multicenter longitudinal study among long-term users, but did not include adolescents. A retrospective study from New Zealand found a 7% bone density difference between DMPA users 25 and 51 years old and other premenopausal users. Similar findings were found in a Thailand study comparing DMPA users and users of IUDs and Norplant implants. The findings on bone density differences at one point in time are considered unreliable so far, because bone density is known to shift in response to various situations. For example, bone density declines during breast feeding, but returns to normal after weaning. Lactation is not considered a risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is recommended that clinicians recommend calcium supplements for adolescent DMPA users, because adolescents in general are not inclined to be big milk drinkers. PMID:12348211

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  7. Preoperative Periarticular Knee Bone Mineral Density in Osteoarthritic Patients Undergoing TKA

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Ezawa, Nobukazu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. Materials and Methods: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The median bone mineral density values in the condyles were 1.138 in femoral medial, 0.767 in femoral lateral, 1.056 in tibial medial, and 0.714 in tibial lateral. The medial condyles showed significantly higher bone mineral densities than the lateral condyles in both the femur and tibia. In addition, the femoral medial showed significantly higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial medial, and the femoral lateral condyle had higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial lateral. The bone mineral density Medial/Lateral ratio was significantly negatively correlated with the location (tibial medial edge 0%, lateral edge 100%) of the load-bearing axis in the femur and tibia. Conclusion: Preoperative bone mineral density values may provide against the changes in bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty by reflecting the correlation with joint loading axis. These results help explain why total knee arthroplasty has such good long-term clinical outcomes with a low frequency of component loosening and periarticular fractures despite a high degree of postoperative bone loss. PMID:27583058

  8. Quantifying Leisure Physical Activity and Its Relation to Bone Density and Strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Compare three published methods of quantifying physical activity (total activity, peak strain, and bone loading exposure [BLE] scores) and identify their associations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric BMD (vBMD), and bone strength. Methods: Postmenopausal women (N = 239; me...

  9. Age estimation in the Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus(Montagu 1821) by bone density of the thoracic limb

    PubMed Central

    Butti, Camilla; Corain, Livio; Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Pirone, Andrea; Affronte, Marco; Zotti, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The determination of age is an important step in defining the life history traits of individuals and populations. Age determination of odontocetes is mainly based on counting annual growth layer groups in the teeth. However, this useful method is always invasive, requiring the cutting of at least one tooth, and sometimes the results are difficult to interpret. Based on the concept that bone matrix is constantly deposited throughout life, we analysed the bone mineral density of the arm and forearm of a series of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) stranded along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea or maintained in confined waters. The bone mineral density values we obtained were evaluated as possible age predictors of the Mediterranean population of this species, considering age as determined by counting growth layer groups in sections of the teeth and the total body length of the animal as references. Comparisons between left and right flipper showed no difference. Our results show that bone mineral density values of the thoracic limb are indeed reliable age predictors in Tursiops truncatus. Further investigations in additional odontocete species are necessary to provide strong evidence of the reliability of bone mineral density as an indicator of growth and chronological wear and tear in toothed-whales. PMID:17850286

  10. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  11. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  12. Bone density and anisotropy affect periprosthetic cement and bone stresses after anatomical glenoid replacement: A micro finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Yan; Santos, Inês; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-06-14

    Glenoid loosening is still a main complication for shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesize that cement and bone stresses potentially leading to fixation failure are related not only to glenohumeral conformity, fixation design or eccentric loading, but also to bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and degree of anisotropy in the glenoid. In this study, periprosthetic bone and cement stresses were computed with micro finite element models of the replaced glenoid depicting realistic bone microstructure. These models were used to quantify potential effects of bone microstructural parameters under loading conditions simulating different levels of glenohumeral conformity and eccentric loading simulating glenohumeral instability. Results show that peak cement stresses were achieved near the cement-bone interface in all loading schemes. Higher stresses within trabecular bone tissue and cement mantle were obtained within specimens of lower bone volume fraction and in regions of low anisotropy, increasing with decreasing glenohumeral conformity and reaching their maxima below the keeled design when the load is shifted superiorly. Our analyses confirm the combined influences of eccentric load shifts with reduced bone volume fraction and anisotropy on increasing periprosthetic stresses. They finally suggest that improving fixation of glenoid replacements must reduce internal cement and bone tissue stresses, in particular in glenoids of low bone density and heterogeneity. PMID:27087675

  13. Bone Density Changes After Radiation for Extremity Sarcomas: Exploring the Etiology of Pathologic Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Chen, Jeffrey; McCance, Sean; Rosier, Randy; O'Keefe, Regis; Constine, Louis S.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The incidental irradiation (RT) of adjacent bone that takes place during treatment of soft tissue extremity sarcomas is generally presumed to 'weaken' the bone by decreasing its density, which subsequently increases the risk for pathologic fracture. This investigation intended to assess the relative effects on bone density of both RT and diminished mechanical loading secondary to tumor-induced and therapy-induced functional extremity impairment. Methods and Materials: 19 patients treated with surgical excision and RT for soft tissue extremity sarcomas had bone density measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at four sites: the irradiated (A) and contralateral (B) bone, and an uninvolved bone (C) in the treated extremity and its contralateral counterpart (D). Analysis included (1) [A-B], (2) [C-D], (3) [(A-B), - (C-D)], and (4) [(A-B)/B - (C-D)/D]. Results: The mean bone density for all irradiated sites was increased 0.08 {+-} 0.22 g/cm{sup 2} (variance) compared to the contralateral unirradiated side when corrected for weight-bearing effects (3). An average increase in bone density of 9 {+-} 22% (p = 0.08) was also seen when the differences were divided by individual control densities to normalize variation in density of different anatomic sites (4). Conclusions: RT does not routinely decrease bone density when corrected for weight bearing or mechanical effects. The pathogenesis for the known increased risk of pathologic fracture in irradiated bones is likely multifactorial, including possible alterations in bone remodeling that can result in stable, or even increased, bone density. Further clinical and basic studies are needed to confirm our unexpected findings.

  14. On the Use of Bone Remodelling Models to Estimate the Density Distribution of Bones. Uniqueness of the Solution

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Reina, Javier; Ojeda, Joaquín; Mayo, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodelling models are widely used in a phenomenological manner to estimate numerically the distribution of apparent density in bones from the loads they are daily subjected to. These simulations start from an arbitrary initial distribution, usually homogeneous, and the density changes locally until a bone remodelling equilibrium is achieved. The bone response to mechanical stimulus is traditionally formulated with a mathematical relation that considers the existence of a range of stimulus, called dead or lazy zone, for which no net bone mass change occurs. Implementing a relation like that leads to different solutions depending on the starting density. The non-uniqueness of the solution has been shown in this paper using two different bone remodelling models: one isotropic and another anisotropic. It has also been shown that the problem of non-uniqueness is only mitigated by removing the dead zone, but it is not completely solved unless the bone formation and bone resorption rates are limited to certain maximum values. PMID:26859888

  15. Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Nuri; Inci, Ayca; Coban, Melahat; Ulman, Cevval; Kursat, Seyhun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum bone turnover markers (BTM) and bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We enrolled 83 patients with CKD, 41 (49.4%) males, 42 (50.6%) females, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23.90±12 (range=6.0-56.0). BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) (anteroposterior, L2 through L4), femoral neck (FN) and femoral trochanter (FT) were measured by DEXA. Biochemical BTM, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum specific alkaline phosphatase (serum AP), bone-specific AP (BSAP), plasma bicarbonate and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25hD) were used for the prediction of BMD loss. T score results of LS and FN were worse than FT. BMD levels were lower in females than in males (all p<0.05). According to different BMD T score levels, patients with age ≥65 years and patients in menopause were significantly more osteopenic (p=0.026) and there was no relation between different BMD T scores and presence of diabetes (p=0.654). A positive correlation was identified between the BMD of FN T-Z scores (r=0.270, p=0.029, r=0.306, p=0.012), FT T-Z scores (r=0.220, p=0.076, r:0.250, p=0.043) and serum HCO3, while the correlation with serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and BSAP was considered to be negative. No statistically significant association was found between BMD of all the measured skeletal sites and eGFR. Loss of BMD was identified mostly in females over ≥65 years of age and after menopause. Higher serum levels of BSAP and AP can be determined in the advanced stages of renal failure and they reflect fracture risk of the femur, but not spine. Measurements of BMD by DEXA are useful to demonstrate bone loss, but not technical enough to distinguish the quantity of bone loss between different stages of CKD. PMID:26969749

  16. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics and Bone Density Analysis of the Implant-Bone Interface in a Pre- and Postmortem Human Subject

    PubMed Central

    Hui, DiDi; Bajaj, Vaibhav; Earthman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been hypothesized that a correlation exists between the density of surrounding cortical bone and the stability of an implant under percussion loading that can be used to quantify the implant's osseointegration. The purpose of the present research was to explore whether quantitative percussion testing of dental implants gives reasonable indications of the level of osseointegration that are consistent with bone configuration and its influence on osseointegration quality. Material and Methods Data from percussion testing of a live human subject, obtained using the Periometer®, were compared with corresponding bone density estimates from high-resolution computer tomography images and postmortem percussion probe data. Results The results confirm the hypothesis that the nature of an implant’s response to percussion is determined by its cortical bone support. Conclusions The findings suggest that the cortical bone supporting the crestal and apical regions of the implant is primarily responsible for structural stability. PMID:24278927

  17. Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. )

    1989-10-01

    To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

  18. Factors associated with bone mineral density in healthy African women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cliff; Gati, Brenda; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Bragg, Vivian; Livant, Edward; Piper, Jeanna M.; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Magure, Tsitsi; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of normative bone mineral density (BMD) data in healthy African women. Baseline total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured in premenopausal women. BMD distribution was comparable to that of a reference population and was impacted by several factors including contraception and duration of lactation. Introduction Normative data on bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative impact of lactation, contraceptive use, and other factors on BMD in healthy African women have not been well studied. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with BMD in healthy premenopausal women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Methods Baseline total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 518 healthy, premenopausal black women enrolling in VOICE, an HIV-1 chemoprevention trial, at sites in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Contraceptive and lactation histories, physical activity assessment, calcium intake, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Independent factors associated with BMD were identified using an analysis of covariance model. Results The study enrolled 331 women from Zimbabwe and 187 women from Uganda. Median age was 29 years (IQR 25, 32) and median body mass index (BMI) was 24.8 kg/m2 (IQR 22.2, 28.6). In univariate analyses, lower TH BMD values were associated with residence in Uganda (p<0.001), lower BMI (p<0.001), and any use of and duration of depot-medroxyprogresterone acetate. Use of oral contraceptives, progestin-only implants, and higher physical activity levels were protective against reduced BMD. Similarly, lower LS BMD values were associated with these same factors but also higher parity and history of breastfeeding. In a multivariable analysis, lower TH and LS BMD values were associated with enrollment in Uganda, lower BMI, and lower physical activity level; contraceptive use was associated with lower spine BMD, and breastfeeding contributed to lower total hip BMD. Conclusions

  19. Bone texture analysis on direct digital radiographic images: precision study and relationship with bone mineral density at the os calcis.

    PubMed

    Lespessailles, E; Gadois, C; Lemineur, G; Do-Huu, J P; Benhamou, L

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of bone microarchitecture in complement to bone mineral density (BMD) exam could improve prediction of osteoporotic fractures. A high-resolution X-ray prototype was developed to assess microarchitecture quality. Images were obtained on os calcis; then, three texture parameters were calculated on the same region of interest (ROI): a fractal parameter, a run-length parameter, and a co-occurrence parameter. This work describes the reproducibility of this method. We also examine the relationship between texture parameters and BMD at a site-matched ROI. Measurements on the left heel were performed on 30 healthy women, on the same day, with repositioning for short-term precision error. An additional measurement was done at 1 week to evaluate mid-term precision error on 14 subjects. Os calcis images from 10 healthy women were used to evaluate both intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Thirty other healthy patients were measured successively on two similar devices for interprototype comparison. BMD and texture analyses of the left heel were obtained from 57 women. Short-term precision errors ranged 1.16-1.24% according to the texture parameter. Mid-term precision error was slightly higher than short-term precision for the mean Hurst exponent parameter. Comparisons of texture parameters and BMD at a site-matched ROI on the os calcis showed no significant relationships. The results also show that the use of this high-resolution digital X-ray device improves the reproducibility of parameter measurement compared to the indirect digitization of radiologic films previously used. PMID:17308991

  20. The nonlinear transition period of broadband ultrasound attenuation as bone density varies.

    PubMed

    Serpe, L; Rho, J Y

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a transition period occurs between cortical and cancellous bone in the relationship between ultrasound parameters [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and ultrasonic velocity] and density. Twenty-two cancellous bone discs wee obtained from proximal bovine tibiae. Also included were three samples of human vertebral cancellous bone from an elderly female and four samples of bovine cortical bone. Ultrasonic velocity did not show any transition period as density varied from cancellous to cortical bone. Ultrasonic velocity exhibited a definite linear dependence on density over the entire range examined. However, BUA has shown a transition period as density varied. Although BUA increased linearly with density for a low density cancellous bone tested (below 0.64 g cm-3), the dependence of BUA on density is nonlinear with a downwardly inflected parabola shape when covering a wide density range (0.130-0.913 g cm-3) of cancellous bone. When one includes cortical bone, the parabola tends to level off in a slow exponential decay. This nonlinear dependence may help to understand the characteristics of BUA measurement. PMID:8809627

  1. Comparative Analysis of Linear and Angular Measurements on Digital Orthopantomogram with Calcaneus Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone remodeling is a continuous and complex process which occurs throughout life. Radiomorphometric and radioangular indices on the orthopantomogram are the predictors of bone remodeling associated with mandible. Bone mineral density is the amount of calcified tissue in a certain volume of the bone. Materials and Methods Fifty normal healthy individuals within the age range of 25-55 years were included in the study. Linear measurements including mandibular cortical width (MCW) and panoramic mandibular index (PMI); and angular measurements including mandibular angle (MA) and antegonial angle (AGA) were recorded. Quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density (BMD) scan of the heel bone (calcaneus) of the same patient were also performed. Results In our study, for both males and females, antegonial angle (AGA) had highest correlation with calcaneus bone mineral density. In the age group of less than 35 years, PMI in males, and AGA in females had highest correlation. In the age range of more than 35 years, MA in males and AGA in females had highest correlation. Conclusion There is a correlation between the mandibular bone remodelling changes and calcaneal bone mineral density in case of elder subjects and thus these parameters may be used as an inexpensive alternative screening method to assess the bone mineral density and identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and fractures and also for dental treatment planning. PMID:26393197

  2. Comparison of bone histomorphometry and μCT for evaluating bone quality in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; Luan, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Astronauts often suffer from microgravity-induced osteoporosis due to their time in space. Bone histomorphometry, the 'gold standard' technique for detecting bone quality, is widely used in the evaluation of osteoporosis. This study investigates whether μCT has the same application value as histomorphometry in the evaluation of weightlessness-induced bone loss. A total of 24 SD rats were distributed into three groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus active exercise (TSA), and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and μCT, and microstructure was measured by μCT and histomorphometry. BMD was found to have decreased significantly in TS and TSA compared with the CON group. The results of the μCT measurements showed that a change in BMD mainly occurred in the trabecular bone, and the trabecular BMD increased significantly in the TSA compared with the TS group. The comparison of μCT and histomorphometry showed that TS led to a significant decrease in bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N), and it led to an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). However, active exercise can prevent these changes. Significant differences in most parameters between TSA and CON were found by μCT but not by histomorphometry. Additionally, the parameters of these two methods are highly correlated. Therefore, the application value of μCT is as good as histomorphometry and DXA in the diagnosis of weightlessness-induced osteoporosis and is even better in evaluating the efficacy of exercise.

  3. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  4. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. Results The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (p<0.05). The FIM score was also positively correlated with the BMD of femur (p<0.05). Moreover, CP patients with higher ambulatory function had significantly higher BMD of femur (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that BMI and functional levels such as FIM and ambulatory function can affect BMD in adults with CP. The results might be used as basic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP. PMID:23342308

  6. [Physical activity/sports and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Takeaki

    2008-09-01

    This study observed the amount of exercise of Japanese schoolchildren as recorded by pedometer. Schools are necessary venues to increase children's mobility, but home environments are hotbeds for lack of exercise on weekends and during holidays and vacations. This research measured the L(2 - 4)BMD of 185 male and female primary schoolchildren using a DEXA method. Results showed significant partial correlations for measurements of boys' grip strength, boys' standing broad jump, and girls' grip strength, indicating the influence of mechanical stress. In a parallel study, L(2 - 4)BMD measurements for high school athletic club members (14 and 10 sports for boys and girls respectively) were taken, and it was found that the L(2 - 4)BMD (60 kg/weight) values were significantly higher than the control values for boys' boxing and weightlifting but significantly lower for boys' sumo. No significance was found in L(2 - 4)BMD (50 kg/weight) among the different girls' sports. From both studies, it was concluded that with approximately 2 hours of moderate play and exercise daily, the bone density of children rises with increase of overall muscle quantity, resulting in higher athletic ability and overall physical strength. PMID:18758041

  7. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vámossy, C.; Davidson, S.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This project was a European regional bilateral comparison of volume determination of stainless steel standards of 10 g, 20 g, and 200 g and 1 kg carried out under the auspices of EURAMET (project 1356, EURAMET.M.D-S3). The objectives of the present comparison were to check the measurement capabilities of the participants in the field of volume measurements of weights and provide a basis for the calibration measurement capabilities (CMC). BEV (Austria) was the pilot laboratory and the provider of the transfer standards. MKEH was the other participant in the bilateral comparison and NPL collected the measurement data ensuring the impartiality. The objectives of the comparison were achieved. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Geographic differences in bone mineral density of Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Delezé, M; Cons-Molina, F; Villa, A R; Morales-Torres, J; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J G; Calva, J J; Murillo, A; Briceño, A; Orozco, J; Morales-Franco, G; Peña-Rios, H; Guerrero-Yeo, G; Aguirre, E; Elizondo, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate standard curves for normal spinal and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in Mexican women using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to analyze geographic differences and to compare these with 'Hispanic' reference data to determine its applicability. This was a cross-sectional study of 4460 urban, clinically normal, Mexican women, aged 20-90 years, from 10 different cities in Mexico (5 in the north, 4 in the center and 1 in the southeast) with densitometry centers. Women with suspected medical conditions or who had used drugs affecting bone metabolism, were excluded. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher (1.089 +/- 0.18 g/cm2) in women from the northern part of Mexico, with intermediate values in the center (1.065 +/- 0.17 g/cm2) and lower values (1.013 +/- 0.19 g/cm2) in the southeast (p < 0.0001). Similarly, femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in women from the north (0.895 +/- 0.14 g/cm2), intermediate in the center (0.864 +/- 0.14 g/cm2) and lower (0.844 +/- 0.14 g/cm ) in the southeast part of Mexico (p < 0.0001). Northern Mexican women tend to be taller and heavier than women from the center and, even more, than those from the southeast of Mexico (p < 0.0001). However, these differences in BMD remained significant after adjustment for weight (p < 0.0001). A significant loss (p < 0.0001) in BMD was observed from 40 to 69 years of age at the lumbar spine and up to the eighth decade at the femoral neck. Higher and lower lumbar spine values, as compared with the 'Hispanic' population, were observed in Mexican mestizo women from the northern and southeastern regions, respectively. In conclusion, there are geographic differences in weight and height of Mexican women, and in BMD despite adjustment for weight. PMID:11069189

  9. Bone Density, Osteocalcin and Deoxypyridinoline for Early Detection of Osteoporosis in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    El-Dorry, Ghada; Ashry, Hala; Ibrahim, Tarek; Elias, Tahany; Alzaree, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed at comparing between bone density using DEXA, serum osteocalcin and urinary DPD in obese and non obese prepubertal children. METHODS: After taking the consent of eighty children they were subjected to: full examination, anthropometric measurements, blood samples were withdrawn to determine serum osteocalcin, Ca, Ph, alkaline phosphatase, and urinary DPD. Bone densities, body composition of the whole body were examined using DEXA. Data were analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: All anthropometric variables showed significant increase in obese children except for height in comparison to control group. Total mass, lean + BMC, lean, fat, area, BMC, BMD and Z score of the whole body were significantly increased in obese children. Serum calcium showed significant increase while alkaline phosphatase was significantly decreased in obese children. DPD showed no significant difference between obese and non obese children. Significant negative correlation was found between ca, lean, lean + BMC and total mass. Serum alkaline phosphatase showed also a significant negative correlation with (lean + BMC and total mass). Serum osteocalcin showed negative significant correlation with area, BMC, BMD, lean and Z score. CONCLUSION: Obese children showed significant increase in anthropometric and DEXA parameters, increase in serum calcium and significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase. Osteocalcin was negatively correlated with most of DEXA results. PMID:27275260

  10. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47-78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  11. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin ameliorates the decrease in both bone mineral density and bone strength in immobilized rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shin-ichi; Fujise, Nobuaki; Higashio, Kanji; Tsuda, Eisuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat models of immobilization-induced osteopenia are characterized by uncoupling of bone metabolism, i.e., increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in trabecular bone. Using such a rat model, the efficacy of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF)/osteoprotegerin, a novel secreted protein that inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in reducing bone loss was investigated. Male Fischer rats were neurectomized and injected intramuscularly with either OCIF (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle once daily for 7 days. On the eighth day after sciatic neurectomy, significant bone loss was observed in the vehicle-injected rats. OCIF ameliorated the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of both the proximal and distal femur in a dose-dependent manner. OCIF also ameliorated the decrease in bone strength of the femoral neck at the highest dose. A high correlation (r = 0.805) was detected between the BMD of the distal femur and the bone strength of the femoral neck. When OCIF was administered intermittently to the immobilized rats twice weekly (on days 1 and 4) after immobilization, it also ameliorated the decrease in BMD of the distal femur. These results suggest that OCIF has therapeutic potential for the treatment of immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:11810411

  12. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  13. Comparison of bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy in neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hamid, G A; Hanbala, N

    2009-07-01

    Naturally trephine biopsies have definitive advantages over aspirates in case of dry tap bone marrow aspirates as a result of fibrosis or densely packed bone marrow by tumour cells and may be informative independent of cytology especially in bone marrow involvement by lymphomas and carcinomas. In this prospective descriptive study we aimed to compare between the bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMTB) and bone marrow aspirates (BMAs) regarding the detection rate of solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma involvement of the bone marrow. The study was carried out in the department of pathology and Haematology-Oncology of Al-Gamhouria Teaching Hospital/Aden during the period between Jan 2005 to Dec 2005. A total of 32 patients with suspected or confirmed malignancy undergone both BMTB and BMA from the posterior superior iliac crest and both results were compared. We divided them into three groups: those with solid tumours (21) patients, lymphoma (7) patients and with MM (4) patients. Our results showed that BMA had a 47.6% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, with positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (50.0%). In solid tumours alone it had a sensitivity of (40.0%), 100% specificity, with positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (64.7%). This gives the BMA a lower sensitivity in detecting solid tumour metastasis and lymphoma involvement in comparison to BMTB. In conclusion, any patient with suspected or confirmed cancer should undergo BMTB because of its high sensitivity compared to BMA. PMID:20194084

  14. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens. PMID:18212376

  15. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  16. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Scott; Bhatt, Harikrashna

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  17. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  18. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  19. The effects of trunk stabilization exercise on bone density after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of low intensity exercise on bone density by conducting trunk stabilization exercise on females after menopause for 24 weeks. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty three female subjects over 47 years old and under the age of 53 were selected and 16 for experimental group and 17 for control group were randomly selected. Experimental group had performed spinal and pelvic stabilization exercise 30 minutes a day, 5times a week, for 24 weeks. Except for the daily life, control group did not participate in any characteristic movement. Bone density of every member in experimental group was measured using average value of bone density of 1st–4th lumbar through quantitative computer tomography. [Results] There was a meaningful difference in only control group about measured value of bone density within each group, experimental and control group, but there was no meaningful difference in measured value of bone density between two groups, experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Through this research, we could see the fact that although trunk stability exercise could not change bone density meaningfully, it could maintain bone density. In the future, it is randomly necessary to study things related this because results of researches can show different results according to exercise intensity, exercise period, age, weight, hormone status and mediation period. It is considered that it will help to prevent and treat patients with osteoporosis a lot. PMID:26834370

  20. Bone Mineral Density and Microarchitecture in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mariana; Coelho, Maria Caroline Alves; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; de Paula Paranhos-Neto, Francisco; Madeira, Miguel; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Neto, Leonardo Vieira

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this case study is to describe changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, as well as volumetric bone density and microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in two patients with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO) and compare with 20 healthy subjects. We describe a 44-year-old male patient with six low-impact fractures since he was age 16 years, and a 32-year-old female patient with four low-impact fractures on her past history. Radiographic changes were typical of ADO. Consistent with the much higher aBMD, total volumetric BMD (average bone density of the whole bone, including trabecular and cortical compartments) at distal radius and tibia (HR-pQCT) was more than twice the mean values found in healthy subjects in both patients. Trabecular number and thickness were higher, leading to an evident increase in trabecular bone volume to tissue volume. Also, an enormous increase in cortical thickness was found. Most important, a great heterogeneity in bone microstructure of the affected patients was evident on HR-pQCT images: islets of very dense bone were interposed with areas with apparent normal density. The increase in aBMD, volumetric BMD, and most indices of trabecular and cortical bone, associated with the great heterogeneity on bone tridimensional microarchitecture, reflect the accumulation of old and fragile bone randomly distributed along the skeleton. These alterations in bone microstructure probably compromise bone quality, which might justify the high prevalence of low-impact fractures in patients with ADO, despite abnormally elevated BMD. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26387875

  1. Disordered-Eating Attitudes in Relation to Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover in Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schvey, Natasha A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanoff, Lisa B.; Checchi, Jenna M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila; Savastano, David M.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationships between cognitive eating restraint and both bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Methods 137 overweight (BMI 39.1±6.8 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian adolescent (age=14.4 ± 1.4y) girls (66.4%) and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and Eating Inventory (EI) questionnaire and underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure total lumbar spine BMD. Markers of bone formation (serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), bone resorption (24-hour urine N-telopeptides), and stress (urine free cortisol) were measured. Results After accounting for the contribution of demographics, height, weight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and depressive symptoms, adolescents’ weight concern, as assessed by interview, was a significant contributor to a model of urine free cortisol (β =.30, p <.05). Shape concern, as also assessed by interview, was significantly associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (β =.−.15, p < 05). Dietary restraint was not a significant predictor in any of these models. Conclusions These findings suggest that among severely overweight adolescents, dissatisfaction with shape and weight may be salient stressors. Future research is required to illuminate the relationship between bone health and disordered-eating attitudes in overweight adolescents. PMID:19541247

  2. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. PMID:24362453

  3. Pregnancy-associated changes in bone density and bone turnover in the physiological state: prospective data on sixteen women.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C E; Pennisi, P; DiStefano, A; Riccobene, S; Caschetto, S

    2003-05-01

    Areal bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm 2) was measured for the total body, lumbar spine and hip with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before pregnancy and after delivery in sixteen women aged 21 - 35 years. Additional measurements included quantitative ultrasound indices (broadband ultrasound attenuation, BUA, at the calcaneus at baseline and at 16, 26, and 36 weeks of pregnancy, and postpartum) as well as biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption (measured before pregnancy and during pregnancy at 16, 22, 26, 30, 34, and 36 weeks of pregnancy and postpartum). The results of measurements were as follows: 1. Postpartum BMD showed a significant reduction in the total body (- 13.4 %), in the spine (- 9.2 %) and in the hip (-7.8 % at the femoral neck and - 9.2 % at the Ward's triangle) compared to pre-pregnancy values. 2. Biochemical markers of bone resorption increased by 26 weeks. 3. Bone ultrasound measurements that provide information on bone density before delivery did not change throughout pregnancy. A significant reduction of BUA (- 14.5 % compared to baseline) was observed postpartum only. These data would suggest that pregnancy-induced bone loss develops rapidly after the 36 week of pregnancy, possibly via enhanced bone resorption. PMID:12916002

  4. Tibolone increases bone mineral density but also relapse in breast cancer survivors: LIBERATE trial bone substudy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Livial Intervention Following Breast Cancer: Efficacy, Recurrence and Tolerability Endpoints (LIBERATE: Clinical http://Trials.gov number NCT00408863), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that demonstrated that tibolone (Livial), a tissue-selective hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), increased breast cancer (BC) recurrence HR 1.40 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.70; P = 0.001). A subgroup of women was entered into a study of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Women with surgically excised primary BC (T1-3, N0-2, M-0) within the last 5 years, complaining of vasomotor symptoms, were assigned to tibolone, 2.5 mg daily, or placebo treatment for a maximum of 5 years. The BMD substudy enrolled 763 patients, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning at baseline and at 2 years. Results In the bone substudy, 699 of 763 women were eligible (345 allocated to tibolone, and 354, to placebo). After undergoing DXA scans, 300 (43%) women had normal BMD; 317 (45%), osteopenia; and 82 (11.7%), osteoporosis. Low body-mass index (P < 0.001), Asian race (P < 0.001), and late age at menarche (P < 0.04) predicted low bone mass at baseline. Tibolone increased BMD by 3.2% at the lumbar spine and 2.9% at the hip compared with placebo (both P < 0.001). The majority of fractures (55%) occurred in osteopenic patients. Women with normal BMD had increased recurrence with tibolone, 22 (15.6%) of 141 compared with placebo, 11 (6.9%) of 159 (P = 0.016), whereas no increased BC recurrence was seen in women with low BMD; 15 (7.4%) of 204 taking tibolone versus 13 (6.7%) of 195 taking placebo. Conclusions Tibolone is contraindicated after BC treatment, as it increases BMD and BC recurrence. Risk of BC recurrence was elevated in BC women with normal BMD (compared with low) who took tibolone. PMID:22251615

  5. The effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness on micromotion and peri-implant bone strain distribution in an immediately loaded implant: a nonlinear finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness at the implant-placement site on micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) and the peri-implant bone strain distribution under immediate-loading conditions. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of the posterior mandible with an implant was constructed. Various bone parameters were simulated, including low or high cancellous bone density, low or high crestal cortical bone density, and crestal cortical bone thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. Delayed- and immediate-loading conditions were simulated. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. Results The maximum extent of micromotion was approximately 100 μm in the low-density cancellous bone models, whereas it was under 30 μm in the high-density cancellous bone models. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum micromotion in the low-density cancellous bone models. The minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone was affected by the density of the crestal cortical bone and cancellous bone to the same degree for both delayed and immediate loading. In the low-density cancellous bone models under immediate loading, the minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone decreased with an increase in crestal cortical bone thickness. Conclusions Cancellous bone density may be a critical factor for avoiding excessive micromotion in immediately loaded implants. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum extent of micromotion and peri-implant bone strain in simulations of low-density cancellous bone under immediate loading. PMID:27382504

  6. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  7. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm(2))], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones. PMID:22225247

  8. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  9. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  10. Osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa: the influence of peak bone density, bone loss, oral contraceptive use, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Seeman, E; Szmukler, G I; Formica, C; Tsalamandris, C; Mestrovic, R

    1992-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa occurs early in life and predisposes to osteoporosis. Exercise may be protective. We asked: (1) Does failure to attain peak bone density contribute to the deficit in bone density? (2) Does oral contraceptive use protect against osteoporosis? (3) Is any protective effect of exercise confined to weight-bearing sites? Areal bone density (g/cm2) and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 65 patients with anorexia nervosa and 52 controls. Comparing the 12 patients with primary amenorrhea and the 37 patients with secondary amenorrhea, bone density (mean +/- SEM) at the lumbar spine was 0.88 +/- 0.04 versus 1.06 +/- 0.03 (P = 0.001), respectively. Bone density at the femoral neck was 0.80 +/- 0.04 versus 0.92 +/- 0.03 (P < 0.05), respectively. These values differed before, but not after, adjusting for the respective duration of illness (73.0 +/- 10.3 versus 34.1 +/- 4.8 months, P < 0.001) and fat-free mass (31.6 +/- 1.3 versus 35.4 +/- 0.5 kg, P < 0.01). Bone density at the lumbar spine in the 16 patients with 31.8 +/- 8.3 months of contraceptive exposure was higher than in the 49 patients with no contraceptive exposure (1.14 +/- 0.05 versus 1.02 +/- 0.02 P < 0.02) but was lower than in controls (1.14 +/- 0.05 versus 1.27 +/- 1.02, P < 0.01). No protective effect of contraceptive exposure was detectable at the femoral neck.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1481732

  11. Cross-National Comparison of Population Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Alice Taylor; Day, Lincoln H.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the fallacies inherent in the concept of human population density, and demonstrates how viewing population density within both a demographic and cultural context can throw into question some of the standard current conceptions concerning the meaning of man-land ratios. (JR)

  12. Comparison of Bone Tissue Elements Between Normal and Osteoarthritic Pelvic Bones in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L

    2016-06-01

    Physiochemical analysis of bones affected with osteoarthritis (OA) can be used to better understand the etiology of this disease. We investigated the percentage of chemical elements in canine pelvic bone affected with varying degrees of OA using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer that discriminates magnesium (Mg(12)) through bismuth (Bi(83)). A total of 45 pelvic bones, including both ilium and subchondral acetabular bone plates, were categorized as normal (n = 20), mild grade OA (n = 5), moderate grade OA (n = 15), and severe grade OA (n = 5). In normal pelvic, seven elements (P, Ca, Mn, Ag, Cd, Sn, and Sb) differed (p < 0.005) in percentage between ilium and acetabulum. Comparisons among the four OA groups found Mn and Fe to be highest in severe grades (p < 0.05) in both ilium and acetabulum. Three heavy metals (Ag, Sn, and Sb) were detected in high percentages (p < 0.05) in the severe OA group in the acetabulum, but in ilium only Sn was high (p < 0.05) in severe OA. In conclusion, the percentages of several elements differed between pelvic types in dogs, and also with increasing severity of OA. The finding of high Mn and Fe in severe grade OA bone suggests these two elements may be useful in future studies of the etiology and pathophysiology of OA. PMID:26537116

  13. Increased bone density and decreased bone turnover, but no evident alteration of fracture susceptibility in elderly women with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gerdhem, P; Isaksson, A; Akesson, K; Obrant, Karl J

    2005-12-01

    Bone density, bone turnover and fracture susceptibility were evaluated in 1,132 randomly recruited women, all 75 years old. Seventy-four of the women had diabetes, while 1,058 women did not. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the hip and lumbar spine was investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mass of the calcaneus was measured by ultrasound. Urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (U-DPD/Crea) and serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (S-CTX) were assessed as markers of bone resorption. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (S-bone ALP) and serum osteocalcin (S-OC) were assessed as markers of bone formation. Also, serum 25(OH) vitamin D and serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) were assessed. Fracture susceptibility was evaluated retrospectively and prospectively for up to 6.5 years. In diabetic women, the aBMD of the femoral neck was 11% higher (p<0.001), and BMD of the lumbar spine was 8% higher (p=0.002) than in non-diabetic women. There was no difference in bone mass by ultrasound of the calcaneus. Women with diabetes had higher BMD of the femoral neck (p<0.001) and lumbar spine (p=0.03) also after correction for differences in body weight. In diabetic women, U-DPD/Crea, S-CTX, and S-OC were decreased when compared with non-diabetic women (p=0.001 or less). After correction for covariance of body weight and plasma creatinine, S-CTX (p<0.001) and S-OC (p<0.001) were still lower in the diabetic women. Diabetic patients had hypovitaminosis D (p=0.008), a difference explained by differences in time spent outdoors and body weight. S-PTH did not differ between the groups. Women with diabetes had no more lifetime fractures (52%) than women without diabetic disease (57%), (p=0.31). This study shows that elderly women with diabetes and without severe renal insufficiency have high bone mass and low bone turnover. The high bone mass and low bone turnover is not likely to have a strong influence on fracture susceptibility

  14. Bone mineral density and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Debjani; Cooke, Andrew L; Lix, Lisa; Metge, Colleen; Lu, Huimin; Leslie, William D

    2011-04-01

    To determine if higher bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for breast cancer in women age 50 years and older. 37,860 women ≥ 50-year old with no previous breast cancer diagnosis had baseline BMD assessment between January 1999 and December 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were created for time to a new breast cancer as a function of lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD quartile (1st = lowest as reference) with adjustment for relevant covariates. A secondary analysis was performed to look for an association with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers. 794 invasive and in situ breast cancers (484 ER-positive) occurred with a median follow up of 5.4 years. Increased breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd and 4th quartiles of lumbar spine BMD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.81), respectively and for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.64). A test for linear trend showed that lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.001) and femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04) were associated with increased risk. Higher lumbar spine BMD was also associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer with HR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08-1.94), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.24-2.27) for women in the 2nd and 4th quartiles, respectively. A test for linear trend showed lumbar spine BMD was associated with increasing risk of ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.003). Increased ER-positive breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.89). Higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women ≥50-year old. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:20838879

  15. Bone and high-density lipoprotein: The beginning of a beautiful friendship

    PubMed Central

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Blair, Harry C

    2016-01-01

    There is a tight link between bone and lipid metabolic pathways. In this vein, several studies focused on the exploration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the pathobiology of bone diseases, with emphasis to the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis, the most common bone pathologies. Indeed, epidemiological and in vitro data have connected reduced HDL levels or dysfunctional HDL with cartilage destruction and OA development. Recent studies uncovered functional links between HDL and OA fueling the interesting hypothesis that OA could be a chronic element of the metabolic syndrome. Other studies have linked HDL to bone mineral density. Even though at epidemiological levels the results are conflicting, studies in animals as well as in vitro experiments have shown that HDL facilitates osteoblastogensis and bone synthesis and most probably affects osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast bone resorption. Notably, reduced HDL levels result in increased bone marrow adiposity affecting bone cells function. Unveiling the mechanisms that connect HDL and bone/cartilage homeostasis may contribute to the design of novel therapeutic agents for the improvement of bone and cartilage quality and thus for the treatment of related pathological conditions. PMID:26925377

  16. Bone and high-density lipoprotein: The beginning of a beautiful friendship.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Blair, Harry C

    2016-02-18

    There is a tight link between bone and lipid metabolic pathways. In this vein, several studies focused on the exploration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the pathobiology of bone diseases, with emphasis to the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis, the most common bone pathologies. Indeed, epidemiological and in vitro data have connected reduced HDL levels or dysfunctional HDL with cartilage destruction and OA development. Recent studies uncovered functional links between HDL and OA fueling the interesting hypothesis that OA could be a chronic element of the metabolic syndrome. Other studies have linked HDL to bone mineral density. Even though at epidemiological levels the results are conflicting, studies in animals as well as in vitro experiments have shown that HDL facilitates osteoblastogensis and bone synthesis and most probably affects osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast bone resorption. Notably, reduced HDL levels result in increased bone marrow adiposity affecting bone cells function. Unveiling the mechanisms that connect HDL and bone/cartilage homeostasis may contribute to the design of novel therapeutic agents for the improvement of bone and cartilage quality and thus for the treatment of related pathological conditions. PMID:26925377

  17. How do changes to plate thickness, length, and face-connectivity affect femoral cancellous bone's density and surface area? An investigation using regular cellular models.

    PubMed

    Anderson, I A; Carman, J B

    2000-03-01

    Models of regular cellular-solids representing femoral head 'medial group' bone were used to (1) compare thickness data for plate-like and beam-like structures at realistic surface areas and densities; (2) test the validity of a standard formula for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th); and (3) study how systematic changes in cancellous bone thicknesses, spacing, and face-connectivity affect relative density and surface area. Models of different face-connectivities, produced by plate removal from the unit cell, were fitted to bone density and surface area data. The medial group bone was anisotropic: the supero-inferior (SI) direction was the principal direction for bone plate alignment and the plane normal to this had the largest number of bone/void intersections per unit line length (P(I)). A comparison of boundary perimeter per unit area data, in planes normal to SI, with surface area data placed the medial group bone between prismatic structures in which walls are parallel to one principal direction and isotropic structures. Selective removal of plates from a closed-cell model produced a similar result. For the same relative density and surface-area, plate-like models had significantly thinner cross-sections than beam-like models. The formula for Tb.Th produced overestimates of model plate thickness by up to 20% at realistic femoral cancellous densities. Trends in data on surface area to volume ratio and density observed on sampled medial group bone could be simulated by plate thickness changes on models of intermediate face-connectivity (approximately 1.5) or by plate removal from models with relatively thick and short (low aspect-ratio) plates. The latter mechanism is unrealistic for it resulted in beam-like structures at low 'medial group' densities, an architecture unlike the predominantly plate-like bone in the sample. PMID:10673116

  18. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates. PMID:24149760

  19. [Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density in a sample population of Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Aranda-Gallegos, J E; Río de la Loza-Cava, M F; Ortíz-Luna, G; Mendoza-Torres, L J; Santos-González, J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that a women with high body mass index (BMI > or = 28) has greater bone mineral density (BMD) from that with lower BMI. We studied 922 healthy women who met the inclusion criteria. They were classified into four groups according to their BMI (> or = 28 and < 28) and age (> or = 35 and < 35 years). Bone mineral measurement was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the hip and at the lumbar region. BMD in overweight women older than 35 years was significantly higher in comparison with that of women with lower BMI, both in the hip and the lumbar spine. In overweight women younger than 35 years, we found greater BMD in the hip reaching statistical significance, but not at the lumbar spine. We conclude that obesity is associated with greater BMD (4% at the lumbar spine; 11% at the hip) probably due to both greater physical stress and higher estrogen levels. PMID:9737066

  20. Bone turnover in early rheumatoid arthritis. 2. Longitudinal bone density studies.

    PubMed Central

    Sambrook, P N; Ansell, B M; Foster, S; Gumpel, J M; Hesp, R; Reeve, J

    1985-01-01

    Serial measurements of bone mineral in 17 ambulant female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of recent onset and 19 age matched female controls were made in the radius by computed tomography and in the vertebrae by dual photon absorptiometry. Loss of trabecular bone from the distal radius was more rapid in RA (p = 0.0014), but there was no difference in the rate of loss of bone mineral from the radial midshaft or lumbar spine compared with the controls. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that the predominant form of bone loss early in the disease is the vicinity of affected joints. PMID:3876077

  1. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture. PMID:25245313

  2. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.E.; Bloch, D.A.; Jones, H.H.; Marshall, W.H. Jr.; Wood, P.D.; Fries, J.F.

    1986-03-07

    Forty-one long-distance runners aged 50 to 72 years were compared with 41 matched community controls to examine associations of repetitive, long-term physical impact (running) with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Roentgenograms of hands, lateral lumbar spine, and knees were assessed without knowledge of running status. A computed tomographic scan of the first lumbar vertebra was performed to quantitate bone mineral content. Runners, both male and female, have approximately 40% more bone mineral than matched controls. Female runners, but not male runners, appear to have somewhat more sclerosis and spur formation in spine and weight-bearing knee x-ray films, but not in hand x-ray films. There were no differences between groups in joint space narrowing, crepitation, joint stability, or symptomatic osteoarthritis. Running is associated with increased bone mineral but not, in this cross-sectional study, with clinical osteoarthritis.

  3. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  4. Correlation of Subchondral Bone Density and Structure from Plain Radiographs with Micro Computed Tomography Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Thevenot, Jérôme; Kokkonen, Harri T; Finnilä, Mikko A; Venäläinen, Mikko S; Jämsä, Timo; Korhonen, Rami K; Töyräs, Juha; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-05-01

    Osteoarthritis causes changes in the subchondral bone structure and composition. Plain radiography is a cheap, fast, and widely available imaging method. Bone tissue can be well seen from plain radiograph, which however is only a 2D projection of the actual 3D structure. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the relationship between bone density- and structure-related parameters from 2D plain radiograph and 3D bone parameters assessed from micro computed tomography (µCT) ex vivo. Right tibiae from eleven cadavers without any diagnosed joint disease were imaged using radiography and with µCT. Bone density- and structure-related parameters were calculated from four different locations from the radiographs of proximal tibia and compared with the volumetric bone microarchitecture from the corresponding regions. Bone density from the plain radiograph was significantly related with the bone volume fraction (r = 0.86; n = 44; p < 0.01). Mean homogeneity index for orientation of local binary patterns (HIangle,mean) and fractal dimension of vertical structures (FDVer) were related (p < 0.01) with connectivity density (HIangle,mean: r = -0.73, FDVer: r = 0.69) and trabecular separation (HIangle,mean: r = 0.73, FDVer: r = -0.70) when all ROIs were pooled together (n = 44). Bone density and structure in tibia from standard clinically available 2D radiographs are significantly correlated with true 3D microstructure of bone. PMID:26369637

  5. In vivo bone formation by human bone marrow cells: effect of osteogenic culture supplements and cell densities.

    PubMed

    Mendes, S C; Van Den Brink, I; De Bruijn, J D; Van Blitterswijk, C A

    1998-12-01

    Bone marrow is known to contain a population of osteoprogenitor cells that can go through complete differentiation when cultured in a medium containing appropriate bioactive factors. In this study, porous particles of a calcium phosphate material were seeded with adult human bone marrow cells in the second passage. After an additional culture period of 1 wk in the particles, these hybrid constructs were subcutaneouslly implanted in nude mice with a survival period of 4 wk. The cell seeding densities range from 0-200 000 cells per particle and the cell culture system was designed to investigate the single and combined effects of dexamethasone and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The hybrid "material/tissue" constructs were processed for histology and the amount of de novo bone formation was quantified, for each culture condition, by histomorphometric techniques. The relative percentage of mineralized bone formation reached a maximal value of 19.77+/-5.06, for samples cultured in the presence of rhBMP-2 and with a seeding density of 200 000 cells/particle, compared to 0.52+/-0.45 for samples in which no cells had been cultured and had been incubated in culture medium supplemented with Dex and rhBMP-2. For the tested conditions and for the low cell numbers used in this study, rhBMP-2 proved to be an essential bioactive factor to obtain in vivo bone formation by our culture system. The results from this study prove the potential of cultured adult human bone marrow cells to initiate and accelerate de novo bone formation after transplantation into an ectopic site. PMID:15348953

  6. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  7. Bone mineral density in asthmatic patients using low dose inhaled glucocorticosteroids.

    PubMed

    El, O; Gulbahar, S; Ceylan, E; Ergor, G; Sahin, E; Senocak, O; Oncel, S; Cimrin, A

    2005-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are clearly beneficial in subjects with moderate or severe asthma since they are well tolerated, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life. Some studies suggest that inhaled glucocorticosteroids can adversely affect bone mineral density. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of inhaled glucocorticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density in female patients. Forty-five asthmatic female patients (36 premenopousal and 9 postmenopausal) and forty-six healthy control subjects were included in the study. Bone mineral density was measured from lumbar spine (L1-4) and femur (neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) by dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Age, occupation, menopause and smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, previous fractures, family history of fractures, menstrual history, ooferectomy, number of pregnancies, the duration of lactation, physical activity and calcium intake were questioned according to the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group (EVOS) form. Cumulative inhaled glucocorticosteroid dose was calculated. T score of femoral neck and T score and bone mineral density of Ward's triangle were significantly lower in asthmatic patients compared to control group but no statistically significant correlation was found between the disease duration, inhaled steroid treatment duration, cumulative inhaled dose and annual inhaled steroid dose and bone mineral density measurement. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients using low dose inhaled corticosteroids bone mineral density is lower than in healthy controls but it is still unclear if asthma by itself is a risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:15864884

  8. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers Under Bisphosphonate Therapy Used in the First Year After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nowacka-Cieciura, Ewa; Sadowska, Anna; Pacholczyk, Marek; Chmura, Andrzej; Tronina, Olga; Durlik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapid bone loss occurs early after liver transplantation (Tx), concomitantly with intensified bone turnover. In the present study we investigated the effect of bisphosphonates (bisph) added to vitamin D (vitD) and calcium on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biomarkers in liver graft recipients in the first posttransplant year. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 28 patients BMD was determined at the third month after Tx. In case of osteopenia (Tscore ≤-1.0) and no contraindications, oral bisph was started for 1 year (group BP, n=14); other patients served as controls (CON, n=14). The changes in BMD and biomarkers of bone formation were osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and resorption. Study endpoints were active isoform 5b of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP5b), serum pyridinoline crosslinks (PYD), and urine excretion of deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) crosslinks. RESULTS In 19 (68%) patients, reduced BMD (T-score ≤1.0) was observed at baseline. The changes in lumbar BMD in BP and CON groups were 5.2% and 1.5%, respectively, not reaching statistical significance. Baseline PYD, Dpd/creat, and OC were elevated in all patients, indicating high bone turnover. We observed decrease in PYD and Dpd/creat in both groups; however, OC decreased only under bisph therapy. Increase in BAP was observed in the control group but not in the BP group. The changes in BAP and OC were significantly different (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Combining bisph with vitD and calcium is an effective bone- sparing strategy in liver transplant recipients in the first posttransplant year. Bisph more efficiently decreased the rate of bone turnover than vitD and calcium alone. PMID:27112626

  9. Metabolic and clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone density.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Jagoda; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina M; Arnason, Terra

    2013-01-01

    In 1891, Von Recklinghausen first established the association between the development of osteoporosis in the presence of overt hyperthyroidism. Subsequent reports have demonstrated that BMD loss is common in frank hyperthyroidism, and, to a lesser extent, in subclinical presentations. With the introduction of antithyroid medication in the 1940s to control biochemical hyperthyroidism, the accompanying bone disease became less clinically apparent as hyperthyroidism was more successfully treated medically. Consequently, the impact of the above normal thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis may be presently underrecognized due to the widespread effective treatments. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism. The vast number of recent papers touching on this topic highlights the recognized impact of this common medical condition on bone health. Our focus in this review was to search for answers to the following questions. What is the mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism? What are the clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on BMD and fracture risk? What differences are there between men and women with thyroid disease and how does menopause change the clinical outcomes? Lastly, we report how different treatments for hyperthyroidism benefit thyroid hormone-induced osteoporosis. PMID:23970897

  10. [Possible methods for evaluating bone density in the maxillofacial region].

    PubMed

    Koppány, Ferenc; Joób-Fancsaly, Arpád; Szabo, György

    2007-04-01

    Bone densitometry is a commonly used procedure in general medicine to measure the mineral content of the bone. The method helps in establishing an early diagnosis of metabolic diseases of the bone (especially osteoporosis), which decreases the incidence of pathological fractures in a high degree. Recent studies have shown that significant correlation can be found between the optical densitometric evaluations of the jaws and the densitometric figures of other bones of the skeleton (spine, hip). These results point out the possible role of the dentist in the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The recent methods in general medicine are based on the measurement of photon and x-ray absorption followed by computerized analysis (single photon absorptiometry, single energy x-ray absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry). Besides the previously mentioned techniques ultrasound attenuation detection (quantitative ultrasound) and computed tomographic approaches are also widely spread. Methods utilizing the developed panoramic x-ray films are also being used for densitometric evaluations. The results given by these measurements seem to be promising as a unique detection of the early signs of osteoporosis. PMID:17546899

  11. Probiotic use decreases intestinal inflammation and increases bone density in healthy male but not female mice.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Laura R; Irwin, Regina; Schaefer, Laura; Britton, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti-inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti-TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bone density. Adult male mice were given L. reuteri 6475 orally by gavage for 3×/week for 4 weeks. Examination of jejunal and ileal RNA profiles indicates that L. reuteri suppressed basal TNFα mRNA levels in the jejunum and ileum in male mice, but surprisingly not in female mice. Next, we examined bone responses. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated that L. reuteri 6475 treatment increased male trabecular bone parameters (mineral density, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness) in the distal femur metaphyseal region as well as in the lumbar vertebrae. Cortical bone parameters were unaffected. Dynamic and static histomorphometry and serum remodeling parameters indicate that L. reuteri ingestion increases osteoblast serum markers and dynamic measures of bone formation in male mice. In contrast to male mice, L. reuteri had no effect on bone parameters in female mice. Taken together our studies indicate that femoral and vertebral bone formation increases in response to oral probiotic use, leading to increased trabecular bone volume in male mice. PMID:23389860

  12. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  13. Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 Increases Bone Density in Intact Females Only under an Inflammatory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Fraser L.; Irwin, Regina; Bierhalter, Hayley; Schepper, Jonathan; Britton, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously demonstrated that short-term oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 enhanced bone density in male but not female mice. We also established that L. reuteri 6475 enhanced bone health and prevented bone loss in estrogen-deficient female mice. In this study, we tested whether a mild inflammatory state and/or a long-term treatment with the probiotic was required to promote a positive bone effect in estrogen-sufficient female mice. Methods A mild inflammatory state was induced in female mice by dorsal surgical incision (DSI). Following DSI animals were orally supplemented with L. reuteri or vehicle control for a period of 8 weeks. Gene expression was measured in the intestine and bone marrow by qPCR. Distal femoral bone density and architecture was analyzed by micro-CT. Results We report that 8 weeks after DSI there is a significant increase in the weight of spleen, thymus and visceral (retroperitoneal) fat pads. Expression of intestinal cytokines and tight junction proteins are also altered 8 weeks post-DSI. Interestingly, L. reuteri treatment was found to display both intestinal region- and inflammation-dependent effects. Unexpectedly we identified that 1) L. reuteri treatment increased bone density in females but only in those that underwent DSI and 2) DSI benefited cortical bone parameters. In the bone marrow, dorsal surgery induced CD4+ T cell numbers, a response that was unaffected by L. reuteri treatment, whereas expression of RANKL, OPG and IL-10 were significantly affected by L. reuteri treatment. Conclusion Our data reveals a previously unappreciated effect of a mild surgical procedure causing a long-lasting effect on inflammatory gene expression in the gut and the bone. Additionally, we demonstrate that in intact female mice, the beneficial effect of L. reuteri on bone requires an elevated inflammatory status. PMID:27058036

  14. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  15. Smokers with emphysema and small airway disease on computed tomography have lower bone density

    PubMed Central

    Pompe, Esther; de Jong, Pim A; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Gallardo Estrella, Leticia; de Jong, Werner U; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; van Ginneken, Bram; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus AA

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is more common in patients with COPD and in smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether measures of emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography (CT) were associated with lower bone density or vertebral fractures in smokers with and without COPD. For this purpose, we included participants from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Bone density was measured as Hounsfield Units in the first lumbar vertebra, and vertebral fractures were assessed semiquantitatively. The 15th percentile method (Perc15) was used to assess emphysema, and the airway lumen perimeter (Pi10) was used for airway wall thickness. Expiratory/inspiratory-ratiomean lung density (E/I-ratioMLD) was used as a measure for air trapping and tracheal index to assess tracheal deformity. Linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between CT biomarkers, bone density, and presence of fractures. Exactly 1,093 male participants were eligible for analysis. Lower Perc15 and higher E/I-ratioMLD were significantly associated with lower bone density (b=−1.27, P=0.02 and b=−0.37, P=0.02, respectively). Pi10 and tracheal index were not associated with bone density changes. CT-derived biomarkers were not associated with fracture prevalence. Bone density is lower with increasing extent of emphysema and small airway disease but is not associated with large airway disease and tracheal deformity. This may indicate the necessity to measure bone density early in smokers with emphysema and air trapping to prevent vertebral fractures. PMID:27354779

  16. Association between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Özlem; Bircan, Mustafa A.; Civelek, Gul M.; Araz, Mine

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Osteoporosis is an inflammatory disease, and platelets play a critical role in bone remodeling. Mean platelet volume has been shown to be influenced by inflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] The records of female patients who had been referred to a tertiary hospital for bone mineral density analysis were retrospectively reviewed. [Results] A total of 175 patients (mean age: 61.3 ± 9.0 years) were enrolled. Overall, 72% (126/175) of patients met the criteria for osteoporosis. Mean platelet volume was found to be inversely correlated with body mass index. There was a significant positive correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in our normal weight osteoporotic group, whereas there was a significant negative correlation in our overweight-obese osteoporotic group. The negative correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in the overweight-obese osteoporotic group persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. Multivariate analyses revealed that mean platelet volume was significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density in osteoporotic patients in both our normal weight and overweight-obese groups. [Conclusion] Regardless of mechanisms, mean platelet volume might be used as a biomarker for osteoporosis in clinical settings. PMID:27390409

  17. Modulating Hydrogel Crosslink Density and Degradation to Control Bone Morphogenetic Protein Delivery and In Vivo Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Julianne L.; Ma, Henry; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) show promise in therapies for improving bone formation after injury; however, the high supraphysiological concentrations required for desired osteoinductive effects, off-target concerns, costs, and patient variability have limited the use of BMP-based therapeutics. To better understand the role of biomaterial design in BMP delivery, a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel was used for BMP-2 delivery to evaluate the influence of hydrogel degradation rate on bone repair in vivo. Specifically, maleimide-modified HA (MaHA) macromers were crosslinked with difunctional MMP-sensitive peptides to permit protease-mediated hydrogel degradation and growth factor release. The compressive, rheological, and degradation properties of MaHA hydrogels were characterized as a function of crosslink density, which was varied through either MaHA concentration (1–5 wt%) or maleimide functionalization (10–40 %f). Generally, the compressive moduli increased, the time to gelation decreased, and the degradation rate decreased with increasing crosslink density. Furthermore, BMP-2 release increased with either a decrease in the initial crosslink density or an increase in collagenase concentration (non-specific MMP degradation). Lastly, two hydrogel formulations with distinct BMP-2 release profiles were evaluated in a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats. After six weeks, minimal evidence of bone repair was observed within defects left empty or filled with hydrogels alone. For hydrogels that contained BMP-2, similar volumes of new bone tissue were formed; however, the faster degrading hydrogel exhibited improved cellular invasion, bone volume to total volume ratio, and overall defect filling. These results illustrate the importance of coordinating hydrogel degradation with the rate of new tissue formation. PMID:24905414

  18. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  19. Bone density in limb-immobilized beagles: An animal model for bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness is man in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. In order to seek and test preventative measures an appropriate ground based animal model simulating weightlessness is necessary. Use of the mature Beagle in limb immobilization has been documented as an excellent model for orthopedic research since this animal most closely simulates the phenomenom of bone loss with regards to growth, remodeling, structure, chemistry and mineralization. The purpose of this project is to develop a research protocol for the study of bone loss in Beagles during and after cast immobilization of a hindleg; research will then be initiated.

  20. In vivo low-density bone apposition on different implant surface materials.

    PubMed

    Braceras, I; De Maeztu, M A; Alava, J I; Gay-Escoda, C

    2009-03-01

    During osseointegration, new bone may be laid down on the implant surface and/or on the old bone surface; the former is known as contact osteogenesis and the latter as distance osteogenesis. Implant surface topography and material composition affect this process. The present study evaluates Ca and P apposition onto three different dental implant material surfaces (carbon monoxide (CO) ion implantation on Ti6Al4V, sand blasting and acid etching on commercially pure titanium and untreated Ti6Al4V) on the mandibles of beagles after healing periods of 3 and 6 months. Energy dispersive spectroscopy is useful for identifying low-density bone relative to surrounding mature bone, allowing for discrimination of the osteogenesis source. Low-density bone was only found at the apical end; there was none on the surface of untreated implants. Low-density bone arising from mature bone towards the implant at month 3 (i.e. distance osteogenesis) was only present on the CO ion implanted samples, due to the modification of the surface nano-topography and the chemistry and structure of the material. PMID:19200692

  1. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  2. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  3. Bone mineral density in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Ozaltin, Fatih; Ozon, Alev; Besbas, Nesrin; Topaloglu, Rezan; Ozen, S; Bakkaloglu, A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC), serum and urinary bone turnover parameters in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of serous membranes. Demographic characteristics and MEFV mutations were defined in 48 children diagnosed with FMF (23 F, 25 M; median age 7.0 years (3.0-10.0)). We evaluated the blood counts, acute-phase proteins and serum and urinary bone turnover parameters during attack-free periods. The BMC and BA (bone area) of vertebrae L1-L4 were measured by DEXA. Thirty-eight age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy children constituted the control group. Mean L1-L4 BMC in Group I (patients with two mutations) and II (patients with no or single mutations) were 15.49+/-5.99 g and 15.68+/-4.89 g, respectively, both significantly lower than the mean L1-L4 BMC of control patients, which was 19.59+/-6.7 g (p<0.05). Mean L1-L4 BMD in Group I, Group II and the control group were 0.466+/-0.066 g/cm(2), 0.487+/-0.085 g/cm(2 )and 0.513+/-0.079 g/cm(2), respectively. Mean z-scores in Group I, Group II and the control group were -1.87+/-0.74, -1.55+/-0.92 and -1.39+/-0.84, respectively. Mean L1-L4 BMD and z-score of Group I were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). ESR and SAA (serum amyloid A) levels were higher in Group I patients: 28.3+/-14.5 mm/h and 350+/-62 mg/l in Group I; and 20.5+/-11.7 mm/h and 190+/-68 mg/l in Group II, respectively. In conclusion, FMF patients had lower BMC, BMD and z-scores than a control group. We suggest that decreased BMD, BMC and z-score in FMF patients may be secondary to subclinical inflammation. PMID:15168151

  4. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. Study Design The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. Results The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 –L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 –L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively). Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001), but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation. Conclusions The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands. PMID:27014874

  5. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  6. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  7. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts. PMID:26553637

  8. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  9. Apparent density patterns in subchondral bone of the sloth and anteater forelimb.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Carlson, Kristian J

    2008-10-23

    Vertebrate morphologists often are interested in inferring limb-loading patterns in animals characterized by different locomotor repertoires. Because bone apparent density (i.e. mass per unit volume of bone inclusive of porosities) is a determinant of compressive strength, and thus indicative of compressive loading, recent comparative studies in primates have proposed a structure-function relationship between apparent density of subchondral bone and locomotor behaviours that vary in compressive loading. If such patterns are found in other mammals, then these relationships would be strengthened further. Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that generally load their FLs in compression. Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry was used to visualize the patterns in subchondral apparent density. Suspensory sloths exhibit relatively smaller areas of high apparent density than quadrupedal anteaters. This locomotor-based pattern is analogous to the pattern observed in suspensory and quadrupedal primates. Similarity between xenarthran and primate trends suggests broad-scale applicability for analysing subchondral bone apparent density and supports the idea that bone functionally alters its material properties in response to locomotor behaviours. PMID:18628113

  10. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts. PMID:26553637

  11. Tenofovir treatment of primary osteoblasts alters gene expression profiles: implications for bone mineral density loss

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Iwen F.; Pham, Lan; Mansky, Louis M.; Gopalakrishnan, Raj; Carlson, Ann E.; Mansky, Kim C.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong clinical evidence that implicates tenofovir in the loss of bone mineral density during treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that tenofovir treatment of osteoblasts causes changes in the gene expression profile that would impact osteoblast function during bone formation. Primary osteoblasts were isolated and then treated with the tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Total RNA from TDF-treated and untreated osteoblasts were extracted and used for microarray analysis to assess TDF-associated changes in the gene expression profile. Strikingly, the changes in gene expression profiles involved in cell signaling, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which would likely impact osteoblast function in bone formation. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that tenofovir treatment of primary osteoblasts results in gene expression changes that implicate loss of osteoblast function in tenofovir-associated bone mineral density loss. PMID:20171173

  12. Effects of ultrasound on estradiol level, bone mineral density, bone biomechanics and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in ovariectomized rabbits

    PubMed Central

    XIA, LU; HE, HONGCHEN; GUO, HUA; QING, YUXI; HE, CHENG-QI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of ultrasound (US) on estradiol level, bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanics and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits. A total of 28 virgin New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into the following groups: Control (control group), ovariectomy (OVX group), ovariectomy with ultrasound therapy (US group) and ovariectomy with estrogen replacement therapy group (ERT group). At 8 weeks after ovariectomy, the US group received ultrasound treatment while the ERT group were orally treated with conjugated estrogens, and the control and OVX groups remained untreated. The estradiol level, BMD and bone biomechanics, cartilage histology and the MMP-13 expression were analyzed after the intervention. The results indicate that the US treatment increased estradiol level, BMD and bone biomechanical function. Furthermore, the US treatment appeared to improve the recovery of cartilage morphology and decreased the expression of MMP-13 in OVX models. Furthermore, the results suggest that 10 days of US therapy was sufficient to prevent the reduction of estradiol, BMD and bone biomechanical function, to protect osteoarthritis cartilage structure, and to reduce MMP-13 transcription and expression in OVX rabbits. Therefore, US treatment may be a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. PMID:26622502

  13. Cell seeding density is a critical determinant for copolymer scaffolds‐induced bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Leknes, Knut N.; Pedersen, Torbjorn O.; Xing, Zhe; Sun, Yang; Lie, Stein A.; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Mustafa, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Constructs intended for bone tissue engineering (TE) are influenced by the initial cell seeding density. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) density loaded onto copolymer scaffolds on bone regeneration. BMSCs were harvested from rat's bone marrow and cultured in media with or without osteogenic supplements. Cells were seeded onto poly(l‐lactide‐co‐ε‐caprolactone) [poly(LLA‐co‐CL)] scaffolds at two different densities: low density (1 × 106 cells/scaffold) or high density (2 × 106 cells/scaffold) using spinner modified flasks and examined after 1 and 3 weeks. Initial attachment and spread of BMSC onto the scaffolds was recorded by scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was assessed by DNA quantification and cell differentiation by quantitative real‐time reverse transcriptase‐polymerized chain reaction analysis (qRT‐PCR). Five‐millimeter rat calvarial defects (24 defects in 12 rats) were implanted with scaffolds seeded with either low or high density expanded with or without osteogenic supplements. Osteogenic supplements significantly increased cell proliferation (p < 0.001). Scaffolds seeded at high cell density exhibited higher mRNA expressions of Runx2 p = 0.001, Col1 p = 0.001, BMP2 p < 0.001, BSP p < 0.001, and OC p = 0.013. More bone was formed in response to high cell seeding density (p = 0.023) and high seeding density with osteogenic medium (p = 0.038). Poly (LLA‐co‐CL) scaffolds could be appropriate candidates for bone TE. The optimal number of cells to be loaded onto scaffolds is critical for promoting Extracellular matrix synthesis and bone formation. Cell seeding density and osteogenic supplements may have a synergistic effect on the induction of new bone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3649–3658, 2015. PMID:26013960

  14. Association of Circulating Renin and Aldosterone With Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density in African Ancestry Families.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Allison L; Kammerer, Candace M; Pratt, J Howard; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is associated with accelerated bone loss, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a key regulator of blood pressure. Although components of this system are expressed in human bone cells, studies in humans are sparse. Thus, we studied the association of circulating renin and aldosterone with osteocalcin and bone mineral density. We recruited 373 African ancestry family members without regard to health status from 6 probands (mean family size: 62 and relative pairs: 1687). Participants underwent a clinical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomographic scans. Renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and osteocalcin were measured in fasting blood samples. Aldosterone/renin ratio was calculated as aldosterone concentration/renin activity. All models were analyzed using pedigree-based variance components methods. Full models included adjustment for age, sex, body composition, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication. Higher renin activity was significantly associated with lower total osteocalcin and with higher trabecular bone mineral density (bothP<0.01). There were also significant genetic correlations between renin activity and whole-body bone mineral density. There were no associations with aldosterone concentration in any model and results for aldosterone/renin ratio were similar to those for renin activity. This is the first study to report a significant association between renin activity and a marker of bone turnover and bone mineral density in generally healthy individuals. Also, there is evidence for significant genetic pleiotropy and, thus, there may be a shared biological mechanism underlying both the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and bone metabolism that is independent of hypertension. PMID:26975710

  15. Visceral Fat Is a Negative Predictor of Bone Density Measures in Obese Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Melissa; Mendes, Nara; Miller, Karen K.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Lee, Hang; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional fat is increasingly recognized as a determinant of bone mineral density (BMD), an association that may be mediated by adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, and inflammatory fat products. Chronic inflammation is deleterious to bone, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) predicts inflammatory markers such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, whereas sc adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT predict IL-6 in adolescents. Objective: Our objective was to determine associations of regional fat mass and adipokines with BMD. We hypothesized that girls with greater VAT relative to SAT would have lower bone density mediated by inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, and leptin. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Subjects: Subjects included 30 girls (15 obese, 15 normal weight) 12–18 yr old, matched for maturity (bone age), race, and ethnicity. Outcome Measures: We assessed regional fat (SAT, VAT) using magnetic resonance imaging, total fat, and BMD using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin were obtained. Results: Mean body mass index sd score was 3.7 ± 1.5 in obese subjects and 0.1 ± 0.4 kg/m2 in controls. VAT was a negative predictor of spine BMD and bone mineral apparent density, whole-body BMD and bone mineral content/height in obese girls and whole-body BMD and bone mineral content/height for the group as a whole after controlling for SAT, as was the ratio of VAT to SAT. In a regression model that included VAT/SAT, adipokines, and cytokines, E-selectin and adiponectin were negative predictors of BMD and leptin a positive predictor. Conclusion: VAT is an independent inverse determinant of bone density in obesity. This association may be mediated by adipokines and a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:20080853

  16. Alveolar bone density and its clinical implication in the placement of dental implants and orthodontic mini-implants

    PubMed Central

    Almasoud, Naif N.; Tanneru, Nagaraju; Marei, Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bone density in maxilla and mandible in dentate and edentulous patients in Saudi population. Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of cone beam CT images of 100 patients (50 male and 50 female) who have come to College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2014 and 2015. Using the bone density option in the Simplant software, the Hounsfield unit (HU) was calculated at the edentulous sites. While for dentate sites, a region of interest was selected coronally at 3-5 mm to the root apex using I-CAT vision software. The densities of the buccal bone and cancellous bone were measured at interradicular areas of a specific teeth. Results: The highest bone density at the edentulous sites was at the mandibular anterior region (776.5 ± 65.7 HU), followed by the mandibular posterior region (502.2 ± 224.2 HU). Regarding the dentate sites, the highest bone density was at the buccal cortical plate of the lower incisor teeth (937.56 ± 176.92 HU) and the lowest bone density was at the cancellous bone around the posterior maxillary teeth (247.12 ± 46.75 HU). Conclusion: The alveolar bone density at dentate and edentulous sites in our population is generally lower than the norm reference density of other populations, which dictates the need for quantitative assessment of bone density before implants and mini-implants placement. PMID:27279516

  17. The effects of the organopollutant PCB 126 on bone density in juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Holliday, Dawn K; Holliday, Casey M

    2012-03-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue with diverse functions including growth, structural support, pH balance and reproduction. These functions may be compromised in the presence of organopollutants that can alter bone properties. We exposed juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a ubiquitous anthropogenic organochlorine, and measured organic content, apparent bone mineral density (aBMD) using radiography and computed tomography, and quantified bone microstructure using histological preparations of femora. PCB-exposed terrapins were smaller in total size. Skulls of exposed animals had a higher organic content and a skeletal phenotype more typical of younger animals. The femora of exposed individuals had significantly reduced aBMD and significantly more cortical area occupied by non-bone. Because bone is an integral component of physiology, the observed skeletal changes can have far-reaching impacts on feeding and locomotor performance, calcium reserves and ultimately life history traits and reproductive success. Additionally, we caution that measurements of bone morphology, density, and composition from field-collected animals need to account not only for relatedness and age, but also environmental pollutants. PMID:22000338

  18. [Effect of low stress environment on bone density and geome-morphology of rat femur].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shouju; Li, Jingnian; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2005-12-01

    6-week old rats were subjected to sciatic nerve resection and the right hindlimbs were then under a low stress environment. Bone mineral density (BMD) of different regions and geome-morphological parameters of femurs were measured. The results showed that the increase in the diameter, subperiosteal area and bone mineral density of femurs were suppressed obviously under low stress environment. But the sensitivity of BMD of different regions of the femur to the low stress environment was different. The suppression of the increase in femoral BMD was composed of an early impairment in the gain of BMD at the femoral metaphysis, which is rich in trabecular bone, and a sustained reduction in the gain of BMD at the femoral diaphysis, which is rich in cortical bone. The results of geome-morphology suggested that the early reduction in the increase of BMD at the metaphysis was due to an enhancement of bone resorption, whereas the suppression of gain in cortical bone mass and size is the result of a sustained reduction of periosteal bone formation. PMID:16422090

  19. Effects of resistance training on bone mineral content and density in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Blimkie, C J; Rice, S; Webber, C E; Martin, J; Levy, D; Gordon, C L

    1996-09-01

    Postmenarcheal adolescent girls performed resistance training (RT) for 26 weeks, which consisted of 4 sets of 13 exercises of varying and progressive intensity performed 3 times weekly on hydraulic resistance machines. Bone mineral was assessed by dual photon absorptiometry. Resistance training resulted in significant increases (pre-post) in biceps curl (21.4%), triceps press (21.5%), knee extension (25.1%), knee flexion (52.8%), and squat press (21.5%) strength. There were no significant differences between RT and control (C) groups initially, and no significant effects of training (pre-post) for total body (TB) or lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). The largest increases in LS bone mineral occurred during the first 13 weeks, and although not significant, the increases in LS BMC (g) (3.9 vs. 5.9%), LS BMC (g.cm-1) (2.6 vs. 5.9%), LS areal BMD (g.cm-2) (1.48 vs. 4.75%), and LS bone mineral apparent density (BMAD, g.cm-3) (0.47 vs. 4.13%) were greater in the RT compared with the C group during this period. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in a trend towards a transient increase in LS bone mineral during the first 13 weeks, but despite significant strength gains, there were no significant changes in TB or LS bone mineral after 26 weeks of training. PMID:8960394

  20. Alterations of Mass Density and 3D Osteocyte Lacunar Properties in Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrotic Human Jaw Bone, a Synchrotron µCT Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Bernhard; Langer, Max; Varga, Peter; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Dong, Pei; Schrof, Susanne; Männicke, Nils; Suhonen, Heikki; Olivier, Cecile; Maurer, Peter; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw, in association with bisphosphonates (BRONJ) used for treating osteoporosis or cancer, is a severe and most often irreversible side effect whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Osteocytes are involved in bone remodeling and mineralization where they orchestrate the delicate equilibrium between osteoclast and osteoblast activity and through the active process called osteocytic osteolysis. Here, we hypothesized that (i) changes of the mineralized tissue matrix play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BRONJ, and (ii) the osteocyte lacunar morphology is altered in BRONJ. Synchrotron µCT with phase contrast is an appropriate tool for assessing both the 3D morphology of the osteocyte lacunae and the bone matrix mass density. Here, we used this technique to investigate the mass density distribution and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties at the sub-micrometer scale in human bone samples from the jaw, femur and tibia. First, we compared healthy human jaw bone to human tibia and femur in order to assess the specific differences and address potential explanations of why the jaw bone is exclusively targeted by the necrosis as a side effect of BP treatment. Second, we investigated the differences between BRONJ and control jaw bone samples to detect potential differences which could aid an improved understanding of the course of BRONJ. We found that the apparent mass density of jaw bone was significantly smaller compared to that of tibia, consistent with a higher bone turnover in the jaw bone. The variance of the lacunar volume distribution was significantly different depending on the anatomical site. The comparison between BRONJ and control jaw specimens revealed no significant increase in mineralization after BP. We found a significant decrease in osteocyte-lacunar density in the BRONJ group compared to the control jaw. Interestingly, the osteocyte-lacunar volume distribution was not altered after BP treatment. PMID

  1. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jikun; Chen, Laigao; Sandison, George A.; Liang, Yun; Xu, Lisa X.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy).

  2. Bone mineral density of skeletal remains: Discordant results between chemical analysis and DXA method.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Boric, Igor; Sliskovic, Livia; Popovic, Marijana; Knezovic, Zlatka; Nikolic, Ivana; Vucinovic, Ana; Vucinovic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is a gold standard for bone mineral density measurement and diagnosis of primary and secondary osteoporosis in living persons. DXA is becoming widespread when analysing archaeological material, and is considered to provide an accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis in skeletal samples. The aim of this study was to explain the differences in results between bone mineral density (obtained with DXA) and chemical determination of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in skeletal remains. We examined bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral content of femoral bone samples exhumed from mass graves of the Second World War. BMD was determined by Hologic QDR 4500 C (S/N 48034) Bone Densitometer. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined with AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) and UV/VIS (Ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study do not support the hypothesis according to which BMD measured by DXA scan has positive correlation with chemically determined concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in bones, especially in acidic soils where there was significant impact of diagenesis observed. PMID:27161916

  3. Steroidal contraceptive use is associated with lower bone mineral density in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Thomson, R L; Buckley, J D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Norman, R J; Brinkworth, G D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting reproductive-aged women with features including hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity frequently treated with hormonal steroidal contraceptives. Women with PCOS appear to have lower bone mineral density (BMD). While steroidal contraceptives may positively affect bone health, their effect on BMD in PCOS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess BMD in women with PCOS according to recent contraceptive use. A cross-sectional analysis of 95 pre-menopausal overweight or obese sedentary women with PCOS [age 29.4 ± 6.4 years, body mass index (BMI) 36.1 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)] who either recently took steroidal contraceptives (ceased 3 months prior) or were not taking steroidal contraceptives was conducted. Clinical outcomes included BMD, anthropometry, insulin, glucose, reproductive hormones, dietary intake and vitamin use. BMD was significantly lower for women who used contraceptives compared to those who did not (mean difference 0.06 g/cm(2) 95 % confidence interval -0.11, -0.02, p = 0.005). In regression models, lower BMD was independently associated with contraceptive use (β = -0.05, 95 % CI -0.094, -0.002, p = 0.042), higher testosterone (β = -0.03, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.0008, p = 0.043) and lower BMI (β = 0.006, 95 % CI 0.002, 0.01, p = 0.007) (r (2) = 0.22, p = 0.001 for entire model). We report for the first time that overweight and obese women with PCOS with recent steroidal contraceptive use had lower BMD in comparison to non-users independent of factors known to contribute to BMD. Whether this observation is directly related to steroidal contraceptive use or other factors requires further investigation. PMID:25957668

  4. Subgroup Variations in Bone Mineral Density Response to Zoledronic Acid After Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Magaziner, Jay S; Orwig, Denise L; Lyles, Kenneth W; Nordsletten, Lars; Boonen, Steven; Adachi, Jonathan D; Recknor, Chris; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Mesenbrink, Peter; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Su, Guoqin; Johnson, Rasheeda; Pieper, Carl F

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing post-fracture bone loss is an important aspect of recovery from hip fracture, and determination of factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) response to treatment after hip fracture may assist in the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. A post hoc analysis of the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial was done to determine the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in subgroups with low-trauma hip fracture. A total of 2127 patients were randomized (1:1) to yearly infusions of ZOL 5 mg (n = 1065) or placebo (n = 1062) within 90 days of operation for low-trauma hip fracture. The 1486 patients with a baseline and at least one post-baseline BMD assessment at TH or FN (ZOL = 745, placebo = 741) were included in the analyses. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD was assessed at months 12 and 24 and compared across subgroups of hip fracture patients. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD at months 12 and 24 was greater (p < 0.05) in ZOL-treated patients compared with placebo in most subgroups. Treatment-by-subgroup interactions (p < 0.05) indicated that a greater effect on BMD was observed for TH BMD at month 12 in females, in patients in the lower tertile body mass index at baseline (≤22.6 kg/m2), and in patients with baseline FN BMD T-score of ≤ –2.5; for FN BMD in patients who received ZOL for >6 weeks post-surgery; and for TH and FN BMD in patients with a history of one or more prior fractures. All interactions were limited to the first 12 months after treatment with none observed for the 24-month comparisons. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00046254.) PMID:24839241

  5. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2) in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029). BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057). The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range). There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored. PMID:26904470

  6. Determinants of bone density among athletes engaged in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Brooks, George A.; Steiger, Peter; Stubbs, Harrison A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of weight bearing activity on the bone density was investigated in athletes by comparing the measures of bone density of athletes engaged in weight-training programs with those of polo players and nonexercising subjects. All subjects had measurements of spinal trabecular and integral bone density by quantitative tomography, as well as determinations of hip bone density by dual photon absorptiometry. Results confirmed previous findings by Block et al. (1987) of significantly greater bone density among highly trained athletes compared with nonexercising subjects of similar age. Results also indicated that athletes engaged in non-weight-bearing forms of rigorous exercise had greater levels of bone density. However, as the participants in this study were exceptional athletes, engaged in a strenuous sport with both aerobic and heavy resistance components, a confirmation of these data is needed, using larger samples of individuals.

  7. High bone density masks architectural deficiencies in an individual with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Amelon, Ryan; Liu, Yinxiao; Saha, Punam K.; Shields, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Context Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a decline of bone mineral density (BMD) in the paralyzed extremities via the gradual degradation and resorption of trabecular elements. Clinical tools that report BMD may not offer insight into trabecular architecture flaws that could affect bone's ability to withstand loading. We present a case of a woman with a 30-year history of SCI and abnormally high distal femur BMD. Findings Peripheral quantitative-computed tomography-based BMD for this subject was ∼20% higher than previously published non-SCI values. Computed tomography (CT) revealed evidence of sclerotic bone deposition in the trabecular envelope, most likely due to glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis. Volumetric topologic analysis of trabecular architecture indicated that the majority of the bone mineral was organized into thick, plate-like structures rather than a multi-branched trabecular network. Visual analysis of the CT stack confirmed that the sclerotic bone regions were continuous with the cortex at only a handful of points. Conclusions Conventional clinical BMD analysis could have led to erroneous assumptions about this subject's bone quality. CT-based analysis revealed that this subject's high BMD masked underlying architectural flaws. For patients who received prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, excessively high BMD should be viewed with caution. The ability of this subject's bone to resist fracture is, in our view, extremely suspect. A better understanding of the mechanical competency of this very dense, but architecturally flawed bone would be desirable before this subject engaged in activities that load the limbs. PMID:24621022

  8. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  9. The effects of soy isoflavone on bone density in north region of climacteric Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiao-Xing; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Only a few investigations were based on limb bone density. This study evaluated the efficacy of soy isoflavone in the treatment of the principal menopausal disorders, limb bone density and the role of pathway. The research protocol involved the random subdivision of the enrolled sample into two groups of 40 women, who were to receive treatment for 6 months with isoflavone (90 mg/day) and with placebo. All of the patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their complaints. BMD of the radius and tibia were measured using quantitative ultrasound. Bone metabolism indexes calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were examined regularly. Serum cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) examined by ELISA. The results of the score of Kupperman table showed that the isoflavone can lead to a significant reduction in some of the disorders. Compared with placebo, the tibia bone density in isoflavone group increased obviously against the base value before trail. Isoflavone led to a stronger descent of the concentration of ALP and a decrease of IL-6 and TNF-α level than placebo. For climacteric women, soy isoflavone in the dose of 90 mg/day could improve some menopausal syndromes and was effective on increasing limb bone density, which maybe had the relationship with the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ALP in serum. PMID:24062607

  10. Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Harness, Eric T.; Witzke, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Osteoporosis is a severe complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Many exercise modalities are used to slow bone loss, yet their efficacy is equivocal. This study examined the effect of activity-based therapy (ABT) targeting the lower extremities on bone health in individuals with SCI. Methods Thirteen men and women with SCI (age and injury duration = 29.7 ± 7.8 and 1.9 ± 2.7 years) underwent 6 months of ABT. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of training, blood samples were obtained to assess bone formation (serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (PINP) and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to obtain total body and regional estimates of bone mineral density (BMD). Results Results demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in spine BMD (+4.8 %; 1.27 ± 0.22–1.33 ± 0.24 g/cm2) and decreases (p < 0.01) in total hip BMD (−6.1 %; 0.98 ± 0.18–0.91 ± 0.16 g/cm2) from 0 to 6 months of training. BMD at the bilateral distal femur (−7.5 to −11.0 %) and proximal tibia (− 8.0 to −11.2 %) declined but was not different (p > 0.05) versus baseline. Neither PINP nor CTX was altered (p> 0.05) with training. Conclusions Chronic activity-based therapy did not reverse bone loss typically observed soon after injury, yet reductions in BMD were less than the expected magnitude of decline in lower extremity BMD in persons with recent SCI. PMID:24097172