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Sample records for bone growth mechanical

  1. Bone marrow adipocytes promote tumor growth in bone via FABP4-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Herroon, Mackenzie K; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Hardaway, Aimalie L; Powell, Katelyn; Turchick, Audrey; Feldmann, Daniel; Podgorski, Izabela

    2013-11-01

    Incidence of skeletal metastases and death from prostate cancer greatly increases with age and obesity, conditions which increase marrow adiposity. Bone marrow adipocytes are metabolically active components of bone metastatic niche that modulate the function of neighboring cells; yet the mechanisms of their involvement in tumor behavior in bone have not been explored. In this study, using experimental models of intraosseous tumor growth and diet-induced obesity, we demonstrate the promoting effects of marrow fat on growth and progression of skeletal prostate tumors. We reveal that exposure to lipids supplied by marrow adipocytes induces expression of lipid chaperone FABP4, pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-1β, and oxidative stress protein HMOX-1 in metastatic tumor cells and stimulates their growth and invasiveness. We show that FABP4 is highly overexpressed in prostate skeletal tumors from obese mice and in bone metastasis samples from prostate cancer patients. In addition, we provide results suggestive of bi-directional interaction between FABP4 and PPARγ pathways that may be driving aggressive tumor cell behavior in bone. Together, our data provide evidence for functional relationship between bone marrow adiposity and metastatic prostate cancers and unravel the FABP4/IL-1β axis as a potential therapeutic target for this presently incurable disease. PMID:24240026

  2. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W.; Boyd, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD) mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal) or late (postpubertal) time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostructure and vertebral trabecular microarchitecture, and mechanical properties were determined using finite element analyses. In the GHD animals, bone macrostructure was 25 to 43% smaller as compared to the GH-sufficient (GHS) controls (P < 0.001). GHD animals had 20% and 19% reductions in bone volume ratio (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), respectively. Whole bone mechanical properties of the GHD mice were lower at the femur and vertebra (67% and 45% resp.) than the GHS controls (P < 0.001). Both early and late GH treatment partially recovered the bone macrostructure (15 to 32 % smaller than GHS controls) and the whole bone mechanical properties (24 to 43% larger than GHD animals) although there remained a sustained 27–52% net deficit compared to normal mice (P < 0.05). Importantly, early treatment with GH led to a recovery of BV/TV and Tb.Th with a concomitant improvement of trabecular mechanical properties. Therefore, the results suggest that GH treatment should start early, and that measurements of microarchitecture should be considered in the management of GHD. PMID:22505889

  3. Developmental basis of limb length in rodents: evidence for multiple divisions of labor in mechanisms of endochondral bone growth.

    PubMed

    Rolian, Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Mammals are remarkably diverse in limb lengths and proportions, but the number and kind of developmental mechanisms that contribute to length differences between limb bones remain largely unknown. Intra- and interspecific differences in bone length could result from variations in the cellular processes of endochondral bone growth, creating differences in rates of chondrocyte proliferation or hypertrophy, variation in the shape and size of chondrocytes, differences in the number of chondrocytes in precursor populations and throughout growth, or a combination of these mechanisms. To address these questions, this study compared cellular mechanisms of endochondral bone growth in cross-sectional ontogenetic series of the appendicular skeleton of two rodent species: the mouse (Mus musculus) and Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Results indicate that multiple cellular processes of endochondral bone growth contribute to phenotypic differences in limb bone length. The data also suggest that separate developmental processes contribute to intraspecific length differences in proximal versus distal limb bones, and that these proximo-distal mechanisms are distinct from mechanisms that contribute to interspecific differences in limb bone length related to body size. These developmental "divisions of labor" are hypothesized to be important features of vertebrate limb development that allow (1) morphology in the autopods to evolve independently of the proximal limb skeleton, and (2) adaptive changes in limb proportions related to locomotion to evolve independently of evolutionary changes in body size. PMID:18184354

  4. Excessive Growth Hormone Expression in Male GH Transgenic Mice Adversely Alters Bone Architecture and Mechanical Strength

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S. V.; Marenzana, M.; Hopkinson, M.; List, E. O.; Kopchick, J. J.; Pereira, M.; Javaheri, B.; Roux, J. P.; Chavassieux, P.; Korbonits, M.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acromegaly have a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures despite normal bone mineral density (BMD), suggesting that GH overexpression has adverse effects on skeletal architecture and strength. We used giant bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice to analyze the effects of high serum GH levels on BMD, architecture, and mechanical strength. Five-month-old hemizygous male bGH mice were compared with age- and sex-matched nontransgenic littermates controls (NT; n=16/group). Bone architecture and BMD were analyzed in tibia and lumbar vertebrae using microcomputed tomography. Femora were tested to failure using three-point bending and bone cellular activity determined by bone histomorphometry. bGH transgenic mice displayed significant increases in body weight and bone lengths. bGH tibia showed decreases in trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, and number compared with NT ones, whereas trabecular pattern factor and structure model index were significantly increased, indicating deterioration in bone structure. Although cortical tissue perimeter was increased in transgenic mice, cortical thickness was reduced. bGH mice showed similar trabecular BMD but reduced trabecular thickness in lumbar vertebra relative to controls. Cortical BMD and thickness were significantly reduced in bGH lumbar vertebra. Mechanical testing of femora confirmed that bGH femora have decreased intrinsic mechanical properties compared with NT ones. Bone turnover is increased in favor of bone resorption in bGH tibia and vertebra compared with controls, and serum PTH levels is also enhanced in bGH mice. These data collectively suggest that high serum GH levels negatively affect bone architecture and quality at multiple skeletal sites. PMID:25646711

  5. Growth and bone development.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas; Javaid, Kassim; Hanson, Mark; Dennison, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It has been confirmed that boys have higher bone mineral content, but not volumetric bone density, than girls. Furthermore, there is a dissociation between the peak velocities for height gain and bone mineral accrual, in both genders. Puberty is the period during which volumetric density appears to increase in both axial and appendicular sites. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet, physical activity, endocrine status, and sporadic risk factors such as cigarette smoking. In addition to these modifiable factors during childhood, evidence has also accrued that fracture risk might be programmed during intrauterine life. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between birthweight, weight in infancy, and adult bone mass. This appears to be mediated through modulation of the set-point for basal activity of pituitary-dependent endocrine systems such as the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axes. Maternal smoking, diet (particularly vitamin D deficiency), and physical activity also appear to modulate bone mineral acquisition during intrauterine life; furthermore, both low birth size and poor childhood growth are directly linked to the later risk of hip fracture. The optimization of maternal nutrition and intrauterine growth should also be included within preventive strategies against osteoporotic fracture, albeit for future

  6. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  7. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  8. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-03-01

    ''What is growth anyway. Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age. Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references.

  9. The cell biology of bone growth.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Oyajobi, B O; Russell, R G

    1994-02-01

    The field of bone cell biology is clearly of relevance to the problem of stunting in children, as in the final analysis the cells of the growing long bone are the ultimate 'regulators'. It is the alterations in the functions of these cells that manifests as a reduction in height. Normal longitudinal growth is achieved by the coordinated recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, maturation and eventual death of the cells of growth plate and bone. Cellular activity is closely regulated by endocrine factors acting directly or indirectly, with factors produced locally and stored within the bone and cartilage microenvironment having a critical role in intercellular communication. Disruption of any of these processes can lead to growth disturbances, since it only requires a defect in a single gene to have profound effects. Studies in recent years have shed light on the biochemical and molecular effects of cytokines and growth factors and have shown that these regulatory molecules may mediate the effects of certain hormones important in controlling growth. However, the complex interrelationship of these molecules is still not clear. Notwithstanding, understanding of the mechanisms involved in bone remodelling is increasing, as this area attracts much research because of the high incidence of metabolic bone disease in Western society. Although studies of adult bone remodelling are of relevance, there is a requirement for increased research directed specifically at the mechanisms of endochondral ossification and its regulation. Longitudinal bone growth is a challenge to the cell biologist, since it is an accelerated cycle of cellular division and differentiation, within which it is not easy to separate events temporally and spatially. In addition, different regulatory mechanisms are probably important at different stages of growth. Another difficulty impeding progress in this field is the lack of appropriate animal models for research. Much information has come from

  10. Biomimetic growth and substrate dependent mechanical properties of bone like apatite nucleated on Ti and magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Das, Apurba; Barman, Pintu; Pal, Arup R.

    2016-04-01

    This report presents findings on biomimetic growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals on Ti and sputtered TiO2 substrates. The possibility of TiO2 nanostructure as candidate materials for future biomedical applications has been explored through the comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of bone like apatite grown on Ti and nano-TiO2 surfaces. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies reveal formation of carbonate apatite with apparent domain size in the nanoscale range. A better interaction at the nano-TiO2/nano-HAp interface due to higher interfacial area could promote the growth of bone like apatite. The crystal phases, crystallinity, and surface morphology of nano-TiO2 are considered as parameters to understand the nucleation and growth of apatite with different mechanical properties at the nanoscale. The methodology of x-ray line profile analysis encompasses deconvolution of merged peaks by preserving broadening due to nanosized HAp aggregates. The Young’s modulus of bone like apatite exhibits crystallographic directional dependence which suggests the presence of elastic anisotropy in bone like apatite. The lattice contraction in the c-direction is associated with the degree of carbonate substitution in the apatite lattice. The role of residual stress is critical for the lattice distortion of HAp deposited at physiological conditions of temperature and pH of human blood plasma. The ion concentration is crucial for the uniformity, crystallinity, and mechanical behaviour of the apatite.

  11. Histomorphometric, physical, and mechanical effects of spaceflight and insulin-like growth factor-I on rat long bones.

    PubMed

    Bateman, T A; Zimmerman, R J; Ayers, R A; Ferguson, V L; Chapes, S K; Simske, S J

    1998-12-01

    Previous experiments have shown that skeletal unloading resulting from exposure to microgravity induces osteopenia in rats. In maturing rats, this is primarily a function of reduced formation, rather than increased resorption. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates bone formation by increasing collagen synthesis by osteoblasts. The ability of IGF-I to prevent osteopenia otherwise caused by spaceflight was investigated in 12 rats flown for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle, STS-77. The effect IGF-I had on cortical bone metabolism was generally anabolic. For example, humerus periosteal bone formation increased a significant 37.6% for the spaceflight animals treated with IGF-I, whereas the ground controls increased 24.7%. This increase in humeral bone formation at the periosteum is a result of an increased percent mineralizing perimeter (%Min.Pm), rather than mineral apposition rate (MAR), for both spaceflight and ground control rats. However, IGF-I did inhibit humerus endocortical bone formation in both the spaceflight and ground control rats (38.1% and 39.2%, respectively) by limiting MAR. This effect was verified in a separate ground-based study. Similar histomorphometric results for spaceflight and ground control rats suggest that IGF-I effects occur during normal weight bearing and during spaceflight. Microhardness measurements of the newly formed bone indicate that the quality of the bone formed during IGF-I treatment or spaceflight was not adversely altered. Spaceflight did not consistently change the structural (force-deflection) properties of the femur or humerus when tested in three-point bending. IGF-I significantly increased femoral maximum and fracture strength. PMID:9855461

  12. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  13. Interaction of Mechanical Load with Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) on Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscle and Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    growth of hindlimb bones in the absence of mechanical load.

  14. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  15. Mechanics of intact bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lauren E; Birch, Nathan P; Schiffman, Jessica D; Crosby, Alfred J; Peyton, Shelly R

    2015-10-01

    The current knowledge of bone marrow mechanics is limited to its viscous properties, neglecting the elastic contribution of the extracellular matrix. To get a more complete view of the mechanics of marrow, we characterized intact yellow porcine bone marrow using three different, but complementary techniques: rheology, indentation, and cavitation. Our analysis shows that bone marrow is elastic, and has a large amount of intra- and inter-sample heterogeneity, with an effective Young׳s modulus ranging from 0.25 to 24.7 kPa at physiological temperature. Each testing method was consistent across matched tissue samples, and each provided unique benefits depending on user needs. We recommend bulk rheology to capture the effects of temperature on tissue elasticity and moduli, indentation for quantifying local tissue heterogeneity, and cavitation rheology for mitigating destructive sample preparation. We anticipate the knowledge of bone marrow elastic properties for building in vitro models will elucidate mechanisms involved in disease progression and regenerative medicine. PMID:26189198

  16. High Cholesterol Deteriorates Bone Health: New Insights into Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Chandi C.

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies show a positive connection between cardiovascular diseases and risk of osteoporosis, suggesting a role of hyperlipidemia and/or hypercholesterolemia in regulating osteoporosis. The majority of the studies indicated a correlation between high cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol level with low bone mineral density, a strong predictor of osteoporosis. Similarly, bone metastasis is a serious complication of cancer for patients. Several epidemiological and basic studies have established that high cholesterol is associated with increased cancer risk. Moreover, osteoporotic bone environment predisposes the cancer cells for metastatic growth in the bone microenvironment. This review focuses on how cholesterol and cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) regulate the functions of bone residential osteoblast and osteoclast cells to augment or to prevent bone deterioration. Moreover, this study provides an insight into molecular mechanisms of cholesterol-mediated bone deterioration. It also proposes a potential mechanism by which cellular cholesterol boosts cancer-induced bone metastasis. PMID:26557105

  17. Bone resorption facilitates osteoblastic bone metastatic colonization by cooperation of insulin-like growth factor and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takuya; Aikawa, Tomoya; Yasuda, Hisataka; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2014-05-01

    Bone metastasis is a multistep process that includes cancer cell dissemination, colonization, and metastatic growth. Furthermore, this process involves complex, reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. Bone resorption is known to be involved in both osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis. However, the precise roles of the bone resorption in the multistep process of osteoblastic bone metastasis remain unidentified. In this study, we show that bone resorption plays important roles in cancer cell colonization during the initial stage of osteoblastic bone metastasis. We applied bioluminescence/X-ray computed tomography multimodal imaging that allows us to spatiotemporally analyze metastasized cancer cells and bone status in osteoblastic bone metastasis models. We found that treatment with receptor activator of factor-κB ligand (RANKL) increased osteoblastic bone metastasis when given at the same time as intracardiac injection of cancer cells, but failed to increase metastasis when given 4 days after cancer cell injection, suggesting that RANKL-induced bone resorption facilitates growth of cancer cells colonized in the bone. We show that insulin-like growth factor-1 released from the bone during bone resorption and hypoxia-inducible factor activity in cancer cells cooperatively promoted survival and proliferation of cancer cells in bone marrow. These results suggest a mechanism that bone resorption and hypoxic stress in the bone microenvironment cooperatively play an important role in establishing osteoblastic metastasis. PMID:24597654

  18. Bone mineral homeostasis, bone growth, and mineralisation during years of pubertal growth: a unifying concept.

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, S; Transbøl, I; Christiansen, C

    1982-01-01

    Serum calcium, magnesium proteins, phosphate, and immunoparathyroid hormone were measured in 338 normal children and adolescents aged between 7 and 20 years and in 123 normal adults aged between 21 and 50 years. Protein corrected serum calcium and magnesium remained stable throughout the study. Despite hyperphosphataemia protein corrected calcium exceeded the concentrations of normal adults. Serum phosphate and the Ca X P product greatly exceeded adult values and fell rather slowly towards adult levels after the pubertal growth spurt. Serum immunoparathyroid hormone tended to exceed normal adult values and was judged high for the level of serum calcium. Similarities between mineral metabolism in childhood an adolescence and in acromegaly were striking. On this basis in the light of studies demonstrating stimulatory actions of gonadal hormones on growth hormone and of growth hormone on the secretion of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a unifying concept is developed. This concept places growth hormone in the unique position of being the main driver and co-ordinator during childhood and adolescence of bone growth an mineralisation on the one hand, and of blood mineral homeostasis on the other. Gonadal hormones probably express some of their actions through stimulation of growth hormone secretion and others by different mechanisms. According to this concept growth hormone is maintaining th Ca X P product at a suitable high level as long as growth hormone and gonadal hormones deliver bone matrix for mineralisation at a high rate. PMID:7092291

  19. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    PubMed

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. PMID:27297498

  20. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  1. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  2. Consequences of Daily Administered Parathyroid Hormone on Myeloma Growth, Bone Disease, and Molecular Profiling of Whole Myelomatous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Angela; Ling, Wen; Li, Xin; Khan, Sharmin; Wang, Yuping; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D.; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Induction of osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma is caused by an uncoupling of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Current management of myeloma bone disease is limited to the use of antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the effects of daily administered parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone disease and myeloma growth, and we investigated molecular mechanisms by analyzing gene expression profiles of unique myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells engrafted in SCID-rab and SCID-hu mouse models. PTH resulted in increased bone mineral density of myelomatous bones and reduced tumor burden, which reflected the dependence of primary myeloma cells on the bone marrow microenvironment. Treatment with PTH also increased bone mineral density of uninvolved murine bones in myelomatous hosts and bone mineral density of implanted human bones in nonmyelomatous hosts. In myelomatous bone, PTH markedly increased the number of osteoblasts and bone-formation parameters, and the number of osteoclasts was unaffected or moderately reduced. Pretreatment with PTH before injecting myeloma cells increased bone mineral density of the implanted bone and delayed tumor progression. Human global gene expression profiling of myelomatous bones from SCID-hu mice treated with PTH or saline revealed activation of multiple distinct pathways involved in bone formation and coupling; involvement of Wnt signaling was prominent. Treatment with PTH also downregulated markers typically expressed by osteoclasts and myeloma cells, and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress and inflammation. PTH receptors were not expressed by myeloma cells, and PTH had no effect on myeloma cell growth in vitro. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PTH-induced bone formation in myelomatous bones is mediated by activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in osteoblastogenesis and attenuated bone resorption

  3. Growth factor-eluting technologies for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Ethan; Holmes, Christina; Witham, Timothy; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-04-01

    Growth factors are essential orchestrators of the normal bone fracture healing response. For non-union defects, delivery of exogenous growth factors to the injured site significantly improves healing outcomes. However, current clinical methods for scaffold-based growth factor delivery are fairly rudimentary, and there is a need for greater spatial and temporal regulation to increase their in vivo efficacy. Various approaches used to provide spatiotemporal control of growth factor delivery from bone tissue engineering scaffolds include physical entrapment, chemical binding, surface modifications, biomineralization, micro- and nanoparticle encapsulation, and genetically engineered cells. Here, we provide a brief review of these technologies, describing the fundamental mechanisms used to regulate release kinetics. Examples of their use in pre-clinical studies are discussed, and their capacities to provide tunable, growth factor delivery are compared. These advanced scaffold systems have the potential to provide safer, more effective therapies for bone regeneration than the systems currently employed in the clinic. PMID:25967594

  4. [Bone histomorphometry;A role of evaluation for bone quality and mechanical strength].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi

    2016-01-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling and bone turnover. Bone remodeling is the important mechanism for calcium metabolism and mechanical usage. The changes of bone remodeling in special condition with metabolic bone disease or osteoporosis agents have the effectiveness on bone mechanical strength. PMID:26728526

  5. Resorbing bone stimulates tumor cell growth. A role for the host microenvironment in bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Manishen, W J; Sivananthan, K; Orr, F W

    1986-04-01

    Demineralized extracts of bone matrix and conditioned media from cultured fetal rat calvaria have been reported to contain growth stimulatory activity for bone cells. To investigate the potential role of these local bone growth factors in the development of bone metastases, we chose the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, a rat mammary tumor which causes osteolytic bone metastases and hypercalcemia. 45Ca-labeled, 19-day fetal Sprague-Dawley rat calvaria were cultured for 96 hours in BGJb medium. Walker cells from ascites tumors or cultures were grown in unconditioned media or in conditioned media harvested from the bone cultures, in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. Media were changed every 2 days, cells were counted daily for 5 days, and 3H-thymidine uptake into acid insoluble residues was measured. The growth of tumor cells was 5-6-fold greater in conditioned media than in unconditioned media and the effect was dose dependent. Cells cultured in conditioned media demonstrated a approximately 3-fold enhancement of 3H-thymidine incorporation. Generation of growth stimulatory activity correlated with the extent of bone resorption, measured by release of 45Ca from the fetal parietal bones (r = 0.85; P less than 0.001). Conditioned media from bones cultured with 10(-7) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contained greater amounts of growth stimulatory activity than untreated conditioned media, but PGE2 itself did not stimulate tumor cell growth. Addition of 3.5 mM PO4 to bone cultures blocked bone resorption and the generation of growth factors. Growth stimulatory activity was stable to heat (56 C for 30 minutes) and trypsin digestion, with an apparent molecular weight of less than 17,000 daltons by high-performance liquid chromatography. Conditioned medium also stimulated the growth of 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells, MB-MDA-231 human breast carcinoma cells, TE-85 osteosarcoma cells, a murine fibrosarcoma and rat embryonic fibroblasts, with the most potent effects noted for

  6. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Chen; Yuan, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders. PMID:25655009

  7. Mechanotransduction and the functional response of bone to mechanical strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Turner, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in the physiology of many tissues including bone. Mechanical loading can inhibit bone resorption and increase bone formation in vivo. In bone, the process of mechanotransduction can be divided into four distinct steps: (1) mechanocoupling, (2) biochemical coupling, (3) transmission of signal, and (4) effector cell response. In mechanocoupling, mechanical loads in vivo cause deformations in bone that stretch bone cells within and lining the bone matrix and create fluid movement within the canaliculae of bone. Dynamic loading, which is associated with extracellular fluid flow and the creation of streaming potentials within bone, is most effective for stimulating new bone formation in vivo. Bone cells in vitro are stimulated to produce second messengers when exposed to fluid flow or mechanical stretch. In biochemical coupling, the possible mechanisms for the coupling of cell-level mechanical signals into intracellular biochemical signals include force transduction through the integrin-cytoskeleton-nuclear matrix structure, stretch-activated cation channels within the cell membrane, G protein-dependent pathways, and linkage between the cytoskeleton and the phospholipase C or phospholipase A pathways. The tight interaction of each of these pathways would suggest that the entire cell is a mechanosensor and there are many different pathways available for the transduction of a mechanical signal. In the transmission of signal, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and bone lining cells may act as sensors of mechanical signals and may communicate the signal through cell processes connected by gap junctions. These cells also produce paracrine factors that may signal osteoprogenitors to differentiate into osteoblasts and attach to the bone surface. Insulin-like growth factors and prostaglandins are possible candidates for intermediaries in signal transduction. In the effector cell response, the effects of mechanical loading are dependent upon the

  8. Mechanisms of multiple myeloma bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Galson, Deborah L; Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G David

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematological malignancy and the most frequent cancer to involve the skeleton. Multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD) is characterized by abnormal bone remodeling with dysfunction of both bone resorption and bone formation, and thus can be used as a paradigm for other inflammatory bone diseases, and the regulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in malignancy. Studies of MMBD have identified novel regulators that increase osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function, repress osteoblast differentiation, increase angiogenesis, or permanently alter stromal cells. This review will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms of osteoclast and osteoblast regulation in MMBD, and therapeutic approaches currently in use and under development that target mediators of bone destruction and blockade of bone formation for myeloma patients, including new anabolic therapies. PMID:23951515

  9. Influence of Exercise and Training on Critical Stages of Bone Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Klentrou, Panagiota

    2016-05-01

    Although osteoporosis is considered a geriatric disease, factors affecting bone strength are most influential during child growth and development. This article reviews what is known and still unclear in terms of bone growth, development and adaptation relative to physical activity before and during puberty. Bone is responsive to certain exercise protocols early in puberty and less so in postpubertal years, where bone strength, rather than bone mass, being the outcome of interest. Mechanical loading and high impact exercise promote bone strength. Intense training before and during puberty, however, may negatively affect bone development. Future research should focus on increasing our mechanistic understanding of the manner by which diverse physical stressors alter the integrity of bone. Longitudinal studies that examine the extent to which muscle and bone are comodulated by growth in children are also recommended. PMID:26884506

  10. The fracture mechanics of human bone: influence of disease and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Busse, Björn; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Aging and bone diseases are associated with increased fracture risk. It is therefore pertinent to seek an understanding of the origins of such disease-related deterioration in bone's mechanical properties. The mechanical integrity of bone derives from its hierarchical structure, which in healthy tissue is able to resist complex physiological loading patterns and tolerate damage. Indeed, the mechanisms through which bone derives its mechanical properties make fracture mechanics an ideal framework to study bone's mechanical resistance, where crack-growth resistance curves give a measure of the intrinsic resistance to the initiation of cracks and the extrinsic resistance to the growth of cracks. Recent research on healthy cortical bone has demonstrated how this hierarchical structure can develop intrinsic toughness at the collagen fibril scale mainly through sliding and sacrificial bonding mechanisms that promote plasticity. Furthermore, the bone-matrix structure develops extrinsic toughness at much larger micrometer length-scales, where the structural features are large enough to resist crack growth through crack-tip shielding mechanisms. Although healthy bone tissue can generally resist physiological loading environments, certain conditions such as aging and disease can significantly increase fracture risk. In simple terms, the reduced mechanical integrity originates from alterations to the hierarchical structure. Here, we review how human cortical bone resists fracture in healthy bone and how changes to the bone structure due to aging, osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency and Paget's disease can affect the mechanical integrity of bone tissue. PMID:26380080

  11. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Laura; Forrester, Alison; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Svelto, Maria; Venditti, Rossella; Montefusco, Sandro; Polishchuk, Elena; Nusco, Edoardo; Rossi, Antonio; Medina, Diego L; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Settembre, Carmine

    2015-12-10

    Skeletal growth relies on both biosynthetic and catabolic processes. While the role of the former is clearly established, how the latter contributes to growth-promoting pathways is less understood. Macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that plays a fundamental part in tissue homeostasis. We investigated the role of autophagy during bone growth, which is mediated by chondrocyte rate of proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in growth plates. Here we show that autophagy is induced in growth-plate chondrocytes during post-natal development and regulates the secretion of type II collagen (Col2), the major component of cartilage ECM. Mice lacking the autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) in chondrocytes experience endoplasmic reticulum storage of type II procollagen (PC2) and defective formation of the Col2 fibrillary network in the ECM. Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1. Autophagy is completely suppressed in growth plates from Fgf18(-/-) embryos, while Fgf18(+/-) heterozygous and Fgfr4(-/-) mice fail to induce autophagy during post-natal development and show decreased Col2 levels in the growth plate. Strikingly, the Fgf18(+/-) and Fgfr4(-/-) phenotypes can be rescued in vivo by pharmacological activation of autophagy, pointing to autophagy as a novel effector of FGF signalling in bone. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a developmentally regulated process necessary for bone growth, and identify FGF signalling as a crucial regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes. PMID:26595272

  12. Molecular mechanisms of bone formation in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, Susana Aideé; Quiñonez-Flores, Celia María; Pacheco-Tena, César

    2016-07-01

    Spondyloarthritis comprise a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases characterized by its association to HLA-B27 and the presence of arthritis and enthesitis. The pathogenesis involves both an inflammatory process and new bone formation, which eventually lead to ankylosis of the spine. To date, the intrinsic mechanisms of the pathogenic process have not been fully elucidated, and our progress is remarkable in the identification of therapeutic targets to achieve the control of the inflammatory process, yet our ability to inhibit the excessive bone formation is still insufficient. The study of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis has been mostly conducted in animal models of the disease and only few experiments have been done using human biopsies. The deregulation and overexpression of molecules involved in the osteogenesis process have been observed in bone cells, mesenchymal cells, and fibroblasts. The signaling associated to the excessive bone formation is congruent with those involved in the physiological processes of bone remodeling. Bone morphogenetic proteins and Wnt pathways have been found deregulated in this disease; however, the cause for uncontrolled stimulation remains unknown. Mechanical stress appears to play an important role in the pathological osteogenesis process; nevertheless, the association of other important factors, such as the presence of HLA-B27 and environmental factors, remains uncertain. The present review summarizes the experimental findings that describe the signaling pathways involved in the new bone formation process in spondyloarthritis in animal models and in human biopsies. The role of mechanical stress as the trigger of these pathways is also reviewed. PMID:26838262

  13. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  14. The turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage into bone may be regulated by osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Lieke G E; van Rietbergen, B; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2011-06-01

    During endochondral ossification, growth plate cartilage is replaced with bone. Mineralized cartilage matrix is resorbed by osteoclasts, and new bone tissue is formed by osteoblasts. As mineralized cartilage does not contain any cells, it is unclear how this process is regulated. We hypothesize that, in analogy with bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast activity are regulated by osteocytes, in response to mechanical loading. Since the cartilage does not contain osteocytes, this means that cartilage turnover during endochondral ossification would be regulated by the adjacent bone tissue. We investigated this hypothesis with an established computational bone adaptation model. In this model, osteocytes stimulate osteoblastic bone formation in response to the mechanical bone tissue loading. Osteoclasts resorb bone near randomly occurring microcracks that are assumed to block osteocyte signals. We used finite element modeling to evaluate our hypothesis in a 2D-domain representing part of the growth plate and adjacent bone. Cartilage was added at a constant physiological rate to simulate growth. Simulations showed that osteocyte signals from neighboring bone were sufficient for successful cartilage turnover, since equilibrium between cartilage remodeling and growth was obtained. Furthermore, there was good agreement between simulated bone structures and rat tibia histology, and the development of the trabecular architecture resembled that of infant long bones. Additionally, prohibiting osteoclast invasion resulted in thickened mineralized cartilage, similar to observations in a knock-out mouse model. We therefore conclude that it is well possible that osteocytes regulate the turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage. PMID:21546025

  15. Mechanics of Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Morrison, Barclay; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Hung, Clark T.

    2012-01-01

    Cell growth describes an essential feature of biological tissues. This growth process may be modeled by using a set of relatively simple governing equations based on the axioms of mass and momentum balance, and using a continuum framework that describes cells and tissues as mixtures of a solid matrix, a solvent and multiple solutes. In this model the mechanics of cell growth is driven by osmotic effects, regulated by the cells’ active uptake of solutes and passive uptake of solvent. By accounting for the anisotropy of the cells’ cytoskeletal structures or extracellular matrix, as well as external constraints, a wide variety of growing shapes may be produced as illustrated in various examples. PMID:22904576

  16. Mechanical signals as anabolic agents in bone

    PubMed Central

    Ozcivici, Engin; Luu, Yen Kim; Adler, Ben; Qin, Yi-Xian; Rubin, Janet; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and a sedentary lifestyle conspire to reduce bone quantity and quality, decrease muscle mass and strength, and undermine postural stability, culminating in an elevated risk of skeletal fracture. Concurrently, a marked reduction in the available bone-marrow-derived population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) jeopardizes the regenerative potential that is critical to recovery from musculoskeletal injury and disease. A potential way to combat the deterioration involves harnessing the sensitivity of bone to mechanical signals, which is crucial in defining, maintaining and recovering bone mass. To effectively utilize mechanical signals in the clinic as a non-drug-based intervention for osteoporosis, it is essential to identify the components of the mechanical challenge that are critical to the anabolic process. Large, intense challenges to the skeleton are generally presumed to be the most osteogenic, but brief exposure to mechanical signals of high frequency and extremely low intensity, several orders of magnitude below those that arise during strenuous activity, have been shown to provide a significant anabolic stimulus to bone. Along with positively influencing osteoblast and osteocyte activity, these low-magnitude mechanical signals bias MSC differentiation towards osteoblastogenesis and away from adipogenesis. Mechanical targeting of the bone marrow stem-cell pool might, therefore, represent a novel, drug-free means of slowing the age-related decline of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:20046206

  17. HOW DO BONE CELLS SENSE MECHANICAL LOADING?

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Carlos Vinícius Buarque de; Belangero, William Dias

    2015-01-01

    Influenced by gravidity, bone tissue experiences stronger or lighter deformation according to the strength of the activities of daily life. Activities resulting in impact are particularly known to stimulate osteogenesis, thus reducing bone mass loss. Knowing how bone cells recognize the mechanical deformation imposed to the bone and trigger a series of biochemical chain reactions is of crucial importance for the development of therapeutic and preventive practices in orthopaedic activity. There is still a long way to run until we can understand the whole process, but current knowledge has shown a strong progression, with researches being conducted focused on therapies. For a mechanical sign to be transformed into a biological one (mechanotransduction), it must be amplified at cell level by the histological structure of bone tissue, producing tensions in cell membrane proteins (integrins) and changing their spatial structure. Such change activates bindings between these and the cytoskeleton, producing focal adhesions, where cytoplasmatic proteins are recruited to enable easier biochemical reactions. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is the most important one being self-activated when its structure is changed by integrins. Activated FAK triggers a cascade of reactions, resulting in the activation of ERK-1/2 and Akt, which are proteins that, together with FAK, regulate the production of bone mass. Osteocytes are believed to be the mechanosensor cells of the bone and to transmit the mechanical deformation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Ionic channels and gap junctions are considered as intercellular communication means for biochemical transmission of a mechanical stimulus. These events occur continuously on bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. PMID:27022510

  18. Microarchitectural and Mechanical Characterization of Sickle Bone

    PubMed Central

    Green, Mykel; Akinsami, Idowu; Lin, Angela; Banton, Shereka; Ghosh, Samit; Chen, Binbin; Platt, Manu; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon; Guldberg, Robert; Barabino, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with sickle cell disease often experience acute and chronic bone pain due to occlusive events within the tissue vasculature that result in ischemia, necrosis, and organ degeneration. Macroscopically, sickle bone is identified in clinical radiographs by its reduced mineral density, widening of the marrow cavity, and thinning of the cortical bone due to the elevated erythroid hyperplasia accompanying the disease. However, the microstructural architecture of sickle bone and its role in mechanical functionality is largely unknown. This study utilized micro-CT and biomechanical testing to determine the relationship between the bone morphology, tissue mineral density, and trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of 10-and 21-week-old femurs from transgenic sickle male mice and littermates with sickle trait, as well as a wild-type control. While bone tissue mineral density did not vary among the genotypes at either age, variation in bone microstructure were observed. At 10 weeks, healthy and trait mice exhibited similar morphology within the cortical and trabecular bone, while sickle mice exhibited highly connected trabeculae. Within older femurs, sickle and trait specimens displayed significantly fewer trabeculae, and the remaining trabeculae had a more deteriorated geometry based on the structure model index. Thinning of the cortical region in sickle femurs contributed to the displayed flexibility with a significantly lower elastic modulus than the controls at both 10- and 21-weeks old. Wild-type and trait femurs generally demonstrated similar mechanical properties; however, trait femurs had a significantly higher modulus than sickle and wild-type control at 21-weeks. Overall, these data indicate that the progressive damage to the microvasculature caused by sickle cell disease, results in deleterious structural changes in the bone tissue's microarchitecture and mechanics. PMID:25957113

  19. Mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Feng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Jinfu

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease in the elderly population. The progress of this disease results in the reduction of bone mass and can increase the incidence of fractures. Drugs presently used clinically can block the aggravation of this disease. However, these drugs cannot increase the bone mass and may result in certain side effects. Statins, also known as HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been widely prescribed for CVD (cardiovascular disease) for decades. Nonetheless, several studies have demonstrated that statins exert bone anabolic effect and may be helpful for the treatment of osteoporosis. Several experiments have analysed the mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins. In the present paper, we review the mechanisms of promoting osteogenesis, suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22799752

  20. Determinants of the mechanical properties of bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bones are governed by the same principles as those of man-made load-bearing structures, but the organism is able to adapt its bone structure to changes in skeletal loading. In this overview of the determinants of the strength and stiffness of bone, a continuum approach has been taken, in which the behavior of a macroscopic structure depends on its shape and size, and on the mechanical properties of the material within. The latter are assumed to depend on the composition (porosity and mineralization) and organization (trabecular or cortical bone architecture, collagen fiber orientation, fatigue damage) of the bone. The effects of each of these factors are reviewed. Also, the possible means of non-invasively estimating the strength or other mechanical properties of a bone are reviewed, including quantitative computed tomography, photon absorptiometry, and ultrasonic measurements. The best estimates of strength have been obtained with photon absorptiometry and computed tomography, which at best are capable of accounting for 90% of the strength variability in a simple in vitro test, but results from different laboratories have been highly variable.

  1. Mechanical Regulation of Signaling Pathways in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William R.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Rubin, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cell types depend on mechanically induced signals to enable appropriate physiological responses. The skeleton is particularly dependent on mechanical information to guide the resident cell population towards adaptation, maintenance and repair. Research at the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels has improved our understanding of how the skeleton can recognize the functional environment, and how these challenges are translated into cellular information that can site-specifically alter phenotype. This review first considers those cells within the skeleton that are responsive to mechanical signals, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and osteoprogenitors. This is discussed in light of a range of experimental approaches that can vary parameters such as strain, fluid shear stress, and pressure. The identity of mechanoreceptor candidates is approached, with consideration of integrins, pericellular tethers, focal adhesions, ion channels, cadherins, connexins, and the plasma membrane including caveolar and non-caveolar lipid rafts and their influence on integral signaling protein interactions. Several mechanically regulated intracellular signaling cascades are detailed including activation of kinases (Akt, MAPK, FAK), β-catenin, GTPases, and calcium signaling events. While the interaction of bone cells with their mechanical environment is complex, an understanding of mechanical regulation of bone signaling is crucial to understanding bone physiology, the etiology of diseases such as osteoporosis, and to the development of interventions to improve bone strength. PMID:22575727

  2. Insulin-like growth factor 1, glycation and bone fragility: implications for fracture resistance of bone.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Wu, Ping-Cheng; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Despite our extensive knowledge of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) action on the growing skeleton, its role in skeletal homeostasis during aging and age-related development of certain diseases is still unclear. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from glucose are implicated in osteoporosis and a number of diabetic complications. We hypothesized that because in humans and rodents IGF1 stimulates uptake of glucose (a glycation substrate) from the bloodstream in a dose-dependent manner, the decline of IGF1 could be associated with the accumulation of glycation products and the decreasing resistance of bone to fracture. To test the aforementioned hypotheses, we used human tibial posterior cortex bone samples to perform biochemical (measurement of IGF1, fluorescent AGEs and pentosidine (PEN) contents) and mechanical tests (crack initiation and propagation using compact tension specimens). Our results for the first time show a significant, age-independent association between the levels of IGF1 and AGEs. Furthermore, AGEs (fAGEs, PEN) predict propensity of bone to fracture (initiation and propagation) independently of age in human cortical bone. Based on these results we propose a model of IGF1-based regulation of bone fracture. Because IGF1 level increases postnatally up to the juvenile developmental phase and decreases thereafter with aging, we propose that IGF1 may play a protective role in young skeleton and its age-related decline leads to bone fragility and an increased fracture risk. Our results may also have important implications for current understanding of osteoporosis- and diabetes-related bone fragility as well as in the development of new diagnostic tools to screen for fragile bones. PMID:25629402

  3. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1, Glycation and Bone Fragility: Implications for Fracture Resistance of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sroga, Grażyna E.; Wu, Ping-Cheng; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Despite our extensive knowledge of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) action on the growing skeleton, its role in skeletal homeostasis during aging and age-related development of certain diseases is still unclear. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from glucose are implicated in osteoporosis and a number of diabetic complications. We hypothesized that because in humans and rodents IGF1 stimulates uptake of glucose (a glycation substrate) from the bloodstream in a dose-dependent manner, the decline of IGF1 could be associated with the accumulation of glycation products and the decreasing resistance of bone to fracture. To test the aforementioned hypotheses, we used human tibial posterior cortex bone samples to perform biochemical (measurement of IGF1, fluorescent AGEs and pentosidine (PEN) contents) and mechanical tests (crack initiation and propagation using compact tension specimens). Our results for the first time show a significant, age-independent association between the levels of IGF1 and AGEs. Furthermore, AGEs (fAGEs, PEN) predict propensity of bone to fracture (initiation and propagation) independently of age in human cortical bone. Based on these results we propose a model of IGF1-based regulation of bone fracture. Because IGF1 level increases postnatally up to the juvenile developmental phase and decreases thereafter with aging, we propose that IGF1 may play a protective role in young skeleton and its age-related decline leads to bone fragility and an increased fracture risk. Our results may also have important implications for current understanding of osteoporosis- and diabetes-related bone fragility as well as in the development of new diagnostic tools to screen for fragile bones. PMID:25629402

  4. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hienz, Stefan A.; Paliwal, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways. PMID:26065002

  5. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. PMID:24975579

  6. Prostate cancer specific integrin αvβ3 modulates bone metastatic growth and tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, NP; De, S; Vasanji, A; Brainard, J; Byzova, TV

    2009-01-01

    The management of pain and morbidity owing to the spreading and growth of cancer within bone remains to be a paramount problem in clinical care. Cancer cells actively transform bone, however, the molecular requirements and mechanisms of this process remain unclear. This study shows that functional modulation of the αvβ3 integrin receptor in prostate cancer cells is required for progression within bone and determines tumor-induced bone tissue transformation. Using histology and quantitative microCT analysis, we show that αvβ3 integrin is required not only for tumor growth within the bone but for tumor-induced bone gain, a response resembling bone lesions in prostate cancer patients. Expression of normal, fully functional αvβ3 enabled tumor growth in bone (incidence: 4/4), whereas αvβ3 (—), inactive or constitutively active mutants of αvβ3 did not (incidence: 0/4, 0/6 and 1/7, respectively) within a 35-day-period. This response appeared to be bone-specific in comparison to the subcutis where tumor incidence was greater than 60% for all groups. Interestingly, bone residing prostate cancer cells expressing normal or dis-regulated αvβ3 (either inactive of constitutively active), but not those lacking β3 promoted bone gain or afforded protection from bone loss in the presence or absence of histologically detectable tumor 35 days following implantation. As bone is replete with ligands for β3 integrin, we next demonstrated that αvβ3 integrin activation on tumor cells is essential for the recognition of key bone-specific matrix proteins. As a result, prostate cancer cells expressing fully functional but not dis-regulated αvβ3 integrin are able to control their own adherence and migration to bone matrix, functions that facilitate tumor growth and control bone lesion development. PMID:17369840

  7. Molecular pathways mediating mechanical signaling in bone

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Janet; Rubin, Clinton; Jacobs, Christopher Rae

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue has the capacity to adapt to its functional environment such that its morphology is “optimized” for the mechanical demand. The adaptive nature of the skeleton poses an interesting set of biological questions (e.g., how does bone sense mechanical signals, what cells are the sensing system, what are the mechanical signals that drive the system, what receptors are responsible for transducing the mechanical signal, what are the molecular responses to the mechanical stimuli). Studies of the characteristics of the mechanical environment at the cellular level, the forces that bone cells recognize, and the integrated cellular responses are providing new information at an accelerating speed. This review first considers the mechanical factors that are generated by loading in the skeleton, including strain, stress and pressure. Mechanosensitive cells placed to recognize these forces in the skeleton, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and cells of the vasculature are reviewed. The identity of the mechanoreceptor(s) is approached, with consideration of ion channels, integrins, connexins, the lipid membrane including caveolar and noncaveolar lipid rafts and the possibility that altering cell shape at the membrane or cytoskeleton alters integral signaling protein associations. The distal intracellular signaling systems on-line after the mechanoreceptor is activated are reviewed, including those emanating from G-proteins (e.g., intracellular calcium shifts), MAPKs, and nitric oxide. The ability to harness mechanical signals to improve bone health through devices and exercise is broached. Increased appreciation of the importance of the mechanical environment in regulating and determining the structural efficacy of the skeleton makes this an exciting time for further exploration of this area. PMID:16361069

  8. Vitamin D and Bone Health; Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Eamon; Ward, Mary; McSorley, Emeir; Strain, J.J.; Wallace, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Sub-optimal vitamin D status has been reported in many populations but it is a particular concern in older people; thus there is clearly a need for effective strategies to optimise bone health. A number of recent studies have suggested that the role of vitamin D in preventing fractures may be via its mediating effects on muscle function (a defect in muscle function is one of the classical signs of rickets) and inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation can improve muscle strength which in turn contributes to a decrease in incidence of falls, one of the largest contributors to fracture incidence. Osteoporosis is often considered to be an inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with increased bone metabolism. The immunoregulatory mechanisms of vitamin D may thus modulate the effect of these cytokines on bone health and subsequent fracture risk. Vitamin D, therefore, may influence fracture risk via a number of different mechanisms. PMID:22254049

  9. Long Bone Histology and Growth Patterns in Ankylosaurs: Implications for Life History and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  10. Effect of rearing environment on bone growth of pullets.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Deland, T S; Steibel, J P; Robison, C I; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2015-03-01

    Alternative housing systems for laying hens provide mechanical loading and help reduce bone loss. Moreover, achieving greater peak bone mass during pullet phase can be crucial to prevent fractures in the production period. The aim of this study was to determine the housing system effects on bone quality of pullets. Tibiae and humeri of White Leghorn pullets reared in conventional cages (CCs) and a cage-free aviary (AV) system were studied. At 16 wk, 120 birds at random from each housing system were euthanized. Right and left tibiae and humeri were collected and further analyzed. Cortical bone density and thickness were measured using computed tomography. Periosteal and endosteal dimensions were measured at the fracture site during mechanical testing. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk, serum concentrations of osteocalcin and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline were analyzed as markers of bone formation and resorption. Cortical bone density was higher (P<0.05) in humeri of AV pullets, and tibiae were denser (P<0.05) for AV pullets in the distal section of the bone compared to CC pullets. Ash content was higher (P<0.05) in AV humeri with no difference in tibiae ash content. Tibiae and humeri of AV pullets had a thicker cortex than the CC pullets (P<0.05). Additionally, the tibiae and humeri of AV pullets had greater (P<0.05) second moment of areas than the CC pullets. While some bone material properties between groups were different (P<0.05), the differences were so small (<7%) that they likely have no clinical significance. Serum osteocalcin concentrations were not different between the treatments, but hydroxylsyl pyridinoline concentrations were higher in CC pullets at 12 wk compared to the AV pullets and the effect reversed at 16 wk (P<0.05). These findings indicate that tibiae and humeri respond differently to load bearing activities during growth. The improved load bearing capability and stiffness in bones of AV pullets were related to increased cross-sectional geometry. PMID

  11. Effect of rearing environment on bone growth of pullets1

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, P.; Deland, T. S.; Steibel, J. P.; Robison, C. I.; Haut, R. C.; Orth, M. W.; Karcher, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative housing systems for laying hens provide mechanical loading and help reduce bone loss. Moreover, achieving greater peak bone mass during pullet phase can be crucial to prevent fractures in the production period. The aim of this study was to determine the housing system effects on bone quality of pullets. Tibiae and humeri of White Leghorn pullets reared in conventional cages (CCs) and a cage-free aviary (AV) system were studied. At 16 wk, 120 birds at random from each housing system were euthanized. Right and left tibiae and humeri were collected and further analyzed. Cortical bone density and thickness were measured using computed tomography. Periosteal and endosteal dimensions were measured at the fracture site during mechanical testing. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk, serum concentrations of osteocalcin and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline were analyzed as markers of bone formation and resorption. Cortical bone density was higher (P < 0.05) in humeri of AV pullets, and tibiae were denser (P < 0.05) for AV pullets in the distal section of the bone compared to CC pullets. Ash content was higher (P < 0.05) in AV humeri with no difference in tibiae ash content. Tibiae and humeri of AV pullets had a thicker cortex than the CC pullets (P < 0.05). Additionally, the tibiae and humeri of AV pullets had greater (P < 0.05) second moment of areas than the CC pullets. While some bone material properties between groups were different (P < 0.05), the differences were so small (< 7%) that they likely have no clinical significance. Serum osteocalcin concentrations were not different between the treatments, but hydroxylsyl pyridinoline concentrations were higher in CC pullets at 12 wk compared to the AV pullets and the effect reversed at 16 wk (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that tibiae and humeri respond differently to load bearing activities during growth. The improved load bearing capability and stiffness in bones of AV pullets were related to increased cross

  12. Interaction of microstructure and microcrack growth in cortical bone: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Mischinski, Susan; Ural, Ani

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural features including osteons and cement lines are considered to play an important role in determining the crack growth behaviour in cortical bone. This study aims to develop a computational mechanics approach to evaluate microscale fracture mechanisms in bone. In this study, finite element models based on actual human cortical bone images that allow for arbitrary crack growth were utilised to determine the crack propagation behaviour. The simulations varied the cement line and osteon strength and fracture toughness in different bone microstructures to assess the crack propagation trajectory, stress-strain relationship and nonlinear strain energy density. The findings of this study provide additional insight into the individual influence of microstructural features and their properties on crack growth behaviour in bone using a computational approach. PMID:21970670

  13. Parallel mechanisms suppress cochlear bone remodeling to protect hearing.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel J; Akil, Omar; Acevedo, Claire; Hall-Glenn, Faith; Tsai, Betty S; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Liebenberg, Ellen; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Ritchie, Robert O; Lustig, Lawrence R; Alliston, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling, a combination of bone resorption and formation, requires precise regulation of cellular and molecular signaling to maintain proper bone quality. Whereas osteoblasts deposit and osteoclasts resorb bone matrix, osteocytes both dynamically resorb and replace perilacunar bone matrix. Osteocytes secrete proteases like matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) to maintain the material quality of bone matrix through perilacunar remodeling (PLR). Deregulated bone remodeling impairs bone quality and can compromise hearing since the auditory transduction mechanism is within bone. Understanding the mechanisms regulating cochlear bone provides unique ways to assess bone quality independent of other aspects that contribute to bone mechanical behavior. Cochlear bone is singular in its regulation of remodeling by expressing high levels of osteoprotegerin. Since cochlear bone expresses a key PLR enzyme, MMP13, we examined whether cochlear bone relies on, or is protected from, osteocyte-mediated PLR to maintain hearing and bone quality using a mouse model lacking MMP13 (MMP13(-/-)). We investigated the canalicular network, collagen organization, lacunar volume via micro-computed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry. Despite finding defects in these hallmarks of PLR in MMP13(-/-) long bones, cochlear bone revealed no differences in these markers, nor hearing loss as measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) or distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs), between wild type and MMP13(-/-) mice. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed abundant PLR by tibial osteocytes, but near absence in cochlear bone. Cochlear suppression of PLR corresponds to repression of several key PLR genes in the cochlea relative to long bones. These data suggest that cochlear bone uniquely maintains bone quality and hearing independent of MMP13-mediated osteocytic PLR. Furthermore, the cochlea employs parallel mechanisms to inhibit remodeling by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and by

  14. Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Countermeasures for reducing bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to the microgravity environment of space are continuing to be developed and improved. An important component of this effort is finite element modeling of the lower extremity and spinal column. These models will permit analysis and evaluation specific to each individual and thereby provide more efficient and effective exercise protocols. Inflight countermeasures and post-flight rehabilitation can then be customized and targeted on a case-by-case basis. Recent Summer Faculty Fellowship participants have focused upon finite element mesh generation, muscle force estimation, and fractal calculations of trabecular bone microstructure. Methods have been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of the femur from serial section magnetic resonance images (MRI). The use of MRI as an imaging modality avoids excessive exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based methods. These images can also detect trabecular bone microstructure and architecture. The goal of the current research is to determine the degree to which the fractal dimension of trabecular architecture can be used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. The elastic modulus and the ultimate strength (or strain) can then be estimated from non-invasive, non-radiating imaging and incorporated into the finite element models to more accurately represent the bone tissue of each individual of interest. Trabecular bone specimens from the proximal tibia are being studied in this first phase of the work. Detailed protocols and procedures have been developed for carrying test specimens through all of the steps of a multi-faceted test program. The test program begins with MRI and X-ray imaging of the whole bones before excising a smaller workpiece from the proximal tibia region. High resolution MRI scans are then made and the piece further cut into slabs (roughly 1 cm thick). The slabs are X-rayed again

  15. Altered interaction and distribution of glycosaminoglycans and growth factors in mucopolysaccharidosis type I bone disease.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Sandra D K; Wagemans, Tom; IJlst, Lodewijk; Bronckers, Antonius L J J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Everts, Vincent; Wijburg, Frits A; van Vlies, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) comprise a group of lysosomal storage disorders characterized by deficient degradation and subsequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Progressive bone and joint disease are a major cause of morbidity, and current therapeutic strategies have limited effect on these symptoms. By elucidating pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone disease, new therapeutic targets may be identified. Longitudinal growth is regulated by interaction between GAGs and growth factors. Because GAGs accumulate in the MPSs, we hypothesized that altered interaction between growth factors and GAGs contribute to the pathogenesis of MPS bone disease. In this study, binding between GAGs from MPS I chondrocytes and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was not significantly different from binding of FGF2 to GAGs from control chondrocytes. FGF2 signaling, however, was increased in MPS I chondrocytes after incubation with FGF2, as compared to control chondrocytes. Using bone cultures, we demonstrated decreased growth of WT mouse bones after incubation with FGF2, but no effect on MPS I bone growth. However, MPS I bones showed decreased growth in the presence of GAGs from MPS I chondrocytes. Finally, we demonstrate altered GAG distribution in MPS I chondrocytes, and altered GAG, FGF2 and Indian hedgehog distribution in growth plates from MPS I mice. In summary, our results suggest that altered interaction and distribution of growth factors and accumulated GAGs may contribute to the pathogenesis of MPS bone disease. In the future, targeting growth factor regulation or the interaction between in growth factors and GAGs might be a promising therapeutic strategy for MPS bone disease. PMID:27105565

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone 18F-NaF Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Czernin, Johannes; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Schiepers, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    There is renewed interest in 18F-NaF bone imaging with PET or PET/CT. The current brief discussion focuses on the molecular mechanisms of 18F-NaF deposition in bone and presents model-based approaches to quantifying bone perfusion and metabolism in the context of preclinical and clinical applications of bone imaging with PET. PMID:21078790

  17. The roles of vascular endothelial growth factor in bone repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2016-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is one of the most important growth factors for regulation of vascular development and angiogenesis. Since bone is a highly vascularized organ and angiogenesis plays an important role in osteogenesis, VEGF also influences skeletal development and postnatal bone repair. Compromised bone repair and regeneration in many patients can be attributed to impaired blood supply; thus, modulation of VEGF levels in bones represents a potential strategy for treating compromised bone repair and improving bone regeneration. This review (i) summarizes the roles of VEGF at different stages of bone repair, including the phases of inflammation, endochondral ossification, intramembranous ossification during callus formation and bone remodeling; (ii) discusses different mechanisms underlying the effects of VEGF on osteoblast function, including paracrine, autocrine and intracrine signaling during bone repair; (iii) summarizes the role of VEGF in the bone regenerative procedure, distraction osteogenesis; and (iv) reviews evidence for the effects of VEGF in the context of repair and regeneration techniques involving the use of scaffolds, skeletal stem cells and growth factors. PMID:27353702

  18. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  19. Predicting Bone Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone from DXA, MRI, and Fractal Dimensional Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigan, Timothy P.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Hogan, Harry A.; Shackleford, Linda; Webster, Laurie; LeBlanc, Adrian; Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan

    1997-01-01

    This project was aimed at making predictions of bone mechanical properties from non-invasive DXA and MRI measurements. Given the bone mechanical properties, stress calculations can be made to compare normal bone stresses to the stresses developed in exercise countermeasures against bone loss during space flight. These calculations in turn will be used to assess whether mechanical factors can explain bone loss in space. In this study we assessed the use of T2(sup *) MRI imaging, DXA, and fractal dimensional analysis to predict strength and stiffness in cancellous bone.

  20. Paradoxical Response to Mechanical Unloading in Bone Loss, Microarchitecture, and Bone Turnover Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaodi; Yang, Kaiyun; Wang, Chune; Cao, Sensen; Merritt, Mackenzie; Hu, Yingwei; Xu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sclerostin, encoded by the SOST gene, has been implicated in the response to mechanical loading in bone. Some studies demonstrated that unloading leads to up-regulated SOST expression, which may induce bone loss. Purpose: Most reported studies regarding the changes caused by mechanical unloading were only based on a single site. Considering that the longitudinal bone growth leads to cells of different age with different sensitivity to unloading, we hypothesized that bone turnover in response to unloading is site specific. Methods: We established a disuse rat model by sciatic neurectomy in tibia. In various regions at two time-points, we evaluated the bone mass and microarchitecture in surgically-operated rats and control rats by micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) and histology, sclerostin/SOST by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) by ELISA and TRAP staining, and other bone markers by ELISA. Results: Micro-CT and histological analysis confirmed bone volume in the disuse rats was significantly decreased compared with those in the time-matched control rats, and microarchitecture also changed 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. Compared with the control groups, SOST mRNA expression in the diaphysis was down-regulated at both week 2 and 8. On the contrary, the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes showed an up-regulated response in the 5 - 6 mm region away from the growth plate, while in the 2.5 - 3.5 mm region, the percentage was no significant difference. Nevertheless, in 0.5 - 1.5 mm region, the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes decreased after 8 weeks, consistent with serum SOST level. Besides, the results of TRAP also suggested that the expression in response to unloading may be opposite in different sites or system. Conclusion: Our data indicated that unloading-induced changes in bone

  1. [Nutrition in bone growth and development].

    PubMed

    Hirota, Takako; Hirota, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    The greatest increase in bone density was observed around ages 10-14 years in girls and thereafter peak bone mass was attained. Maximizing peak bone mass during adolescence is one of the most important strategies to decrease osteoporotic fractures later in life. Initial bone mass adjusted by height and weight in 10-year-old girl was associated positively with intakes of dairy products and small fish. Annual increase in bone mass from age 10 years to 11 years was associated positively with increased intake of fish, fruit, vegetables, and soybeans. Thus, not only calcium but also adequate dietary patterns such as increased intake of fish, fruit, vegetables, and soy products lead to higher peak bone mass in adolescent and will decrease the risk of bone fracture in postmenopausal age. PMID:21881195

  2. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  3. Bone Growth and Turnover in Progesterone Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jamie C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O’Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-01-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and microcomputed tomography analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 wk of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain, and tibia longitudinal bone growth were normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total, cancellous, and cortical bone mass were increased in the humerus of 12-wk-old PRKO mice, whereas cortical and cancellous bone mass in the tibia was normal. At 26 wk of age, cancellous bone area in the proximal tibia metaphysis of PRKO mice was 153% greater than age matched wild-type mice. The improved cancellous bone balance in 6-month-old PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice is not essential for bone growth and turnover. However, at some skeletal sites, PR signaling attenuates the accumulation of cortical and cancellous bone mass during adolescence. PMID:18276762

  4. Changes of trabecular bone under control of biologically mechanical mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Zhang, C. Q.; Dong, X.; Wu, H.

    2008-10-01

    In this study, a biological process of bone remodeling was considered as a closed loop feedback control system, which enables bone to optimize and renew itself over a lifetime. A novel idea of combining strain-adaptive and damage-induced remodeling algorithms at Basic Multicellular Unit (BMU) level was introduced. In order to make the outcomes get closer to clinical observation, the stochastic occurrence of microdamage was involved and a hypothesis that remodeling activation probability is related to the value of damage rate was assumed. Integrated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the changes of trabecular bone in morphology and material properties were simulated in the course of five years. The results suggest that deterioration and anisotropy of trabecluar bone are inevitable with natural aging, and that compression rather than tension can be applied to strengthen the ability of resistance to fracture. This investigation helps to gain more insight the mechanism of bone loss and identify improved treatment and prevention for osteoporosis or stress fracture.

  5. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  6. Finite element prediction of fatigue damage growth in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha; Frikha, Sana; Toumi, Hechmi; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic stresses applied to bones generate fatigue damage that affects the bone stiffness and its elastic modulus. This paper proposes a finite element model for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation and failure in cancellous bone at continuum scale. The model is based on continuum damage mechanics and incorporates crack closure effects in compression. The propagation of the cracks is completely simulated throughout the damaged area. In this case, the stiffness of the broken element is reduced by 98% to ensure no stress-carrying capacities of completely damaged elements. Once a crack is initiated, the propagation direction is simulated by the propagation of the broken elements of the mesh. The proposed model suggests that damage evolves over a real physical time variable (cycles). In order to reduce the computation time, the integration of the damage growth rate is based on the cycle blocks approach. In this approach, the real number of cycles is reduced (divided) into equivalent blocks of cycles. Damage accumulation is computed over the cycle blocks and then extrapolated over the corresponding real cycles. The results show a clear difference between local tensile and compressive stresses on damage accumulation. Incorporating stiffness reduction also produces a redistribution of the peak stresses in the damaged region, which results in a delay in damage fracture. PMID:26077722

  7. In vivo measurement of mechanical impedance of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Thompson, G.

    1974-01-01

    System of measurement provides indications of ulnar properties independent of characteristics of surrounding soft tissue and other bones. Mechanical modal approximated ulnar response so average bending rigidity could be determined to provide direct index of bone resistance to bending loading.

  8. Growth Hormone Regulates the Balance Between Bone Formation and Bone Marrow Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Menagh, Philip J; Turner, Russell T; Jump, Donald B; Wong, Carmen P; Lowry, Malcolm B; Yakar, Shoshana; Rosen, Clifford J; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2010-01-01

    Cancellous bone decreases and bone marrow fat content increases with age. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from a common precursor, and growth hormone (GH), a key hormone in integration of energy metabolism, regulates the differentiation and function of both cell lineages. Since an age-related decline in GH is associated with bone loss, we investigated the relationship between GH and bone marrow adiposity in hypophysectomized (HYPOX) rats and in mice with defects in GH signaling. HYPOX dramatically reduced body weight gain, bone growth and mineralizing perimeter, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and mRNA levels for IGF-1 in liver and bone. Despite reduced body mass and adipocyte precursor pool size, HYPOX resulted in a dramatic increase in bone lipid levels, as reflected by increased bone marrow adiposity and bone triglyceride and cholesterol content. GH replacement normalized bone marrow adiposity and precursor pool size, as well as mineralizing perimeter in HYPOX rats. In contrast, 17β -estradiol, IGF-1, thyroxine, and cortisone were ineffective. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) reversed the inhibitory effects of HYPOX on mineralizing perimeter but had no effect on adiposity. Finally, bone marrow adiposity was increased in mice deficient in GH and IGF-1 but not in mice deficient in serum IGF-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that the reciprocal changes in bone and fat mass in GH signaling-deficient rodents are not directly coupled with one another. Rather, GH enhances adipocyte as well as osteoblast precursor pool size. However, GH increases osteoblast differentiation while suppressing bone marrow lipid accumulation. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:19821771

  9. Mechanically induced alterations in cultured skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Hatfaludy, S.; Karlisch, P.; Shansky, J.

    1991-01-01

    Model systems are available for mechanically stimulating cultured skeletal muscle cells by passive tensile forces which simulate those found in vivo. When applied to embryonic muscle cells in vitro these forces induce tissue organogenesis, metabolic adaptations, and muscle cell growth. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cell growth correlates with stretch-induced increases in the efflux of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2(alpha) in a time and frequency dependent manner. These prostaglandins act as mechanical 'second messengers' regulating skeletal muscle protein turnover rates. Since they also effect bone remodelling in response to tissue loading and unloading, secreted prostaglandins may serve as paracrine growth factors, coordinating the growth rates of muscle and bone in response to external mechanical forces. Cell culture model systems will supplement other models in understanding mechanical transduction processes at the molecular level.

  10. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth. PMID:25248555

  11. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  12. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for the bone response to mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    To define the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the osteogenic response of bone to increased loading, several key steps must be defined: sensing of the mechanical signal by cells in bone, transduction of the mechanical signal to a biochemical one, and transmission of that biochemical signal to effector cells. Osteocytes are likely to serve as sensors of loading, probably via interstitial fluid flow produced during loading. Evidence is presented for the role of integrins, the cell's actin cytoskeleton, G proteins, and various intracellular signaling pathways in transducing that mechanical signal to a biochemical one. Nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and insulin-like growth factors all play important roles in these pathways. There is growing evidence for modulation of these mechanotransduction steps by endocrine factors, particularly parathyroid hormone and estrogen. The efficiency of this process is also impaired in the aged animal, yet what remains undefined is at what step mechanotransduction is affected.

  13. Mechanical stimulation of bone marrow in situ induces bone formation in trabecular explants.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, E; Kreipke, T C; Dolan, E B; Coughlin, T R; Owens, P; McNamara, L M; Niebur, G L; McHugh, P E

    2015-04-01

    Low magnitude high frequency (LMHF) loading has been shown to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in vivo. However, the precise mechanical signal imposed on the bone marrow cells by LMHF loading, which induces a cellular response, remains unclear. This study investigates the influence of LMHF loading, applied using a custom designed bioreactor, on bone adaptation in an explanted trabecular bone model, which isolated the bone and marrow. Bone adaptation was investigated by performing micro CT scans pre and post experimental LMHF loading, using image registration techniques. Computational fluids dynamic models were generated using the pre-experiment scans to characterise the mechanical stimuli imposed by the loading regime prior to adaptation. Results here demonstrate a significant increase in bone formation in the LMHF loaded group compared to static controls and media flow groups. The calculated shear stress in the marrow was between 0.575 and 0.7 Pa, which is within the range of stimuli known to induce osteogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Interestingly, a correlation was found between the bone formation balance (bone formation/resorption), trabecular number, trabecular spacing, mineral resorption rate, bone resorption rate and mean shear stresses. The results of this study suggest that the magnitude of the shear stresses generated due to LMHF loading in the explanted bone cores has a contributory role in the formation of trabecular bone and improvement in bone architecture parameters. PMID:25281407

  14. [Mechanisms of myeloma-induced bone disease].

    PubMed

    Abe, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma(MM)develops and expands almost exclusively in the bone marrow, and generates devastating bone destruction. MM cells produce a variety of cytokines to stimulate RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and suppress osteoblastic differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells, leading to extensive bone destruction with rapid loss of bone. Furthermore, osteocyte apoptosis has been demonstrated to be induced in parallel with enhanced osteoclast recruitment and osteoclastogenesis in myeloma bone lesions. Of note, osteocytes physically interact with myeloma cells to skew their signaling pathways and thereby production of mediators responsible for exacerbated bone resorption and suppressed bone formation in myeloma. The role of osteocytes in myeloma-induced bone lesions remains to be further clarified. PMID:27117615

  15. Mesoporous bioactive glasses: structure characteristics, drug/growth factor delivery and bone regeneration application

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The impact of bone diseases and trauma in the whole world has increased significantly in the past decades. Bioactive glasses are regarded as an important bone regeneration material owing to their generally excellent osteoconductivity and osteostimulativity. A new class of bioactive glass, referred to as mesoporous bioglass (MBG), was developed 7 years ago, which possess a highly ordered mesoporous channel structure and a highly specific surface area. The study of MBG for drug/growth factor delivery and bone tissue engineering has grown significantly in the past several years. In this article, we review the recent advances of MBG materials, including the preparation of different forms of MBG, composition–structure relationship, efficient drug/growth factor delivery and bone tissue engineering application. By summarizing our recent research, the interaction of MBG scaffolds with bone-forming cells, the effect of drug/growth factor delivery on proliferation and differentiation of tissue cells and the in vivo osteogenesis of MBG scaffolds are highlighted. The advantages and limitations of MBG for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering have been compared with microsize bioactive glasses and nanosize bioactive glasses. The future perspective of MBG is discussed for bone regeneration application by combining drug delivery with bone tissue engineering and investigating the in vivo osteogenesis mechanism in large animal models. PMID:23741607

  16. Differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in vertebrates: a comparative histological study among the Crocodylomorpha.

    PubMed

    de Buffrénil, V; Clarac, F; Fau, M; Martin, S; Martin, B; Pellé, E; Laurin, M

    2015-04-01

    Bone ornamentation, that is, hollow (pits and grooves) or protruding (ridges) repetitive reliefs on the surface of dermal bones, is a frequent, though poorly studied and understood, feature in vertebrates. One of the most typical examples of this characteristic is given by the Crurotarsi, a taxon formed by the crocodilians and their closest allies, which generally display deep ornamentation on skull roof and osteoderms. However, the ontogenetic process responsible for the differentiation and development of this character remains controversial. This study was conducted to settle the question on histological and microanatomical evidence in several crurotarsan taxa. Observational and experimental data in extant and extinct crocodyliforms show that bone ornamentation is initially created, and later maintained during somatic growth (that is indefinite in crocodilians), by a complex process of bone remodeling comprising local resorption of superficial bone cortices, followed by partial reconstruction. The superficial reliefs of crocodilian dermal bones are thus permanently modified through pit enlargement, drift, stretching, shrinking, or complete filling. Ridges are also remodeled in corresponding ways. These processes allow accommodation of unitary ornamental motifs to the overall dimensions of the bones during growth. A parsimony optimization based on the results of this study, but integrating also published data on bone histology in non-crocodyliform crurotarsans and some non-crurotarsan taxa, suggests that the peculiar mechanism described above for creating and maintaining bone ornamentation is a general feature of the Crurotarsi and is quite distinct from that attributed by previous authors to other vertebrates. PMID:25488816

  17. Prediction of mechanical properties of trabecular bone using quantitative MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammentausta, E.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.

    2006-12-01

    Techniques for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed for non-invasive estimation of the mineral density and structure of trabecular bone. The R*2 relaxation rate (i.e. 1/T*2) is sensitive to bone mineral density (BMD) via susceptibility differences between trabeculae and bone marrow, and by binarizing MRI images, structural variables, such as apparent bone volume fraction, can be assessed. In the present study, trabecular bone samples of human patellae were investigated in vitro at 1.5 T to determine the ability of MRI-derived variables (R*2 and bone volume fraction) to predict the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate strength). Further, the MRI variables were correlated with reference measurements of volumetric BMD and bone area fraction as determined with a clinical pQCT system. The MRI variables correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with the mechanical variables (r = 0.32-0.46), BMD (r = 0.56) and bone structure (r = 0.51). A combination of R*2 and MRI-derived bone volume fraction further improved the prediction of yield stress and ultimate strength. Although pQCT showed a trend towards better prediction of the mechanical properties, current results demonstrate the feasibility of combined MR imaging of marrow susceptibility and bone volume fraction in predicting the mechanical strength of trabecular bone and bone mineral density.

  18. Mechanisms of Guided Bone Regeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Kerns, David G

    2014-01-01

    Post-extraction crestal bone resorption is common and unavoidable which can lead to significant ridge dimensional changes. To regenerate enough bone for successful implant placement, Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is often required. GBR is a surgical procedure that uses barrier membranes with or without particulate bone grafts or/and bone substitutes. There are two approaches of GBR in implant therapy: GBR at implant placement (simultaneous approach) and GBR before implant placement to increase the alveolar ridge or improve ridge morphology (staged approach). Angiogenesis and ample blood supply play a critical role in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24894890

  19. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

  20. Connecting Mechanics and Bone Cell Activities in the Bone Remodeling Process: An Integrated Finite Element Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain–damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.’s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone

  1. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-7 signaling via upregulation of Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN): possible mechanism for the failure of BMP therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in bone formation. Consequently, it was expected that topical application of recombinant human (rh)BMP-2 and rhBMP-7 would improve the healing of complex fractures. However, up to 36% of fracture patients do not respond to this therapy. There are hints that a systemic increase in transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) interferes with beneficial BMP effects. Therefore, in the present work we investigated the influence of rhTGFβ1 on rhBMP signaling in primary human osteoblasts, with the aim of more specifically delineating the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Methods BMP signaling was detected by adenoviral Smad-binding-element-reporter assays. Gene expression was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed at the protein level by western blot. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity was determined using a test kit. Data sets were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Results Our findings showed that Smad1/5/8-mediated rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 signaling is completely blocked by rhTGFβ1. We then investigated expression levels of genes involved in BMP signaling and regulation (for example, Smad1/5/8, TGFβ receptors type I and II, noggin, sclerostin, BMP and activin receptor membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI), v-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Ski), Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN) and Smad ubiquitination regulatory factors (Smurfs)) and confirmed the expression of regulated genes at the protein level. Smad7 and SnoN were significantly induced by rhTGFβ1 treatment while expression of Smad1, Smad6, TGFβRII and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (Alk1) was reduced. Elevated SnoN expression was accompanied by increased HDAC activity. Addition of an HDAC inhibitor, namely valproic acid, fully abolished the inhibitory effect of rhTGFβ1 on rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 signaling. Conclusions rhTGFβ1 effectively blocks rhBMP signaling in osteoblasts. As possible mechanism, we

  2. Mechanical properties of femoral cortical bone following cemented hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ni, G X; Lu, W W; Chiu, P K Y; Wang, Y; Li, Z Y; Zhang, Y G; Xu, B; Deng, L F; Luk, K D K

    2007-11-01

    Femoral bone remodeling following total hip replacement is a big concern and has never been examined mechanically. In this study, six goats underwent unilateral cemented hip hemiarthroplasty with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Nine months later animals were sacrificed, and the femoral cortical bone slices at different levels were analysed using microhardness testing and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanning. Implanted femurs were compared to contralateral nonimplanted femurs. Extensive bone remodeling was demonstrated at both the proximal and middle levels, but not at the distal level. Compared with the nonimplanted side, significant decreases were found in the implanted femur in cortical bone area, bone mineral density, and cortical bone hardness at the proximal level, as well as in bone mineral density and bone hardness at the middle level. However, no significant difference was observed in either variable for the distal level. In addition, similar proximal-to-distal gradient changes were revealed both in cortical bone microhardness and bone mineral density. From the mechanical point of view, the results of the present study suggested that stress shielding is an important mechanical factor associated with bone adaptation following total hip replacement. PMID:17506504

  3. Local Mechanical Stimuli Regulate Bone Formation and Resorption in Mice at the Tissue Level

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Friederike A.; Ruffoni, Davide; Lambers, Floor M.; Christen, David; Webster, Duncan J.; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Bone is able to react to changing mechanical demands by adapting its internal microstructure through bone forming and resorbing cells. This process is called bone modeling and remodeling. It is evident that changes in mechanical demands at the organ level must be interpreted at the tissue level where bone (re)modeling takes place. Although assumed for a long time, the relationship between the locations of bone formation and resorption and the local mechanical environment is still under debate. The lack of suitable imaging modalities for measuring bone formation and resorption in vivo has made it difficult to assess the mechanoregulation of bone three-dimensionally by experiment. Using in vivo micro-computed tomography and high resolution finite element analysis in living mice, we show that bone formation most likely occurs at sites of high local mechanical strain (p<0.0001) and resorption at sites of low local mechanical strain (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the probability of bone resorption decreases exponentially with increasing mechanical stimulus (R2 = 0.99) whereas the probability of bone formation follows an exponential growth function to a maximum value (R2 = 0.99). Moreover, resorption is more strictly controlled than formation in loaded animals, and ovariectomy increases the amount of non-targeted resorption. Our experimental assessment of mechanoregulation at the tissue level does not show any evidence of a lazy zone and suggests that around 80% of all (re)modeling can be linked to the mechanical micro-environment. These findings disclose how mechanical stimuli at the tissue level contribute to the regulation of bone adaptation at the organ level. PMID:23637993

  4. Mechanical loading, damping, and load-driven bone formation in mouse tibiae.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Todd; Wanis, Mina; Ayoub, Ramez; Zhao, Liming; Watts, Nelson B; Bhattacharya, Amit; Akkus, Ozan; Robling, Alexander; Yokota, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    Mechanical loads play a pivotal role in the growth and maintenance of bone and joints. Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. To test this hypothesis, fresh mouse distal lower limb segments were cyclically loaded in axial compression in sequential bouts, with each subsequent bout having less surrounding tissue. A finite element model was generated to model effects of bone curvature in silico. Two damping-related parameters (phase shift angle and energy loss) were determined from the output of the loading experiments. Interestingly, the experimental results revealed that the knee joint contributed to the largest portion of the damping capacity of the limb, and bone itself accounted for approximately 38% of the total phase shift angle. Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. Although structural curvature reduces critical loads for buckling in beam theory, evolution apparently favors maintaining curvature in the tibia. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia revealed that in response to axial loading, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the regions that were predicted to receive a curvature-induced bending moment. These results suggest that in addition to bone's compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect

  5. Development of a complex bone tissue culture system based on cellulose nanowhisker mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Seung; Jung, Sang-Myung; Yoon, Gwang Heum; Lee, Hoo Cheol; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2014-11-01

    In bone tissue engineering, scaffolds have been investigated for their ability to support osteoblast growth and differentiation for recovery of damaged bones. Tunicate cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) film and mechanical strain were assessed for their suitability for osteoblasts. In this study, sulfuric acid hydrolysis extraction of tunicates integuments was conducted to obtain CNWs, which were found to be acceptable for adhering, growing, and differentiating osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. Mechanical stress enhanced osteoblast differentiation, and cell survival rate was recovered at around day 3, although there was a slight increase in cell death at day 1 after stimulation. We also found that intracellular flux of calcium ion was related to increased differentiation of CNWs under mechanical stress. Overall, we demonstrated the suitability of tunicate CNWs as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and developed a complex system based on CNW for osteoblast growth and differentiation that will be useful for bone substitute fabrication. PMID:25454753

  6. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  7. [Estimations of mechanical properties of bones using nanoindentation].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Nanoindentation has been applied in recent years to measure the mechanical properties of bone tissues at a microscopic scale, overcoming the limitations of traditional mechanical testing techniques for small samples. This method is precise and accurate and appears well suited for measuring mechanical properties in bone. Dynamic nanoindentation is also a promising method of measuring the viscoelastic properties of bone tissues at smaller length and load scales than allowed by other testing methods, thus allowing individual constituents and local regions of inhomogeneous tissues to be characterized individually. This article describes our nanoindentation studies of bone tissues with recent studies. PMID:26728534

  8. Role of Osteocyte-derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor I in Developmental Growth, Modeling, Remodeling, and Regeneration of the Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Matilda H. C.; Lau, K. H. William

    2014-01-01

    The osteocyte has long been considered to be the primary mechanosensory cell in the bone. Recent evidence has emerged that the osteocyte is also a key regulator of various bone and mineral metabolism and that its regulatory effects are in part mediated through locally produced osteocyte-derived factors, such as sclerostin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23. Osteocytes secrete large amounts of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in bone. Although IGF-I produced locally by other bone cells, such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes, has been shown to play important regulatory roles in bone turnover and developmental bone growth, the functional role of osteocyte-derived IGF-I in the bone and mineral metabolism has not been investigated and remains unclear. However, results of recent studies in osteocyte Igf1 conditional knockout transgenic mice have suggested potential regulatory roles of osteocyte-derived IGF-I in various aspects of bone and mineral metabolism. In this review, evidence supporting a regulatory role for osteocyte-derived IGF-I in the osteogenic response to mechanical loading, the developmental bone growth, the bone response to dietary calcium depletion and repletion, and in fracture repair is discussed. A potential coordinated regulatory relationship between the effect of osteocyte-derived IGF-I on bone size and the internal organ size is also proposed. PMID:24707466

  9. Adaptive and injury response of bone to mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Sarah H; Silva, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Bone responds to supraphysiological mechanical loads by increasing bone formation. Depending on the applied strain magnitude (and other loading parameters) the response can be either adaptive (mostly lamellar bone) or injury (mostly woven bone). Seminal studies of Hert, Lanyon and Rubin originally established the basic 'rules' of bone mechanosensitivity. These were reinforced by subsequent studies using noninvasive rodent loading models, most notably by Turner et al. More recent works with these models have been able to explore the structural, transcriptional and molecular mechanisms which distinguish the two responses (lamellar vs woven). Wnt/Lrp signaling has emerged as a key mechanoresponsive pathway for lamellar bone. However, there is still much to study with regard to effects of ageing, osteocytes, other signaling pathways, and the molecular regulation that modulates lamellar vs woven bone formation. This review summarizes not only the historical findings but also the current data for these topics. PMID:23505338

  10. Structural and cellular changes during bone growth in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, A M; Travers, R; Rauch, F; Glorieux, F H

    2000-10-01

    Normal postnatal bone growth is essential for the health of adults as well as children but has never been studied histologically in human subjects. Accordingly, we analyzed iliac bone histomorphometric data from 58 healthy white subjects, aged 1.5-23 years, 33 females and 25 males, of whom 48 had undergone double tetracycline labeling. The results were compared with similar data from 109 healthy white women, aged 20-76 years, including both young adult reference ranges and regressions on age. There was a significant increase with age in core width, with corresponding increases in both cortical width and cancellous width. In cancellous bone there were increases in bone volume and trabecular thickness, but not trabecular number, wall thickness, interstitial thickness, and inferred erosion depth. Mineral apposition rates declined on the periosteal envelope and on all subdivisions of the endosteal envelope. Because of the concomitant increase in wall thickness, active osteoblast lifespan increased substantially. Bone formation rate was almost eight times higher on the outer than on the inner periosteum, and more than four times higher on the inner than on the outer endocortical surface. On the cancellous surface, bone formation rate and activation frequency declined in accordance with a fifth order polynomial that matched previously published biochemical indices of bone turnover. The analysis suggested the following conclusions: (1) Between 2 and 20 years the ilium grows in width by periosteal apposition (3.8 mm) and endocortical resorption (3.2 mm) on the outer cortex, and net periosteal resorption (0.4 mm) and net endocortical formation (1.0 mm) on the inner cortex. (2) Cortical width increases from 0.52 mm at age 2 years to 1.14 mm by age 20 years. To attain adult values there must be further endocortical apposition of 0.25 mm by age 30 years, at a time when cancellous bone mass is declining. (3) Lateral modeling drift of the outer cortex enlarges the marrow cavity

  11. Mechanisms of osteoclast-dependent bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Should we believe that osteoclasts are only involved in bone resorption? What about their contribution to bone formation? In this article I will review evidence that bone formation can be regulated by osteoclasts. Why is this? Likely because in the physiologic condition of bone remodeling, bone resorption and formation are balanced, and there is no better way to control this equilibrium than through a concerted action between the two cell types. Although the influence of osteoblasts on osteoclastic bone resorption is well documented and consolidated over time, what osteoclasts do to regulate osteoblast activity is still matter of intense investigation. The original hypothesis that all is in the osteoblast-seeking factors stored in the bone matrix, released and activated during bone resorption, is now being challenged by several studies, suggesting that osteoclasts are also capable of producing ‘clastokines' that regulate osteoblast performance. Indeed, several of them have been demonstrated to orchestrate osteoclast–osteoblast activities. However, we are probably still at the dawn of a new era, and future work will tell us whether any of these clastokines can be exploited to stimulate bone formation and rebalance bone remodeling in skeletal diseases. PMID:24422142

  12. Interrelationships between densitometric, geometric, and mechanical properties of rat femora: inferences concerning mechanical regulation of bone modeling.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, J L; Capozza, R F; Mondelo, N; Zanchetta, J R

    1993-11-01

    A compensation for differences in bone material quality by bone geometric properties in femora from two different strains of rats was previously shown by us. A feedback mechanism controlling the mechanical properties of the integrated bones was then proposed, in accordance with Frost's mechanostat theory. Evidence of such a system is now offered by the finding of a negative correlation between the modeling-dependent cross-sectional architecture (moment of inertia) and the mineral-dependent stiffness (elastic modulus) of bone material in the femoral diaphyses of 45 normal Wistar rats of different sexes, ages, and sizes. The strength and stiffness of the integrated diaphyses were found to depend on both cross-sectional inertia and body weight, not on bone mineral density. These findings are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that the architectural efficiency of diaphyseal cross-sectional design resulting from the spatial orientation of bone modeling during growth is optimized as a function of the body weight-dependent bone strain history, within the constraints imposed by bone stiffness. Results suggest a modulating role of biomass, related to the system set point determination, and explain the usually observed lack of a direct correlation between mineral density and strength or stiffness of long bones in studies of geometrically inhomogeneous populations. PMID:8266830

  13. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P < 0.05) in longitudinal bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  14. Mechanisms of PDGF siRNA-mediated inhibition of bone cancer pain in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Jia; He, Mu; Liu, Ran; Belegu, Visar; Dai, Ping; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xia, Qing-Jie; Shang, Fei-Fei; Luo, Chao-Zhi; Zhou, Xue; Liu, Su; McDonald, JohnW; Liu, Jin; Zuo, Yun-Xia; Liu, Fei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tumors that metastasize to bone frequently suffer from debilitating pain, and effective therapies for treating bone cancer are lacking. This study employed a novel strategy in which herpes simplex virus (HSV) carrying a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was used to alleviate bone cancer pain. HSV carrying PDGF siRNA was established and intrathecally injected into the cavum subarachnoidale of animals suffering from bone cancer pain and animals in the negative group. Sensory function was assessed by measuring thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. The mechanism by which PDGF regulates pain was also investigated by comparing the differential expression of pPDGFRα/β and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia developed in the rats with bone cancer pain, and these effects were accompanied by bone destruction in the tibia. Intrathecal injection of PDGF siRNA and morphine reversed thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with bone cancer pain. In addition, we observed attenuated astrocyte hypertrophy, down-regulated pPDGFRα/β levels, reduced levels of the neurochemical SP, a reduction in CGRP fibers and changes in pERK/ERK and pAKT/AKT ratios. These results demonstrate that PDGF siRNA can effectively treat pain induced by bone cancer by blocking the AKT-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27282805

  15. Mechanisms of PDGF siRNA-mediated inhibition of bone cancer pain in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Jia; He, Mu; Liu, Ran; Belegu, Visar; Dai, Ping; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xia, Qing-Jie; Shang, Fei-Fei; Luo, Chao-Zhi; Zhou, Xue; Liu, Su; McDonald, JohnW.; Liu, Jin; Zuo, Yun-Xia; Liu, Fei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tumors that metastasize to bone frequently suffer from debilitating pain, and effective therapies for treating bone cancer are lacking. This study employed a novel strategy in which herpes simplex virus (HSV) carrying a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was used to alleviate bone cancer pain. HSV carrying PDGF siRNA was established and intrathecally injected into the cavum subarachnoidale of animals suffering from bone cancer pain and animals in the negative group. Sensory function was assessed by measuring thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. The mechanism by which PDGF regulates pain was also investigated by comparing the differential expression of pPDGFRα/β and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia developed in the rats with bone cancer pain, and these effects were accompanied by bone destruction in the tibia. Intrathecal injection of PDGF siRNA and morphine reversed thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with bone cancer pain. In addition, we observed attenuated astrocyte hypertrophy, down-regulated pPDGFRα/β levels, reduced levels of the neurochemical SP, a reduction in CGRP fibers and changes in pERK/ERK and pAKT/AKT ratios. These results demonstrate that PDGF siRNA can effectively treat pain induced by bone cancer by blocking the AKT-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27282805

  16. Endocrine regulation of longitudinal bone growth.

    PubMed

    Wit, Jan M; Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal growth is primarily influenced by the GH-IGF-I axis, which is a mixed endocrine-paracrine-autocrine system. Further, classical hormones such as thyroxine, glucocorticosteroids and sex steroids play a role, as well as primarily paracrine systems. In the GH-IGF-I axis, seven disorders can be differentiated: (1) GH deficiency; (2) GHR defects; (3) defects in the GH signal transduction pathway; (4) IGF1 defects; (5) IGFALS defects; (6) IGF1R defects, and (7) IGF2 defects. Children with one of the first 3 disorders have near-normal prenatal growth, while children with defects of IGF1, IGF1R or IGF2 show prenatal as well as postnatal growth retardation. Hypothyroidism or a thyroid hormone resistance cause growth failure, but the effect of hyperthyroidism on growth is modest. Hypercortisolism causes poor growth, while FGD caused by ACTH insensitivity is associated with tall stature. Increased sex steroids in childhood cause advanced growth but even more skeletal maturation, so that adult height is decreased. Finally, the paracrine-autocrine SHOX-BNP pathway and the related CNP-NPR2 pathway are also involved in growth, as very many other growth factors and their receptors and mediators. PMID:21865752

  17. Mechanical stimulation and intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment induce disproportional osteogenic, geometric, and biomechanical effects in growing mouse bone

    PubMed Central

    McAteer, Maureen E.; Niziolek, Paul J.; Ellis, Shana N.; Alge, Daniel L.; Robling, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical loading and intermittent parathyroid (iPTH) treatment are both osteoanabolic stimuli, and are regulated by partially overlapping cellular signaling pathways. iPTH has been shown clinically to be effective in increasing bone mass and reducing fracture risk. Likewise, mechanical stimulation can significantly enhance bone apposition and prevent bone loss, but its clinical effects on fracture susceptibility are less certain. Many of the osteogenic effects of iPTH are localized to biomechanically suboptimal bone surfaces, whereas mechanical loading directs new bone formation to high-stress areas and not to strain-neutral areas. These differences in localization in new tissue, resulting from load-induced vs iPTH-induced bone accumulation, should affect the relation between bone mass and bone strength, or “tissue economy.” We investigated the changes in bone mass and strength induced by 6 wks mechanical loading, and compared them to changes induced by 6 wks iPTH treatment. Loading and iPTH both increased ulnar bone accrual, as measured by bone mineral density and content, and fluorochrome-derived bone formation. iPTH induced a significantly greater increase in bone mass than loading, but ulnar bone strength was increased approximately the same amount by both treatments. Mechanical loading during growth can spatially optimize new bone formation to improve structural integrity with a minimal increase in mass, thereby increasing tissue economy i.e., the amount of strength returned per unit bone mass added. Furthermore, exercise studies in which only small changes in bone mass are detected might be more beneficial to bone health and fracture resistance than has commonly been presumed. PMID:20306026

  18. Comparative data on the differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in gnathostomes (Chordata: Vertebrata).

    PubMed

    de Buffrénil, Vivian; Clarac, François; Canoville, Aurore; Laurin, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Bone ornamentation, in the form of rounded pits framed by a network of ridges, is a frequent feature among a great diversity of gnathostome taxa. However, the basic osteogenic processes controlling the differentiation and development of these reliefs remain controversial. The present study is a broad comparative survey of this question with the classical methods used in hard tissue histology and paleohistology. Distinct processes, unevenly distributed among taxa, are involved in the creation and growth of pits and ridges. The simplest one is mere differential growth between pit bottom (slow growth) and ridge top (faster growth). The involvement of several complex remodeling processes, with the local succession of resorption and reconstruction cycles, is frequent and occurs in all major gnathostome clades. Some broad, inclusive clades (e.g., Temnospondyli) display consistency in the mechanisms controlling ornamentation, whereas other clades (e.g., Actinopterygii) are characterized by the diversity of the mechanisms involved. If osteogenic mechanisms are taken into account, bone ornamentation should be considered as a character extremely prone to homoplasy. Maximum likelihood (ML) optimizations reveal that the plesiomorphic mechanism creating ornamentation is differential apposition rate over pits (slow growth) and ridges (faster growth). In some taxas e.g., temnospondyls vs lissamphibians or pseudosuchians, bone ornamentation is likely to be a homoplastic feature due to a convergence process driven by similar selective pressures. ML models of character evolution suggest that the presence of resorption in the development of ornamentation may be selectively advantageous, although support for this conclusion is only moderate. PMID:26968432

  19. Bone growth stimulators. New tools for treating bone loss and mending fractures.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, James F; Morley, Paul; Willick, Gordon E

    2002-01-01

    In the new millennium, humans will be traveling to Mars and eventually beyond with skeletons that respond to microgravity by self-destructing. Meanwhile in Earth's aging populations growing numbers of men and many more women are suffering from crippling bone loss. During the first decade after menopause all women suffer an accelerating loss of bone, which in some of them is severe enough to result in "spontaneous" crushing of vertebrae and fracturing of hips by ordinary body movements. This is osteoporosis, which all too often requires prolonged and expensive care, the physical and mental stress of which may even kill the patient. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is caused by the loss of estrogen. The slower development of osteoporosis in aging men is also due at least in part to a loss of the estrogen made in ever smaller amounts in bone cells from the declining level of circulating testosterone and is needed for bone maintenance as it is in women. The loss of estrogen increases the generation, longevity, and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The destructive osteoclast surge can be blocked by estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as well as antiosteoclast agents such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin. But these agents stimulate only a limited amount of bone growth as the unaffected osteoblasts fill in the holes that were dug by the now suppressed osteoclasts. They do not stimulate osteoblasts to make bone--they are antiresorptives not bone anabolic agents. (However, certain estrogen analogs and bisphosphates may stimulate bone growth to some extent by lengthening osteoblast working lives.) To grow new bone and restore bone strength lost in space and on Earth we must know what controls bone growth and destruction. Here we discuss the newest bone controllers and how they might operate. These include leptin from adipocytes and osteoblasts and the statins that are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol and cardiovascular damage. But

  20. Mechanisms of Bone Mineralization and Effects of Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babich, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The data suggest that PTH and PKC inhibit nodule formation, and that alternative energy sources are utilized by osteoblasts in the process of mineralization. The conditions and techniques to grow, fix, photograph, and measure bone mineralization in vitro were defined. The results are presently in preliminary form and require further assessment as follows; quantitate the surface area of nodules + treatments via computer-aided image analysis; use PTH + inhibitors of signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of nodule formation; determine how protein kinase C is involved as a promotor of nodule formation; cell proliferation vs. cell death affected by modulation of signal transduction (i.e., PTH, enzyme inhibitors and activators); identify mRNA induced or decreased in response to PTH and signaling modulators that encode proteins that regulate cell morphology, proliferation, and nodule formation. Therefore, several follow-up studies between the laboratories at NASA-Ames Research Center and my laboratory at the University of Illinois have been initiated.

  1. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  2. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  3. Investigation into mechanical properties of bone and its main constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimenko, Ekaterina

    Bone is a hierarchically structured natural composite material, consisting of organic phase (type-I collagen), inorganic phase (hydroxyapatite), and water. Studies of the two main bone constituents, utilizing controlled demineralization and deproteinization, can shed light on mineral-collagen interaction which makes bone such a unique biological material. This knowledge is necessary for computational analysis of bone structure to identify preferential sites in the collagen matrix and mineral network that degrade more easily. The main goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive picture of mechanical properties of bone and its main constituents. Following the Introduction, Chapter 2 presents an investigation of microstructure and compressive mechanical properties of bovine femur cortical bone carried out on completely demineralized, completely deproteinized, and untreated bone samples in three anatomical directions. Anisotropic nature of bone was clearly identified in all cases. Extra levels of porosity along with microstructural differences for the three directions were found to be the main sources of the anisotropy. In Chapter 3, a new theoretical model of cortical and trabecular bone as composite materials with hierarchical structure spanning from nanometer (collagen-mineral) level to millimeter (bone) level was developed. Compression testing was performed on untreated, demineralized, and deproteinized cortical and trabecular bovine femur bone samples to verify the model. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions; excellent agreement was found between the theory and experiments for all bone phases. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and micro-computed tomography techniques were applied to characterize the structure of the samples at multiple length scales and provide further inputs for the modeling. Chapter 4 presents a comparative study of mechanical properties, microstructure, and porosity of mature and young bovine

  4. Estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover but bone balance in ovariectomized rats is modulated by prevailing mechanical strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerlind, K. C.; Wronski, T. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Luo, Z. P.; An, K. N.; Bell, N. H.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency induced bone loss is associated with increased bone turnover in rats and humans. The respective roles of increased bone turnover and altered balance between bone formation and bone resorption in mediating estrogen deficiency-induced cancellous bone loss was investigated in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy resulted in increased bone turnover in the distal femur. However, cancellous bone was preferentially lost in the metaphysis, a site that normally experiences low strain energy. No bone loss was observed in the epiphysis, a site experiencing higher strain energy. The role of mechanical strain in maintaining bone balance was investigated by altering the strain history. Mechanical strain was increased and decreased in long bones of ovariectomized rats by treadmill exercise and functional unloading, respectively. Functional unloading was achieved during orbital spaceflight and following unilateral sciatic neurotomy. Increasing mechanical loading reduced bone loss in the metaphysis. In contrast, decreasing loading accentuated bone loss in the metaphysis and resulted in bone loss in the epiphysis. Finally, administration of estrogen to ovariectomized rats reduced bone loss in the unloaded and prevented loss in the loaded limb following unilateral sciatic neurotomy in part by reducing indices of bone turnover. These results suggest that estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover, but the overall balance between bone formation and bone resorption is influenced by prevailing levels of mechanical strain.

  5. Mutant activated FGFR3 impairs endochondral bone growth by preventing SOX9 downregulation in differentiating chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-Qiang; Ota, Sara; Deng, Chuxia; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hurlin, Peter J

    2015-03-15

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays a critical role in the control of endochondral ossification, and bone growth and mutations that cause hyperactivation of FGFR3 are responsible for a collection of developmental disorders that feature poor endochondral bone growth. FGFR3 is expressed in proliferating chondrocytes of the cartilaginous growth plate but also in chondrocytes that have exited the cell cycle and entered the prehypertrophic phase of chondrocyte differentiation. Achondroplasia disorders feature defects in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and the defects in differentiation have generally been considered to be a secondary manifestation of altered proliferation. By initiating a mutant activated knockin allele of FGFR3 (FGFR3K650E) that causes Thanatophoric Dysplasia Type II (TDII) specifically in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, we show that mutant FGFR3 induces a differentiation block at this stage independent of any changes in proliferation. The differentiation block coincided with persistent expression of SOX9, the master regulator of chondrogenesis, and reducing SOX9 dosage allowed chondrocyte differentiation to proceed and significantly improved endochondral bone growth in TDII. These findings suggest that a proliferation-independent and SOX9-dependent differentiation block is a key driving mechanism responsible for poor endochondral bone growth in achondroplasia disorders caused by mutations in FGFR3. PMID:25432534

  6. Non-Linear Pattern Formation in Bone Growth and Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of “group intelligence” exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called “particle swarm optimization” (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating “socially” in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or “feedback” between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the

  7. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  8. Bone scaffolds with homogeneous and discrete gradient mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jelen, C; Mattei, G; Montemurro, F; De Maria, C; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Vozzi, G

    2013-01-01

    Bone TE uses a scaffold either to induce bone formation from surrounding tissue or to act as a carrier or template for implanted bone cells or other agents. We prepared different bone tissue constructs based on collagen, gelatin and hydroxyapatite using genipin as cross-linking agent. The fabricated construct did not present a release neither of collagen neither of genipin over its toxic level in the surrounding aqueous environment. Each scaffold has been mechanically characterized with compression, swelling and creep tests, and their respective viscoelastic mechanical models were derived. Mechanical characterization showed a practically elastic behavior of all samples and that compressive elastic modulus basically increases as content of HA increases, and it is strongly dependent on porosity and water content. Moreover, by considering that gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues, we developed discrete functionally graded scaffolds (discrete FGSs) in order to mimic the graded structure of bone tissue. These new structures were mechanically characterized showing a marked anisotropy as the native bone tissue. Results obtained have shown FGSs could represent valid bone substitutes. PMID:25428038

  9. Bone metabolism during antler growth in female reindeer.

    PubMed

    Baksi, S N; Newbrey, J W

    1989-11-01

    Two female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were investigated for alterations in skeletal metabolism during the annual antler growth cycle. During July and January, rib samples were obtained by biopsy after double tetracycline labeling for gravimetric, chemical, and histomorphometric analyses. Though antler length increased from 8 to 55 cm between April and September, body weight increased from only 56 to 77 kg. Rib bone density (g/cm3) increased from 1.39 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- SEM) in July to 1.53 +/- 0.01 in January, and Ca content (mg/cm3) increased from 213 +/- 8 to 300 +/- 14, respectively. Histomorphometric data indicated that rib bones were more porous and active in July and had a higher turnover rate than did January samples. Plasma 1,25(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and osteocalcin levels were significantly lower and estradiol levels were significantly higher in the January as opposed to the July samples. The data indicate that during antler growth, female reindeer undergo bone loss that corresponds to the changes in plasma calcemic hormones and estradiol levels. This bone loss is eventually repaired when antler growth stops. PMID:2509019

  10. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  11. Bone Blood Flow During Simulated Microgravity: Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    Blood flow to bone has been shown to affect bone mass and presumably bone strength. Preliminary data indicate that blood flow to the rat femur decreases after 14 days of simulated microgravity, using hindlimb suspension (HLS). If adult rats subjected to HLS are given dobutamine, a synthetic catecholamine which can cause peripheral vasodilation and increased blood flow, the loss of cortical bone area usually observed is prevented. Further, mechanisms exist at the molecular level to link changes in bone blood flow to changes in bone cell activity, particularly for vasoactive agents like nitric oxide (NO). The decreases in fluid shear stress created by fluid flow associated with the shifts of plasma volume during microgravity may result in alterations in expression of vasoactive agents such as NO, producing important functional effects on bone cells. The primary aim of this project is to characterize changes in 1) bone blood flow, 2) indices of bone mass, geometry, and strength, and 3) changes in gene expression for modulators of nitric oxide activity (e.g., nitric oxide synthase) and other candidate genes involved in signal transduction of mechanical loading after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of HLS in the adult rat. Using a rat of at least 5 months of age avoids inadvertently studying effects of simulated microgravity on growing, rather than adult, bone. Utilizing the results of these studies, we will then define how altered blood flow contributes to changes in bone with simulated microgravity by administering a vasodilatory agent (which increases blood flow to tissues) during hindlimb suspension. In all studies, responses in the unloaded hindlimb bones (tibial shaft, femoral neck) will be compared with those in the weightbearing humeral shaft and the non-weightbearing calvarium (skull) from the same animal. Bone volumetric mineral density and geometry will be quantified by peripheral quantitative CT; structural and material properties of the long bones will be

  12. Mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ondoua, AN; Symons-Liguori, AM; Vanderah, TW

    2013-01-01

    Cancerous cells can originate in a number of different tissues such as prostate, breast and lung, yet often go undetected and are non-painful. Many types of cancers will metastasize toward the bone microenvironment first. Tumor burden within the bone causes excruciating breakthrough pain with properties of continual pain inadequately managed with current analgesics. Part of this failure is due to the poor understanding of the etiology of cancer pain. Animal models of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) have revealed that the neurochemistry of cancer has features distinctive from other chronic pain states. For example, preclinical models of metastatic cancer often result in the upregulation of neurotrophins, such as NGF and BDNF that can lead to nociceptive sensitization. Preclinical cancer models demonstrate nociceptive neuronal expression of acid sensing receptors, such as ASIC1 and TRPV1 that respond to a significant increase in an acidic cancer-induced environment within the bone. CIBP is correlated with a significant increase in pro-inflammatory mediators acting peripherally and centrally, contributing to neuronal hypersensitive states. And finally, cancer cells generate high levels of oxidative molecules that are thought to significantly increase extracellular glutamate, thus activating primary afferent neurons. Knowledge of the unique neuro-molecular profile of cancer pain will ultimately lead to the development of novel and superior therapeutics for CIBP. PMID:24076008

  13. Growth-related structural, biochemical, and mechanical properties of the functional bone–cartilage unit

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Nina; Zaucke, Frank; Dayakli, Münire; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Niehoff, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage and subchondral bone act together, forming a unit as a weight-bearing loading-transmitting surface. A close interaction between both structures has been implicated during joint cartilage degeneration, but their coupling during normal growth and development is insufficiently understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine growth-related changes of cartilage mechanical properties and to relate these changes to alterations in cartilage biochemical composition and subchondral bone structure. Tibiae and femora of both hindlimbs from 7- and 13-week-old (each n = 12) female Sprague-Dawley rats were harvested. Samples were processed for structural, biochemical and mechanical analyses. Immunohistochemical staining and protein expression analyses of collagen II, collagen IX, COMP and matrilin-3, histomorphometry of cartilage thickness and COMP staining height were performed. Furthermore, mechanical testing of articular cartilage and micro-CT analysis of subchondral bone was conducted. Growth decreased cartilage thickness, paralleled by a functional condensation of the underlying subchondral bone due to enchondral ossification. Cartilage mechanical properties seem to be rather influenced by growth-related changes in the assembly of major ECM proteins such as collagen II, collagen IX and matrilin-3 than by growth-related alterations in its underlying subchondral bone structure. Importantly, the present study provides a first insight into the growth-related structural, biochemical and mechanical interaction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Finally, these data contribute to the general knowledge about the cooperation between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:23083449

  14. Structural orientation dependent sub-lamellar bone mechanics.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Palomar, Ines; Shipov, Anna; Shahar, Ron; Barber, Asa H

    2015-12-01

    The lamellar unit is a critical component in defining the overall mechanical properties of bone. In this paper, micro-beams of bone with dimensions comparable to the lamellar unit were fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and mechanically tested in bending to failure using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A variation in the mechanical properties, including elastic modulus, strength and work to fracture of the micro-beams was observed and related to the collagen fibril orientation inferred from back-scattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Established mechanical models were further applied to describe the relationship between collagen fibril orientation and mechanical behaviour of the lamellar unit. Our results highlight the ability to measure mechanical properties of discrete bone volumes directly and correlate with structural orientation of collagen fibrils. PMID:25816782

  15. Mechanical testing of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 regenerated bone in sheep mandibles.

    PubMed

    Kontaxis, A; Abu-Serriah, M; Ayoub, A F; Barbenel, J C

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed in this study for testing excised sheep mandibles as a cantilever. The method was used to determine the strength and stiffness of sheep hemi-mandibles including a 35 mm defect bridged by regenerated bone. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) in a bovine collagen type-I carrier was used for the bone regeneration. Initial tests on ten intact sheep mandibles confirmed that the strength, stiffness and area beneath the load-deformation curves of the right and left hemi-mandibles were not significantly different, confirming the validity of using the contra-lateral hemi-mandible as a control side. Complete bone regeneration occurred in six hemi-mandibles treated with rhBMP, but the quality and mechanical properties of the bone were very variable. The new bone in three samples contained fibrous tissue and was weaker and less stiff than the contra-lateral side (strength, 10-20 per cent; stiffness, 6-15 per cent). The other half had better-quality bone and was significantly stiffer and stronger (p < 0.05), with strength 45-63 per cent and stiffness 35-46 per cent of the contra-lateral side. Hemi-mandibles treated with collagen alone had no regenerated bone bridge suggesting that 35 mm is a critical-size bone defect. PMID:15648662

  16. Collagen and mineral deposition in rabbit cortical bone during maturation and growth: effects on tissue properties.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Hanna; Harjula, Terhi; Koistinen, Arto; Iivarinen, Jarkko; Seppänen, Kari; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J

    2010-12-01

    We characterized the composition and mechanical properties of cortical bone during maturation and growth and in adult life in the rabbit. We hypothesized that the collagen network develops earlier than the mineralized matrix. Growth was monitored, and the rabbits were euthanized at birth (newborn), and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18 months of age. The collagen network was assessed biochemically (collagen content, enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-links) in specimens from the mid-diaphysis of the tibia and femur and biomechanically (tensile testing) from decalcified whole tibia specimens. The mineralized matrix was analyzed using pQCT and 3-point bend tests from intact femur specimens. The collagen content and the Young's modulus of the collagen matrix increased significantly until the rabbits were 3 months old, and thereafter remained stable. The amount of HP and LP collagen cross-links increased continuously from newborn to 18 months of age, whereas PEN cross-links increased after 6 months of age. Bone mineral density and the Young's modulus of the mineralized bone increased until the rabbits were at least 6 months old. We concluded that substantial changes take place during the normal process of development in both the biochemical and biomechanical properties of rabbit cortical bone. In cortical bone, the collagen network reaches its mature composition and mechanical strength prior to the mineralized matrix. PMID:20540098

  17. Structural and functional maturation of distal femoral cartilage and bone during postnatal development and growth in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elaine F; Harjanto, Ricky; Asahara, Hiroshi; Inoue, Nozomu; Masuda, Koichi; Bugbee, William D; Firestein, Gary S; Hosalkar, Harish S; Lotz, Martin K; Sah, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    The size and shape of joints markedly affect their biomechanical properties, but the macroscopic 3-dimensional (3-D) mechanism and extent of cartilage and joint maturation during normal growth are largely unknown. This study qualitatively illustrates the development of the bone-cartilage interface in the knee during postnatal growth in humans and C57BL/6 wild-type mice, quantitatively defines the 3-D shape using statistical shape modeling, and assesses growth strain rates in the mouse distal femur. Accurate quantification of the cartilage-bone interface geometry is imperative for furthering the understanding of the macroscopic mechanisms of cartilage maturation and overall joint development. PMID:22480467

  18. Collagen heterogeneity within different growth regions of long bones of rachitic and nonrachitic chicks

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Bryan P.; Kang, Andrew H.; Trelstad, Robert L.; Gross, Jerome

    1972-01-01

    The different anatomical regions involved in osteogenesis in the chick long bone have been examined for heterogeneities in collagen structure that might relate to the mechanism of ossification. Experimentally induced lathyrism was employed to enhance collagen solubility, and vitamin D deficiency to allow accumulation of osteoid, the precursor of bone matrix. The extractable lathyritic collagens of the cartilaginous and osseous regions of growing long bones from rachitic and non-rachitic chicks were examined for α-chain type and amino acid composition. In both groups of animals the growth plate and cartilaginous regions of the epiphysis gave collagen molecules of the constitution [α1(II)]3, whereas the ossifying regions contained [α1(I)]2 α2. The degree of hydroxylation of the lysine moieties was increased by approximately 50% in the α1(I)-chain and α2-chain of rachitic bone collagen. Since uncalcified osteoid is greatly enriched in rachitic bone, it is concluded that the collagen of osteoid has the configuration [α1(I)]2 α2, similar to that of bone matrix, but has an elevated hydroxylysine content. The possible relationship of this difference to the mechanism of calcification is discussed. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4651137

  19. Effects of spaceflight and simulated weightlessness on longitudinal bone growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Zhang, M.; Evans, G. L.; Westerlind, K. C.; Cavolina, J. M.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    Indirect measurements have suggested that spaceflight impairs bone elongation in rats. To test this possibility, our laboratory measured, by the fluorochrome labeling technique, bone elongation that occurred during a spaceflight experiment. The longitudinal growth rate (LGR) in the tibia of rats in spaceflight experiments (Physiological Space Experiments 1, 3, and 4 and Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment 3) and in two models of skeletal unloading (hind-limb elevation and unilateral sciatic neurotomy) were calculated. The effects of an 11 day spaceflight on gene expression of cartilage matrix proteins in rat growth plates were also determined by northern analysis and are reported for the first time in this study. Measurements of longitudinal growth indicate that skeletal unloading generally did not affect LGR, regardless of age, strain, gender, duration of unloading, or method of unloading. There was, however, one exception with 34% suppression in LGR detected in slow-growing, ovariectomized rats skeletally unloaded for 8 days by hind-limb elevation. This detection of reduced LGR by hind-limb elevation is consistent with changes in steady-state mRNA levels for type II collagen (-33%) and for aggrecan (-53%) that were detected in rats unloaded by an 11 day spaceflight. The changes detected in gene expression raise concern that spaceflight may result in changes in the composition of extracellular matrix, which could have a negative impact on conversion of growth-plate cartilage into normal cancellous bone by endochondral ossification.

  20. Prenatal lead exposure and bone growth. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.D.; O'Flaherty, E.J.

    1990-07-24

    An experimental system of lead (7439921) related prenatal and postnatal growth retardation in rats was developed. Sprague-Dawley-rats and Long-Evans-rats were used in these studies. Rats were exposed to lead in their drinking water at up to 1000 parts per million. A significant effect on fetal bone mineralization could not be excluded and there was a definite effect on fetal body weight following maternal lead exposure. Reduced food intake during the first week of lead exposure was the primary determinant of reduced body and skeletal growth in the lead exposed weanling female rats. When maternal lead exposure was continued during lactation a greater degree of lead related growth retardation in rat offspring occurred than when maternal lead exposure was terminated at parturition. Combined prenatal and postnatal lead exposure impaired bone resorption and increased growth plate widths. In studies using matrix induced endochondral bone plaques, locally applied lead enhanced plaque mineralization through comineralization of lead with calcium. When lead was administered in drinking water, plaque mineralization was also enhanced through the comineralization of lead with calcium.

  1. A mechanism of bone tissue loss in monkeys (BION - 11).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Oganov, V. S.

    The elucidation of mechanisms of bone tissue loss under the spaceflight conditions remains an actual problem until now It was established that primary reactions to a mechanical stress evolve at the cellular level therefore the main attention of the researchers was aimed at studying bone tissue cells and their interactions With the use of electron microscopy we studied osteoblasts osteocytes osteoclasts and stromal cells in bioptats of the iliac bone crest from monkeys flown on board the satellite guillemotleft BION - 11 guillemotright during 2 weeks The flight samples were compared with the vivarium and simulation controls The functional state of cells was evaluated by the degree of development of organelles for specific biosyntheses rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgy complex nucleus state interrelation with a mineralized matrix The analysis of the obtained results and data of other authors Klein -- Nulend et al 2003 etc permits to suppose that the following sequence of cell interactions underlies the bone tissue loss during mechanical stress microgravity reaction of mechano-sensitive osteocytes to a mechanical stimulus consisting in enhancement of osteolytic processes in cells which results in a partial bone tissue loss along the local unloading Simultaneously the modulating signals are transmitted through a system of canals and processes towards active osteoblasts surface osteocytes and bone marrow stromal cells as well As a reply to a mechanical stimulus there occurs a reduction slowing down of proliferation

  2. Spinal nociceptive transmission by mechanical stimulation of bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Takemi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kawamata, Mikito

    2016-01-01

    Background Since bone marrow receives innervation from A-delta and C-fibers and since an increase in intramedullary pressure in bone marrow may induce acute pain in orthopedic patients during surgery and chronic pain in patients with bone marrow edema, skeletal pain may partly originate from bone marrow. Intraosseous lesions, such as osteomyelitis and bone cancer, are also known to produce cutaneous hypersensitivity, which might be referred pain from bone. However, little is known about pain perception in bone marrow and referred pain induced by bone disease. Thus, we carried out an in vivo electrophysiological study and behavioral study to determine whether increased intraosseous pressure of the femur induces acute pain and whether increased intraosseous pressure induces referred pain in the corresponding receptive fields of the skin. Results Intraosseous balloon inflation caused spontaneous pain-related behavior and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia in the lumbosacral region. Single neuronal activities of spinal dorsal horn neurons were extracellularly isolated, and then evoked responses to non-noxious and noxious cutaneous stimuli and intraosseous balloon inflation were recorded. Ninety-four spinal dorsal horn neurons, which had somatic receptive fields at the lower back and thigh, were obtained. Sixty-two percent of the wide-dynamic-range neurons (24/39) and 86% of the high-threshold neurons (12/14) responded to intraosseous balloon inflation, while none of the low-threshold neurons (0/41) responded to intraosseous balloon inflation. Spinally administered morphine (1 µg) abolished balloon inflation-induced spontaneous pain-related behavior and mechanical hyperalgesia in awake rats and also suppressed evoked activities of wide-dynamic-range neurons to noxious cutaneous stimulation and intraosseous balloon inflation. Conclusions The results suggest that mechanical stimulation to bone marrow produces nociception, concomitantly producing its referred pain

  3. Mechanisms of compensatory renal growth.

    PubMed

    Cleper, Roxana

    2012-11-01

    Congenitally reduced renal mass- as with agenesis of one kidney, unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney or with premature birth with early arrest of nephrogenesis- as well as acquired loss of a significant part of kidney tissue- as with kidney donation, after surgery for tumor etc- set in motion compensatory processes with main target to meet metabolic body needs. The sensors for reduced renal mass have not yet been identified. The effectors of the compensatory process include a wide range of growth factors- IGF1, TGF-b1, HGF- and signaling molecules-mTOR- which has intricate reciprocal interactions. As nephrogenesis stops at 34-36 weeks of gestation and can't be restarted thereafter, the main result of this compensatory process is increase in glomerular size (glomerulomegaly) and tubular hypertrophy. Renal volume evaluation by ultrasound is a practical noninvasive tool for assessment of compensatory kidney growth. The increased nephron and kidney size induced by the compensatory process have potential detrimental long-term effect through stretch-induced glomerular cell activation of profibrogenic and vasoconstrictor pathways as well as tubular cell nephrotoxicity caused by abnormal activation of reabsorptive mechanisms including GLUT1 and megalin. Deep understanding of these potentially damage process might help in timely implementation of protective strategies. PMID:23469392

  4. Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone.

    PubMed Central

    Currey, J D; Zioupos, P; Davies, P; Casino, A

    2001-01-01

    We compared the mechanical properties of 'ordinary' bovine bone, the highly mineralized bone of the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris, and mother of pearl (nacre) of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. The rostrum and the nacre are similar in having very little organic material. However, the rostral bone is much weaker and more brittle than nacre, which in these properties is close to ordinary bone. The ability of nacre to outperform rostral bone is the result of its extremely well-ordered microstructure, with organic material forming a nearly continuous jacket round all the tiny aragonite plates, a design well adapted to produce toughness. In contrast, in the rostrum the organic material, mainly collagen, is poorly organized and discontinuous, allowing the mineral to join up to form, in effect, a brittle stony material. PMID:12123292

  5. Bone metastases: molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Basdra, Efthimia K; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2012-05-01

    It has been long recognized that skeleton represents one of the most favored metastatic sites for common cancers like breast and prostate. During the last decade the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of bone metastasis have been gradually illuminated. It appears that the bone microenvironment has a pivotal role in this process. Metastatic tumor cells interact with bone triggering a cascade of molecular events that produce osteolytic and/or osteoblastic phenomena. In this review, we summarize and discuss the most significant factors and signaling pathways implicated in bone colonization. Moreover, based on the recent literature and data, we foresee the need for designing novel agents that will efficiently disrupt these interactions among cancer cells and bone microenvironment, bringing hope for more effective treatments. PMID:20818675

  6. Modulation of bone remodeling via mechanically activated ion channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Randall L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A critical factor in the maintenance of bone mass is the physical forces imposed upon the skeleton. Removal of these forces, such as in a weightless environment, results in a rapid loss of bone, whereas application of exogenous mechanical strain has been shown to increase bone formation. Numerous flight and ground-based experiments indicate that the osteoblast is the key bone cell influenced by mechanical stimulation. Aside from early transient fluctuations in response to unloading, osteoclast number and activity seem unaffected by removal of strain. However, bone formation is drastically reduced in weightlessness and osteoblasts respond to mechanical strain with an increase in the activity of a number of second messenger pathways resulting in increased anabolic activity. Unfortunately, the mechanism by which the osteoblast converts physical stimuli into a biochemical message, a process we have termed biochemical coupling, remains elusive. Prior to the application of this grant, we had characterized a mechanosensitive, cation nonselective channel (SA-cat) in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells that we proposed is the initial signalling mechanism for mechanotransduction. During the execution of this grant, we have made considerable progress to further characterize this channel as well as to determine its role in the osteoblastic response to mechanical strain. To achieve these goals, we combined electrophysiologic techniques with cellular and molecular biology methods to examine the role of these channels in the normal function of the osteoblast in vitro.

  7. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy

  8. Mechanical Loading Synergistically Increases Trabecular Bone Volume and Improves Mechanical Properties in the Mouse when BMP Signaling Is Specifically Ablated in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Iura, Ayaka; McNerny, Erin Gatenby; Zhang, Yanshuai; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tantillo, Margaret; Lynch, Michelle; Kohn, David H.; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is affected by several factors, particularly mechanical loading and growth factor signaling pathways. There is overwhelming evidence to validate the importance of these signaling pathways, however, whether these signals work synergistically or independently to contribute to proper bone maintenance is poorly understood. Weight-bearing exercise increases mechanical load on the skeletal system and can improves bone quality. We previously reported that conditional knockout (cKO) of Bmpr1a, which encodes one of the type 1 receptors for Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in an osteoblast-specific manner increased trabecular bone mass by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. The cKO bones also showed increased cortical porosity, which is expected to impair bone mechanical properties. Here, we evaluated the impact of weight-bearing exercise on the cKO bone phenotype to understand interactions between mechanical loading and BMP signaling through BMPR1A. Male mice with disruption of Bmpr1a induced at 9 weeks of age, exercised 5 days per week on a motor-driven treadmill from 11 to 16 weeks of age. Trabecular bone volume in cKO tibia was further increased by exercise, whereas exercise did not affect the trabecular bone in the control genotype group. This finding was supported by decreased levels of osteoclasts in the cKO tibiae. The cortical porosity in the cKO bones showed a marginally significant decrease with exercise and approached normal levels. Exercise increased ductility and toughness in the cKO bones. Taken together, reduction in BMPR1A signaling may sensitize osteoblasts for mechanical loading to improve bone mechanical properties. PMID:26489086

  9. Automated Cell Detection and Morphometry on Growth Plate Images of Mouse Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Du, Xia; Harding, James I; Beylerian, Emily N; de Silva, Brian M; Gross, Ben J; Kastein, Hannah K; Wang, Weiguang; Lyons, Karen M; Schaeffer, Hayden

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy imaging of mouse growth plates is extensively used in biology to understand the effect of specific molecules on various stages of normal bone development and on bone disease. Until now, such image analysis has been conducted by manual detection. In fact, when existing automated detection techniques were applied, morphological variations across the growth plate and heterogeneity of image background color, including the faint presence of cells (chondrocytes) located deeper in tissue away from the image’s plane of focus, and lack of cell-specific features, interfered with identification of cell. We propose the first method of automated detection and morphometry applicable to images of cells in the growth plate of long bone. Through ad hoc sequential application of the Retinex method, anisotropic diffusion and thresholding, our new cell detection algorithm (CDA) addresses these challenges on bright-field microscopy images of mouse growth plates. Five parameters, chosen by the user in respect of image characteristics, regulate our CDA. Our results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed numerical method relative to manual methods. Our CDA confirms previously established results regarding chondrocytes’ number, area, orientation, height and shape of normal growth plates. Our CDA also confirms differences previously found between the genetic mutated mouse Smad1/5CKO and its control mouse on fluorescence images. The CDA aims to aid biomedical research by increasing efficiency and consistency of data collection regarding arrangement and characteristics of chondrocytes. Our results suggest that automated extraction of data from microscopy imaging of growth plates can assist in unlocking information on normal and pathological development, key to the underlying biological mechanisms of bone growth. PMID:25525552

  10. Prostaglandin E2 Adds Bone to a Cancellous Bone Site with a Closed Growth Plate and Low Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine the responses of a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, (the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), to ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus a prostaglandin E(2) treatment, and compare the site's response to previous findings reported for another site, the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). Thirty five 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups; basal, sham OVX, and OVX+0, +1, or +6 mg PGE(2)/kg/d injected subcutaneously for 3 months and given double fluorescent labels before sacrifice. Cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on 20 micrometer thick undecalcified DTM sections. Similar to the PTM, the DTM showed age-related decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, but it differed in that at 3 months POST OVX there was neither bone loss nor changes in formation endpoints. Giving 1 mg PGE(2)/kg/d to OVX rats prevented most age-related changes and maintained the bone formation histomorphometry near basal levels. Treating OVX rats with 6 mg PGE(2)/kd/d prevented age-related bone changes, added extra bone, and improved microanatomical structure by stimulating bone formation, without altering bone resportion. Futhermore, After PGE(2) admimnistration, the DTM, a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, increased bone formation more than did the cancellous bone in the PTM.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 Adds Bone to a Cancellous Bone Site with a Closed Growth Plate and Low Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine the responses of a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate (the distal tibial metaphysis, DTM) to ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment, and compare the site's response to previous findings reported for another site (the proximal tibial metaphysis, PTM). Thirty-five 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: basal, sham-OVX, and OVX+0, +1, or +6 mg PGE2/kg/d injected subcutaneously for 3 months and given double fluorescent labels before sacrifice. Cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on 20-micron-thick undecalcified DTM sections. Similar to the PTM, the DTM showed age-related decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, but it differed in that at 3 months post-OVX; there was neither bone loss nor changes in formation endpoints. Giving 1 mg PGE2/kg/d to OVX rats prevented most age-related changes and maintained the bone formation histomorphometry near basal levels. Treating OVX rats with 6 mg PGE2/kg/d prevented age-related bone changes, added extra bone, and improved microanatomical structure by stimulating bone formation without altering bone resorption. Furthermore, after PGE2 administration, the DTM, a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, inereased bone formation more than did the cancellous bone in the PTM.

  12. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Minegishi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Yasuo; Yahara, Yasuhito; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hosokawa, Ko; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1{sup Δchon} cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.

  13. Fatty Infiltration of Skeletal Muscle: Mechanisms and Comparisons with Bone Marrow Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hamrick, Mark W; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Frechette, Danielle M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle and bone share common embryological origins from mesodermal cell populations and also display common growth trajectories early in life. Moreover, muscle and bone are both mechanoresponsive tissues, and the mass and strength of both tissues decline with age. The decline in muscle and bone strength that occurs with aging is accompanied in both cases by an accumulation of adipose tissue. In bone, adipocyte (AC) accumulation occurs in the marrow cavities of long bones and is known to increase with estrogen deficiency, mechanical unloading, and exposure to glucocorticoids. The factors leading to accumulation of intra- and intermuscular fat (myosteatosis) are less well understood, but recent evidence indicates that increases in intramuscular fat are associated with disuse, altered leptin signaling, sex steroid deficiency, and glucocorticoid treatment, factors that are also implicated in bone marrow adipogenesis. Importantly, accumulation of ACs in skeletal muscle and accumulation of intramyocellular lipid are linked to loss of muscle strength, reduced insulin sensitivity, and increased mortality among the elderly. Resistance exercise and whole body vibration can prevent fatty infiltration in skeletal muscle and also improve muscle strength. Therapeutic strategies to prevent myosteatosis may improve muscle function and reduce fall risk in the elderly, potentially impacting the incidence of bone fracture. PMID:27379021

  14. Fatty Infiltration of Skeletal Muscle: Mechanisms and Comparisons with Bone Marrow Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Mark W.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Frechette, Danielle M.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle and bone share common embryological origins from mesodermal cell populations and also display common growth trajectories early in life. Moreover, muscle and bone are both mechanoresponsive tissues, and the mass and strength of both tissues decline with age. The decline in muscle and bone strength that occurs with aging is accompanied in both cases by an accumulation of adipose tissue. In bone, adipocyte (AC) accumulation occurs in the marrow cavities of long bones and is known to increase with estrogen deficiency, mechanical unloading, and exposure to glucocorticoids. The factors leading to accumulation of intra- and intermuscular fat (myosteatosis) are less well understood, but recent evidence indicates that increases in intramuscular fat are associated with disuse, altered leptin signaling, sex steroid deficiency, and glucocorticoid treatment, factors that are also implicated in bone marrow adipogenesis. Importantly, accumulation of ACs in skeletal muscle and accumulation of intramyocellular lipid are linked to loss of muscle strength, reduced insulin sensitivity, and increased mortality among the elderly. Resistance exercise and whole body vibration can prevent fatty infiltration in skeletal muscle and also improve muscle strength. Therapeutic strategies to prevent myosteatosis may improve muscle function and reduce fall risk in the elderly, potentially impacting the incidence of bone fracture. PMID:27379021

  15. Tensile Mechanical Properties of Swine Cortical Mandibular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Brosh, Tamar; Rozitsky, Doron; Geron, Silvia; Pilo, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Temporary orthodontic mini implants serve as anchorage devices in orthodontic treatments. Often, they are inserted in the jaw bones, between the roots of the teeth. The stability of the mini implants within the bone is one of the major factors affecting their success and, consequently, that of the orthodontic treatment. Bone mechanical properties are important for implant stability. The aim of this study was to determine the tensile properties of the alveolar and basal mandible bones in a swine model. The diametral compression test was employed to study the properties in two orthogonal directions: mesio-distal and occluso-gingival. Small cylindrical cortical bone specimens (2.6 mm diameter, 1.5 mm thickness) were obtained from 7 mandibles using a trephine drill. The sites included different locations (anterior and posterior) and aspects (buccal and lingual) for a total of 16 specimens from each mandible. The load-displacement curves were continuously monitored while loading half of the specimens in the oclluso-gingival direction and half in the mesio-distal direction. The stiffness was calculated from the linear portion of the curve. The mesio-distal direction was 31% stiffer than the occluso-gingival direction. The basal bone was 40% stiffer than the alveolar bone. The posterior zone was 46% stiffer than the anterior zone. The lingual aspect was stiffer than the buccal aspect. Although bone specimens do not behave as brittle materials, the diametral compression test can be adequately used for determining tensile behavior when only small bone specimens can be obtained. In conclusion, to obtain maximal orthodontic mini implant stability, the force components on the implants should be oriented mostly in the mesio-distal direction. PMID:25463971

  16. Gliosarcoma with liposarcomatous component, bone infiltration and extracranial growth.

    PubMed

    Borota, O C; Scheie, D; Bjerkhagen, B; Jacobsen, E A; Skullerud, K

    2006-01-01

    Gliosarcoma is a highly malignant brain tumor consisting of both a glioblastoma and a mesenchymal component. The latter typically resembles fibrosarcoma, but differentiation patterns resembling osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, angiosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma have also been described. Molecular-genetic studies have shown that both glioblastoma and the mesenchymal component share identical cytogenetic abnormalities or mutations, suggesting a monoclonal origin from glial cells. We report an unusual case of gliosarcoma that presented as a large intracerebral tumor with infiltration of the temporal bone and the soft tissues in the infratemporal fossa. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of alternating areas of glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma. Focally, areas ofosteosarcomatous and liposarcomatous differentiation were found. Although gliosarcoma with transcranial penetration is very rare, it should be suspected in case of intracranial tumor with glioblastoma-imaging features, infiltration of bone and extracranial growth. Our case of liposarcomatous differentiation in gliosarcoma--together with another very recently reported similar case--expands the morphologic heterogeneity of this peculiar brain tumor. PMID:16866302

  17. Enhanced reconstruction of long bone architecture by a growth factor mutant combining positive features of GDF-5 and BMP-2.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Ploeger, Frank; Nickel, Joachim; Glockenmeier, Julia; Kunz, Pierre; Richter, Wiltrud

    2013-08-01

    Non healing bone defects remain a worldwide health problem and still only few osteoinductive growth factors are available for clinical use in bone regeneration. By introducing BMP-2 residues into growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-5 we recently produced a mutant GDF-5 protein BB-1 which enhanced heterotopic bone formation in mice. Designed to combine positive features of GDF-5 and BMP-2, we suspected that this new growth factor variant may improve long bone healing compared to the parent molecules and intended to unravel functional mechanisms behind its action. BB-1 acquired an increased binding affinity to the BMP-IA receptor, mediated enhanced osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells versus GDF-5 and higher VEGF secretion than BMP-2 in vitro. Rabbit radius defects treated with a BB-1-coated collagen carrier healed earlier and with increased bone volume compared to BMP-2 and GDF-5 according to in vivo micro-CT follow-up. While BMP-2 callus often remained spongy, BB-1 supported earlier corticalis and marrow cavity formation, showing no pseudojoint persistence like with GDF-5. Thus, by combining positive angiogenic and osteogenic features of GDF-5 and BMP-2, only BB-1 restored a natural bone architecture within 12 weeks, rendering this promising growth factor variant especially promising for long bone regeneration. PMID:23680368

  18. Dynamic Fluid Flow Mechanical Stimulation Modulates Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minyi; Yeh, Robbin; Lien, Michelle; Teeratananon, Morgan; Agarwal, Kunal; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2013-03-01

    Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which initiate and regulate bone formation. New strategies for osteoporosis treatments have aimed to control the fate of MSCs. While functional disuse decreases MSC growth and osteogenic potentials, mechanical signals enhance MSC quantity and bias their differentiation toward osteoblastogenesis. Through a non-invasive dynamic hydraulic stimulation (DHS), we have found that DHS can mitigate trabecular bone loss in a functional disuse model via rat hindlimb suspension (HLS). To further elucidate the downstream cellular effect of DHS and its potential mechanism underlying the bone quality enhancement, a longitudinal in vivo study was designed to evaluate the MSC populations in response to DHS over 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Five-month old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups for each time point: age-matched control, HLS, and HLS+DHS. DHS was delivered to the right mid-tibiae with a daily "10 min on-5 min off-10 min on" loading regime for five days/week. At each sacrifice time point, bone marrow MSCs of the stimulated and control tibiae were isolated through specific cell surface markers and quantified by flow cytometry analysis. A strong time-dependent manner of bone marrow MSC induction was observed in response to DHS, which peaked on day 14. After 21 days, this effect of DHS was diminished. This study indicates that the MSC pool is positively influenced by the mechanical signals driven by DHS. Coinciding with our previous findings of mitigation of disuse bone loss, DHS induced changes in MSC number may bias the differentiation of the MSC population towards osteoblastogenesis, thereby promoting bone formation under disuse conditions. This study provides insights into the mechanism of time-sensitive MSC induction in response to mechanical loading, and for the optimal design of osteoporosis treatments. PMID:26273495

  19. Effects of a 1-wk spaceflight on morphological and mechanical properties of growing bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, S. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Zernicke, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The morphological and mechanical responses of tibia and humerus were assessed in growing male rats after a 1-wk spaceflight aboard NASA Spacelab 3. In contrast to flights of longer duration, changes in middiaphysial cross-sectional morphology were minimal. Inhibition of longitudinal growth was not found in the tibia but was apparent in the humerus. The normal age-related increase in tibial middiaphysial density was not observed in the flight animals. Three-point bending tests indicated that a 1-wk spaceflight impeded the maturation of bone strength and stiffness, with the effects more pronounced in the tibia than in the humerus. Material property alterations in bone thus overshadowed morphological factors in determining the bone's mechanical response. It is likely that deprivation of normal weight-bearing loads was a major factor contributing to the observed changes, but endocrine and other local factors must also be considered.

  20. Cellular accommodation and the response of bone to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Schriefer, Jennifer L; Warden, Stuart J; Saxon, Leanne K; Robling, Alexander G; Turner, Charles H

    2005-09-01

    Several mathematical rules by which bone adapts to mechanical loading have been proposed. Previous work focused mainly on negative feedback models, e.g., bone adapts to increased loading after a minimum strain effective (MES) threshold has been reached. The MES algorithm has numerous caveats, so we propose a different model, according to which bone adapts to changes in its mechanical environment based on the principle of cellular accommodation. With the new algorithm we presume that strain history is integrated into cellular memory so that the reference state for adaptation is constantly changing. To test this algorithm, an experiment was performed in which the ulnae of Sprague-Dawley rats were loaded in axial compression. The animals received loading for 15 weeks with progressively decreasing loads, increasing loads, or a constant load. The results showed the largest increases in geometry in the decreasing load group, followed by the constant load group. Bone formation rates (BFRs) were significantly greater in the decreasing load group during the first 2 weeks of the study as compared to all other groups (P<0.05). After the first few weeks of mechanical loading, the BFR in the loaded ulnae returned to the values of the nonloaded ulnae. These experimental results closely fit the predicted results of the cellular accommodation algorithm. After the initial weeks of loading, bone stopped responding so the degree of adaptation was proportional to the initial peak load magnitude. PMID:16023471

  1. Partial Reductions in Mechanical Loading Yield Proportional Changes in Bone Density, Bone Architecture, and Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, Rachel; Spatz, Jordan; Cloutier, Alison; Palme, Rupert; Christiansen, Blaine A; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal system is known to be sensitive to changes in its mechanical environment, the relationship between functional adaptation and below-normal mechanical stimuli is not well defined. We investigated bone and muscle adaptation to a range of reduced loading using the partial weight suspension (PWS) system, in which a two-point harness is used to offload a tunable amount of body weight while maintaining quadrupedal locomotion. Skeletally mature female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to partial weight bearing at 20%, 40%, 70%, or 100% of body weight for 21 days. A hindlimb unloaded (HLU) group was included for comparison in addition to age-matched controls in normal housing. Gait kinematics was measured across the full range of weight bearing, and some minor alterations in gait from PWS were identified. With PWS, bone and muscle changes were generally proportional to the degree of unloading. Specifically, total body and hindlimb bone mineral density, calf muscle mass, trabecular bone volume of the distal femur, and cortical area of the femur midshaft were all linearly related to the degree of unloading. Even a load reduction to 70% of normal weight bearing was associated with significant bone deterioration and muscle atrophy. Weight bearing at 20% did not lead to better bone outcomes than HLU despite less muscle atrophy and presumably greater mechanical stimulus, requiring further investigation. These data confirm that the PWS model is highly effective in applying controllable, reduced, long-term loading that produces predictable, discrete adaptive changes in muscle and bone of the hindlimb. PMID:23165526

  2. How does the pathophysiological context influence delivery of bone growth factors?☆

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaohua; Suárez-González, Darilis; Khalil, Andrew S.; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    “Orthobiologics” represents an important category of therapeutics for the regeneration of bone defects caused by injuries or diseases, and bone growth factors are a particularly rapidly growing sub-category. Clinical application of bone growth factors has accelerated in the last two decades with the introduction of BMPs into clinical bone repair. Optimal use of growth factor-mediated treatments heavily relies on controlled delivery, which can substantially influence the local growth factor dose, release kinetics, and biological activity. The characteristics of the surrounding environment, or “context”, during delivery can dictate growth factor loading efficiency, release and biological activity. This review discusses the influence of the surrounding environment on therapeutic delivery of bone growth factors. We specifically focus on pathophysiological components, including soluble components and cells, and how they can actively influence the therapeutic delivery and perhaps efficacy of bone growth factors. PMID:25453269

  3. Platelet derived growth factor secretion and bone healing after Er:YAG laser bone irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Gavriel; Shvero, Dana Kesler; Tov, Yariv Siman; Romanos, George

    2011-03-01

    Er:YAG laser irradiation has been reported to enhance wound healing. However, no studies have evaluated the synthesis of growth factors after laser irradiation. The present study investigated the effects of laser irradiation on the amount of secretion of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in the wound, clarifying the effects of the Er:YAG laser on the bone healing. Osteotomies were prepared in the tibiae of 28 rats using an Er:YAG laser (test group). Maximum power of 8 watts, energy per pulse of 700 mJ, and frequency up to 50 Hz were used. The laser was used with external water irrigation, a spot size of 2 mm, energy per pulse of 500 to 1000 mJ/pulse, and energy density of 32 J/cm(2). Twenty eight additional rats served as a control group and their osteotomies were prepared with a drill 1.3 mm in diameter at 1000 rpm, with simultaneous saline irrigation. Two rats from the tested group and 2 from the control group were sacrificed on each day following surgery (1-14 days), and the tissue specimens were prepared for histologic evaluation. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-PDGF was performed after histologic examination. The difference between the PDGF staining intensities of the 2 treatment groups was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression test. A significant rise in PDGF staining occurred in both groups 2-3 days following surgery. However, while high PDGF counts remained for the 2-week experimental period in the laser group, PDGF levels in the control group returned to baseline levels 8 days post surgery. The 2 groups (laser and control) were found to be different throughout the experiment, and the rat type was found to be a significant predictor (P  =  .000011). The present study demonstrated that Er:YAG laser irradiation seems to stimulate the secretion of PDGF in osteotomy sites in a rat model. It is possible that the high levels of PDGF are part of the mechanism that Er:YAG irradiation enhances and improves the healing of

  4. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Song, Jie; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  5. Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

  6. Tumor-induced pressure in the bone microenvironment causes osteocytes to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sottnik, Joseph L.; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Campbell, Brittany; Keller, Evan T.

    2015-01-01

    Crosstalk between tumor cells and their microenvironment is critical for malignant progression. Crosstalk mediators including soluble factors and direct cell contact have been identified, but roles for the interaction of physical forces between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment have not been described. Here we report preclinical evidence that tumor-generated pressure acts to modify the bone microenvironment to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases. Tumors growing in mouse tibiae increased intraosseous pressure. Application of pressure to osteocytes, the main mechanotransducing cells in bone, induced PCa growth and invasion. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this process was mediated in part by upregulation of CCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in osteocytes. Our results defined the critical contribution of physical forces to tumor cell growth in the tumor microenvironment, and they identified osteocytes as a critical mediator in the bone metastatic niche. PMID:25855383

  7. Tumor-induced pressure in the bone microenvironment causes osteocytes to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Campbell, Brittany; Keller, Evan T

    2015-06-01

    Cross-talk between tumor cells and their microenvironment is critical for malignant progression. Cross-talk mediators, including soluble factors and direct cell contact, have been identified, but roles for the interaction of physical forces between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment have not been described. Here, we report preclinical evidence that tumor-generated pressure acts to modify the bone microenvironment to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases. Tumors growing in mouse tibiae increased intraosseous pressure. Application of pressure to osteocytes, the main mechanotransducing cells in bone, induced prostate cancer growth and invasion. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this process was mediated in part by upregulation of CCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in osteocytes. Our results defined the critical contribution of physical forces to tumor cell growth in the tumor microenvironment, and they identified osteocytes as a critical mediator in the bone metastatic niche. PMID:25855383

  8. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. PMID:25087723

  9. Various effects of antidepressant drugs on bone microarchitectecture, mechanical properties and bone remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, N. . E-mail: nicolas.bonnet15@wanadoo.fr; Bernard, P.; Beaupied, H; Bizot, J.C.; Trovero, F.; Courteix, D.; Benhamou, C.L.

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various drugs which present antidepressant properties: selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, fluoxetine), serotonin and noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitors (Desipramine) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE, rolipram and tofisopam) on bone microarchitecture and biomechanical properties. Twelve female mice were studied per group starting at an age of 10 weeks. During 4 weeks, they received subcutaneously either placebo or 20 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1} of desipramine, fluoxetine or 10 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1} of rolipram or tofisopam. Serum Osteocalcin and CTx were evaluated by ELISA. Bone microarchitecture of the distal femur was characterized by X-ray microCT (Skyscan1072). Mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending test (Instron 4501) and antidepressant efficacy by forced swimming and open field tests. Fluoxetine displayed lower TbTh (- 6.1%, p < 0.01) and tofisopam higher TbTh (+ 5.0%, p < 0.05) versus placebo. Rolipram and tofisopam treatments induced higher BV/TV than placebo (+ 23.8% and + 18.3% respectively). Desipramine group had significantly higher cortical area (+ 4.8%, p < 0.01) and fluoxetine lower cortical area (- 6.1%, p < 0.01) compared to placebo. The stiffness and Young's modulus were lower in the fluoxetine group (77 {+-} 13 N mm{sup -1}, 6431 {+-} 1182 MPa) than in placebo (101 {+-} 9 N mm{sup -1}, 8441 {+-} 1180 MPa). Bone markers indicated a significantly higher bone formation in tofisopam (+ 8.6%) and a lower in fluoxetine (- 56.1%) compared to placebo. These data suggest deleterious effects for SSRIs, both on trabecular and cortical bone and a positive effect of PDE inhibitors on trabecular bone. Furthermore tofisopam anabolic effect in terms of bone markers, suggests a potential therapeutic effect of the PDE inhibitors on bone.

  10. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Dajana; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200°C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24268280

  11. Heritability of Lumbar Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Havill, L.M.; Allen, M.R.; Bredbenner, T.L.; Burr, D.B.; Nicolella, D.P.; Turner, C.H.; Warren, D.M.; Mahaney, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic effects on mechanical properties have been demonstrated in rodents, but not confirmed in primates. Our aim was to quantify the proportion of variation in vertebral trabecular bone mechanical properties that is due to the effects of genes. L3 vertebrae were collected from 110 females and 46 male baboons (6–32 years old) from a single extended pedigree. Cranio-caudally oriented trabecular bone cores were scanned with microCT then tested in monotonic compression to determine apparent ultimate stress, modulus, and toughness. Age and sex effects and heritability (h2) were assessed using maximum likelihood-based variance components methods. Additive effects of genes on residual trait variance were significant for ultimate stress (h2=0.58), toughness (h2=0.64), and BV/TV (h2=0.55). When BV/TV was accounted for, the residual variance in ultimate stress accounted for by the additive effects of genes was no longer significant. Toughness, however, showed evidence of a non-BV/TV-related genetic effect. Overall, maximum stress and modulus show strong genetic effects that are nearly entirely due to bone volume. Toughness shows strong genetic effects related to bone volume and shows additional genetic effects (accounting for 10% of the total trait variance) that are independent of bone volume. These results support continued use of bone volume as a focal trait to identify genes related to skeletal fragility, but also show that other focal traits related to toughness and variation in the organic component of bone matrix will enhance our ability to find additional genes that are particularly relevant to fatigue-related fractures. PMID:19900599

  12. Conception on the Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, N. V.

    2008-06-01

    Basing on the analysis of available literature, the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morphofunctional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys) to microgravity (station SLS-2, Bion-11). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered.

  13. Stimulation of bone growth following zinc incorporation into biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuqin; Zhang, Wenjie; Tian, Peng; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Jiang, Xinquan; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2014-08-01

    Rapid development of zinc biology has broadened the applications of Zn-incorporated biomaterials to tissue engineering but also raised concerns about the long-term safety of released Zn(2+) ions. Clinical success hinges on the amount of incorporated zinc and subsequent optimized release sufficient to stimulate osseointegration. In this study, zinc is incorporated into the sub-surface of TiO2 coatings by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The Zn-implanted coatings show significant improvement compared to the "bulk-doped" coatings prepared by plasma electrolyte oxidation in terms of osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Molecular and cellular osteogenic activities demonstrate that rBMSCs cultured on the Zn-implanted coatings have higher ALP activity and up-regulated osteogenic-related genes (OCN, Col-I, ALP, Runx2) compared to the bulk-doped Zn coatings and controls. In vivo osseointegration studies conducted for 12 weeks on the rat model show early-stage new bone formation and the bone contact ratio (12 week) on the Zn-implanted coating is larger. The ZnT1 and ZIP1 gene expression studies demonstrate that the Zn-implanted coatings can better stimulate bone growth with reduced Zn release than those doped with zinc throughout the coatings. PMID:24862443

  14. Influence of different mechanical stimuli in a multi-scale mechanobiological isotropic model for bone remodelling.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, E G F; Daniel, A L; Hecke, M B; Carvalho, L

    2016-09-01

    This work represents a study of a mathematical model that describes the biological response to different mechanical stimuli in a cellular dynamics model for bone remodelling. The biological system discussed herein consists of three specialised cellular types, responsive osteoblasts, active osteoblasts and osteoclasts, three types of signalling molecules, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-b ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the parathyroid hormone (PTH). Three proposals for mechanical stimuli were tested: strain energy density (SED), hydrostatic and deviatoric parts of SED. The model was tested in a two-dimensional geometry of a standard human femur. The spatial discretization was performed by the finite element method while the temporal evolution of the variables was calculated by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The obtained results represent the temporal evolution of the apparent density distribution and the mean apparent density and thickness for the cortical bone after 600 days of remodelling simulation. The main contributions of this paper are the coupling of mechanical and biological models and the exploration of how the different mechanical stimuli affect the cellular activity in different types of physical activities. The results revealed that hydrostatic SED stimulus was able to form more cortical bone than deviatoric SED and total SED stimuli. The computational model confirms how different mechanical stimuli can impact in the balance of bone homeostasis. PMID:27215171

  15. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Mechanisms and evaluation of bone fragility in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hough, F S; Pierroz, D D; Cooper, C; Ferrari, S L

    2016-04-01

    Subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have decreased bone mineral density and an up to sixfold increase in fracture risk. Yet bone fragility is not commonly regarded as another unique complication of diabetes. Both animals with experimentally induced insulin deficiency syndromes and patients with T1DM have impaired osteoblastic bone formation, with or without increased bone resorption. Insulin/IGF1 deficiency appears to be a major pathogenetic mechanism involved, along with glucose toxicity, marrow adiposity, inflammation, adipokine and other metabolic alterations that may all play a role on altering bone turnover. In turn, increasing physical activity in children with diabetes as well as good glycaemic control appears to provide some improvement of bone parameters, although robust clinical studies are still lacking. In this context, the role of osteoporosis drugs remains unknown. PMID:26537861

  16. Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Debbie Renee

    2001-07-01

    Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber

  17. Ultrasonic tissue characterization for monitoring nanostructured TiO2-induced bone growth.

    PubMed

    Rus, G; García-Martínez, J

    2007-06-21

    The use of bioactive nanostructured TiO2 has recently been proposed for improving orthopaedic implant adhesion due to its improved biocompatibility with bone, since it induces: (i) osteoblast function, (ii) apatite nucleation and (iii) protein adsorption. The present work focuses on a non-ionizing radiation emitting technique for quantifying in real time the improvement in terms of mechanical properties of the surrounding bone due to the presence of the nanostructured TiO2 prepared by controlled precipitation and acid ageing. The mechanical strength is the ultimate goal of a bone implant and is directly related to the elastic moduli. Ultrasonics are high frequency mechanical waves and are therefore suited for characterizing elastic moduli. As opposed to echographic techniques, which are not correlated to elastic properties and are not able to penetrate bone, a low frequency ultrasonic transmission test is proposed, in which a P-wave is transmitted through the specimen and recorded. The problem is posed as an inverse problem, in which the unknown is a set of parameters that describe the mechanical constants of the sequence of layers. A finite element numerical model that depends on these parameters is used to predict the transformation of the waveform and compare to the measurement. The parameters that best describe the real tissue are obtained by minimizing the discrepancy between the real and numerically predicted waveforms. A sensitivity study to the uncertainties of the model is performed for establishing the feasibility of using this technique to investigate the macroscopic effect on bone growth of nanostructured TiO2 and its beneficial effect on implant adhesion. PMID:17664558

  18. Effects of spaceflight and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 on rat bone properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.A.; Ayers, R.A.; Spetzler, M.L.; Simske, S.J.; Zimmerman, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight induces bone degradation which is analogous to an accelerated onset of osteoporosis in humans (Tilton {ital et al.}, 1980). In rats, decreased bone formation is indicative of reduced osteoblast activity (Morey and Baylink, 1978). Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, CA) is interested in using the microgravity environment of low-Earth-orbit to test its therapeutic drug, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). This pharmaceutic is known to promote osteoblast activity (Schmid {ital et al.}, 1984) and therefore may encourage bone growth in rats. Chiron sponsored the Immune.3 payload on STS-73 (May 19{endash}29, 1996) through its Center for Space Commercialization (CSC) partner BioServe Space Technologies (University of Colorado and Kansas State University) to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on mitigating the skeletal degradation that affects rats and humans during spaceflight. Twelve rats were flown for 10 days using two Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames Research Center. Of the twelve, six received 1.4 mg/day of IGF-1; the other six saline. Sixteen vivarium ground controls received the same treatment on a one day delay. Rat femora and tibiae were examined for bone mineral density via DXA scan. Femora and humeri were measured for physical and compositional properties, as well as mechanically tested in three point flexure. Quantitative histomorphometric examination of tibiae, humeri, fibulae, ribs and cranial bone; and microhardness testing on tibiae and humeri are currently in progress. Flight humeri and vivarium femora were significantly larger than their counterparts; however, significant differences in mechanical properties and mineral density were not concurrent to these mass changes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Effects of spaceflight and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 on rat bone properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Ted A.; Ayers, Reed A.; Spetzler, Michael L.; Simske, Steven J.; Zimmerman, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight induces bone degradation which is analogous to an accelerated onset of osteoporosis in humans (Tilton et al., 1980). In rats, decreased bone formation is indicative of reduced osteoblast activity (Morey and Baylink, 1978). Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, CA) is interested in using the microgravity environment of low-Earth-orbit to test its therapeutic drug, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). This pharmaceutic is known to promote osteoblast activity (Schmid et al., 1984) and therefore may encourage bone growth in rats. Chiron sponsored the Immune.3 payload on STS-73 (May 19-29, 1996) through its Center for Space Commercialization (CSC) partner BioServe Space Technologies (University of Colorado and Kansas State University) to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on mitigating the skeletal degradation that affects rats and humans during spaceflight. Twelve rats were flown for 10 days using two Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames Research Center. Of the twelve, six received 1.4 mg/day of IGF-1; the other six saline. Sixteen vivarium ground controls received the same treatment on a one day delay. Rat femora and tibiae were examined for bone mineral density via DXA scan. Femora and humeri were measured for physical and compositional properties, as well as mechanically tested in three point flexure. Quantitative histomorphometric examination of tibiae, humeri, fibulae, ribs and cranial bone; and microhardness testing on tibiae and humeri are currently in progress. Flight humeri and vivarium femora were significantly larger than their counterparts; however, significant differences in mechanical properties and mineral density were not concurrent to these mass changes.

  20. Controlled Release of Growth Factors on Allograft Bone in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, WonHyoung; Ren, Peigen; Fasching, Rainer; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2008-01-01

    Allografts are important alternatives to autografts for treating defects after major bone loss. Bone growth factors have both local autocrine and paracrine effects and regulate the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. To study the effects of prolonged, continuous, local delivery of growth factors on bone growth, we developed a new microelectromechanical system (MEMS) drug delivery device. Bone marrow cells from mice were seeded on mouse allograft discs and cultured in osteogenic media with osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) delivered from MEMS devices for 6 weeks. We monitored bone formation by changes of bone volume using micro-CT scanning and release of osteocalcin using ELISA. The data suggest the MEMS devices delivered constant concentrations of OP-1 and FGF-2 to the media. Bone marrow cells grew on the allografts and increased bone volume. Addition of OP-1 increased bone formation whereas FGF-2 decreased bone formation. Local delivery of growth factors over a prolonged period modulated the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells on allograft bone. PMID:18509711

  1. Emittance concept and growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present an introduction to the subjects of emittance and space-charge effects in charged-particle beams. This is followed by a discussion of three important topics that are at the frontier of this field. The first is a simple model, describing space-charge-induced emittance growth, which yields scaling formulas and some physical explanations for some of the surprising results. The second is a discussion of beam halo, an introduction to the particle-core model, and a brief summary of its results. The third topic is an introduction to the hypothesis of equipartitioning for collisionless particle beams.

  2. Emittance concept and growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1996-06-01

    We present an introduction to the subjects of emittance and space-charge effects in charged-particle beams. This is followed by a discussion of three important topics that are at the frontier of this field. The first is a simple model, describing space-charge-induced emittance growth, which yields scaling formulas and some physical explanations for some of the surprising results. The second is a discussion of beam halo, an introduction to the particle-core model, and a brief summary of its results. The third topic is an introduction to the hypothesis of equipartitioning for collisionless particle beams. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Mechanisms of growth cone repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Catherine E

    2010-01-01

    Research conducted in the last century suggested that chemoattractants guide cells or their processes to appropriate locations during development. Today, we know that many of the molecules involved in cellular guidance can act as chemorepellents that prevent migration into inappropriate territories. Here, we review some of the early seminal experiments and our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:20711492

  4. Proximal femoral growth plate mechanical behavior: Comparison between different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Castro-Abril, Héctor Alfonso; Gutiérrez, María Lucía; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander

    2016-09-01

    In long bones the growth plate is a cartilaginous structure located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis. This structure regulates longitudinal growth and helps determine the structure of mature bone through the process of endochondral ossification. During human growth the femur's proximal growth plate experiences changes in its morphology that may be related to its mechanical environment. Thus, in order to test this hypothesis from a computational perspective, a finite element analysis on a proximal femur was performed on which we modeled different physeal geometries corresponding to the shapes acquired for this structure in a child between the ages of five to eleven. Results show augmented Von Mises stress values with increasing irregularities in physeal geometry, whereas displacement decreased with increased irregularities in the growth plate's morphology. Such observations suggest that growth plate's shape changes follows a possible mechanical adaptation on imposed loads to sustain a person's increasing body mass during growth. PMID:27479492

  5. Gene Expression Patterns in Bone Following Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    Mantila Roosa, Sara M; Liu, Yunlong; Turner, Charles H

    2011-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput measurements of gene expression and bioinformatics analysis methods offers new ways to study gene expression patterns. The primary goal of this study was to determine the time sequence for gene expression in a bone subjected to mechanical loading during key periods of the bone-formation process, including expression of matrix-related genes, the appearance of active osteoblasts, and bone desensitization. A standard model for bone loading was employed in which the right forelimb was loaded axially for 3 minutes per day, whereas the left forearm served as a nonloaded contralateral control. We evaluated loading-induced gene expression over a time course of 4 hours to 32 days after the first loading session. Six distinct time-dependent patterns of gene expression were identified over the time course and were categorized into three primary clusters: genes upregulated early in the time course, genes upregulated during matrix formation, and genes downregulated during matrix formation. Genes then were grouped based on function and/or signaling pathways. Many gene groups known to be important in loading-induced bone formation were identified within the clusters, including AP-1-related genes in the early-response cluster, matrix-related genes in the upregulated gene clusters, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitors in the downregulated gene clusters. Several novel gene groups were identified as well, including chemokine-related genes, which were upregulated early but downregulated later in the time course; solute carrier genes, which were both upregulated and downregulated; and muscle-related genes, which were primarily downregulated. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20658561

  6. Factors that affect postnatal bone growth retardation in the twitcher murine model of Krabbe disease

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Miguel Agustin; Ries, William Louis; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Krabbe disease is an inherited lysosomal disorder in which galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) accumulates mainly in the central nervous system. To gain insight into the possible mechanism(s) that may be participating in the inhibition of the postnatal somatic growth described in the animal model of this disease (twitcher mouse, twi), we studied their femora. This study reports that twi femora are smaller than of those of wild type (wt), and present with abnormality of marrow cellularity, bone deposition (osteoblastic function), and osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, lipidomic analysis indicates altered sphingolipid homeostasis, but without significant changes in the levels of sphingolipid-derived intermediates of cell death (ceramide) or the levels of the osteoclast-osteoblast coupling factor (sphingosine-1-phosphate). However, there was significant accumulation of psychosine in the femora of adult twi animals as compared to wt, without induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6. Analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma levels, a liver secreted hormone known to play a role in bone growth, indicated a drastic reduction in twi animals when compared to wt. To identify the cause of the decrease, we examined the IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein levels in the liver. The results indicated a significant reduction of IGF-1 mRNA as well as protein levels in the liver from twi as compared to wt littermates. Our data suggest that a combination of endogenous (psychosine) and endocrine (IGF-1) factors play a role in the inhibition of postnatal bone growth in twi mice; and further suggest that derangements of liver function may be contributing, at least in part, to this alteration. PMID:20441793

  7. Growth promoting in vitro effect of synthetic cyclic RGD-peptides on human osteoblast-like cells attached to cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Magdolen, Ursula; Auernheimer, Jörg; Dahmen, Claudia; Schauwecker, Johannes; Gollwitzer, Hans; Tübel, Jutta; Gradinger, Reiner; Kessler, Horst; Schmitt, Manfred; Diehl, Peter

    2006-06-01

    In tissue engineering, the application of biofunctional compounds on biomaterials such as integrin binding RGD-peptides has gained growing interest. Anchorage-dependent cells like osteoblasts bind to these peptides thus ameliorating the integration of a synthetic implant. In case sterilized bone grafts are used as substitutes for reconstruction of bone defects, the ingrowth of the implanted bone is often disturbed because of severe pretreatment such as irradiation or autoclaving, impairing the biological and mechanical properties of the bone. We report for the first time on the in vitro coating of the surface of freshly resected, cleaned bone discs with synthetic, cyclic RGD-peptides. For this approach, two different RGD-peptides were used, one containing two phosphonate anchors, the other peptide four of these binding moieties to allow efficient association of these reactive RGD-peptides to the inorganic bone matrix. Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured on RGD-coated bone discs and the adherence and growth of the cells were analyzed. Coating of bone discs with RGD-peptides did not improve the adhesion rate of osteoblast-like cells to the discs but significantly (up to 40%) accelerated growth of these cells within 8 days after attachment. This effect points to pretreatment of bone implants, especially at the critical interface area between the implanted bone and the non-resected residual bone structure, before re-implantation in order to stimulate and enhance osteointegration of a bone implant. PMID:16685410

  8. Mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite-PLGA-collagen biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Didarul B; Middleton, John C; Tannenbaum, Rina; Wick, Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    A bone graft is a complicated structure that provides mechanical support and biological signals that regulate bone growth, reconstruction, and repair. A single-component material is inadequate to provide a suitable combination of structural support and biological stimuli to promote bone regeneration. Multicomponent composite biomaterials lack adequate bonding among the components to prevent phase separation after implantation. We have previously developed a novel multistep polymerization and fabrication process to construct a nano-hydroxyapatite-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-collagen biomaterial (abbreviated nHAP-PLGA-collagen) with the components covalently bonded to each other. In the present study, the mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of nHAP-PLGA-collagen are characterized to assess the material's suitability to support bone regeneration. nHAP-PLGA-collagen films exhibit tensile strength very close to that of human cancellous bone. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are viable on 2D nHAP-PLGA-collagen films with a sevenfold increase in cell population after 7 days of culture. Over 5 weeks of culture, hMSCs deposit matrix and mineral consistent with osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. As a result of matrix deposition, nHAP-PLGA-collagen films cultured with hMSCs exhibit 48% higher tensile strength and fivefold higher moduli compared to nHAP-PLGA-collagen films without cells. More interestingly, secretion of matrix and minerals by differentiated hMSCs cultured on the nHAP-PLGA-collagen films for 5 weeks mitigates the loss of mechanical strength that accompanies PLGA hydrolysis. PMID:27120980

  9. Development and mechanical characterization of porous titanium bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Barbas, A; Bonnet, A-S; Lipinski, P; Pesci, R; Dubois, G

    2012-05-01

    Commercially Pure Porous Titanium (CPPTi) can be used for surgical implants to avoid the stress shielding effect due to the mismatch between the mechanical properties of titanium and bone. Most researchers in this area deal with randomly distributed pores or simple architectures in titanium alloys. The control of porosity, pore size and distribution is necessary to obtain implants with mechanical properties close to those of bone and to ensure their osseointegration. The aim of the present work was therefore to develop and characterize such a specific porous structure. First of all, the properties of titanium made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were characterized through experimental testing on bulk specimens. An elementary pattern of the porous structure was then designed to mimic the orthotropic properties of the human bone following several mechanical and geometrical criteria. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the pattern. A porosity of 53% and pore sizes in the range of 860 to 1500 μm were finally adopted. Tensile tests on porous samples were then carried out to validate the properties obtained numerically and identify the failure modes of the samples. Finally, FE elastoplastic analyses were performed on the porous samples in order to propose a failure criterion for the design of porous substitutes. PMID:22498281

  10. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  11. Scleral Mechanisms Underlying Ocular Growth and Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Ravi; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2015-01-01

    In the regulation of ocular growth, scleral events critically determine eye size and thus the refractive status of the eye. Increased scleral matrix remodeling can lead to exaggerated eye growth causing myopia and additionally increased risk of ocular pathological complications. Thus, therapies targeting these changes in sclera hold potential to limit such complications since sclera represents a relatively safe and accessible drug target. Understanding the scleral molecular mechanisms underlying ocular growth is essential to identifying plausible therapeutic targets in the sclera. This section provides a brief update on molecular studies that pertain to the sclera in the context of ocular growth regulation and myopia. PMID:26310158

  12. Modeling molecular scale mechanics at hybrid interfaces in nanocomposite bone biomaterials and natural bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Rahul

    Composite bone biomaterials based on minerals and polymers are extensively investigated materials for total bone replacement. Mechanical response of these materials is vital for their use as implant materials. It is known that the interfaces between the components in composite biomaterials affect their overall mechanical response significantly. Therefore, it is important to understand the interfaces in composites for development of implant materials with desired mechanical properties. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand the molecular interfaces in composite biomaterials. A robust potential function (force field) that is applicable to both hard and soft components is required. For the present study, we have modified the Consistent Valence Force Field (CVFF) potential function. After modification, new CVFF parameters have been developed for hydroxyapatite (HAP) (mineral phase). Force field parameters for different polymers (polyacrylic acid (PAAc)/Polycaprolactone (PCL)) are obtained from existing parameters of CVFF and ab-initio calculations. MD simulations have shown the presence of strong electrostatic interactions between HAP and PAAc. The influence of applied load on interfaces between HAP and polymers (PAAc/PCL) is also studied using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. It has been observed that both polymers require more energy to deform in the proximity of HAP as compared to polymers alone. The load-transfer mechanisms through the interface between collagen and HAP in natural bone have also been analyzed. It has been observed that mineral and water both influence the load-carrying behavior of collagen molecule. The load applied to collagen structure is transferred to HAP crystals through the water molecules. This understanding of the nature of interfaces and their behavior under applied load in artificial and natural nanocomposites is vital for designing novel implant materials with tailored mechanical properties. The

  13. Effect of chronic undernutrition on body mass and mechanical bone quality under normoxic and altitude hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lezon, Christian; Bozzini, Clarisa; Agûero Romero, Alan; Pinto, Patricia; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2016-05-01

    Both undernutrition and hypoxia exert a negative influence on both growth pattern and bone mechanical properties in developing rats. The present study explored the effects of chronic food restriction on both variables in growing rats exposed to simulated high-altitude hypoxia. Male rats (n 80) aged 28 d were divided into normoxic (Nx) and hypoxic (Hx) groups. Hx rats were exposed to hypobaric air (380 mmHg) in decompression chambers. At T0, Nx and Hx rats were subdivided into four equal subgroups: normoxic control and hypoxic controls, and normoxic growth-restricted and hypoxic growth-restricted received 80 % of the amount of food consumed freely by their respective controls for a 4-week period. Half of these animals were studied at the end of this period (T4). The remaining rats in each group continued under the same environmental conditions, but food was offered ad libitum to explore the type of catch-up growth during 8 weeks. Structural bone properties (strength and stiffness) were evaluated in the right femur midshaft by the mechanical three-point bending test; geometric properties (length, cross-sectional area, cortical mass, bending cross-sectional moment of inertia) and intrinsic properties of the bone tissue (elastic modulus) were measured or derived from appropriate equations. Bone mineralisation was assessed by ash measurement of the left femur. These data indicate that the growth-retarded effects of diminished food intake, induced either by food restriction or hypoxia-related inhibition of appetite, generated the formation of corresponding smaller bones in which subnormal structural and geometric properties were observed. However, they seemed to be appropriate to the body mass of the animals and suggest, therefore, that the bones were not osteopenic. When food restriction was imposed in Hx rats, the combined effects of both variables were additive, inducing a further reduction of bone mass and bone load-carrying capacity. In all cases, the mechanical

  14. Mechanical properties of a biodegradable bone regeneration scaffold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, B. D.; Oldham, J. B.; He, S. L.; Zobitz, M. E.; Payne, R. G.; An, K. N.; Currier, B. L.; Mikos, A. G.; Yaszemski, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Poly (Propylene Fumarate) (PPF), a novel, bulk erosion, biodegradable polymer, has been shown to have osteoconductive effects in vivo when used as a bone regeneration scaffold (Peter, S. J., Suggs, L. J., Yaszemski, M. J., Engel, P. S., and Mikos, A. J., 1999, J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 10, pp. 363-373). The material properties of the polymer allow it to be injected into irregularly shaped voids in vivo and provide mechanical stability as well as function as a bone regeneration scaffold. We fabricated a series of biomaterial composites, comprised of varying quantities of PPF, NaCl and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), into the shape of right circular cylinders and tested the mechanical properties in four-point bending and compression. The mean modulus of elasticity in compression (Ec) was 1204.2 MPa (SD 32.2) and the mean modulus of elasticity in bending (Eb) was 1274.7 MPa (SD 125.7). All of the moduli were on the order of magnitude of trabecular bone. Changing the level of NaCl from 20 to 40 percent, by mass, did not decrease Ec and Eb significantly, but did decrease bending and compressive strength significantly. Increasing the beta-TCP from 0.25 g/g PPF to 0.5 g/g PPF increased all of the measured mechanical properties of PPF/NVP composites. These results indicate that this biodegradable polymer composite is an attractive candidate for use as a replacement scaffold for trabecular bone.

  15. Mechanical Regulation of Bone Regeneration: Theories, Models, and Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Duncan Colin; Müller, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    How mechanical forces influence the regeneration of bone remains an open question. Their effect has been demonstrated experimentally, which has allowed mathematical theories of mechanically driven tissue differentiation to be developed. Many simulations driven by these theories have been presented, however, validation of these models has remained difficult due to the number of independent parameters considered. An overview of these theories and models is presented along with a review of experimental studies and the factors they consider. Finally limitations of current experimental data and how this influences modeling are discussed and potential solutions are proposed. PMID:25540637

  16. Estimating Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties From Non-Invasive Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Harry A.; Webster, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    An important component in developing countermeasures for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity during long-term space flight is an effective and meaningful method of monitoring skeletal condition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an attractive non-invasive approach because it avoids the exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based imaging and also provides measures related to bone microstructure rather than just density. The purpose of the research for the 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship period was to extend the usefulness of the MRI data to estimate the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The main mechanical properties of interest are the elastic modulus and ultimate strength. Correlations are being investigated between these and fractal analysis parameters, MRI relaxation times, apparent densities, and bone mineral densities. Bone specimens from both human and equine donors have been studied initially to ensure high-quality MR images. Specimens were prepared and scanned from human proximal tibia bones as well as the equine distal radius. The quality of the images from the human bone appeared compromised due to freezing artifact, so only equine bone was included in subsequent procedures since these specimens could be acquired and imaged fresh before being frozen. MRI scans were made spanning a 3.6 cm length on each of 5 equine distal radius specimens. The images were then sent to Dr. Raj Acharya of the State University of New York at Buffalo for fractal analysis. Each piece was cut into 3 slabs approximately 1.2 cm thick and high-resolution contact radiographs were made to provide images for comparing fractal analysis with MR images. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were also made of each slab for subsequent bone mineral density determination. Slabs were cut into cubes for mechanical using a slow-speed diamond blade wafering saw (Buehler Isomet). The dimensions and wet weights of each cube specimen were measured and recorded. Wet weights

  17. Mechanics of instability-related delimination growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1988-01-01

    Local buckling of a delaminated group of plies can lead to higher interlaminar stresses and delamination growth. The mechanics of instability-related delamination growth (IRDG) had been described previously for the through-width delamination. This paper describes the mechanics of IRDG for the embedded delamination subjected to either uniaxial or axisymmetric loads. The mechanics of IRDG are used to explain the dramatic differences in strain-energy release rates observed for the through-width, the axisymmetrically loaded embedded delamination, and the uniaxially loaded embedded delamination.

  18. Mechanics of instability-related delamination growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1990-01-01

    Local buckling of a delaminated group of plies can lead to higher interlaminar stresses and delamination growth. The mechanics of instability-related delamination growth (IRDG) had been described previously for the through-width delamination. This paper describes the mechanics of IRDG for the embedded delamination subjected to either uniaxial or axisymmetric loads. The mechanics of IRDG are used to explain the dramatic differences in strain-energy release rates observed for the through-width, the axisymmetrically loaded embedded delamination, and the uniaxially loaded embedded delamination.

  19. Modifications to nano- and microstructural quality and the effects on mechanical integrity in Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Köhne, Till; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Panganiban, Brian; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zustin, Joszef; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Ritchie, Robert O; Busse, Björn

    2015-02-01

    Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is the second most common bone disease mostly developing after 50 years of age at one or more localized skeletal sites; it is associated with severely high bone turnover, bone enlargement, bowing/deformity, cracking, and pain. Here, to specifically address the origins of the deteriorated mechanical integrity, we use a cohort of control and PDB human biopsies to investigate multiscale architectural and compositional modifications to the bone structure (ie, bone quality) and relate these changes to mechanical property measurements to provide further insight into the clinical manifestations (ie, deformities and bowing) and fracture risk caused by PDB. Here, at the level of the collagen and mineral (ie, nanometer-length scale), we find a 19% lower mineral content and lower carbonate-to-phosphate ratio in PDB, which accounts for the 14% lower stiffness and 19% lower hardness promoting plastic deformation in pathological bone. At the microstructural scale, trabecular regions are known to become densified, whereas cortical bone loses its characteristic parallel-aligned osteonal pattern, which is replaced with a mosaic of lamellar and woven bone. Although we find this loss of anisotropic alignment produces a straighter crack path in mechanically-loaded PDB cases, cortical fracture toughness appears to be maintained due to increased plastic deformation. Clearly, the altered quality of the bone structure in PDB affects the mechanical integrity leading to complications such as bowing, deformities, and stable cracks called fissure fractures associated with this disease. Although the lower mineralization and loss of aligned Haversian structures do produce a lower modulus tissue, which is susceptible to deformities, our results indicate that the higher levels of plasticity may compensate for the lost microstructural features and maintain the resistance to crack growth. PMID:25112610

  20. Microindentation for in vivo measurement of bone tissue mechanical properties in humans.

    PubMed

    Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Güerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Cáceres, Enric; Peña, Maria Jesus; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Weaver, James C; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Koester, Kurt J; Ritchie, Robert O; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-08-01

    Bone tissue mechanical properties are deemed a key component of bone strength, but their assessment requires invasive procedures. Here we validate a new instrument, a reference point indentation (RPI) instrument, for measuring these tissue properties in vivo. The RPI instrument performs bone microindentation testing (BMT) by inserting a probe assembly through the skin covering the tibia and, after displacing periosteum, applying 20 indentation cycles at 2 Hz each with a maximum force of 11 N. We assessed 27 women with osteoporosis-related fractures and 8 controls of comparable ages. Measured total indentation distance (46.0 +/- 14 versus 31.7 +/- 3.3 microm, p = .008) and indentation distance increase (18.1 +/- 5.6 versus 12.3 +/- 2.9 microm, p = .008) were significantly greater in fracture patients than in controls. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the two measurements were 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.1-100) and 90.3% (95% CI 73.2-100), respectively. Interobserver coefficient of variation ranged from 8.7% to 15.5%, and the procedure was well tolerated. In a separate study of cadaveric human bone samples (n = 5), crack growth toughness and indentation distance increase correlated (r = -0.9036, p = .018), and scanning electron microscope images of cracks induced by indentation and by experimental fractures were similar. We conclude that BMT, by inducing microscopic fractures, directly measures bone mechanical properties at the tissue level. The technique is feasible for use in clinics with good reproducibility. It discriminates precisely between patients with and without fragility fracture and may provide clinicians and researchers with a direct in vivo measurement of bone tissue resistance to fracture. PMID:20200991

  1. Mechanical Properties of a Single Cancellous Bone Trabeculae Taken from Bovine Femur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoki, Shinichi; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Kazuto; Katayama, Tsutao

    The increase of patients with osteoporosis is becoming a social problem, thus it is an urgent issue to find its prevention and treatment methods. Since cancellous bone is metabolically more active than cortical bone, cancellous bone is often used for diagnosis of osteoporosis and has received much attention within the study of bone. Bone is a hierarchically structured material and its mechanical properties vary at different structural levels, therefore it is important to break down the mechanical testing of bone according to the various levels within bone material. Mechanical properties of cancellous bone is said to be depended on quantities and orientation of trabecular bone. It is supposed that mechanical properties of trabecular bone are constant without depending on any structural arrangement and parts. However, such assumption has not been established in studies of trabecular bone. Furthermore test results have a large margin of error caused by insufficient shape assessment. In this study, three point bending tests of single cancellous bone trabeculae extracted from bovine femur were conducted to evaluate the effects of directions to the femur major axis direction on the mechanical properties. X-ray μCT was used to obtain shape of trabecular bone specimens. Furthermore compression tests of cancellous bone specimens, which were extracted in 10mm cubic geometry, were conducted for evaluation of directional properties.There were small difference in the elastic modulus of the trabecular bones which were extracted in parallel and in perpendicular to the major axis of femur. Considering from the results that the cancellous bone specimens, which were extracted in 10mm cubic geometry, have different elastic properties depending on the tested directions; the bone structure has larger influence than bone material property on the mechanical properties of cancellous bone.

  2. WISP1/CCN4: A Potential Target for Inhibiting Prostate Cancer Growth and Spread to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sonn, Robert; Kilts, Tina M.; de Castro, Luis F.; Maeda, Azusa; Fisher, Larry W.; Robey, Pamela G.; Berendsen, Agnes D.; Li, Li; McCartney-Francis, Nancy; Brown, Aaron C.; Crawford, Nigel P. S.; Molinolo, Alfredo; Jain, Alka; Fedarko, Neal S.; Young, Marian F.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading cause of death in men however the factors that regulate its progression and eventual metastasis to bone remain unclear. Here we show that WISP1/CCN4 expression in prostate cancer tissues was up-regulated in early stages of the disease and, further, that it correlated with increased circulating levels of WISP1 in the sera of patients at early stages of the disease. WISP1 was also elevated in the mouse prostate cancer model TRAMP in the hypoplastic diseased tissue that develops prior to advanced carcinoma formation. When the ability of anti-WISP1 antibodies to reduce the spread of PC3-Luc cells to distant sites was tested it showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced the number and overall size of distant tumors developed after intracardiac (IC) injection of PC3-Luc cells in mice. The ability of antibodies against WISP1 to inhibit growth of PC3-Luc cancer cells in mice was also evaluated and showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced local tumor growth when examined in xenografts. To better understand the mechanism of action, the migration of PC3-Luc cells through membranes with or without a Matrigel™ barrier showed the cells were attracted to WISP1, and that this attraction was inhibited by treatment with anti-WISP1 antibodies. We also show the expression of WISP1 at the bone-tumor interface and in the stroma of early grade cancers suggested WISP1 expression is well placed to play roles in both fostering growth of the cancer and its spread to bone. In summary, the up-regulation of WISP1 in the early stages of cancer development coupled with its ability to inhibit spread and growth of prostate cancer cells makes it both a potential target and an accessible diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. PMID:23977121

  3. Mechanical behavior of osteoporotic bone at sub-lamellar length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Palomar, Ines; Shipov, Anna; Shahar, Ron; Barber, Asa

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease known to promote bone fragility but the effect on the mechanical properties of bone material, which is independent of geometric effects, is particularly unclear. To address this problem, micro-beams of osteoporotic bone were prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and mechanically tested in compression using an atomic force microscope (AFM) while observing using in situ electron microscopy. This experimental approach was shown to be effective at measuring the subtle changes in the mechanical properties of bone material required to evaluate the effects of osteoporosis. Osteoporotic bone material was found to have lower elastic modulus and increased strain to failure when compared to healthy bone material, while the strength of osteoporotic and healthy bone was similar. A mechanism is suggested based on these results and previous literature that indicates degradation of the organic material in osteoporosis bone is responsible for resultant mechanical properties.

  4. Au growth on semiconductor nanorods: photoinduced versus thermal growth mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Menagen, Gabi; Macdonald, Janet E; Shemesh, Yossi; Popov, Inna; Banin, Uri

    2009-12-01

    Gold growth on CdS nanorods and on seeded CdSe/CdS nanorods with and without illumination at different temperatures was studied. Two competing mechanisms were identified: thermal and light-induced growth. The thermal mechanism leads to growth of small gold particles at defects along the rod body and can be suppressed at lower temperatures. This control is attributed to a phase transition of the alkyl chains of the surface amine ligands to a static phase at lower temperatures, blocking the Au precursor's access to the nanorod surfaces. While a long-chain (C18) amine shows effective blocking at 293 K, a shorter chain (C12) amine shows the same result only at 273 K; however, in the case of a bulky trialkylamine, defect growth was observed even at 273 K. Light-induced growth leads to selective deposition of gold on one end of the rods. The tip was shown to grow on sulfur-rich facets of the nanorod, producing end-on and angled tip orientations. Growth under illumination with decreased temperature provides a highly selective synthesis of hybrid semiconductor nanorods with a single gold tip. Such anisotropic semiconductor-metal hybrids are of interest for self-assembly and photocatalysis and as building blocks in optoelectronic devices. PMID:19894717

  5. Changes in the Mechanical Properties and Composition of Bone during Microdamage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, loading activities result in microdamage in the living skeleton, which is repaired by bone remodeling. However, microdamage accumulation can affect the mechanical properties of bone and increase the risk of fracture. This study aimed to determine the effect of microdamage on the mechanical properties and composition of bone. Fourteen male goats aged 28 months were used in the present study. Cortical bone screws were placed in the tibiae to induce microdamage around the implant. The goats were euthanized, and 3 bone segments with the screws in each goat were removed at 0 days, 21 days, 4 months, and 8 months after implantation. The bone segments were used for observing microdamage and bone remodeling, as well as nanoindentation and bone composition, separately. Two regions were measured: the first region (R1), located 1.5 mm from the interface between the screw hole and bone; and the second region (R2), located>1.5 mm from the bone-screw interface. Both diffuse and linear microdamage decreased significantly with increasing time after surgery, with the diffuse microdamage disappearing after 8 months. Thus, screw implantation results in increased bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone, which repairs the microdamage. Moreover, bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, especially in the proximal bone tissue. Bone composition changed greatly during the production and repair of microdamage, especially for the C (Carbon) and Ca (Calcium) in the R1 region. In conclusion, the presence of mechanical microdamage accelerates bone remodeling either in the proximal or distal cortical bone. The bone hardness and elastic modulus decreased with microdamage repair, with the micromechanical properties being restored on complete repair of the microdamage. Changes in bone composition may contribute to changes in bone mechanical properties. PMID:25313565

  6. The Bone Microenvironment: a Fertile Soil for Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Denise; Mulcrone, Patrick L; Owens, Philip; Sterling, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastatic disease remains a significant and frequent problem for cancer patients that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite decades of research, bone metastases remain incurable. Current studies have demonstrated that many properties and cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment contribute to tumor-induced bone disease. Furthermore, they have pointed to the importance of understanding how tumor cells interact with their microenvironment in order to help improve both the development of new therapeutics and the prediction of response to therapy. PMID:27255469

  7. Drugs Which Inhibit Osteoclast Function Suppress Tumor Growth through Calcium Reduction in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Liao, Jinhui; Park, Serk In; Koh, Amy J; Sadler, William D; Pienta, Kenneth J; Rosol, Thomas J; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma frequently metastasizes to bone where the microenvironment facilitates its growth. Inhibition of bone resorption is effective in reducing tumor burden and bone destruction in prostate cancer. However, whether drugs that inhibit osteoclast function inhibit tumor growth independent of inhibition of bone resorption is unclear. Calcium is released during bone resorption and the calcium sensing receptor is an important regulator of cancer cell proliferation. The goal of this investigation was to elucidate the role of calcium released during bone resorption and to determine the impact of drugs which suppress bone resorption on tumor growth in bone. To compare tumor growth in a skeletal versus non-skeletal site, equal numbers of canine prostate cancer cells expressing luciferase (ACE-1luc) prostate cancer cells were inoculated into a simple collagen matrix, neonatal mouse vertebrae (vossicles), human de-proteinized bone, or a mineralized collagen matrix. Implants were placed subcutaneously into athymic mice. Luciferase activity was used to track tumor growth weekly and at one month tumors were dissected for histologic analysis. Luciferase activity and tumor size were greater in vossicles, de-proteinized bone and mineralized collagen matrix versus non-mineralized collagen implants. The human osteoblastic prostate carcinoma cell line C4-2b also grew better in a mineral rich environment with a greater proliferation of C4-2b cells reflected by Ki-67 staining. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, and recombinant OPG-Fc, a RANKL inhibitor, were administered to mice bearing vertebral implants (vossicles) containing ACE-1 osteoblastic prostate cancer cells. Vossicles or collagen matrices were seeded with ACE-1luc cells subcutaneously in athymic mice (2 vossicles, 2 collagen implants/mouse). Mice received ZA (5μg/mouse, twice/week), (OPG-Fc at 10mg/kg, 3 times/week) or vehicle, and luciferase activity was measured weekly. Histologic analysis of the tumors

  8. Factors that affect bone mineral accrual in the adolescent growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Faulkner, Robert A; Mirwald, Robert; Bailey, Donald A

    2004-03-01

    The development of bone mass during the growing years is an important determinant for risk of osteoporosis in later life. Adequate dietary intake during the growth period may be critical in reaching bone growth potential. The Saskatchewan Bone Mineral Accrual Study (BMAS) is a longitudinal study of bone growth in Caucasian children. We have calculated the times of maximal peak bone mineral content (BMC) velocity to be 14.0 +/- 1.0 y in boys and 12.5 +/- 0.9 y in girls; bone growth is maximal approximately 6 mo after peak height velocity. In the 2 y of peak skeletal growth, adolescents accumulate over 25% of adult bone. BMAS data may provide biological data on calcium requirements through application of calcium accrual values to factorial calculations of requirement. As well, our data are beginning to reveal how dietary patterns may influence attainment of bone mass during the adolescent growth spurt. Replacing milk intake by soft drinks appears to be detrimental to bone gain by girls, but not boys. Fruit and vegetable intake, providing alkalinity to bones and/or acting as a marker of a healthy diet, appears to influence BMC in adolescent girls, but not boys. The reason why these dietary factors appear to be more influential in girls than in boys may be that BMAS girls are consuming less than their requirement for calcium, while boys are above their threshold. Specific dietary and nutrient recommendations for adolescents are needed in order to ensure optimal bone growth and consolidation during this important life stage. PMID:14988470

  9. Supplementation of L-arginine prevents glucocorticoid-induced reduction of bone growth and bone turnover abnormalities in a growing rat model.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Pietra; D'Alcamo, Maria Antonia; Leonetti, Concetta; Clementi, Anna; Cutuli, Vincenza Maria; Riccobene, Stefania; Parisi, Natalia; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on bone turnover and bone mineral density in the growing rat. Because of the recent evidence that nitric oxide (NO) can counteract prednisolone-induced bone loss in mature rats, we examined the effect on bone of the NO donor L: -arginine in young male rats, in which bone mass is increased by the same biological mechanism as in children and adolescents. Thirty-six 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to six groups of six animals each, and treated for 4 weeks with either vehicle (once a week subcutaneous injection of 100 microl of sesame oil); prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week by intramuscular injection (i.m.); L-arginine, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day; prednisolone sodium succinate 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-arginine 10 mg/kg i.p. once a day; or prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-NAME 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (RatLaps) were measured at baseline conditions and after 2 and 4 weeks. Prior to treatment, and after 2 and 4 weeks, the whole body, vertebral, pelvic, and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Prednisolone and prednisolone+L-NAME treated rats had significantly lower ALP and osteocalcin levels than controls at 2 and 4 weeks, and significantly higher levels of Rat-Laps than controls at 4 weeks. Prednisolone, L-NAME, and prednisolone+L-NAME produced a significant inhibition of bone accumulation and bone growth at all sites measured. Supplementation with L-arginine appeared to prevent the inhibition of bone growth and increase in bone resorption induced by prednisolone. These data would suggest, for the first time, that supplementation

  10. Holographic nondestructive testing in bone growth disturbance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Nygren, Kaarlo

    1993-09-01

    We used isolated radioulnar bones of subadult European moose collected in various environmental pollution areas of Finland. The bones were radiographed and outer dimensions measured. By using small caudo-cranial bending forces, the bones were tested by using HNDT. For bone mineral studies, samples were taken from the mandibles of the same animals. Results showed, that the bones obtained from the heavily polluted area showed biomechanical response comparable to the bones developed partially without mothers milk. Differences were also seen in morphometrical and radiological studies. The mineral contents studied did not differ significantly from randomly collected samples of the same age category. We therefore conclude that environmental factors may influence the bone matrix development.

  11. APRIL and BCMA promote human multiple myeloma growth and immunosuppression in the bone marrow microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yu-Tzu; Acharya, Chirag; An, Gang; Moschetta, Michele; Zhong, Mike Y; Feng, Xiaoyan; Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Wen, Kenneth; van Eenennaam, Hans; van Elsas, Andrea; Qiu, Lugui; Richardson, Paul; Munshi, Nikhil; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2016-06-23

    Here we show that overexpression or activation of B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) by its ligand, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), promotes human multiple myeloma (MM) progression in vivo. BCMA downregulation strongly decreases viability and MM colony formation; conversely, BCMA overexpression augments MM cell growth and survival via induction of protein kinase B (AKT), MAPK, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling cascades. Importantly, BCMA promotes in vivo growth of xenografted MM cells harboring p53 mutation in mice. BCMA-overexpressing tumors exhibit significantly increased CD31/microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor compared with paired control tumors. These tumors also express increased transcripts crucial for osteoclast activation, adhesion, and angiogenesis/metastasis, as well as genes mediating immune inhibition including programmed death ligand 1, transforming growth factor β, and interleukin 10. These target genes are consistently induced by paracrine APRIL binding to BCMA on MM cells, which is blocked by an antagonistic anti-APRIL monoclonal antibody hAPRIL01A (01A). 01A is cytotoxic against MM cells even in the presence of protective bone marrow (BM) myeloid cells including osteoclasts, macrophages, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. 01A further decreases APRIL-induced adhesion and migration of MM cells via blockade of canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways. Moreover, 01A prevents in vivo MM cell growth within implanted human bone chips in SCID mice. Finally, the effect of 01A on MM cell viability is enhanced by lenalidomide and bortezomib. Taken together, these data delineate new molecular mechanisms of in vivo MM growth and immunosuppression critically dependent on BCMA and APRIL in the BM microenvironment, further supporting targeting this prominent pathway in MM. PMID:27127303

  12. 1. Morphological Implication on Cellular Response to Mechanical Stress in Bone.

    PubMed

    Amizuka, Norio

    2016-08-01

    In bone, there are 3 distinct cell types: an osteoblast, a bone forming cell; an osteocyte embedded in bone matrix as a consequence of being differentiated from an osteoblast; and an osteoclast, a multinucleated giant cell responsible for bone resorption. Bone is always remodeled by replacing old bone with new bone (bone remodeling), by which bone can maintain its stiffness and flexibility. However, in an osteoporotic state, the disrupted balance between bone resorption and formation results in not only markedly reduced bone mass, but also in disorganized geometry of trabecules, which can often give rise to a bone fracture. Osteocytes located in their lacunae insert their fine cytoplasmic processes into narrow passageways referred to as osteocytic canaliculi. Neighboring osteocytes connect to each other by means of a gap junction in their cytoplasmic processes. Therefore, osteocytes and their lacunae/canaliculi appear to form functional syncytium called osteocytic lacunar canalicular system (OLCS). The geometrical distribution of OLCS is poorly arranged in immature bone, while it appears well-arranged distribution in mature bone (cortical bone), in which molecular transports and sensing mechanical stress seems to be efficient, and therefore, may be able to respond to mechanical stress. In this seminar, I will introduce our recent findings on the morphology and function of OLCS which may respond to mechanical stress. PMID:27441762

  13. Mechanical forces and their second messengers in stimulating cell growth in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical forces play an important role in modulating the growth of a number of different tissues including skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, bone, endothelium, epithelium, and lung. As interest increases in the molecular mechanisms by which mechanical forces are transduced into growth alterations, model systems are being developed to study these processes in tissue culture. This paper reviews the current methods available for mechanically stimulating tissue cultured cells. It then outlines some of the putative 'mechanogenic' second messengers involved in altering cell growth. Not surprisingly, many mechanogenic second messengers are the same as those involved in growth factor-induced cell growth. It is hypothesized that from an evolutionary standpoint, some second messenger systems may have initially evolved for unicellular organisms to respond to physical forces such as gravity and mechanical perturbation in their environment. As multicellular organisms came into existence, they appropriated these mechanogenic second messenger cascades for cellular regulation by growth factors.

  14. Interleukin-1-induced acute bone resorption facilitates the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 into the circulation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Tachikawa, Kanako; Kinoshita, Saori; Nishino, Jin; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a central regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone and exerts its effects on distant organs. Despite its endocrine function, the mechanism controlling serum FGF23 levels is not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption may play a role in regulating circulating levels of FGF23, using a mouse model where injections of interleukin (IL)-1β into the subcutaneous tissue over the calvaria induced rapid bone resorption. A significant amount of FGF23 was detected in the extracts from mouse bones, which supports the idea that FGF23 stays in bone for a while after its production. IL-1β-induced bone resorption was associated with elevated serum FGF23 levels, an effect abolished by pre-treatment with pamidronate. Fgf23 expression was not increased in either the calvariae or tibiae of IL-1β-injected mice, which suggests that IL-1β facilitated the entry of FGF23 protein into circulation by accelerating bone resorption rather than increasing its gene expression. The direct effect of IL-1β on bone was confirmed when it increased FGF23 levels in the conditioned media of mouse calvariae in organ culture. Repeated treatment of the cultured calvariae with IL-1β led to a refractory phase, where FGF23 was not mobilized by IL-1β anymore. Consistent with the in vivo results, treatment with IL-1β failed to increase Fgf23 mRNA in isolated primary osteocytes and osteoblasts. These results suggest that FGF23 produced by osteocytes remains in bone, and that rapid bone resorption facilitates its entry into the bloodstream. PMID:24996526

  15. Increased Classical Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Sufficient to Reduce Chondrocyte Proliferation Rate in the Growth Plate and Decrease Bone Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Louise H. W.; Rajpar, M. Helen; Preziosi, Richard; Briggs, Michael D.; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and matrilin-3 cause a spectrum of chondrodysplasias called multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH). The majority of these diseases feature classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) as a result of misfolding of the mutant protein. However, the importance and the pathological contribution of ER stress in the disease pathogenesis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the generic role of ER stress and the UPR in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A transgenic mouse line (ColIITgcog) was generated using the collagen II promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (Tgcog) in chondrocytes. The skeletal and histological phenotypes of these ColIITgcog mice were characterised. The expression and intracellular retention of Tgcog induced ER stress and activated the UPR as characterised by increased BiP expression, phosphorylation of eIF2α and spliced Xbp1. ColIITgcog mice exhibited decreased long bone growth and decreased chondrocyte proliferation rate. However, there was no disruption of chondrocyte morphology or growth plate architecture and perturbations in apoptosis were not apparent. Our data demonstrate that the targeted induction of ER stress in chondrocytes was sufficient to reduce the rate of bone growth, a key clinical feature associated with MED and PSACH, in the absence of any growth plate dysplasia. This study establishes that classical ER stress is a pathogenic factor that contributes to the disease mechanism of MED and PSACH. However, not all the pathological features of MED and PSACH were recapitulated, suggesting that a combination of intra- and extra-cellular factors are likely to be responsible for the disease pathology as a whole. PMID:25693198

  16. Accelerated Growth Plate Mineralization and Foreshortened Proximal Limb Bones in Fetuin-A Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W. C.; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix - a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth. PMID:23091616

  17. Multidisciplinary characterization of the long-bone cortex growth patterns through sheep's ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Cambra-Moo, Oscar; Nacarino-Meneses, Carmen; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Enciso, Silvia; García Gil, Orosia; Llorente Rodríguez, Laura; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; de Aza, Antonio H; González Martín, Armando

    2015-07-01

    Bone researches have studied extant and extinct taxa extensively trying to disclose a complete view of the complex structural and chemical transformations that model and remodel the macro and microstructure of bone during growth. However, to approach bone growth variations is not an easy task, and many aspects related with histological transformations during ontogeny remain unresolved. In the present study, we conduct a holistic approach using different techniques (polarized microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) to examine the histomorphological and histochemical variations in the cortical bone of sheep specimens from intrauterine to adult stages, using environmentally controlled specimens from the same species. Our results suggest that during sheep bone development, the most important morphological (shape and size) and chemical transformations in the cortical bone occur during the first weeks of life; synchronized but dissimilar variations are established in the forelimb and hind limb cortical bone; and the patterns of bone tissue maturation in both extremities are differentiated in the adult stage. All of these results indicate that standardized histological models are useful not only for evaluating many aspects of normal bone growth but also to understand other important influences on the bones, such as pathologies that remain unknown. PMID:26091739

  18. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age. PMID:16172511

  19. Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-05-01

    Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3 kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans. PMID:23631489

  20. Effect of HT042, herbal formula, on longitudinal bone growth in spontaneous dwarf rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Park, Sang Woug; Park, Juyeon; Park, Seungjoon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2013-01-01

    HT042 is a new herbal prescription consisting of Astragalus membranaceus, Phlomis umbrosa and Eleutherococcus senticosus, which are used in Korean medicine to stimulate growth in children. We investigated the effects of HT042 on the body weight, longitudinal bone growth, and bone length in spontaneous dwarf rats (SDR). Male and female SDRs were divided into three groups: the control group (DW, 10 mL/kg/day), the recombinant human GH group (rhGH; 500 µg/kg/day), and the HT042 (100 mg/kg/day) group. Each group received the respective treatments for 10 days. Body weight was measured on day 10 of treatment. On day 8, tetracycline (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into all individuals to form a fluorescent band on the newly synthesized bone. On day 10, femur and tibia lengths were measured using PIXImus. Body weight, longitudinal bone growth, and bone length were not affected in the HT042 group. In contrast, the rhGH group showed significantly increased body weight, longitudinal bone growth, and bone length. In conclusion, HT042 does not act through a GH-like effect to promote longitudinal bone growth. PMID:24169467

  1. Increased linear bone growth by GH in the absence of SOCS2 is independent of IGF‐1

    PubMed Central

    Dobie, Ross; Ahmed, Syed F.; Staines, Katherine A.; Pass, Chloe; Jasim, Seema; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling is essential for postnatal linear bone growth, but the relative importance of GHs actions on the liver and/or growth plate cartilage remains unclear. The importance of liver derived insulin like‐growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) for endochondral growth has recently been challenged. Here, we investigate linear growth in Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling‐2 (SOCS2) knockout mice, which have enhanced growth despite normal systemic GH/IGF‐1 levels. Wild‐type embryonic ex vivo metatarsals failed to exhibit increased linear growth in response to GH, but displayed increased Socs2 transcript levels (P < 0.01). In the absence of SOCS2, GH treatment enhanced metatarsal linear growth over a 12 day period. Despite this increase, IGF‐1 transcript and protein levels were not increased in response to GH. In accordance with these data, IGF‐1 levels were unchanged in GH‐challenged postnatal Socs2‐/‐ conditioned medium despite metatarsals showing enhanced linear growth. Growth‐plate Igf1 mRNA levels were not elevated in juvenile Socs2‐/‐ mice. GH did however elevate IGF‐binding protein 3 levels in conditioned medium from GH challenged metatarsals and this was more apparent in Socs2‐/‐ metatarsals. GH did not enhance the growth of Socs2‐/‐ metatarsals when the IGF receptor was inhibited, suggesting that IGF receptor mediated mechanisms are required. IGF‐2 may be responsible as IGF‐2 promoted metatarsal growth and Igf2 expression was elevated in Socs2‐/‐ (but not WT) metatarsals in response to GH. These studies emphasise the critical importance of SOCS2 in regulating GHs ability to promote bone growth. Also, GH appears to act directly on the metatarsals of Socs2‐/‐ mice, promoting growth via a mechanism that is independent of IGF‐1. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 2796–2806, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25833299

  2. Carboxylation of osteocalcin may be related to bone quality: a possible mechanism of bone fracture prevention by vitamin K.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Kawai, S

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues, such as osteocalcin. Recent studies have reported that vitamin K reduces vertebral and hip fractures without increasing bone mass in patients with osteoporosis, suggesting that vitamin K could affect bone quality. However, the mechanism is unknown. To investigate the involvement of the carboxylation of osteocalcin in bone quality, the present preliminary study examined serum bone markers and ultrasound velocity, a possible indicator of bone quality, in 14 healthy prepubertal children (eight boys and six girls) aged between 7 and 12 years. Venous blood was collected between 0800 and 0900 h after an overnight fast, and serum levels of intact, carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and type I procollagen carboxyl extension peptide were measured. Speed of sound in the right tibia was measured using a SoundScan 2000 Compact (Myriad Ultrasound System, Rehovot, Israel). As a result, there was no significant correlation between the serum bone markers and the Z score for the speed of sound. In contrast, the ratio of serum carboxylated osteocalcin to serum intact osteocalcin was positively correlated with the Z score for the speed of sound (r = 0.621, P = 0.016). These findings suggest, for the first time, that carboxylation of osteocalcin is related to bone quality. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of carboxylation of osteocalcin in bone, and this will provide a new insight into the mechanism of vitamin K treatment in osteoporosis. PMID:11368299

  3. Holographic nondestructive testing in bone growth disturbance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo; Nygren, Kaarlo; Mozerov, Mikhail G.

    1994-03-01

    We used isolated radioulnar bones (fused radial and ulnar bones) of subadult European moose collected in various environmentally polluted areas of Finland. The bones were radiographed and holographic interference pictures, for holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT), were produced by using small caudocranial bending forces. The cortical index values were measured in the diaphyses and samples were taken for mineral studies from the mandibles of the same animals. Results indicated that the bones obtained from the heavily polluted area showed biomechanical response comparable to the bones developed partially without mothers milk. Differences were also seen in morphometrical and radiological studies. The mineral contents studied did not differ significantly from randomly collected samples of the same age category. We therefore conclude that environmental factors may influence the bone matrix development.

  4. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruoxun; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  5. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  6. The in situ mechanics of trabecular bone marrow: the potential for mechanobiological response.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Thomas A; Kreipke, Tyler C; Vaughan, Ted J; McNamara, Laoise M; Niebur, Glen L

    2015-01-01

    Bone adapts to habitual loading through mechanobiological signaling. Osteocytes are the primary mechanical sensors in bone, upregulating osteogenic factors and downregulating osteoinhibitors, and recruiting osteoclasts to resorb bone in response to microdamage accumulation. However, most of the cell populations of the bone marrow niche,which are intimately involved with bone remodeling as the source of bone osteoblast and osteoclast progenitors, are also mechanosensitive. We hypothesized that the deformation of trabecular bone would impart mechanical stress within the entrapped bone marrow consistent with mechanostimulation of the constituent cells. Detailed fluid-structure interaction models of porcine femoral trabecular bone and bone marrow were created using tetrahedral finite element meshes. The marrow was allowed to flow freely within the bone pores, while the bone was compressed to 2000 or 3000 microstrain at the apparent level.Marrow properties were parametrically varied from a constant 400 mPas to a power law rule exceeding 85 Pas. Deformation generated almost no shear stress or pressure in the marrow for the low viscosity fluid, but exceeded 5 Pa when the higher viscosity models were used. The shear stress was higher when the strain rate increased and in higher volume fraction bone. The results demonstrate that cells within the trabecular bone marrow could be mechanically stimulated by bone deformation, depending on deformation rate, bone porosity, and bone marrow properties. Since the marrow contains many mechanosensitive cells, changes in the stimulatory levels may explain the alterations in bone marrow morphology with aging and disease, which may in turn affect the trabecular bone mechanobiology and adaptation. PMID:25363343

  7. Correlating the nanoscale mechanical and chemical properties of knockout mice bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavukcuoglu, Nadire Beril

    Bone is a mineral-organic composite where the organic matrix is mainly type I collagen plus small amounts of non-collagenous proteins including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC) and fibrillin 2 (Fbn2). Mature bone undergoes remodeling continually so new bone is formed and old bone resorbed. Uncoupling between the bone resorption and bone formation causes an overall loss of bone mass and leads to diseases like osteoporosis and osteopenia. These are characterized by structural deterioration of the bone tissue and an increased risk of fracture. The non-collagenous bone proteins are known to have a role in regulating bone turnover and to affect the structural integrity of bone. OPN and OC play a key role in bone resorption and formation, while absence of Fbn-2 causes a connective tissue disorder (congenital contractural arachnodactyly) and has been associated with decreased bone mass. In this thesis nanoindentation and Raman-microspectroscopy techniques were used to investigate and correlate the mechanical and chemical properties of cortical femoral bones from OPN deficient (OPN-/-), OC deficient (OC-/-) and Fbn-2 deficient (Fbn2-/-) mice and their age, sex and background matched wild-type controls (OPN+/+, OC+/+ and Fbn2+/+). For OPN the hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) of under 12 week OPN-/- bones were significantly lower than for OPN+/+ bones, but Raman showed no significant difference. Mechanical properties of bones from mice older than 12 weeks were not significantly different with genotype. However, mineralization and crystallinity from >50 week OPN-/- bones were significantly higher than for OPN+/+ bones. Mechanical properties of OPN-/- bones showed no variation with age, but mineralization, crystallinity and type-B carbonate substitution increased for both genotypes. For OC-/- intra-bone analyses showed that the hardness and crystallinity of the bones were significantly higher, especially in the mid-cortical sections, compared to OC+/+ bones. Fbn2

  8. Trabecular bone response to mechanical loading in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats depends on baseline bone quantity.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young Jin; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Donghyun; Han, Paul; Bae, Kiho; Schreiber, Jürgen; Kim, Han Sung

    2012-07-26

    Mechanical loading is one of the determining factors for bone modulation, and is therefore frequently used to treat or prevent bone loss; however, there appears to be no data on the effects of baseline bone quantity on this response. This study aimed to verify whether baseline bone quantity affects osteoporotic trabecular bone adaptive response to mechanical stimulation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized (OVX). After 3 weeks of OVX, rats were divided into a high bone quantity and a low bone quantity group, and rats in each group were then subdivided into 4 groups that were exposed to different loading strategies. In the loading groups, tibiae were stimulated through axial loading at 2000με of strain, for 1500 cycles each of 75s, 150s, or 250s. The sham treatment groups received no loading. Changes in BV/TV for trabecular bone in the tibia were measured at the baseline (before loading), and at 3 weeks and 6 weeks after loading. BV/TVs in loading groups of the low baseline bone quantity group were significantly increased at 6 weeks, compared with those in the no-loading groups (p<0.05), while those in the high quantity groups were not increased (p>0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline BV/TV and its relative variations at 3 weeks or 6 weeks (p<0.05). These results indicate that adaptive responses of osteoporotic trabecular bone to mechanical loading depend on baseline bone quantity. PMID:22663762

  9. Microarray gene expression profiling of osteoarthritic bone suggests altered bone remodelling, WNT and transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenic protein signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Blair; Tsykin, Anna; Findlay, David M; Fazzalari, Nicola L

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by alterations to subchondral bone as well as articular cartilage. Changes to bone in OA have also been identified at sites distal to the affected joint, which include increased bone volume fraction and reduced bone mineralization. Altered bone remodelling has been proposed to underlie these bone changes in OA. To investigate the molecular basis for these changes, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of bone obtained at autopsy from individuals with no evidence of joint disease (control) and from individuals undergoing joint replacement surgery for either degenerative hip OA, or fractured neck of femur (osteoporosis [OP]). The OP sample set was included because an inverse association, with respect to bone density, has been observed between OA and the low bone density disease OP. Compugen human 19K-oligo microarray slides were used to compare the gene expression profiles of OA, control and OP bone samples. Four sets of samples were analyzed, comprising 10 OA-control female, 10 OA-control male, 10 OA-OP female and 9 OP-control female sample pairs. Print tip Lowess normalization and Bayesian statistical analyses were carried out using linear models for microarray analysis, which identified 150 differentially expressed genes in OA bone with t scores above 4. Twenty-five of these genes were then confirmed to be differentially expressed (P < 0.01) by real-time PCR analysis. A substantial number of the top-ranking differentially expressed genes identified in OA bone are known to play roles in osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. Many of these genes are targets of either the WNT (wingless MMTV integration) signalling pathway (TWIST1, IBSP, S100A4, MMP25, RUNX2 and CD14) or the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signalling pathway (ADAMTS4, ADM, MEPE, GADD45B, COL4A1 and FST). Other differentially expressed genes included WNT (WNT5B, NHERF1, CTNNB1 and PTEN) and TGF-β/BMP (TGFB1, SMAD3

  10. Inulin, oligofructose and bone health: experimental approaches and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2005-04-01

    Inulin-type fructans have been proposed to benefit mineral retention, thereby enhancing bone health. Many, but not all, experimental animal studies have shown increased mineral absorption by feeding non-digestible oligosaccharides. Possible reasons for inconsistencies are explored. A few studies have reported an enhanced bone mineral density or content. Bone health can be evaluated in chronic feeding studies with bone densitometry, bone breaking strength, bone mineral concentration and bone structure. Isotopic Ca tracers can be used to determine the point of metabolism affected by feeding a functional food ingredient. These methods and the effects of feeding inulin-type fructose are reviewed. Inulin-type fructans enhance Mg retention. Chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose enhance femoral Ca content, bone mineral density and Ca retention through enhanced Ca absorption and suppressed bone turnover rates, but it is not bone-promoting under all conditions. PMID:15877902

  11. Alteration of proteoglycan sulfation affects bone growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gualeni, Benedetta; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Marty-Morieux, Caroline; De Leonardis, Fabio; Franchi, Marco; Monti, Luca; Forlino, Antonella; Houillier, Pascal; Rossi, Antonio; Geoffroy, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene, leading to reduced intracellular sulfate pool in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Hence, proteoglycans are undersulfated in the cartilage and bone of DTD patients. To characterize the bone phenotype of this skeletal dysplasia we used the Slc26a2 knock-in mouse (dtd mouse), that was previously validated as an animal model of DTD in humans. X-rays, bone densitometry, static and dynamic histomorphometry, and in vitro studies revealed a primary bone defect in the dtd mouse model. We showed in vivo that this primary bone defect in dtd mice is due to decreased bone accrual associated with a decreased trabecular and periosteal appositional rate at the cell level in one month-old mice. Although the osteoclast number evaluated by histomorphometry was not different in dtd compared to wild-type mice, urine analysis of deoxypyridinoline cross-links and serum levels of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides showed a higher resorption rate in dtd mice compared to wild-type littermates. Electron microscopy studies showed that collagen fibrils in bone were thinner and less organized in dtd compared to wild-type mice. These data suggest that the low bone mass observed in mutant mice could possibly be linked to the different bone matrix compositions/organizations in dtd mice triggering changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Overall, these results suggest that proteoglycan undersulfation not only affects the properties of hyaline cartilage, but can also lead to unbalanced bone modeling and remodeling activities, demonstrating the importance of proteoglycan sulfation in bone homeostasis. PMID:23369989

  12. Effects of Decreased Occlusal Loading during Growth on the Mandibular Bone Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hichijo, Natsuko; Tanaka, Eiji; Kawai, Nobuhiko; van Ruijven, Leo J.; Langenbach, Geerling E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone mass and mineralization are largely influenced by loading. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of the entire mandibular bone in response to decreased load during growth. It is hypothesized that decreased muscular loading will lead to bone changes as seen during disuse, i.e. loss of bone mass. Methods and Findings Ten 21-day-old Wistar strain male rats were divided into two groups (each n=5) and fed on either a hard- or soft-diet for 11 weeks. Micro-computed tomography was used for the investigation of bone mineralization, bone volume, bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and morphological analysis. Mandibular mineralization patterns were very consistent, showing a lower degree of mineralization in the ramus than in the corpus. In the soft-diet group, mineralization below the molars was significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to the hard diet group. Also, bone volume and BV/TV of the condyle and the masseter attachment were decreased in the soft-diet group (p<0.05). Morphological analysis showed inhibited growth of the ramus in the soft-diet group (p<0.05). Conclusion Decreased loading by a soft diet causes significant changes in the mandible. However, these changes are very region-specific, probably depending on the alterations in the local loading regime. The results suggest that muscle activity during growth is very important for bone quality and morphology. PMID:26062027

  13. Wnt/RANKL-mediated bone growth promoting effects of blueberries in weanling rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 and 30 days beginning on PND 21. In both sexes tibial bone mineral density and content a...

  14. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  15. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  16. Bone mineralization pathways during the rapid growth of embryonic chicken long bones.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Asscher, Yotam; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and transport of ions from the environment to the site of bone formation is only partially understood and, for the most part, based on disparate observations in different animals. Here we study different aspects of the biomineralization pathways in one system, the rapidly forming long bones of the chicken embryo. We mainly used cryo-fixation and cryo-electron imaging to preserve the often unstable mineral phases in the tissues. We show the presence of surprisingly large amounts of mineral particles located inside membrane-delineated vesicles in the bone forming tissue between the blood vessels and the forming bone surface. Some of these particles are also located inside mitochondrial networks. The surfaces of the forming bones in the extracellular space contain abundant aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate particles, but these are not enveloped by vesicle membranes. In the bone resorbing region, osteoclasts also contain many particles in both mitochondrial networks and within vesicles. Some of these particles are present also between cells. These observations, together with the previously reported observation that CaP mineral particles inside membranes are present in blood vessels, leads us to the conclusion that important components of the bone mineralization pathways in rapidly forming chicken bone are dense phase mineral particles bound within membranes. It remains to be determined whether these mineral particles are transported to the site of bone formation in the solid state, fluid state or dissolve and re-precipitate. PMID:27108185

  17. Micro-distribution of uranium in bone after contamination: new insight into its mechanism of accumulation into bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Damien; Burt-Pichat, Brigitte; Le Goff, Xavier; Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter; Falkenberg, Gerald; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincze, Laszlo; Denecke, Melissa A; Meyer, Daniel; Vidaud, Claude; Boivin, Georges

    2015-09-01

    After internal contamination, uranium rapidly distributes in the body; up to 20 % of the initial dose is retained in the skeleton, where it remains for years. Several studies suggest that uranium has a deleterious effect on the bone cell system, but little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to accumulation of uranium in bone tissue. We have performed synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR μ-XRF) studies to assess the initial distribution of uranium within cortical and trabecular bones in contaminated rats' femurs at the micrometer scale. This sensitive technique with high spatial resolution is the only method available that can be successfully applied, given the small amount of uranium in bone tissue. Uranium was found preferentially located in calcifying zones in exposed rats and rapidly accumulates in the endosteal and periosteal area of femoral metaphyses, in calcifying cartilage and in recently formed bone tissue along trabecular bone. Furthermore, specific localized areas with high accumulation of uranium were observed in regions identified as micro-vessels and on bone trabeculae. These observations are of high importance in the study of the accumulation of uranium in bone tissue, as the generally proposed passive chemical sorption on the surface of the inorganic part (apatite) of bone tissue cannot account for these results. Our study opens original perspectives in the field of exogenous metal bio-mineralization. PMID:26084548

  18. Influence of Nano-HA Coated Bone Collagen to Acrylic (Polymethylmethacrylate) Bone Cement on Mechanical Properties and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Weng, Xisheng; Bian, Yanyan; Zhou, Lei; Cui, Fuzhai; Qiu, Zhiye

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research investigated the mechanical properties and bioactivity of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement after addition of the nano-hydroxyapatite(HA) coated bone collagen (mineralized collagen, MC). Materials & Methods The MC in different proportions were added to the PMMA bone cement to detect the compressive strength, compression modulus, coagulation properties and biosafety. The MC-PMMA was embedded into rabbits and co-cultured with MG 63 cells to exam bone tissue compatibility and gene expression of osteogenesis. Results 15.0%(wt) impregnated MC-PMMA significantly lowered compressive modulus while little affected compressive strength and solidification. MC-PMMA bone cement was biologically safe and indicated excellent bone tissue compatibility. The bone-cement interface crosslinking was significantly higher in MC-PMMA than control after 6 months implantation in the femur of rabbits. The genes of osteogenesis exhibited significantly higher expression level in MC-PMMA. Conclusions MC-PMMA presented perfect mechanical properties, good biosafety and excellent biocompatibility with bone tissues, which has profoundly clinical values. PMID:26039750

  19. Hedgehog-dependent proliferation drives modular growth during morphogenesis of a dermal bone

    PubMed Central

    Huycke, Tyler R.; Eames, B. Frank; Kimmel, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    In the developing skeleton, dermal bone morphogenesis includes the balanced proliferation, recruitment and differentiation of osteoblast precursors, yet how bones acquire unique morphologies is unknown. We show that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling mediates bone shaping during early morphogenesis of the opercle (Op), a well characterized dermal bone of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. ihha is specifically expressed in a local population of active osteoblasts along the principal growing edge of the bone. Mutational studies show that Hh signaling by this osteoblast population is both necessary and sufficient for full recruitment of pre-osteoblasts into the signaling population. Loss of ihha function results in locally reduced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts and consequent reductions in recruitment into the osteoblast pool, reduced bone edge length and reduced outgrowth. Conversely, hyperactive Hh signaling in ptch1 mutants causes opposite defects in proliferation and growth. Time-lapse microscopy of early Op morphogenesis using transgenically labeled osteoblasts demonstrates that ihha-dependent bone development is not only region specific, but also begins exactly at the onset of a second phase of morphogenesis, when the early bone begins to reshape into a more complex form. These features strongly support a hypothesis that dermal bone development is modular, with different gene sets functioning at specific times and locations to pattern growth. The Hh-dependent module is not limited to this second phase of bone growth: during later larval development, the Op is fused along the dysmorphic edge to adjacent dermal bones. Hence, patterning within a module may include adjacent regions of functionally related bones and might require that signaling pathways function over an extended period of development. PMID:22627283

  20. The scope and sequence of growth factor delivery for vascularized bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bayer, E A; Gottardi, R; Fedorchak, M V; Little, S R

    2015-12-10

    Bone regeneration is a complex process, that in vivo, requires the highly coordinated presentation of biochemical cues to promote the various stages of angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Taking inspiration from the natural healing process, a wide variety of growth factors are currently being released within next generation tissue engineered scaffolds (in a variety of ways) in order to heal non-union fractures and bone defects. This review will focus on the delivery of multiple growth factors to the bone regeneration niche, specifically 1) dual growth factor delivery signaling and crosstalk, 2) the importance of growth factor timing and temporal separation, and 3) the engineering of delivery systems that allow for temporal control over presentation of soluble growth factors. Alternative methods for growth factor presentation, including the use of gene therapy and platelet-rich plasma scaffolds, are also discussed. PMID:26264834

  1. Characteristics and mechanical properties of acrylolpamidronate-treated strontium containing bioactive bone cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Y; Yang, C; Lu, W W; Xu, B; Lam, W M; Ni, G X; Abbah, S A; Yang, F; Cheung, K M C; Luk, K D K

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bioactive bone cement. Previously we developed an injectable bioactive cement (SrHAC) system composed of Sr-HA powders and bisphenol A diglycidylether dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA). In this study, the Sr-HA powder was subjected to surface treatment using acrylolpamidronate, a bisphosphonate derivative, which has a polymerizable group, to improve the interface between inorganic filler and organic matrix by binding Sr-HA and copolymerizing into the matrix. After surface treatment, the compression strength, bending strength, and stiffness of the resulting composites were defined by using a material testing machine (MTS) according to ISO 5833. The fracture surface of the bone cement specimen was observed with a scanning electron microscope. Invitro cytotoxicity of surface-treated SrHAC was also studied using a tetrazolium-based cell viability assay (MTS/pms) on human osteoblast-like cells, the SaOS-2 cell line. Cells were seeded at a density of 10(4)/mL and allowed to grow in an incubator for 48 h at 37 degrees C. Results indicated that after surface treatment, the compression strength and stiffness significantly improved by 22.68 and 14.51%, respectively. The bending strength and stiffness of the bioactive bone cement also showed 19.06 and 8.91% improvements via three-point bending test. The fracture surface micromorphology after compression and bending revealed that the bonding between the resin to surface-treated filler considerably improved. The cell viability indicated that the treated particles were nontoxic and did not inhibit cell growth. This study demonstrated a new surface chemistry route to enhance the covalent bonds between inorganic fillers and polymer matrix for improving the mechanical properties of bone cement. This method not only improves the overall mechanical performance but also increases

  2. Bone Histology in Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki (Ornithischia: Iguanodontia) – Variation, Growth, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Tom R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki is a small ornithopod dinosaur known from thousands of bones and several ontogenetic stages. It was found in a single locality within the Tendaguru Formation of southeastern Tanzania, possibly representing a single herd. Dysalotosaurus provides an excellent case study for examining variation in bone microstructure and life history and helps to unravel the still mysterious growth pattern of small ornithopods. Methodology/Principal Findings Five different skeletal elements were sampled, revealing microstructural variation between individuals, skeletal elements, cross sectional units, and ontogenetic stages. The bone wall consists of fibrolamellar bone with strong variability in vascularization and development of growth cycles. Larger bones with a high degree of utilization have high relative growth rates and seldom annuli/LAGs, whereas small and less intensively used bones have lower growth rates and a higher number of these resting lines. Due to the scarcity of annuli/LAGs, the reconstruction of the life history of Dysalotosaurus was carried out using regularly developed and alternating slow and fast growing zones. Dysalotosaurus was a precocial dinosaur, which experienced sexual maturity at ten years, had an indeterminate growth pattern, and maximum growth rates comparable to a large kangaroo. Conclusions/Significance The variation in the bone histology of Dysalotosaurus demonstrates the influence of size, utilization, and shape of bones on relative growth rates. Annuli/LAGs are not the only type of annual growth cycles that can be used to reconstruct the life history of fossil vertebrates, but the degree of development of these lines may be of importance for the reconstruction of paleobehavior. The regular development of annuli/LAGs in subadults and adults of large ornithopods therefore reflects higher seasonal stress due to higher food demands, migration, and altricial breeding behavior. Small ornithopods often lack

  3. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Martínez, Joel E; Wall, Kristin M; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2009-01-01

    The cancer preventive properties of grape products such as red wine have been attributed to polyphenols enriched in red wine. However, much of the studies on cancer preventive mechanisms of grape polyphenols have been conducted with individual compounds at concentrations too high to be achieved via dietary consumption. We recently reported that combined grape polyphenols at physiologically relevant concentrations are more effective than individual compounds at inhibition of ERalpha(-), ERbeta(+) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and primary mammary tumor growth (Schlachterman et al., Transl Oncol 1:19-27, 2008). Herein, we show that combined grape polyphenols induce apoptosis and are more effective than individual resveratrol, quercetin, or catechin at inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell migration in the highly metastatic ER (-) MDA-MB-435 cell line. The combined effect of dietary grape polyphenols (5 mg/kg each resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin) was tested on progression of mammary tumors in nude mice created from green fluorescent protein-tagged MDA-MB-435 bone metastatic variant. Fluorescence image analysis of primary tumor growth demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in tumor area by dietary grape polyphenols. Molecular analysis of excised tumors demonstrated that reduced mammary tumor growth may be due to upregulation of FOXO1 (forkhead box O1) and NFKBIA (IkappaBalpha), thus activating apoptosis and potentially inhibiting NfkappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) activity. Image analysis of distant organs for metastases demonstrated that grape polyphenols reduced metastasis especially to liver and bone. Overall, these results indicate that combined dietary grape polyphenols are effective at inhibition of mammary tumor growth and site-specific metastasis. PMID:19294520

  4. Bone cell-independent benefits of raloxifene on the skeleton: A novel mechanism for improving bone material properties

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Maxime A.; Brown, Drew M.; Hammond, Max; Wallace, Joseph M.; Du, Jiang; Deymier-Black, Alix C.; Almer, Jonathan D.; Stock, Stuart R.; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene is an FDA approved agent used to treat bone loss and decrease fracture risk. In clinical trials and animal studies, raloxifene reduces fracture risk and improves bone mechanical properties, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear because these benefits occur largely independent of changes to bone mass. Using a novel experimental approach, machined bone beams, both from mature male canine and human male donors, were depleted of living cells and then exposed to raloxifene ex vivo. Our data show that ex vivo exposure of non-viable bone to raloxifene improves intrinsic toughness, both in canine and human cortical bone beams tested by 4-point bending. These effects are cell-independent and appear to be mediated by an increase in matrix bound water, assessed using basic gravimetric weighing and sophisticated ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging. The hydroxyl groups (−OH) on raloxifene were shown to be important in both the water and toughness increases. Wide and small angle x-ray scattering patterns during 4-pt bending show that raloxifene alters the transfer of load between the collagen matrix and the mineral crystals, placing lower strains on the mineral, and allowing greater overall deformation prior to failure. Collectively, these findings provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the therapeutic effect of raloxifene and more importantly identify a cell-independent mechanism that can be utilized for novel pharmacological approaches for enhancing bone strength. PMID:24468719

  5. Bone cell-independent benefits of raloxifene on the skeleton: a novel mechanism for improving bone material properties.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Maxime A; Brown, Drew M; Hammond, Max; Wallace, Joseph M; Du, Jiang; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, Jonathan D; Stock, Stuart R; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B

    2014-04-01

    Raloxifene is an FDA approved agent used to treat bone loss and decrease fracture risk. In clinical trials and animal studies, raloxifene reduces fracture risk and improves bone mechanical properties, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear because these benefits occur largely independent of changes to bone mass. Using a novel experimental approach, machined bone beams, both from mature male canine and human male donors, were depleted of living cells and then exposed to raloxifene ex vivo. Our data show that ex vivo exposure of non-viable bone to raloxifene improves intrinsic toughness, both in canine and human cortical bone beams tested by 4-point bending. These effects are cell-independent and appear to be mediated by an increase in matrix bound water, assessed using basic gravimetric weighing and sophisticated ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging. The hydroxyl groups (OH) on raloxifene were shown to be important in both the water and toughness increases. Wide and small angle X-ray scattering patterns during 4-pt bending show that raloxifene alters the transfer of load between the collagen matrix and the mineral crystals, placing lower strains on the mineral, and allowing greater overall deformation prior to failure. Collectively, these findings provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the therapeutic effect of raloxifene and more importantly identify a cell-independent mechanism that can be utilized for novel pharmacological approaches for enhancing bone strength. PMID:24468719

  6. Mechanical validation of whole bone composite femur models.

    PubMed

    Cristofolini, L; Viceconti, M; Cappello, A; Toni, A

    1996-04-01

    Composite synthetic models of the human femur have recently become commercially available as substitutes for cadaveric specimens. Their quick diffusion was justified by the advantages they offer as a substitute for real femurs. The present investigation concentrated on an extensive experimental validation of the mechanical behaviour of the whole bone composite model, compared to human fresh-frozen and dried-rehydrated specimens for different loading conditions. First, the viscoelastic behaviour of the models was investigated under simulated single leg stance loading, showing that the little time dependent phenomena observed tend to extinguish within a few minutes of the load application. The behaviour under axial loading was then studied by comparing the vertical displacement of the head as well as the axial strains, by application of a parametric descriptive model of the strain distribution. Finally, a four point bending test and a torsional test were performed to characterize the whole bone stiffness of the femur. In all these tests, the composite femurs were shown to fall well within the range for cadaveric specimens, with no significant differences being detected between the synthetic femurs and the two groups of cadaveric femurs. Moreover, the interfemur variability for the composite femurs was 20-200 times lower than that for the cadaveric specimens, thus allowing smaller differences to be characterized as significant using the same simple size, if the composite femurs are employed. PMID:8964782

  7. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimized mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J.; Buchanan, Fraser J.; Clarke, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The broad aim of this work was to investigate and optimize the properties of calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) for use in vertebroplasty to achieve effective primary fixation of spinal fractures. The incorporation of collagen, both bovine and from a marine sponge (Chondrosia reniformis), into a CPC was investigated. The biological properties of the CPC and collagen–CPC composites were assessed in vitro through the use of human bone marrow stromal cells. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase, PicoGreen, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively. The addition of both types of collagen resulted in an increase in cytotoxicity, albeit not to a clinically relevant level. Cellular proliferation after 1, 7, and 14 days was unchanged. The osteogenic potential of the CPC was reduced through the addition of bovine collagen but remained unchanged in the case of the marine collagen. These findings, coupled with previous work showing that incorporation of marine collagen in this way can improve the physical properties of CPCs, suggest that such a composite may offer an alternative to CPCs in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 104B:308–315, 2015. PMID:25766271

  8. The mechanism of grain growth in ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapadia, C. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of grain boundary migration as a thermally activated process is reviewed, the basic mechanisms in ceramics being the same as in metals. However, porosity and non-stochiometry in ceramic materials give an added dimension to the theory and make quantitative treatment of real systems rather complex. Grain growth is a result of several simultaneous (and sometimes interacting) processes; these are most easily discussed separately, but the overall rate depends on their interaction. Sufficient insight into the nature of rate controlling diffusion mechanisms is necessary before a qualitative understanding of boundary mobility can be developed.

  9. Alternative growth mechanisms in the natural diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Gafitullina, D.S.; Ashurov, M.Kh.; Oksengendler, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    On the base of autoradiography method including digital treatment it was investigated the impurity distribution in natural diamonds. It was established the alternation of zonal and fibruilar distribution of several impurities. This phenomenon treatment may be realized on the base of combaing of Cahn-Routburd-Shklowskii growth theory with Prigogine` like synergetic idea. According to the type of crystallization mechanisms depends on relation between crystallization moviting force and value of combaine parameter, depending of boundary wide A lot of regimes of crystallization including the alternation of normal and tangential mechanisms are discussed.

  10. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  11. Growth instabilities in mechanical breakdown under mechanical and thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-Z.; Louis, E.; Plá, O.; Guinea, F.

    1995-12-01

    A linear stability analysis is used to investigate crack growth in two dimensional elastic media, and under mechanical or thermal stresses. Although in most cases a circular geometry is considered, the instability of a planar crack is also discussed. Several boundary conditions and size effects are considered. The results indicate that the tendency towards instabilities in mechanical breakdown is stronger than in the case of growth in fields governed by the Laplace equation (diffusion or electrostatic fields), in line with the smaller fractal dimensions obtained in the first case. Instabilities under thermal stresses are shown to depend on the actual thermal gradients. Finally, a model previously investigated numerically is used to show that plasticity decreases the strength of the instability. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  12. ENDOCHONDRAL GROWTH IN GROWTH PLATES OF THREE SPECIES AT TWO ANATOMICAL LOCATIONS MODULATED BY MECHANICAL COMPRESSION AND TENSION

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Aronsson, David D.; Dimock, Abigail N.; Cortright, Valerie; Beck., Samantha

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose Sustained mechanical loading alters longitudinal growth of bones, and this growth sensitivity to load has been implicated in progression of skeletal deformities during growth. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between altered growth and different magnitudes of sustained altered stress in a diverse set of non-human growth plates. Methods The sensitivity of endochondral growth to differing magnitudes of sustained compression or distraction stress was measured in growth plates of three species of immature animals (rats, rabbits, calves) at two anatomical locations (caudal vertebra and proximal tibia) with two different ages of rats and rabbits. An external loading apparatus was applied for eight days and growth was measured as the distance between fluorescent markers administered 24 and 48 hours prior to euthanasia. Results An apparently linear relationship between stress and percentage growth modulation (percent difference between loaded and control growth plates) was found, with distraction accelerating growth and compression slowing growth. The growth-rate sensitivity to stress was between 9.2 and 23.9% per 0.1 MPa for different growth plates, and averaged 17.1% per 0.1 MPa. The growth-rate sensitivity to stress differed between vertebrae and the proximal tibia (15 and 18.6 percent per 0.1 MPa respectively). The range of control growth rates of different growth plates was large (30 microns/day for rat vertebrae to 366 microns/day for rabbit proximal tibia). Conclusions The relatively small differences in growth-rate sensitivity to stress for a diverse set of growth plates suggests that these results might be generalized to other growth plates, including human. These data may be applicable to planning the management of progressive deformities in patients having residual growth. PMID:16705695

  13. Pore network microarchitecture influences human cortical bone elasticity during growth and aging.

    PubMed

    Bala, Yohann; Lefèvre, Emmanuelle; Roux, Jean-Paul; Baron, Cécile; Lasaygues, Philippe; Pithioux, Martine; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Follet, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Cortical porosity is a major determinant of bone strength. Haversian and Volkmann׳s canals are׳seen' as pores in 2D cross-section but fashion a dynamic network of interconnected channels in 3D, a quantifiable footprint of intracortical remodeling. Given the changes in bone remodeling across life, we hypothesized that the 3D microarchitecture of the cortical pore network influences its stiffness during growth and ageing. Cubes of cortical bone of 2 mm side-length were harvested in the distal 1/3 of the fibula in 13 growing children (mean age±SD: 13±4 yrs) and 16 adults (age: 75±13 yrs). The cubes were imaged using desktop micro-CT (8.14µm isotropic voxel size). Pores were segmented as a solid to assess pore volume fraction, number, diameter, separation, connectivity and structure model index. Elastic coefficients were derived from measurements of ultrasonic bulk compression and shear wave velocities and apparent mass density. The pore volume fraction did not significantly differ between children and adults but originates from different microarchitectural patterns. Compared to children, adults had 42% (p=0.033) higher pore number that were more connected (Connective Density: +205%, p=0.001) with a 18% (p=0.007) lower pore separation. After accounting for the contribution of pore volume fraction, axial elasticity in traction-compression mode was significantly correlated with better connectivity in growing children and with pore separation among adults. The changes in intracortical remodeling across life alter the distribution, size and connectedness of the channels from which cortical void fraction originates. These alterations in pore network microarchitecture participate in changes in compressive and shear mechanical behavior, partly in a porosity-independent manner. The assessment of pore volume fraction (i.e., porosity) provides only a limited understanding of the role of cortical void volume fraction in its mechanical properties. PMID:27389322

  14. A mathematical model of cortical bone remodeling at cellular level under mechanical stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qing-Hua; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2012-12-01

    A bone cell population dynamics model for cortical bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus is developed in this paper. The external experiments extracted from the literature which have not been used in the creation of the model are used to test the validity of the model. Not only can the model compare reasonably well with these experimental results such as the increase percentage of final values of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone fracture energy (BFE) among different loading schemes (which proves the validity of the model), but also predict the realtime development pattern of BMC and BFE, as well as the dynamics of osteoblasts (OBA), osteoclasts (OCA), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for each loading scheme, which can hardly be monitored through experiment. In conclusion, the model is the first of its kind that is able to provide an insight into the quantitative mechanism of bone remodeling at cellular level by which bone cells are activated by mechanical stimulus in order to start resorption/formation of bone mass. More importantly, this model has laid a solid foundation based on which future work such as systemic control theory analysis of bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus can be investigated. The to-be identified control mechanism will help to develop effective drugs and combined nonpharmacological therapies to combat bone loss pathologies. Also this deeper understanding of how mechanical forces quantitatively interact with skeletal tissue is essential for the generation of bone tissue for tissue replacement purposes in tissue engineering.

  15. Extracellular matrix-inspired growth factor delivery systems for bone regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Mikaël M.; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Maruyama, Kenta; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-04-17

    Growth factors are very promising molecules to enhance bone regeneration. However, their translation to clinical use has been seriously limited, facing issues related to safety and cost-effectiveness. These problems derive from the vastly supra-physiological doses of growth factor used without optimized delivery systems. Therefore, these issues have motivated the development of new delivery systems allowing better control of the spatio-temporal release and signaling of growth factors. Because the extracellular matrix (ECM) naturally plays a fundamental role in coordinating growth factor activity in vivo, a number of novel delivery systems have been inspired by the growth factor regulatory function of the ECM. After introducing the role of growth factors during the bone regeneration process, this review exposes different issues that growth factor-based therapies have encountered in the clinic and highlights recent delivery approaches based on the natural interaction between growth factor and the ECM.

  16. Effects of Zoledronate and Mechanical Loading during Simulated Weightlessness on Bone Structure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. T.; Nalavadi, M. O.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Castillo, A. B.; Alwood, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Space flight modulates bone remodeling to favor bone resorption. Current countermeasures include an anti-resorptive drug class, bisphosphonates (BP), and high-force loading regimens. Does the combination of anti-resorptives and high-force exercise during weightlessness have negative effects on the mechanical and structural properties of bone? In this study, we implemented an integrated model to mimic mechanical strain of exercise via cyclical loading (CL) in mice treated with the BP Zoledronate (ZOL) combined with hindlimb unloading (HU). Our working hypothesis is that CL combined with ZOL in the HU model induces additive structural and mechanical changes. Thirty-two C57BL6 mice (male,16 weeks old, n8group) were exposed to 3 weeks of either HU or normal ambulation (NA). Cohorts of mice received one subcutaneous injection of ZOL (45gkg), or saline vehicle, prior to experiment. The right tibia was axially loaded in vivo, 60xday to 9N in compression, repeated 3xweek during HU. During the application of compression, secant stiffness (SEC), a linear estimate of slope of the force displacement curve from rest (0.5N) to max load (9.0N), was calculated for each cycle once per week. Ex vivo CT was conducted on all subjects. For ex vivo mechanical properties, non-CL left femurs underwent 3-point bending. In the proximal tibial metaphysis, HU decreased, CL increased, and ZOL increased the cancellous bone volume to total volume ratio by -26, +21, and +33, respectively. Similar trends held for trabecular thickness and number. Ex vivo left femur mechanical properties revealed HU decreased stiffness (-37),and ZOL mitigated the HU stiffness losses (+78). Data on the ex vivo Ultimate Force followed similar trends. After 3 weeks, HU decreased in vivo SEC (-16). The combination of CL+HU appeared additive in bone structure and mechanical properties. However, when HU + CL + ZOL were combined, ZOL had no additional effect (p0.05) on in vivo SEC. Structural data followed this trend with

  17. Phylogenetic, functional, and structural components of variation in bone growth rate of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Jorge; Legendre, Pierre; de Ricqlès, Armand; Montes, Laëtitia; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Castanet, Jacques; Desdevises, Yves

    2008-01-01

    The biological features observed in every living organism are the outcome of three sets of factors: historical (inherited by homology), functional (biological adaptation), and structural (properties inherent to the materials with which organs are constructed, and the morphogenetic rules by which they grow). Integrating them should bring satisfactory causal explanations of empirical data. However, little progress has been accomplished in practice toward this goal, because a methodologically efficient tool was lacking. Here we use a new statistical method of variation partitioning to analyze bone growth in amniotes. (1) Historical component. The variation of bone growth rates contains a significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that the observed patterns are partly the outcome of shared ancestry. (2) Functional causation. High growth rates, although energy costly, may be adaptive (i.e., they may increase survival rates) in taxa showing short growth periods (e.g., birds). In ectothermic amniotes, low resting metabolic rates may limit the maximum possible growth rates. (3) Structural constraint. Whereas soft tissues grow through a multiplicative process, growth of mineralized tissues is accretionary (additive, i.e., mineralization fronts occur only at free surfaces). Bone growth of many amniotes partially circumvents this constraint: it is achieved not only at the external surface of the bone shaft, but also within cavities included in the bone cortex as it grows centrifugally. Our approach contributes to the unification of historicism, functionalism, and structuralism toward a more integrated evolutionary biology. PMID:18315815

  18. Estimating differences in volumetric flat bone growth in pediatric patients by radiation treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho . E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org; Shukla, Hemant I.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Krasin, Matthew J.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To estimate potential differences in volumetric bone growth in children with sarcoma treated with intensity-modulated (IMRT) and conformal (CRT) radiation therapy using an empiric dose-effect model. Methods and Materials: A random coefficient model was used to estimate potential volumetric bone growth of 36 pelvic bones (ischiopubis and ilium) from 11 patients 4 years after radiotherapy. The model incorporated patient age, pretreatment bone volume, integral dose >35 Gy, and time since completion of radiation therapy. Three dosimetry plans were entered into the model: the actual CRT/IMRT plan, a nontreated comparable IMRT/CRT plan, and an idealized plan in which dose was delivered only to the planning target volume. The results were compared with modeled normal bone growth. Results: The model predicted that by using the idealized, IMRT, and CRT approaches, patients would maintain 93%, 87%, and 84%, respectively (p = 0.06), of their expected normal growth. Patients older than 10 years would maintain 98% of normal growth, regardless of treatment method. Those younger than 10 years would maintain 87% (idealized), 76% (IMRT), or 70% (CRT) of their expected growth (p = 0.015). Post hoc testing (Tukey) revealed that the CRT and IMRT approaches differed significantly from the idealized one but not from each other. Conclusions: Dose-effect models facilitate the comparison of treatment methods and potential interventions. Although treatment methods do not alter the growth of flat bones in older pediatric patients, they may significantly impact bone growth in children younger than age 10 years, especially as we move toward techniques with high conformity and sharper dose gradient.

  19. Structural and Functional Maturation of Distal Femoral Cartilage and Bone during Postnatal Development and Growth in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Elaine F.; Harjanto, Ricky; Asahara, Hiroshi; Inoue, Nozomu; Masuda, Koichi; Bugbee, William D.; Firestein, Gary S.; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Lotz, Martin K.; Sah, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Introduction The size and shape of joints markedly affect their biomechanical properties, but the macroscopic 3-dimensional (3-D) mechanism and extent of cartilage and joint maturation during normal growth are largely unknown. Aims The purposes of this study were to qualitatively illustrate the development of the cartilage-bone interface in the knee during postnatal growth in humans and C57BL/6 wild-type mice, and to quantitatively define the 3-D shape using statistical shape modeling as well as to assess growth strain rates in the mouse distal femur. Methods Clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of asymptomatic knees (0.3–0.6mm in-plane resolution, 0.63mm slice thickness) were obtained from six patients between 4 to 12 years old. Micro-CT scans of mouse knees (9μm isotropic resolution) were from twenty-one mice between 12 to 120 days postnatal. Human and mouse images were compared qualitatively with 2-D images and 3-D reconstructions. Mouse femora shape parameters were determined with statistical shape modeling, and strain rates and directions during growth were mapped. Results The attainment of cartilage-bone interface shape of the distal femur and proximal tibia were qualitatively similar in humans and mice, with marked differences in growth plate morphology. Mouse distal femur shape was described by 11 independent parameters that accounted for >90% of total shape variation during growth. Each shape parameter described changes in specific anatomical regions of the distal femur and varied with age. Shape parameters and strains in the medial and lateral condyles, as well as intercondylar notch, varied greatly between postnatal days 16 to 30. Directions of growth strain across ages corresponded well with the appearance of anatomical landmarks within the distal femur. Conclusion Accurate quantification of the cartilage-bone interface geometry is imperative for furthering the understanding of the macroscopic mechanisms of cartilage maturation and

  20. New Mechanism of Bone Cancer Pain: Tumor Tissue-Derived Endogenous Formaldehyde Induced Bone Cancer Pain via TRPV1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wan, You

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, our serial investigations focused on the role of cancer cells-derived endogenous formaldehyde in bone cancer pain. We found that cancer cells produced formaldehyde through demethylation process by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1 and SHMT2) and lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1). When the cancer cells metastasized into bone marrow, the elevated endogenous formaldehyde induced bone cancer pain through activation on the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) in the peripheral nerve fibers. More interestingly, TRPV1 expressions in the peripheral fibers were upregulated by the local insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the activated osteoblasts. In conclusion, tumor tissue-derived endogenous formaldehyde induced bone cancer pain via TRPV1 activation. PMID:26900062

  1. Artificial Bone and Teeth through Controlled Ice Growth in Colloidal Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Deville, Sylvain

    2007-06-01

    The formation of regular patterns is a common feature of many solidification processes involving cast materials. We describe here how regular patterns can be obtained in porous alumina and hydroxyapatite (HAP) by controlling the freezing of ceramic slurries followed by subsequent ice sublimation and sintering, leading to multilayered porous ceramic structures with homogeneous and well-defined architecture. These porous materials can be infiltrated with a second phase of choice to yield biomimetic nacre-like composites with improved mechanical properties, which could be used for artificial bone and teeth applications. Proper control of the solidification patterns provides powerful means of control over the final functional properties. We discuss the relationships between the experimental results, ice growth fundamentals, the physics of ice and the interaction between inert particles and the solidification front during directional freezing.

  2. Artificial Bone and Teeth through Controlled Ice Growth in Colloidal Suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Deville, Sylvain

    2007-06-14

    The formation of regular patterns is a common feature of many solidification processes involving cast materials. We describe here how regular patterns can be obtained in porous alumina and hydroxyapatite (HAP) by controlling the freezing of ceramic slurries followed by subsequent ice sublimation and sintering, leading to multilayered porous ceramic structures with homogeneous and well-defined architecture. These porous materials can be infiltrated with a second phase of choice to yield biomimetic nacre-like composites with improved mechanical properties, which could be used for artificial bone and teeth applications. Proper control of the solidification patterns provides powerful means of control over the final functional properties. We discuss the relationships between the experimental results, ice growth fundamentals, the physics of ice and the interaction between inert particles and the solidification front during directional freezing.

  3. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  4. The effect of exercise on bone mass and structural geometry during growth.

    PubMed

    Daly, Robin M

    2007-01-01

    Regular weight-bearing exercise is widely reported to have beneficial effects on bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density during growth, but the structural basis underlying these changes remains uncertain. In young athletic children, participation in high-impact sports has been shown to enhance bone formation on the periosteal and/or endosteal surfaces of long bones at loaded skeletal sites. Participation in moderate physical activity, recreational play or school-based exercise interventions designed to specifically load bone have also been shown to enhance bone mineral accrual. However, few data are available on the surface-specific effects of exercise training or general physical activity on bone. Based on the limited data available, it would appear that the structural response of bone to exercise during growth is maturity dependent and sex specific; prior to puberty exercise appears to increase periosteal apposition in both sexes, whereas during or late in puberty exercise appears to result in periosteal expansion in boys but endocortical contraction in girls. In most cases, these geometric changes lead to an increase in bone bending strength. However, there are contrasting results as to whether the pre- or peripubertal years are an optimal time to intervene for the greatest osteogenic response; it is likely that both periods represent an important time for incorporating physical activity to optimize bone health. There are also many unresolved questions as to the optimal dose of exercise (intensity, frequency, duration and rate of progression) needed to enhance bone strength in children and adolescents. We know that weight-bearing exercise is important, and that activities should be dynamic, variable in nature, applied rapidly and intermittently, and that relatively few loading cycles are required. Although several effective interventions have been designed for improving bone mass, further research is needed to define the specific exercise programs or

  5. [Mechanical strength and mechano-compatibility of tissue-engineered bones].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Current artificial bones made of metals and ceramics may be replaced around a decade after implantation due to its low durability, which is brought on by a large difference from the host bone in mechanical properties, i.e., low mechano-compatibility. On the other hand, tissue engineering could be a solution with regeneration of bone tissues from stem cells in vitro. However, there are still some problems to realize exactly the same mechanical properties as those of real bone. This paper introduces the technical background of bone tissue engineering and discusses possible methods for installation of mechano-compatibility into a regenerative bone. At the end, future directions toward the realization of ideal mechano-compatible regenerative bone are proposed. PMID:26728535

  6. Incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to acrylic based bone cements: effects on mechanical and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, Ross; McNally, Tony; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites with a weight loading of 0.1% were prepared using 3 different methods of MWCNT incorporation. The mechanical and thermal properties of the resultant nanocomposite cements were characterised in accordance with the international standard for acrylic resin cements. The mechanical properties of the resultant nanocomposite cements were influenced by the type of MWCNT and method of incorporation used. The exothermic polymerisation reaction for the PMMA bone cement was significantly reduced when thermally conductive functionalised MWCNTs were added. This reduction in exotherm translated in a decrease in thermal necrosis index value of the respective nanocomposite cements, which potentially could reduce the hyperthermia experienced in vivo. The morphology and degree of dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix at different scales were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Improvements in mechanical properties were attributed to the MWCNTs arresting/retarding crack propagation through the cement by providing a bridging effect into the wake of the crack, normal to the direction of crack growth. MWCNT agglomerations were evident within the cement microstructure, the degree of these agglomerations was dependent on the method used to incorporate the MWCNTs into the cement. PMID:20129413

  7. Variability and anisotropy of mechanical behavior of cortical bone in tension and compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Simin; Demirci, Emrah; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical properties of cortical bone vary not only from bone to bone; they demonstrate a spatial viability even within the same bone due to its changing microstructure. They also depend considerably on different loading modes and orientations. To understand the variability and anisotropic mechanical behavior of a cortical bone tissue, specimens cut from four anatomical quadrants of bovine femurs were investigated both in tension and compression tests. The obtained experimental results revealed a highly anisotropic mechanical behavior, depending also on the loading mode (tension and compression). A compressive longitudinal loading regime resulted in the best load-bearing capacity for cortical bone, while tensile transverse loading provided significantly poorer results. The distinctive stress-strain curves obtained for tension and compression demonstrated various damage mechanisms associated with different loading modes. The variability of mechanical properties for different cortices was evaluated with two-way ANOVA analyses. Statistical significances were found among different quadrants for the Young's modulus. The results of microstructure analysis of the entire transverse cross section of a cortical bone also confirmed variations of volume fractions of constituents at microscopic level between anatomic quadrants: microstructure of the anterior quadrant was dominated by plexiform bone, whereas secondary osteons were prominent in the posterior quadrant. The effective Young's modulus predicted using the modified Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme accurately reproduced our experimental results, corroborating additionally a strong effect of random and heterogeneous microstructure on variation of mechanical properties in cortical bone. PMID:23563047

  8. In Vivo Assessment of Bone Regeneration in Alginate/Bone ECM Hydrogels with Incorporated Skeletal Stem Cells and Single Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, David; Smith, Emma L.; Kanczler, Janos M.; Black, Cameron R.; Wells, Julia A.; Roberts, Carol A.; White, Lisa J.; Qutachi, Omar; Peto, Heather; Rashidi, Hassan; Rojo, Luis; Stevens, Molly M.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Rose, Felicity R. A. J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study has investigated the use of decellularised, demineralised bone extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel constructs for in vivo tissue mineralisation and bone formation. Stro-1-enriched human bone marrow stromal cells were incorporated together with select growth factors including VEGF, TGF-β3, BMP-2, PTHrP and VitD3, to augment bone formation, and mixed with alginate for structural support. Growth factors were delivered through fast (non-osteogenic factors) and slow (osteogenic factors) release PLGA microparticles. Constructs of 5 mm length were implanted in vivo for 28 days within mice. Dense tissue assessed by micro-CT correlated with histologically assessed mineralised bone formation in all constructs. Exogenous growth factor addition did not enhance bone formation further compared to alginate/bone ECM (ALG/ECM) hydrogels alone. UV irradiation reduced bone formation through degradation of intrinsic growth factors within the bone ECM component and possibly also ECM cross-linking. BMP-2 and VitD3 rescued osteogenic induction. ALG/ECM hydrogels appeared highly osteoinductive and delivery of angiogenic or chondrogenic growth factors led to altered bone formation. All constructs demonstrated extensive host tissue invasion and vascularisation aiding integration and implant longevity. The proposed hydrogel system functioned without the need for growth factor incorporation or an exogenous inducible cell source. Optimal growth factor concentrations and spatiotemporal release profiles require further assessment, as the bone ECM component may suffer batch variability between donor materials. In summary, ALG/ECM hydrogels provide a versatile biomaterial scaffold for utilisation within regenerative medicine which may be tailored, ultimately, to form the tissue of choice through incorporation of select growth factors. PMID:26675008

  9. Cell growth on pore-graded biomimetic TiO2 bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Müller, Benjamin; Reseland, Janne Elin; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tiainen, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    In order to prevent soft tissue down-growth into osseous defect areas, membranes are used when placing bone graft materials. These membranes still show shortcomings in their performance and applications. In the current study, we choose an approach to integrate micro-porous surface structures into a macro-porous scaffold. Low porous surfaces were fabricated by dip-coatings. Four different material compositions (titanium dioxide, polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/water, polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate) were characterised in terms of their appearance, architecture, topographical features and cell response. Titanium dioxide surfaces exhibited rougher and more complex textures, resulting in the highest number of osteosarcoma cells and distinct morphologies in terms of cell spreading. Polycaprolactone-based surfaces showed a smoother topography and enhanced microporosity, but the effect on secretion of the bone markers sclerostin and interleukin-6 from human osteoblasts was lower compared to secretion from cells cultured on titanium dioxide. β-Tricalcium phosphate modification of polycaprolactone did not show any significant improvement regarding cell-material interaction. Nevertheless, surfaces show potential in the mechanical blockage of epithelial and soft tissue cells and may still permit sufficient nutrient transport. PMID:25394623

  10. Three-dimensional printed PCL-hydroxyapatite scaffolds filled with CNTs for bone cell growth stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Oliveira, Filipe J; Silva, Rui F; Neto, Miguel A; Fernandes, M Helena; Amaral, Margarida; Vallet-Regí, María; Vila, Mercedes

    2016-08-01

    A three-phase [nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), carbon nanotubes (CNT), mixed in a polymeric matrix of polycaprolactone (PCL)] composite scaffold produced by 3D printing is presented. The CNT content varied between 0 and 10 wt % in a 50 wt % PCL matrix, with HA being the balance. With the combination of three well-known materials, these scaffolds aimed at bringing together the properties of all into a unique material to be used in tissue engineering as support for cell growth. The 3D printing technique allows producing composite scaffolds having an interconnected network of square pores in the range of 450-700 μm. The 2 wt % CNT scaffold offers the best combination of mechanical behaviour and electrical conductivity. Its compressive strength of ∼4 MPa is compatible with the trabecular bone. The composites show typical hydroxyapatite bioactivity, good cell adhesion and spreading at the scaffolds surface, this combination of properties indicating that the produced 3D, three-phase, scaffolds are promising materials in the field of bone regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1210-1219, 2016. PMID:26089195

  11. [Structural mechanisms and mathematical modeling of the bone tissue damage caused by hyper-speed impact].

    PubMed

    Ishchenko, A N; Belov, N N; Gaĭdash, A A; Iugov, N T; Bashirov, R S; Afanas'eva, S A; Sinitsa, L N

    2011-03-01

    Method of computer modeling of behavior of cylindrical and lamellar bones under the hypervelocity impact is suggested. This method allows in the frame of mechanics of continuous medium to calculate the stress strain behavior and damage in bone tissues under the shock wave impact. The processes of shock correlation of steel fragments of different shape with diaphysis of cylindrical bones and flat bone of calvaria under the impact 500 m/s are studied. The given method can be used for the evaluation of damage area of bone tissue of shock wave osteoporosis under the gunshot wound. PMID:21770310

  12. Researches of mechanical behavior of bone tissues for development and selection of individual ceramic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakova, T. V.; Buyakova, S. P.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2016-04-01

    The researches of mechanical behavior were conducted and the effective mechanical properties of model compact bone micro volumes under uniaxial compression were obtained taking into account the structural characteristics and the mineral content; experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior and the effective mechanical parameters of obtained porous zirconia ceramics were conducted. The comparison of obtained in paper calculated and experimental mechanical properties of bone and ceramics was carry out and the recommendations on the use the ceramics with certain porosity to replace the compact bone fragment with a certain structure and mineral content were suggested.

  13. Bone marrow ablation demonstrates that estrogen plays an important role in osteogenesis and bone turnover via an antioxidative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunmin; Wu, Jun; Yan, Quanquan; Wang, Rong; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-10-01

    To assess the effect of estrogen deficiency on osteogenesis and bone turnover in vivo, 8-week-old mice were sham-operated or bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX), and after 8 weeks, mechanical bone marrow ablation (BMX) was performed and newly formed bone tissue was analyzed from 6 days to 2 weeks after BMX. Our results demonstrated that OVX mice following BMX displayed 2 reversed phase changes, one phase observed at 6 and 8 days after BMX delayed osteogenesis accompanied by a delay in osteoclastogenesis, and the other phase observed at 12 and 14 days after BMX increased osteoblastic activity and osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, we asked whether impaired osteogenesis caused by estrogen deficiency was associated with increased oxidative stress, and oxidative stress parameters were examined in bone tissue from sham-operated and OVX mice and OVX mice were administrated with antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or vehicle after BMX. Results demonstrated that estrogen deficiency induced oxidative stress in mouse bone tissue with reduced antioxidase levels and activity, whereas NAC administration almost rescued the abnormalities in osteogenesis and bone turnover caused by OVX. Results from this study indicate that estrogen deficiency resulted in primarily impaired osteogenesis and subsequently accelerated bone turnover by increasing oxidative stress and oxidative stress promises to be an effective target in the process of treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26036172

  14. Multiscale Homogenization Theory: An Analysis Tool for Revealing Mechanical Design Principles in Bone and Bone Replacement Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmich, Christian; Fritsch, Andreas; Dormieux, Luc

    Biomimetics deals with the application of nature-made "design solutions" to the realm of engineering. In the quest to understand mechanical implications of structural hierarchies found in biological materials, multiscale mechanics may hold the key to understand "building plans" inherent to entire material classes, here bone and bone replacement materials. Analyzing a multitude of biophysical hierarchical and biomechanical experiments through homogenization theories for upscaling stiffness and strength properties reveals the following design principles: The elementary component "collagen" induces, right at the nanolevel, the mechanical anisotropy of bone materials, which is amplified by fibrillar collagen-based structures at the 100-nm scale, and by pores in the micrometer-to-millimeter regime. Hydroxyapatite minerals are poorly organized, and provide stiffness and strength in a quasi-brittle manner. Water layers between hydroxyapatite crystals govern the inelastic behavior of the nanocomposite, unless the "collagen reinforcement" breaks. Bone replacement materials should mimic these "microstructural mechanics" features as closely as possible if an imitation of the natural form of bone is desired (Gebeshuber et al., Adv Mater Res 74:265-268, 2009).

  15. Therapeutic-designed electrospun bone scaffolds: mesoporous bioactive nanocarriers in hollow fiber composites to sequentially deliver dual growth factors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Singh, Rajendra K; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-04-01

    A novel therapeutic design of nanofibrous scaffolds, holding a capacity to load and deliver dual growth factors, that targets bone regeneration is proposed. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres (MBNs) were used as bioactive nanocarriers for long-term delivery of the osteogenic enhancer fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18). Furthermore, a core-shell structure of a biopolymer fiber made of polyethylene oxide/polycaprolactone was introduced to load FGF2, another type of cell proliferative and angiogenic growth factor, safely within the core while releasing it more rapidly than FGF18. The prepared MBNs showed enlarged mesopores of about 7 nm, with a large surface area and pore volume. The protein-loading capacity of MBNs was as high as 13% when tested using cytochrome C, a model protein. The protein-loaded MBNs were smoothly incorporated within the core of the fiber by electrospinning, while preserving a fibrous morphology. The incorporation of MBNs significantly increased the apatite-forming ability and mechanical properties of the core-shell fibers. The possibility of sequential delivery of two experimental growth factors, FGF2 and FGF18, incorporated either within the core-shell fiber (FGF2) or within MBNs (FGF18), was demonstrated by the use of cytochrome C. In vitro studies using rat mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated the effects of the FGF2-FGF18 loadings: significant stimulation of cell proliferation as well as the induction of alkaline phosphate activity and cellular mineralization. An in vivo study performed on rat calvarium defects for 6 weeks demonstrated that FGF2-FGF18-loaded fiber scaffolds had significantly higher bone-forming ability, in terms of bone volume and density. The current design utilizing novel MBN nanocarriers with a core-shell structure aims to release two types of growth factors, FGF2 and FGF18, in a sequential manner, and is considered to provide a promising therapeutic scaffold platform that is effective for bone regeneration. PMID

  16. Structural basis of growth-related gain and age-related loss of bone strength

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    If bone strength was the only requirement of skeleton, it could be achieved with bulk, but bone must also be light. During growth, bone modelling and remodelling optimize strength, by depositing bone where it is needed, and minimize mass, by removing it from where it is not. The population variance in bone traits is established before puberty and the position of an individual's bone size and mass tracks in the percentile of origin. Larger cross-sections have a comparably larger marrow cavity, which results in a lower volumetric BMD (vBMD), thereby avoiding bulk. Excavation of a marrow cavity thus minimizes mass and shifts the cortex radially, increasing rigidity. Smaller cross-sections are assembled by excavating a smaller marrow cavity leaving a relatively thicker cortex producing a higher vBMD, avoiding the fragility of slenderness. Variation in cellular activity around the periosteal and endocortical envelopes fashions the diverse shapes of adjacent cross-sections. Advancing age is associated with a decline in periosteal bone formation, a decline in the volume of bone formed by each basic multicellular unit (BMU), continued resorption by each BMU, and high remodelling after menopause. Bone loss in young adulthood has modest structural and biomechanical consequences because the negative BMU balance is driven by reduced bone formation, remodelling is slow and periosteal apposition continues shifting the thinned cortex radially. But after the menopause, increased remodelling, worsening negative BMU balance and a decline in periosteal apposition accelerate cortical thinning and porosity, trabecular thinning and loss of connectivity. Interstitial bone, unexposed to surface remodelling becomes more densely mineralized, has few osteocytes and greater collagen cross-linking, and accumulates microdamage. These changes produce the material and structural abnormalities responsible for bone fragility. PMID:18556646

  17. The effect of unsaturated fatty acid and triglyceride oil addition on the mechanical and antibacterial properties of acrylic bone cements.

    PubMed

    Persson, Cecilia; Robert, Elise; Carlsson, Elin; Robo, Céline; López, Alejandro; Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Engqvist, Håkan

    2015-09-01

    Acrylic bone cements have an elastic modulus several times higher than the surrounding trabecular bone. This has been hypothesized to contribute to certain clinical complications. There are indications that the addition of specific fatty acids and triglyceride oils may reduce the elastic modulus of these types of cements. Some of these additives also appear to have inherent antibiotic properties, although this has never been evaluated in bone cements. In this study, several types of fatty acids and triglyceride oils were evaluated for use in acrylic bone cements. Their mechanical properties were evaluated under uniaxial compression testing and selected cements were then further characterized in terms of microstructure, handling and antibacterial properties using scanning electron microscopy, polymerization temperature measurements, agar diffusion tests and bactericidal activity assays of cement extracts. It was found that any of the evaluated fatty acids or triglyceride oils could be used to tailor the stiffness of acrylic bone cements, although at varying concentrations, which also depended on the type of commercial base cement used. In particular, the addition of very small amounts of linoleic acid (<2.0 wt%) resulted in Young's moduli and compressive strengths in the range of human trabecular bone, while maintaining a similar setting time. Further, the addition of 12.6 wt% ricinoleic acid to Osteopal V cement was found to have a significant antibacterial effect, inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in an agar diffusion test as well as demonstrating 100% bactericidal activity against the same strain. PMID:25876889

  18. The Impact of Anti-Epileptic Drugs on Growth and Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Lee, Herng-Shen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Yi-Yen; Lai, Hsin-Chuan; Hung, Pi-Lien; Lee, Hsiu-Fen; Chi, Ching-Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder worldwide and anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are always the first choice for treatment. However, more than 50% of patients with epilepsy who take AEDs have reported bone abnormalities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes are induced by AEDs, especially the classical AEDs, such as benzodiazepines (BZDs), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PT), phenobarbital (PB), and valproic acid (VPA). The induction of CYP450 isoenzymes may cause vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia, increased fracture risks, and altered bone turnover, leading to impaired bone mineral density (BMD). Newer AEDs, such as levetiracetam (LEV), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), gabapentin (GP), and vigabatrin (VB) have broader spectra, and are safer and better tolerated than the classical AEDs. The effects of AEDs on bone health are controversial. This review focuses on the impact of AEDs on growth and bone metabolism and emphasizes the need for caution and timely withdrawal of these medications to avoid serious disabilities. PMID:27490534

  19. The Impact of Anti-Epileptic Drugs on Growth and Bone Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Lee, Herng-Shen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Yi-Yen; Lai, Hsin-Chuan; Hung, Pi-Lien; Lee, Hsiu-Fen; Chi, Ching-Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder worldwide and anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are always the first choice for treatment. However, more than 50% of patients with epilepsy who take AEDs have reported bone abnormalities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes are induced by AEDs, especially the classical AEDs, such as benzodiazepines (BZDs), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PT), phenobarbital (PB), and valproic acid (VPA). The induction of CYP450 isoenzymes may cause vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia, increased fracture risks, and altered bone turnover, leading to impaired bone mineral density (BMD). Newer AEDs, such as levetiracetam (LEV), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), gabapentin (GP), and vigabatrin (VB) have broader spectra, and are safer and better tolerated than the classical AEDs. The effects of AEDs on bone health are controversial. This review focuses on the impact of AEDs on growth and bone metabolism and emphasizes the need for caution and timely withdrawal of these medications to avoid serious disabilities. PMID:27490534

  20. Strategies for Controlled Delivery of Growth Factors and Cells for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tiffany N.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2012-01-01

    The controlled delivery of growth factors and cells within biomaterial carriers can enhance and accelerate functional bone formation. The carrier system can be designed with preprogrammed release kinetics to deliver bioactive molecules in a localized, spatiotemporal manner most similar to the natural wound healing process. The carrier can also act as an extracellular matrix-mimicking substrate for promoting osteoprogenitor cellular infiltration and proliferation for integrative tissue repair. This review discusses the role of various regenerative factors involved in bone healing and their appropriate combinations with different delivery systems for augmenting bone regeneration. The general requirements of protein, cell and gene therapy are described, with elaboration on how the selection of materials, configurations and processing affects growth factor and cell delivery and regenerative efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo applications for bone tissue engineering. PMID:22342771

  1. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals. PMID:24166991

  2. Postnatal changes in the growth dynamics of the human face revealed from bone modelling patterns

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Rosas, Antonio; Nieto-Díaz, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Human skull morphology results from complex processes that involve the coordinated growth and interaction of its skeletal components to keep a functional and structural balance. Previous histological works have studied the growth of different craniofacial regions and their relationship to functional spaces in humans up to 14 years old. Nevertheless, how the growth dynamics of the facial skeleton and the mandible are related and how this relationship changes through the late ontogeny remain poorly understood. To approach these two questions, we have compared the bone modelling activities of the craniofacial skeleton from a sample of subadult and adult humans. In this study, we have established for the first time the bone modelling pattern of the face and the mandible from adult humans. Our analyses reveal a patchy distribution of the bone modelling fields (overemphasized by the presence of surface islands with no histological information) reflecting the complex growth dynamics associated to the individual morphology. Subadult and adult specimens show important differences in the bone modelling patterns of the anterior region of the facial skeleton and the posterior region of the mandible. These differences indicate developmental changes in the growth directions of the whole craniofacial complex, from a predominantly downward growth in subadults that turns to a forward growth observed in the adult craniofacial skeleton. We hypothesize that these ontogenetic changes would respond to the physiological and physical requirements to enlarge the oral and nasal cavities once maturation of the brain and the closure of the cranial sutures have taken place during craniofacial development. PMID:23819603

  3. Natural products for treatment of bone erosive diseases: The effects and mechanisms on inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Hao, Dingjun; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yi; Yang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Excessive bone resorption plays a central role on the development of bone erosive diseases, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Osteoclasts, bone-resorbing multinucleated cells, are differentiated from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic target to the treatment of pathological bone loss. Natural plant-derived products, with potential therapeutic and preventive activities against bone-lytic diseases, have received increasing attention in recent years because of their whole regulative effects and specific pharmacological activities, which are more suitable for long-term use than chemically synthesized medicines. In this review, we summarized the detailed research progress on the active compounds derived from medical plants with potential anti-resorptive effects and their molecular mechanisms on inhibiting osteoclast formation and function. The active ingredients derived from natural plants that are efficacious in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption include flavonoids, terpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids), glycosides, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, polyphenols, limonoids, quinones and others (steroid, oxoxishhone, fatty acid). Studies have shown that above natural products exert the inhibitory effects via regulating many factors involved in the process of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, including the essential cytokines (RANKL, M-CSF), transcription factors (NFATc1, c-Fos), signaling pathways (NF-κB, MAPKs, Src/PI3K/Akt, the calcium ion signaling), osteoclast-specific genes (TRAP, CTSK, MMP-9, integrin β3, OSCAR, DC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2) and local factors (ROS, LPS, NO). The development of osteoclast-targeting natural products is of great value for the prevention or treatment of bone diseases and for bone regenerative medicine. PMID:27131574

  4. Growth plate cartilage shows different strain patterns in response to static versus dynamic mechanical modulation.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Rosa; Londono, Irene; Parent, Stefan; Moldovan, Florina; Villemure, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Longitudinal growth of long bones and vertebrae occurs in growth plate cartilage. This process is partly regulated by mechanical forces, which are one of the underlying reasons for progression of growth deformities such as idiopathic adolescent scoliosis and early-onset scoliosis. This concept of mechanical modulation of bone growth is also exploited in the development of fusionless treatments of these deformities. However, the optimal loading condition for the mechanical modulation of growth plate remains to be identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro static versus dynamic modulation and of dynamic loading parameters, such as frequency and amplitude, on the mechanical responses and histomorphology of growth plate explants. Growth plate explants from distal ulnae of 4-week-old swines were extracted and randomly distributed among six experimental groups: baseline ([Formula: see text]), control ([Formula: see text]), static ([Formula: see text]) and dynamic ([Formula: see text]). For static and dynamic groups, mechanical modulation was performed in vitro using an Indexed CartiGen bioreactor. A stress relaxation test combined with confocal microscopy and digital image correlation was used to characterize the mechanical responses of each explant in terms of peak stress, equilibrium stress, equilibrium modulus of elasticity and strain pattern. Histomorphometrical measurements were performed on toluidine blue tissue sections using a semi-automatic custom-developed MATLAB toolbox. Results suggest that compared to dynamic modulation, static modulation changes the strain pattern of the tissue and thus is more detrimental for tissue biomechanics, while the histomorphological parameters are not affected by mechanical modulation. Also, under dynamic modulation, changing the frequency or amplitude does not affect the biomechanical response of the tissue. Results of this study will be useful in finding optimal and non-damaging parameters

  5. Load Regulates Bone Formation and Sclerostin Expression through a TGFβ-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Daniel; Alliston, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Bone continually adapts to meet changing physical and biological demands. Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes cooperate to integrate these physical and biochemical cues to maintain bone homeostasis. Although TGFβ acts on all three of these cell types to maintain bone homeostasis, the extent to which it participates in the adaptation of bone to mechanical load is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the TGFβ pathway in load-induced bone formation and the regulation of Sclerostin, a mechanosensitive antagonist of bone anabolism. We found that mechanical load rapidly represses the net activity of the TGFβ pathway in osteocytes, resulting in reduced phosphorylation and activity of key downstream effectors, Smad2 and Smad3. Loss of TGFβ sensitivity compromises the anabolic response of bone to mechanical load, demonstrating that the mechanosensitive regulation of TGFβ signaling is essential for load-induced bone formation. Furthermore, sensitivity to TGFβ is required for the mechanosensitive regulation of Sclerostin, which is induced by TGFβ in a Smad3-dependent manner. Together, our results show that physical cues maintain bone homeostasis through the TGFβ pathway to regulate Sclerostin expression and the deposition of new bone. PMID:23308287

  6. Impaction grafted bone chip size effect on initial stability in an acetabular model: Mechanical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Holton, Colin; Bobak, Peter; Wilcox, Ruth; Jin, Zhongmin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acetabular bone defect reconstruction is an increasing problem for surgeons with patients undergoing complex primary or revision total hip replacement surgery. Impaction bone grafting is one technique that has favourable long-term clinical outcome results for patients who undergo this reconstruction method for acetabular bone defects. Creating initial mechanical stability of the impaction bone graft in this technique is known to be the key factor in achieving a favourable implant survival rate. Different sizes of bone chips were used in this technique to investigate if the size of bone chips used affected initial mechanical stability of a reconstructed acetabulum. Methodology Twenty acetabular models were created in total. Five control models were created with a cemented cup in a normal acetabulum. Then five models in three different groups of bone chip size were constructed. The three groups had an acetabular protrusion defect reconstructed using either; 2–4 mm3, 10 mm3 or 20 mm3 bone chip size for impaction grafting reconstruction. The models underwent compression loading up to 9500 N and displacement within the acetabular model was measured indicating the initial mechanical stability. Results This study reveals that, although not statistically significant, the largest (20 mm3) bone chip size grafted models have an inferior maximum stiffness compared to the medium (10 mm3) bone chip size. Interpretations Our study suggests that 10 mm3 size of bone chips provide better initial mechanical stability compared to smaller or larger bone chips. We dismissed the previously held opinion that the biggest practically possible graft is best for acetabular bone graft impaction. PMID:24396238

  7. A continuum model for the bio-mechanical interactions between living tissue and bio-resorbable graft after bone reconstructive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeo, Angela; Lekszycki, Tomasz; dell'Isola, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a two-constituent porous continuum as a model describing the long-term growth/resorption phenomena in bone tissues grafted with bio-resorbable materials as driven by mechanical loads. The proposed model is able to account for the interplay between mechanical and biological phenomena which are known to be important for the bone tissue synthesis and the resorption of both bone tissue and bio-material. In particular, in the presented model the Lagrangian apparent mass densities of the natural bone and of the artificial material evolve in time according to precise ordinary differential equations. These latter are obtained by postulating a growth/resorption law and suitable constitutive equations conceived to account for the influence on bone resorption and synthesis of the action of different applied external loads as mediated by biological stimulus. The considered constitutive equations are chosen on the basis of the known biological phenomena occurring in bone resorption and synthesis. We present some numerical simulations for rod-bones subjected to axial external load. These numerical simulations allow for the description of the most desirable situation in which a gradual resorption of the artificial material takes place together with the contemporary formation of new bone, finally giving rise to an almost complete replacement of the artificial material with natural living tissue.

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guihong; Yu, Fengbo; Lei, Ting; Gao, Haijun; Li, Peiwen; Sun, Yuxue; Huang, Haiyan; Mu, Qingchun

    2016-06-01

    Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research. PMID:27482235

  9. [The mechanical chemical attachment of artificial cartilage (PVA-hydrogel) to metal substrate (or underlying bone)].

    PubMed

    Gu, Z; Xiao, J; Lou, S

    2001-06-01

    The biocompatibility and tribological characteristics of PVA-hydrogel are excellent, but it is very difficult to make the artificial cartilage material (PVA-hydrogel) attach to the underlying bone. In this study, PVA-hydrogel is attached to the metal fibre mesh by means of micro-mechanical interlock methods at first, then the surface of metal fibre mesh is bonded to the underlying bone by the bone cement(PMMA). In this way, the artificial cartilage can be firmly attached to the underlying bone(or metal substrate). Microstructure analysis and mechanical tests show that the attachment between artificial cartilage and the metal substrate is firm. PMID:11450530

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guihong; Yu, Fengbo; Lei, Ting; Gao, Haijun; Li, Peiwen; Sun, Yuxue; Huang, Haiyan; Mu, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research. PMID:27482235

  11. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Bone Growth in Young Rats and Microarchitecture and Remodeling in Ageing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alice M. C.; Shandala, Tetyana; Nguyen, Long; Muhlhausler, Beverly S.; Chen, Ke-Ming; Howe, Peter R.; Xian, Cory J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent skeletal disorder in the elderly that causes serious bone fractures. Peak bone mass achieved at adolescence has been shown to predict bone mass and osteoporosis related risk fracture later in life. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol compound, may have the potential to promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption. However, it is unclear whether it can aid bone growth and bone mass accumulation during rapid growth and modulate bone metabolism during ageing. Using rat models, the current study investigated the potential effects of resveratrol supplementation during the rapid postnatal growth period and in late adulthood (early ageing) on bone microarchitecture and metabolism. In the growth trial, 4-week-old male hooded Wistar rats on a normal chow diet were given resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle control for 5 weeks. In the ageing trial, 6-month-old male hooded Wistar rats were treated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 months. Treatment effects in the tibia were examined by μ-computer tomography (μ-CT) analysis, bone histomorphometric measurements and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) gene expression analysis. Resveratrol treatment did not affect trabecular bone volume and bone remodeling indices in the youth animal model. Resveratrol supplementation in the early ageing rats tended to decrease trabecular bone volume, Sirt1 gene expression and increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in bone, all of which were statistically insignificant. However, it decreased osteocalcin expression (p = 0.03). Furthermore, serum levels of bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides type I collagen (CTX-1) were significantly elevated in the resveratrol supplementation group (p = 0.02) with no changes observed in serum levels of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). These results in rat models suggest that resveratrol supplementation does not significantly affect bone volume

  12. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  13. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  14. Computer-aided study of the mechanical behavior of the jaw bone fragments under uniaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakova, Tatyana V.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the calculated results of the mechanical behavior of simulative bone mesovolumes under uniaxial compression with their architectonics corresponding to the human jaw bone fragments. The results of the calculation show that changes in the structure and mineral content of the bone fragments can lead to the change of their prevailing deformation response. New effective parameters were introduced to reflect the character of the distribution of stresses and strains in the bone mesovolumes. Implants are to be created and selected to correspond to the offered parameters and longitudinal modulus of elasticity of bone mesovolumes in order to maintain the stress and strain state existing in bone macrovolume during the implantation and in order to avoid bone restructuring through its borderline resorption.

  15. Effects of Aluminum Exposure on the Bone Stimulatory Growth Factors in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Luo, Weiwei; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xue; Liu, Chao; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) is considered to be a potentially toxic metal and inhibits bone formation. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) play an important role in regulating the bone formation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Al on the TGF-β1 and BMP-2 in rats. In this study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into Al-treated group and control group. The Al-treated rats were provided with drinking water containing 100 mg/L AlCl3, and the control rats were given distilled water for 30, 60, and 90 days, respectively. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The Al-treated rats showed lower body weight and higher serum and bone levels of Al compared with the control rats. The expression levels of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 were also significantly decreased in the Al-treated rats. Serum levels of bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) were markedly lower in the Al-treated groups than in the control group. These results indicate that Al inhibits the expression of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 in bone, which inhibits the activity of osteoblasts and reduces the synthesis of BGP, B-ALP, and type I collagen, thereby inhibiting bone formation. PMID:26594034

  16. Actual and Simulated Weightlessness Inhibit Osteogenesis in Long Bone Metaphysis by Different Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Weightlessness and simulated weightlessness inhibit the rate of periosteal bone formation in long bones. Formation of preosteoblasts is suppressed in periodontal ligament (PDL) of maxillary molars, which suggests a generalized block in osteoblast histogenesis. Growth in length of long bones is decreased by simulated weightlessness, but there are no reliable data on the influence of actual weightlessness on metaphyseal growth. The nuclear size assay for assessing relative numbers of osteoblast precursor cells was utilized in the primary spongiosa of growing long bones subjected to actual and simulated weightlessness. It is found that: (1) Actual weightlessness decreases total number of osteogenic cells and inhibits differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells, (2) Simulated weightlessness suppresses only osteoblast differentation; and (3) The nuclear morphometric assay is an effective means of assessing osteogenic activity in the growing metaphysis or long bones.

  17. Can Deterministic Mechanical Size Effects Contribute to Fracture and Microdamage Accumulation in Trabecular Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Thomas; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Failure of bone under monotonic and cyclic loading is related to the bone mineral density, the quality of the bone matrix and the evolution of microcracks. The theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics has commonly been applied to describe fracture in bone. Evidence is presented that bone failure can be described through a non-linear theory of fracture. Thereby, deterministic size effects are introduced. Concepts of a non-linear theory are applied to discern how the interaction among bone matrix constituents (collagen and mineral), microcrack characteristics, and trabecular architecture can create distinctively differences in the fracture resistance at the bone tissue level. The nonlinear model is applied to interpret pre-clinical data concerning the effects of anti-osteoporotic agents on bone properties. The results show that bisphosphonate (BP) treatments that suppress bone remodeling will change trabecular bone in ways such that the size of the failure process zone relative to the trabecular thickness is reduced. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that suppress bone remodeling will change trabecular bone in ways such that the size of the failure process zone relative to the trabecular thickness is increased. The consequences of these changes are reflected in bone mechanical response and predictions are consistent with experimental observations in the animal model which show that BP treatment is associated with more brittle fracture and microcracks without altering the average length of the cracks, whereas SERM treatments lead to a more ductile fracture and mainly increase crack length with a smaller increase in microcrack density. The model suggests that BPs may be more effective in cases in which bone mass is very low, whereas SERMS may be more effective when milder osteoporotic symptoms are present. PMID:20398678

  18. Mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate-based bone cements incorporating regenerative biomaterials for filling bone defects exposed to low mechanical loads.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Reed; Criss, Zachary K; Feller, Lacie; Modi, Shan P; Hardy, John G; Schmidt, Christine E; Suggs, Laura J; Murphy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based cements with enhanced regenerative potential are promising biomaterials for the healing of bone defects in procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty. With a view to the use of such cements for low load bearing applications such as sinus augmentation or filling extraction sites. However, the inclusion of certain species into bone cement formulations has the potential to diminish the mechanical properties of the formulations and thereby reduce their prospects for clinical translation. Consequently, we have prepared α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)-based bone cements including materials that we would expect to improve their regenerative potential, and describe the mechanical properties of the resulting formulations herein. Formulations incorporated α-TCP, hydroxyapatite, biopolymer-thickened wetting agents, sutures, and platelet poor plasma. The mechanical properties of the composites were composition dependent, and optimized formulations had clinically relevant mechanical properties. Such calcium phosphate-based cements have potential as replacements for cements such as those based on polymethylmethacrylate. PMID:25677680

  19. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Bone-Forming Cell Proliferative Response to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Roden, C.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2004-01-01

    Life on Earth has evolved under the continuous influence of gravity (1-g). As humans explore and develop space, however, we must learn to adapt to an environment with little or no gravity. Studies indicate that lack of weightbearing for vertebrates occurring with immobilization, paralysis, or in a microgravity environment may cause muscle and bone atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) (consisting of molecules such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin) in mechanosensitive tissues. We test for the presence of gravity-sensitive pathways in bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) using hypergravity applied by a cell culture centrifuge. Stimulation of 50 times gravity (50-g) increased proliferation in primary rat osteoblasts for cells grown on collagen Type I and fibronectin, but not on laminin or uncoated surfaces. Survival was also enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of ECM. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to test for all possible integrins. Our combined results indicate that beta1 and/or beta3 integrin subunits may be involved. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signalling pathways which are sensitive to g-level. Further research to define the mechanisms involved will provide direction so that we may better adapt and counteract bone atrophy caused by the lack of weightbearing.

  20. Genetic analysis of bone quality traits and growth in a random mating broiler population.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic relationship between growth and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler control population. Traits studied were growth rates from week 0 to 4 [body weight gain (BWG) 0 to 4], from week 0 to 6 (BWG 0 to 6), and residual feed intake (RFI) from week 5 to 6 (RFI 5 to 6). Bone quality traits were obtained at 6 weeks of age. These traits were shank weight (SW), shank length (SL), shank diameter (SDIAM), tibia weight (TW), tibia length (TL), and tibia diameter (TDIAM). Likewise, tibia was used to obtain the tibia density (TDEN), tibia breaking strength (TBS), tibia mineral density (TMD), tibia mineral content (TMC), and tibia ash content (TAC). At the phenotypic level, growth traits were positively correlated with most of the bone quality traits except with TDEN and TAC which tended to show unfavorable associations (-0.04 to -0.31). Heritability of bone quality traits ranged from 0.08 to 0.54. The additive genetic associations of growth traits with weight, length, and diameter of shank and tibia were positive (0.37 to 0.80). A similar pattern was observed with TMD and TMC (0.06 to 0.65). In contrast, growth traits showed unfavorable genetic associations with TDEN, TBS, and TAC (-0.03 to -0.18). It was concluded that bone quality traits have an additive genetic background and they can be improved by means of genetic tools. It appears that selection for growth is negatively correlated with some traits involved in the integrity, health, and maturity of leg bones. PMID:25784765

  1. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  2. Bone strength: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles H

    2006-04-01

    Bones serve several mechanical functions, including acoustic amplification in the middle ear, shielding vital organs from trauma, and serving as levers for muscles to contract against. Bone is a multiphase material made up of a tough collagenous matrix intermingled with rigid mineral crystals. The mineral gives bone its stiffness. Without sufficient mineralization, bones will plastically deform under load. Collagen provides toughness to bone making it less brittle so that it better resists fracture. Bone adapts to mechanical stresses largely by changing its size and shape, which are major determinants of its resistance to fracture. Tissue is added in regions of high mechanical stress providing an efficient means for improving bone strength. Experiments have shown that small additions of bone mineral density (BMD) (5-8%) caused by mechanical loading can improve bone strength by over 60% and extend bone fatigue life by 100-fold. Consequently, it is clear that bone tissue possesses a mechanosensing apparatus that directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed for improving bone strength. The biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved might uncover drug targets for osteoporosis. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including membrane ion channels, ATP signaling, second messengers, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, insulin-like growth factors, and Wnt signaling. PMID:16831941

  3. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Bone Biology and Osteoporosis: Can They Drive Therapeutic Choices?

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial disorder of the skeleton. Genetic factors are important in determining peak bone mass and structure, as well as the predisposition to bone deterioration and fragility fractures. Nonetheless, genetic factors alone are not sufficient to explain osteoporosis development and fragility fracture occurrence. Indeed, epigenetic factors, representing a link between individual genetic aspects and environmental influences, are also strongly suspected to be involved in bone biology and osteoporosis. Recently, alterations in epigenetic mechanisms and their activity have been associated with aging. Also, bone metabolism has been demonstrated to be under the control of epigenetic mechanisms. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), the master transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, has been shown to be regulated by histone deacetylases and microRNAs (miRNAs). Some miRNAs were also proven to have key roles in the regulation of Wnt signalling in osteoblastogenesis, and to be important for the positive or negative regulation of both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Exogenous and environmental stimuli, influencing the functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of bone metabolism, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis and other bone disorders, in synergy with genetic determinants. The progressive understanding of roles of epigenetic mechanisms in normal bone metabolism and in multifactorial bone disorders will be very helpful for a better comprehension of disease pathogenesis and translation of this information into clinical practice. A deep understanding of these mechanisms could help in the future tailoring of proper individual treatments, according to precision medicine's principles. PMID:27529237

  4. Biophysical mechanism of differential growth during gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D.

    1984-01-01

    A research project is described the goal of which is to determine the mechanism of gravitropic curvature in plant stems at the biophysical and the cellular level. The reorientation of plant organs under the influence of gravity is due to differential growth of the upper and lower sides of the organ. The rate of plant cell enlargement is governed by four biophysical parameters: (1) the extensibility of the cell wall; (2) the minimum stress in the cell wall required for wall expansion (the "yield threshold'); (3) the osmotic pressure difference between the cell contents and the water source; and (4) the hydraulic conductivity of the pathway for water uptake. Gravitropic response must involve differential alteration of one or more of these four parameters on the two sides of the growing organ. Each of these factors will be examined to assess the role it plays in gravitropism.

  5. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla A; Diekwisch, Thomas Gh; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Matrix molecules such as the enamel-related calcium-binding phosphoprotein ameloblastin (AMBN) are expressed in multiple tissues, including teeth, bones, and cartilage. Here we have asked whether AMBN is of functional importance for timely long bone development and, if so, how it exerts its function related to osteogenesis. Adolescent AMBN-deficient mice (AMBN(Δ5-6) ) suffered from a 33% to 38% reduction in femur length and an 8.4% shorter trunk spinal column when compared with WT controls, whereas there was no difference between adult animals. On a cellular level, AMBN truncation resulted in a shortened growth plate and a 41% to 49% reduction in the number of proliferating tibia chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from AMBN mutant mice displayed defects in proliferation and differentiation potential as well as cytoskeleton organization. Osteogenesis-related growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and BMP7, were also significantly (46% to 73%) reduced in AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Addition of exogenous AMBN restored cytoskeleton structures in AMBN mutant BMSCs and resulted in a dramatic 400% to 600% increase in BMP2, BMP7, and Col1A expression. Block of RhoA diminished the effect of AMBN on osteogenic growth factor and matrix protein gene expression. Addition of exogenous BMP7 and IGF1 rescued the proliferation and differentiation potential of AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Confirming the effects of AMBN on long bone growth, back-crossing of mutant mice with full-length AMBN overexpressors resulted in a complete rescue of AMBN(Δ5-6) bone defects. Together, these data indicate that AMBN affects extracellular matrix production and cell adhesion properties in the long bone growth plate, resulting in altered cytoskeletal dynamics, increased osteogenesis-related gene expression, as well as osteoblast and chondrocyte proliferation. We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the

  6. Association of microstructural and mechanical properties of cancellous bone and their fracture risk assessment tool scores.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dengke; Li, Xin; Tao, Cheng; Dai, Ruchun; Ni, Jiangdong; Liao, Eryuan

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the association between fracture probabilities determined by using the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) and the microstructure and mechanical properties of femoral bone trabecula in osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients with hip replacements. By using FRAX, we evaluated fracture risks of the 102 patients with bone replacements. Using micro CT scanning, we obtained the analysis parameters of microstructural properties of cancellous bone. Through morphometric observations, fatigue tests and compression tests, we obtained parameters of mechanical properties of cancellous bones. Relevant Pearson analysis was performed to investigate the association between the fracture probability and the microstructure and mechanical properties of femoral bone trabecula in patients. Fifteen risk factors in FRAX were compared between OP and OA patients. FRAX hip fracture risk score and major osteoporotic in OP and OA patients were significantly different. FRAX was associated with tissue bone mineral density and volumetric bone mineral density. Our study suggests that the probabilities of major osteoporotic and hip fracture using FRAX is associated with bone mass but not with micro bone quality. PMID:26064297

  7. Association of microstructural and mechanical properties of cancellous bone and their fracture risk assessment tool scores

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dengke; Li, Xin; Tao, Cheng; Dai, Ruchun; Ni, Jiangdong; Liao, Eryuan

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the association between fracture probabilities determined by using the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) and the microstructure and mechanical properties of femoral bone trabecula in osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients with hip replacements. By using FRAX, we evaluated fracture risks of the 102 patients with bone replacements. Using micro CT scanning, we obtained the analysis parameters of microstructural properties of cancellous bone. Through morphometric observations, fatigue tests and compression tests, we obtained parameters of mechanical properties of cancellous bones. Relevant Pearson analysis was performed to investigate the association between the fracture probability and the microstructure and mechanical properties of femoral bone trabecula in patients. Fifteen risk factors in FRAX were compared between OP and OA patients. FRAX hip fracture risk score and major osteoporotic in OP and OA patients were significantly different. FRAX was associated with tissue bone mineral density and volumetric bone mineral density. Our study suggests that the probabilities of major osteoporotic and hip fracture using FRAX is associated with bone mass but not with micro bone quality. PMID:26064297

  8. Computational modelling of the mechanics of trabecular bone and marrow using fluid structure interaction techniques.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, E; Grogan, J A; Niebur, G L; McNamara, L M; McHugh, P E

    2013-04-01

    Bone marrow found within the porous structure of trabecular bone provides a specialized environment for numerous cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Studies have sought to characterize the mechanical environment imposed on MSCs, however, a particular challenge is that marrow displays the characteristics of a fluid, while surrounded by bone that is subject to deformation, and previous experimental and computational studies have been unable to fully capture the resulting complex mechanical environment. The objective of this study was to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model of trabecular bone and marrow to predict the mechanical environment of MSCs in vivo and to examine how this environment changes during osteoporosis. An idealized repeating unit was used to compare FSI techniques to a computational fluid dynamics only approach. These techniques were used to determine the effect of lower bone mass and different marrow viscosities, representative of osteoporosis, on the shear stress generated within bone marrow. Results report that shear stresses generated within bone marrow under physiological loading conditions are within the range known to stimulate a mechanobiological response in MSCs in vitro. Additionally, lower bone mass leads to an increase in the shear stress generated within the marrow, while a decrease in bone marrow viscosity reduces this generated shear stress. PMID:23519534

  9. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances bone tumor growth in mice in an osteoclast-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hirbe, Angela C.; Uluçkan, Özge; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Eagleton, Mark C.; Prior, Julie L.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Apicelli, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of osteoclast (OC) activity has been associated with decreased tumor growth in bone in animal models. Increased recognition of factors that promote osteoclastic bone resorption in cancer patients led us to investigate whether increased OC activation could enhance tumor growth in bone. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used to treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, but is also associated with increased markers of OC activity and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). We used G-CSF as a tool to investigate the impact of increased OC activity on tumor growth in 2 murine osteolytic tumor models. An 8-day course of G-CSF alone (without chemotherapy) significantly decreased BMD and increased OC perimeter along bone in mice. Mice administered G-CSF alone demonstrated significantly increased tumor growth in bone as quantitated by in vivo bioluminescence imaging and histologic bone marrow tumor analysis. Short-term administration of AMD3100, a CXCR4 inhibitor that mobilizes neutrophils with little effect on bone resorption, did not lead to increased tumor burden. However, OC-defective osteoprotegerin transgenic (OPGTg) mice and bisphosphonate-treated mice were resistant to the effects of G-CSF administration upon bone tumor growth. These data demonstrate a G-CSF–induced stimulation of tumor growth in bone that is OC dependent. PMID:17192391

  10. Improvement of mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement by fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Pal, S

    1984-01-01

    Acrylic bone cement is significantly weaker and less stiff than compact bone. Bone cement is also weaker in tension than in compression. This limits its use in orthopaedics to areas where tensile stresses are minimum. We have attempted to improve the mechanical properties of PMMA by reinforcing it with metal wires, and graphite and aramid fibers. Normal, carbon fiber reinforced and aramid fiber reinforced bone cement specimens were tested in compression. Addition of a small percentage (1-2% by weight for carbon and up to 6% for aramid) of these fibers improved the mechanical properties significantly. Due to the improved mechanical properties of fiber reinforced bone cement, its clinical use may reduce the incidence of cement fracture and thus loosening of the prosthesis. PMID:6480622

  11. Toughness and damage susceptibility in human cortical bone is proportional to mechanical inhomogeneity at the osteonal-level.

    PubMed

    Katsamenis, Orestis L; Jenkins, Thomas; Thurner, Philipp J

    2015-07-01

    Limitations associated with current clinical fracture risk assessment tools highlight the need for increased understanding of the fracture mechanisms of the bone and, ideally, a means of assessing this in vivo. Being a multi-layered hierarchical structure, the overall properties of the bone are dictated by its structural and compositional properties over multiple length scales. In this study, we investigate the osteonal-, micro- and tissue-level mechanical behaviour of cortical bone tissue samples from young and elderly donors through atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever-based nanoindentation, reference point microindentation (RPI) and fracture toughness experiments respectively. We demonstrate that bone's fracture toughness and crack growth resistance at the tissue-level are significantly correlated to damage susceptibility at the micro-level, and mechanical inhomogeneity between lamellae and interlamellar areas at the osteonal-level. In more detail, reduced nanoelasticity inhomogeneity of lamellar/interlamellar layers within the osteons correlated to increased indentation depth at the micro-level and an overall reduction in crack-growth toughness and fracture toughness of the tissue. Our data also suggest that deterioration of bone's mechanical properties is expressed concurrently at these three levels, and that mechanical inhomogeneity between the principal structural units of the cortical tissue holds a key role on bone's toughness behaviour. We hypothesise that the reduction in nanoelasticity inhomogeneity is--at least to some extent--responsible for the inability of the microstructure to effectively adapt to the applied load, e.g. by redistributing strains, in a non-catastrophic manner preventing damage formation and propagation. Our hypothesis is further supported by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) data, which show that failure of tougher bone specimens is governed by increased deflection of the crack path and broadly spread

  12. The importance of the intracortical canal network for murine bone mechanics.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Philipp; Voide, Romain; Stampanoni, Marco; Donahue, Leah Rae; Müller, Ralph

    2013-03-01

    As shown by recent data bone strength estimation can greatly be improved by including microarchitectural parameters in the analysis. Our previous results showed that intracortical canals (the living space of the vasculature and/or remodeling units) are a major contributor to cortical tissue porosity, and therefore, can be linked to mechanical bone properties. Consequently, the goal of this study was to investigate the importance of the intracortical canal network for murine bone mechanics. To study intracortical canals within murine femoral bone, we used a mouse model, including two mouse strains, C57BL/6J-Ghrhr(lit)/J (B6-lit/+) and C3.B6-Ghrhr(lit)/J (C3.B6-lit/+) representing low and high bone mass, respectively. The intracortical canal network was assessed by synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography and the mechanical bone properties were derived from three-point bending experiments. Multiple linear regression models were built to explain the variation in ultimate force, work to fracture, and stiffness in terms of the morphometric parameters. The power to explain the variation in bone mechanics was increased significantly for most mechanical measures when including morphometric parameters of intracortical canals in addition to macroscopic morphometric measures. Specifically, we could derive generalized (mouse strain-independent) models for ultimate force, where the incorporation of intracortical canals in addition to macroscopic bone measures improved the explained variation in ultimate force considerably, which was confirmed by an increase in adjusted R(2) of 73% and 8% for B6-lit/+ and C3.B6-lit/+, respectively. Further, we observed that the heterogeneity of the morphometric measures for the individual canal branches play an important role for explaining the variation in ultimate force. Finally, the current study provides strong evidence that work to fracture of murine bone, which is triggered critically by microcracks, is affected by

  13. Would increased interstitial fluid flow through in situ mechanical stimulation enhance bone remodeling?

    PubMed

    Letechipia, J E; Alessi, A; Rodriguez, G; Asbun, J

    2010-08-01

    Bone accommodates to changes in its functional environment ensuring that sufficient skeletal mass is appropriately positioned to withstand the mechanical loads that result from functional activities. Increasing physical activity will result in increased bone mass, while the removal of functional loading would result in bone loss. Bone is a composite material made up of a collagen-hydroxyapatite matrix and a complex network of lacunae-canaliculi channels occupied by osteocyte and osteoblast processes, immersed in interstitial fluid. There are strong indications that changes in interstitial fluid flow velocity or pressure are the means by which an external load signal is communicated to the cell. In vitro studies indicate that shear stress, induced by interstitial fluid flow, is a potent bone cell behavior regulator. One of the forms of altering interstitial fluid flow is through the mechanical deformation of skeletal tissue in response to applied loads. Other methods include increased intramedullary pressure, negative-pressure tissue regeneration, or external mechanical stimulation. Analysis of these methods poses the question of process effectiveness. The efficacy of each method theoretically will depend on the mechanical efficiency of transmitting an external load and converting it into changes in interstitial fluid flow. In this paper, we combine recent knowledge on the effect of the bone's interstitial fluid flow, different fluid patterns, the role of gap junctions, and the concept of mechanical effectiveness of different methods that influence interstitial fluid flow within bone, and we hypothesize that the efficiency of bone remodeling can be improved if a small mechanical percussion device could be placed directly in contact with the bone, thus inducing local interstitial fluid flow variations. Enhancement of bone repair and remodeling through controlled interstitial fluid flow possesses many clinical applications. Further investigations and in vivo

  14. Direct visualization and quantification of bone growth into porous titanium implants using micro computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Baril, E; Lefebvre, L P; Hacking, S A

    2011-05-01

    The utility of porous metals for the integration of orthopaedic implants with host bone has been well established. Quantification of the tissue response to cementless implants is laborious and time consuming process requiring tissue processing, embedding, sectioning, polishing, imaging and image analysis. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) is a promising three dimensional (3D) imaging technique to quantify the tissue response to porous metals. However, the suitability and effectiveness of μCT for the quantification of bone ingrowth remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare bone growth within porous titanium implants using both μCT and traditional hard-tissue histology techniques. Cylindrical implants were implanted in the distal femora and proximal tibiae of a rabbit. After 6 weeks, bone ingrowth was quantified and compared by μCT, light microscopy and backscattered electron microscopy. Quantification of bone volume and implant porosity as determined by μCT compared well with data obtained by traditional histology techniques. Analysis of the 3D dataset showed that bone was present in the pores connected with openings larger 9.4 μm. For pore openings greater than 28.2 μm, the size of the interconnection had little impact on the bone density within the porosity for the titanium foams. PMID:21512898

  15. Calcium phosphate ceramic systems in growth factor and drug delivery for bone tissue engineering: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs) are the most widely used bone substitutes in bone tissue engineering due to their compositional similarities to bone mineral and excellent biocompatibility. In recent years, CaPs, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have attracted significant interest in simultaneous use as bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle, adding a new dimension to their application. CaPs are more biocompatible than many other ceramic and inorganic nanoparticles. Their biocompatibility and variable stoichiometry, thus surface charge density, functionality, and dissolution properties, make them suitable for both drug and growth factor delivery. CaP matrices and scaffolds have been reported to act as delivery vehicles for growth factors and drugs in bone tissue engineering. Local drug delivery in musculoskeletal disorder treatments can address some of the critical issues more effectively and efficiently than the systemic delivery. CaPs are used as coatings on metallic implants, CaP cements, and custom designed scaffolds to treat musculoskeletal disorders. This review highlights some of the current drug and growth factor delivery approaches and critical issues using CaP particles, coatings, cements, and scaffolds towards orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:22127225

  16. Molecular modifiers reveal a mechanism of pathological crystal growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jihae; Granja, Ignacio; Taylor, Michael G; Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Asplin, John R; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-25

    Crystalline materials are crucial to the function of living organisms, in the shells of molluscs, the matrix of bone, the teeth of sea urchins, and the exoskeletons of coccoliths. However, pathological biomineralization can be an undesirable crystallization process associated with human diseases. The crystal growth of biogenic, natural and synthetic materials may be regulated by the action of modifiers, most commonly inhibitors, which range from small ions and molecules to large macromolecules. Inhibitors adsorb on crystal surfaces and impede the addition of solute, thereby reducing the rate of growth. Complex inhibitor-crystal interactions in biomineralization are often not well elucidated. Here we show that two molecular inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization--citrate and hydroxycitrate--exhibit a mechanism that differs from classical theory in that inhibitor adsorption on crystal surfaces induces dissolution of the crystal under specific conditions rather than a reduced rate of crystal growth. This phenomenon occurs even in supersaturated solutions where inhibitor concentration is three orders of magnitude less than that of the solute. The results of bulk crystallization, in situ atomic force microscopy, and density functional theory studies are qualitatively consistent with a hypothesis that inhibitor-crystal interactions impart localized strain to the crystal lattice and that oxalate and calcium ions are released into solution to alleviate this strain. Calcium oxalate monohydrate is the principal component of human kidney stones and citrate is an often-used therapy, but hydroxycitrate is not. For hydroxycitrate to function as a kidney stone treatment, it must be excreted in urine. We report that hydroxycitrate ingested by non-stone-forming humans at an often-recommended dose leads to substantial urinary excretion. In vitro assays using human urine reveal that the molecular modifier hydroxycitrate is as effective an inhibitor of nucleation of

  17. Growth-Factor Nanocapsules That Enable Tunable Controlled Release for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haijun; Du, Juanjuan; Wen, Jing; Liu, Yang; Montgomery, Scott R; Scott, Trevor P; Aghdasi, Bayan; Xiong, Chengjie; Suzuki, Akinobu; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Phan, Kevin; Weintraub, Gil; Raed, Alobaidaan; Murray, Samuel S; Daubs, Michael D; Yang, Xianjin; Yuan, Xu-Bo; Wang, Jeffrey C; Lu, Yunfeng

    2016-08-23

    Growth factors are of great potential in regenerative medicine. However, their clinical applications are largely limited by the short in vivo half-lives and the narrow therapeutic window. Thus, a robust controlled release system remains an unmet medical need for growth-factor-based therapies. In this research, a nanoscale controlled release system (degradable protein nanocapsule) is established via in situ polymerization on growth factor. The release rate can be finely tuned by engineering the surface polymer composition. Improved therapeutic outcomes can be achieved with growth factor nanocapsules, as illustrated in spinal cord fusion mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 nanocapsules. PMID:27227573

  18. Mechanical Properties of Cranial Bones and Sutures in 1–2-Year-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawen; Zou, Donghua; Li, Zhengdong; Huang, Ping; Li, Dongri; Shao, Yu; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Yijiu

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of 1–2-year-old pediatric cranial bones and sutures and their influential factors were studied to better understand how the pediatric calvarium reacts to loading. Material/Methods Cranial bone and suture specimens were extracted from seven fresh-frozen human infant cadavers (1.5±0.5 years old). Eight specimens were obtained from each subject: two frontal bones, two parietal bones, two sagittal suture samples, and two coronal suture samples. The specimens were tested in a three-point bend setup at 1.5 mm/s. The mechanical properties, such as ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and ultimate strain, were calculated for each specimen. Results The ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the frontal bone were higher than those of the parietal bone (P<0.05). No differences were found between the coronal and sagittal sutures in ultimate stress, elastic modulus, or ultimate strain (P>0.05). The ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the frontal and parietal bones were higher than those of the sagittal and coronal sutures (P<0.05), whereas the opposite ultimate strain findings were revealed (P<0.05). Conclusions There was no significant difference in ultimate stress, elastic modulus, or ultimate strain between the sagittal and coronal sutures. However, there were significant differences in ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and ultimate strain between the frontal and parietal bones as well as between the cranial bones and sutures. PMID:25279966

  19. Non-Invasive Investigation of Bone Adaptation in Humans to Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified peak cyclic forces, number of loading cycles, and loading rate as contributors to the regulation of bone metabolism. We have proposed a theoretical model that relates bone density to a mechanical stimulus derived from average daily cumulative peak cyclic 'effective' tissue stresses. In order to develop a non-invasive experimental model to test the theoretical model we need to: (1) monitor daily cumulative loading on a bone, (2) compute the internal stress state(s) resulting from the imposed loading, and (3) image volumetric bone density accurately, precisely, and reproducibly within small contiguous volumes throughout the bone. We have chosen the calcaneus (heel) as an experimental model bone site because it is loaded by ligament, tendon and joint contact forces in equilibrium with daily ground reaction forces that we can measure; it is a peripheral bone site and therefore more easily and accurately imaged with computed tomography; it is composed primarily of cancellous bone; and it is a relevant site for monitoring bone loss and adaptation in astronauts and the general population. This paper presents an overview of our recent advances in the areas of monitoring daily ground reaction forces, biomechanical modeling of the forces on the calcaneus during gait, mathematical modeling of calcaneal bone adaptation in response to cumulative daily activity, accurate and precise imaging of the calcaneus with quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and application to long duration space flight.

  20. Study the bonding mechanism of binders on hydroxyapatite surface and mechanical properties for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Li, Xinpei; Yang, Mingming; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Kai; zhang, Yingfeng

    2016-04-01

    In 3DP fabricating artificial bone scaffolds process, the interaction mechanism between binder and bioceramics power determines the microstructure and macro mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold. In this study, we applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to investigating the bonding mechanism and essence of binders on the HA crystallographic planes for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. The cohesive energy densities of binders and the binding energies, PCFs g(r), mechanical properties of binder/HA interaction models were analyzed through the MD simulation. Additionally, we prepared the HA bone scaffold specimens with different glues by 3DP additive manufacturing, and tested their mechanical properties by the electronic universal testing machine. The simulation results revealed that the relationship of the binding energies between binders and HA surface is consistent with the cohesive energy densities of binders, which is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA. The PCFs g(r) indicated that their interfacial interactions mainly attribute to the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds which formed between the polar atoms, functional groups in binder polymer and the Ca, -OH in HA. The results of mechanical experiments verified the relationship of Young׳s modulus for three interaction models in simulation, which is PVA/HA>PAM/HA>PVP/HA. But the trend of compressive strength is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA, this is consistent with the binding energies of simulation. Therefore, the Young׳s modulus of bone scaffolds are limited by the Young׳s modulus of binders, and the compressive strength is mainly decided by the viscosity of binder. Finally, the major reasons for differences in mechanical properties between simulation and experiment were found, the space among HA pellets and the incomplete infiltration of glue were the main reasons influencing the mechanical properties of 3DP fabrication HA bone scaffolds. These results provide useful information in choosing binder for 3DP fabrication

  1. A chain mechanism for flagellum growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Lewis D. B.; Poulter, Simon; Terentjev, Eugene M.; Hughes, Colin; Fraser, Gillian M.

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria swim by means of long flagella extending from the cell surface. These are assembled from thousands of protein subunits translocated across the cell membrane by an export machinery at the base of each flagellum. Unfolded subunits then transit through a narrow channel at the core of the growing flagellum to the tip, where they crystallize into the nascent structure. As the flagellum lengthens outside the cell, the rate of flagellum growth does not change. The mystery is how subunit transit is maintained at a constant rate without a discernible energy source in the channel of the external flagellum. We present evidence for a simple physical mechanism for flagellum growth that harnesses the entropic force of the unfolded subunits themselves. We show that a subunit docked at the export machinery can be captured by a free subunit through head-to-tail linkage of juxtaposed amino (N)- and carboxy (C)-terminal helices. We propose that sequential rounds of linkage would generate a multisubunit chain that pulls successive subunits into and through the channel to the flagellum tip, and by isolating filaments growing on bacterial cells we reveal the predicted chain of head-to-tail linked subunits in the transit channel of flagella. Thermodynamic analysis confirms that links in the subunit chain can withstand the pulling force generated by rounds of subunit crystallization at the flagellum tip, and polymer theory predicts that as the N terminus of each unfolded subunit crystallizes, the entropic force at the subunit C terminus would increase, rapidly overcoming the threshold required to pull the next subunit from the export machinery. This pulling force would adjust automatically over the increasing length of the growing flagellum, maintaining a constant rate of subunit delivery to the tip.

  2. PROGRESSIVE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE IN TENSION FOR TWO AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Reyes, Michael J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of bone for post-yield energy dissipation decreases with age. To gain information on the cause of such changes, we examined the mechanical behavior of human cadaveric bone as a function of progressive deformation. In this study, tensile specimens from tibiae of 9 middle aged and 8 elderly donors were loaded till failure in an incremental and cyclic (load-dwell-unload-dwell-reload) scheme. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, permanent strain, stress relaxation, viscoelastic time constant, plastic strain energy, elastic release strain energy, and hysteresis energy were determined at incremental strains of each loading cycle. Experimental results showed that elderly bone failed at much lower strains compared to middle aged bone, but little age-related differences were observed in the mechanical behavior of bone until the premature failure of elderly bone. Energy dissipation and permanent strain appeared to linearly increase with increasing strain, while non-linear changes occurred in the modulus loss and stress relaxation/time constant with increasing strain. Such changes suggest that two distinct stages may exist in the progressive deformation of bone. In Stage I, rapid damage accumulation and increased involvement of collagen in load bearing appeared to dominate the mechanical behavior of bone with limited energy dissipation (<20% of total energy dissipated), whereas Stage II is dominated by continuous plastic deformation, accompanied by major energy dissipation through all three pathways till failure. This study suggests that damaging mechanisms in bone vary with deformation and age affects the post-yield mechanisms causing a significant decline in the capacity of aged bone to dissipate energy. PMID:18437693

  3. Influence of structural load-bearing scaffolds on mechanical load- and BMP-2-mediated bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Anna M; Mason, Devon E; Lin, Angela S P; Guldberg, Robert E; Boerckel, Joel D

    2016-09-01

    A common design constraint in functional tissue engineering is that scaffolds intended for use in load-bearing sites possess similar mechanical properties to the replaced tissue. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in vivo loading would enhance bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-mediated bone regeneration in the presence of a load-bearing PLDL scaffold, whose pores and central core were filled with BMP-2-releasing alginate hydrogel. First, we evaluated the effects of in vivo mechanical loading on bone regeneration in the structural scaffolds. Second, we compared scaffold-mediated bone regeneration, independent of mechanical loading, with alginate hydrogel constructs, without the structural scaffold, that have been shown previously to facilitate in vivo mechanical stimulation of bone formation. Contrary to our hypothesis, mechanical loading had no effect on bone formation, distribution, or biomechanical properties in structural scaffolds. Independent of loading, the structural scaffolds reduced bone formation compared to non-structural alginate, particularly in regions in which the scaffold was concentrated, resulting in impaired functional regeneration. This is attributable to a combination of stress shielding by the scaffold and inhibition of cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. Collectively, these data question the necessity of scaffold similarity to mature tissue at the time of implantation and emphasize development of an environment conducive to cellular activation of matrix production and ultimate functional regeneration. PMID:27208510

  4. Modifications of histamine receptor signaling affect bone mechanical properties in rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Pytlik, Maria; Śliwiński, Leszek; Wiercigroch, Marek; Brzęczek, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Histamine receptors are expressed on bone cells and histamine may be involved in regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of loratadine (an H(1) receptor antagonist), ranitidine (an H(2) receptor antagonist) and betahistine (an H(3) receptor antagonist and H(1) receptor agonist) on bone mechanical properties in rats. Loratadine (5 mg/kg/day, po), ranitidine (50 mg/kg/day, po), or betahistine dihydrochloride (5 mg/kg/day, po), were administered for 4 weeks to non-ovariectomized and bilaterally ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) 3-month-old rats, and their effects were compared with appropriate controls. Serum levels of bone turnover markers, bone mineralization and mechanical properties of the proximal tibial metaphysis, femoral diaphysis and femoral neck were studied. In rats with normal estrogen level, administration of loratadine slightly favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone, significantly increasing the strength of the femoral neck (p < 0.05), and tending to increase the strength of the femoral diaphysis. Ranitidine did not significantly affect the investigated parameters, and betahistine decreased the strength of the tibial metaphysis (cancellous bone, p < 0.01). There were no significant effects of the drugs on serum bone turnover markers. In estrogen-deficient rats, the drugs did not significantly affect the investigated skeletal parameters. In conclusion, the effects of histamine H(1), H(2) and H(3) receptor antagonists on the skeletal system in rats were differential and dependent on estrogen status. PMID:24905313

  5. Dynamic Acoustic Radiation Force Retains Bone Structural and Mechanical Integrity in a Functional Disuse Osteopenia Model

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Sardar M. Z.; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia and bone loss have been extensively reported in long duration space mission and long term bed rest. The pathology of the bone loss is similar to osteoporosis but highly confined to weight bearing bones. The current anabolic and/or anti-resorptive drugs have systemic effects and are costly over extended time, with concerns of long term fracture risk. This study use Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) as a non-invasive acoustic force and anabolic stimulus to countermeasure disuse induced bone loss. Four-month old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups, 1) age-matched (AM), 2) non-suspended sham (NS), 3) nonsuspended –LIPUS (NU), 4) suspended sham (SS), and 5) suspended-LIPUS (SU) groups. After four weeks of suspension, µCT analyses showed significant decreases in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (−36%, p<0.005), bone tissue mineral density (TMD) (−3%, p<0.05), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (−12.5%, p<0.005), and increase in bone surface/bone volume (+BS/BV) (+16%, p<0.005), relative to age-matched (AM). Application of LIPUS for 20 min/day for 5 days/week, significantly increased TMD (+3%, p<0.05), Tb.Th (+6%, p<0.05), and decreased BS/BV (−10%, p<0.005), relative to suspension alone (SS) mice. Histomorphometry analyses showed a breakdown of bone microstructure under disuse conditions consist with µCT results. In comparison to SS mice, LIPUS treated bone showed increased structural integrity with increased bone formation rates at metaphysical endosteal and trabecular surfaces (+0.104±0.07 vs 0.031±0.30 µm3/µm2/d) relative to SS. Four-point bending mechanical tests of disused SS femurs showed reduced elastic modulus (−53%, p<0.05), yield (−33%, p<0.05) and ultimate strength (−45%, p<0.05) at the femoral diaphysis relative to AM bone. LIPUS stimulation mitigated the adverse effects of disuse on bone elastic modulus (+42%, p<0.05), yield strength (+29%, p<0.05), and ultimate strength (+39%, p<0.05) relative to SS

  6. Assessment of Mechanical Performance of Bone Architecture Using Rapid Prototyping Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparin, Peter; Woesz, Alexander; Thomsen, Jasper S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this on-going research project is to assess the influence of bone microarchitecture on the mechanical performance of trabecular bone. A testing chain consist-ing of three steps was established: 1) micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging of human trabecular bone; 2) building of models of the bone from a light-sensitive polymer using Rapid Prototyping (RP); 3) mechanical testing of the models in a material testing machine. A direct resampling procedure was developed to convert μCT data into the format of the RP machine. Standardized parameters for production and testing of the plastic models were established by use of regular cellular structures. Next, normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone architectures were re-produced by RP and compression tested. We found that normal architecture of vertebral trabecular bone exhibit behaviour characteristic of a cellular structure. In normal bone the fracture occurs at much higher strain values that in osteoporotic bone. After the fracture a normal trabecular architecture is able to carry much higher loads than an osteoporotic architecture. However, no statistically significant differences were found in maximal stress during uniaxial compression of the central part of normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. This supports the hypothesis that osteoporotic trabecular bone can compensate for a loss of trabeculae by thickening the remaining trabeculae in the loading direction (compensatory hypertrophy). The developed approach could be used for mechanical evaluation of structural data acquired non-invasively and assessment of changes in performance of bone architecture.

  7. Effect of nanofillers on the physico-mechanical properties of load bearing bone implants.

    PubMed

    Michael, Feven Mattews; Khalid, Mohammad; Walvekar, Rashmi; Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Ramarad, Suganti; Siddiqui, Humaira; Hoque, M Enamul

    2016-10-01

    Bones are nanocomposites consisting of a collagenous fibre network, embedded with calcium phosphates mainly hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystallites. As bones are subjected to continuous loading and unloading process every day, they often tend to become prone to fatigue and breakdown. Therefore, this review addresses the use of nanocomposites particularly polymers reinforced with nanoceramics that can be used as load bearing bone implants. Further, nanocomposite preparation and dispersion modification techniques have been highlighted along with thorough discussion on the influence that various nanofillers have on the physico-mechanical properties of nanocomposites in relation to that of natural bone properties. This review updates the nanocomposites that meet the physico-mechanical properties (strength and elasticity) as well as biocompatibility requirement of a load bearing bone implant and also attempts to highlight the gaps in the reported studies to address the fatigue and creep properties of the nanocomposites. PMID:27287178

  8. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  9. The molecular response of bone to growth hormone during skeletal unloading: regional differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Hind limb elevation of the growing rat provides a good model for the skeletal changes that occur during space flight. In this model the bones of the forelimbs (normally loaded) are used as an internal control for the changes that occur in the unloaded bones of the hind limbs. Previous studies have shown that skeletal unloading of the hind limbs results in a transient reduction of bone formation in the tibia and femur, with no change in the humerus. This fall in bone formation is accompanied by a fall in serum osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP) and bone BGP messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but a rise in bone insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protein and mRNA levels and resistance to the skeletal growth-promoting actions of IGF-I. To determine whether skeletal unloading also induced resistance to GH, we evaluated the response of the femur and humerus of sham and hypophysectomized rats, control and hind limb elevated, to GH (two doses), measuring mRNA levels of IGF-I, BGP, rat bone alkaline phosphatase (RAP), and alpha 1(1)-procollagen (coll). Hypophysectomy (HPX) decreased the mRNA levels of IGF-I, BGP, and coll in the femur, but was either less effective or had the opposite effect in the humerus. GH at the higher dose (500 micrograms/day) restored these mRNA levels to or above the sham control values in the femur, but generally had little or no effect on the humerus. RAP mRNA levels were increased by HPX, especially in the femur. The lower dose of GH (50 micrograms/day) inhibited this rise in RAP, whereas the higher dose raised the mRNA levels and resulted in the appearance of additional transcripts not seen in controls. As for the other mRNAs, RAP mRNA in the humerus was less affected by HPX or GH than that in the femur. Hind limb elevation led to an increase in IGF-I, coll, and RAP mRNAs and a reduction in BGP mRNA in the femur and either had no effect or potentiated the response of these mRNAs to GH. We conclude that GH stimulates a number of markers of bone

  10. Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

    2006-01-01

    Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately

  11. Neurotrophin-3 Induces BMP-2 and VEGF Activities and Promotes the Bony Repair of Injured Growth Plate Cartilage and Bone in Rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Wen; Chung, Rosa; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Chim, Shek Man; Kuek, Vincent; Dwivedi, Prem P; Hassanshahi, Mohammadhossein; Chen, Ke-Ming; Xie, Yangli; Chen, Lin; Foster, Bruce K; Rosen, Vicki; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Xu, Jiake; Xian, Cory J

    2016-06-01

    Injured growth plate is often repaired by bony tissue causing bone growth defects, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. Because neurotrophins have been implicated in bone fracture repair, here we investigated their potential roles in growth plate bony repair in rats. After a drill-hole injury was made in the tibial growth plate and bone, increased injury site mRNA expression was observed for neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 and their Trk receptors. NT-3 and its receptor TrkC showed the highest induction. NT-3 was localized to repairing cells, whereas TrkC was observed in stromal cells, osteoblasts, and blood vessel cells at the injury site. Moreover, systemic NT-3 immunoneutralization reduced bone volume at injury sites and also reduced vascularization at the injured growth plate, whereas recombinant NT-3 treatment promoted bony repair with elevated levels of mRNA for osteogenic markers and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and increased vascularization and mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial cell marker CD31 at the injured growth plate. When examined in vitro, NT-3 promoted osteogenesis in rat bone marrow stromal cells, induced Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of BMPs (particularly BMP-2) and VEGF in the mineralizing cells. It also induced CD31 and VEGF mRNA in rat primary endothelial cell culture. BMP activity appears critical for NT-3 osteogenic effect in vitro because it can be almost completely abrogated by co-addition of the BMP inhibitor noggin. Consistent with its angiogenic effect in vivo, NT-3 promoted angiogenesis in metatarsal bone explants, an effect abolished by co-treatment with anti-VEGF. This study suggests that NT-3 may be an osteogenic and angiogenic factor upstream of BMP-2 and VEGF in bony repair, and further studies are required to investigate whether NT-3 may be a potential target for preventing growth plate faulty bony repair or for promoting bone fracture healing. © 2016

  12. Hierarchical Structure and Mechanical Improvement of an n-HA/GCO-PU Composite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Limei; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Yang, Boyuan; Lin, Lili; Li, Jidong; Li, Yubao

    2015-10-14

    To improve the mechanical properties of bone tissue and achieve the desired bone tissue regeneration for orthopedic surgery, newly designed hydroxyapatite/polyurethane (HA/PU) porous scaffolds were developed via in situ polymerization. The results showed that the molecular modification of PU soft segments by glyceride of castor oil (GCO) can increase the scaffold compressive strength by 48% and the elastic modulus by 96%. When nano-HA (n-HA) particles were incorporated into the GCO-PU matrix, the compressive strength and elastic modulus further increased by 49 and 74%, from 2.91 to 4.34 MPa and from 95 to 165.36 MPa, respectively. The n-HA particles with fine dispersity not only improved the interface bonding with the GCO-PU matrix but also provided effective bioactivity for bonding with bone tissue. The hierarchical structure and mechanical quality of the n-HA/GCO-PU composite scaffold were determined to be appropriate for the growth of cells and the regeneration of bony tissues, demonstrating promising prospects for bone repair and regeneration. PMID:26406396

  13. Transforming growth factor-{beta} inhibits CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression and PPAR{gamma} activity in unloaded bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ahdjoudj, S.; Kaabeche, K.; Holy, X.; Fromigue, O.; Modrowski, D.; Zerath, E.; Marie, P.J. . E-mail: pierre.marie@larib.inserm.fr

    2005-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-{beta}2) on transcription factors involved in adipogenic differentiation induced by hind limb suspension in rat bone marrow stromal cells in vivo. Time course real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of gene expression showed that skeletal unloading progressively increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP){alpha} and C/EBP{beta} {alpha} at 5 days in bone marrow stromal cells resulting in increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}2) transcripts at 7 days. TGF-{beta}2 administration in unloaded rats corrected the rise in C/EBP{alpha} and C/EBP{beta} transcripts induced by unloading in bone marrow stromal cells. This resulted in inhibition of PPAR{gamma}2 expression that was associated with increased Runx2 expression. Additionally, the inhibition of C/EBP{alpha} and C/EBP{beta} expression by TGF-{beta}2 was associated with increased PPAR{gamma} serine phosphorylation in bone marrow stromal cells, a mechanism that inhibits PPAR{gamma} transactivating activity. The sequential inhibitory effect of TGF-{beta}2 on C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{beta}, and PPAR{gamma}2 resulted in reduced LPL expression and abolition of bone marrow stromal cell adipogenic differentiation, which contributed to prevent bone loss induced by skeletal unloading. We conclude that TGF-{beta}2 inhibits the excessive adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by skeletal unloading by inhibiting C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{beta}, and PPAR{gamma} expression and activity, which provides a sequential mechanism by which TGF-{beta}2 regulates adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo.

  14. Spinal cord injury-related bone impairment and fractures: an update on epidemiology and physiopathological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dionyssiotis, Y

    2011-09-01

    A sudden loss of motor function in segments of the spinal cord results in immobilisation and is complicated by bone loss and fractures in areas below the level of injury. Despite the acceptance of osteoporosis and fractures as two major public health problems, in people with spinal cord injuries, the mechanisms are not adequately investigated. Multiple risk factors for bone loss and fractures are present in this disabled population. This review is an update on the epidemiology and physiopathological mechanisms in spinal cord injury-related bone impairment and fractures. PMID:21885901

  15. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

  16. Comparison of the Effect of Velvet Antler from Different Sections on Longitudinal Bone Growth of Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Myung-Gyou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of velvet antler (VA) from different sections for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. VA was divided into upper (VAU), middle (VAM), and basal sections (VAB). An in vivo study was performed to examine the effect on longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats. In addition, in vitro osteogenic activities were examined using osteoblastic MG-63 cells. VA promoted longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent rats. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in growth plate of VA group was highly expressed compared with control. The anabolic effect of VA on bone was further supported by in vitro study. VA enhanced the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MG-63 cells. The mRNA expressions of osteogenic genes such as collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were increased by VA treatment. These effects of in vivo and in vitro study were decreased from upper to basal sections of VA. In conclusion, VA treatment promotes longitudinal bone growth in growing rats through enhanced BMP-2 expression, osteogenic activities, and bone matrix gene expressions. In addition, present study provides evidence for the regional differences in the effectiveness of velvet antler for longitudinal bone growth. PMID:27382403

  17. Orientation and size-dependent mechanical modulation within individual secondary osteons in cortical bone tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carnelli, Davide; Vena, Pasquale; Dao, Ming; Ortiz, Christine; Contro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy is one of the most peculiar aspects of cortical bone mechanics; however, its anisotropic mechanical behaviour should be treated only with strict relationship to the length scale of investigation. In this study, we focus on quantifying the orientation and size dependence of the spatial mechanical modulation in individual secondary osteons of bovine cortical bone using nanoindentation. Tests were performed on the same osteonal structure in the axial (along the long bone axis) and transverse (normal to the long bone axis) directions along arrays going radially out from the Haversian canal at four different maximum depths on three secondary osteons. Results clearly show a periodic pattern of stiffness with spatial distance across the osteon. The effect of length scale on lamellar bone anisotropy and the critical length at which homogenization of the mechanical properties occurs were determined. Further, a laminate-composite-based analytical model was applied to the stiffness trends obtained at the highest spatial resolution to evaluate the elastic constants for a sub-layer of mineralized collagen fibrils within an osteonal lamella on the basis of the spatial arrangement of the fibrils. The hierarchical arrangement of lamellar bone is found to be a major determinant for modulation of mechanical properties and anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the tissue. PMID:23389895

  18. Paradoxical Sost gene expression response to mechanical unloading in metaphyseal bone.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Aspenberg, Per; Agholme, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    The Sost gene encodes Sclerostin, an inhibitor of Wnt-signaling, generally considered a main response gene to mechanical loading in bone. Several papers describe that unloading leads to upregulation of Sost, which in turn may lead to loss of bone. These studies were based on whole bone homogenates or cortical bone. By serendipity, we noted an opposite response to unloading in the proximal rat tibia. Therefore, we hypothesized that Sost-expression in response to changes in mechanical load is bone site specific. One hind limb of male, 3 month old rats was unloaded by paralyzing the extensors with Botulinium toxin A (Botox) injections. A series of experiments compared the expression of Sost mRNA in the unloaded and contralateral, loaded limbs, after 3 or 10 days, in metaphyseal cancellous bone, metaphyseal cortical bone, and diaphyseal cortical bone. We also conducted μCT to confirm changes in bone volume density related to unloading. Sost mRNA expression in the cancellous metaphyseal bone was downregulated almost 2-fold, both 3 days and 10 days after unloading (P<0.05). A similar tendency was seen in the metaphyseal cortical bone, in which Sost was 1.5-fold downregulated (P<0.05) after 10days, but not significantly changed after 3days. In contrast, diaphyseal cortical Sost expression was instead upregulated 1.4-fold (P<0.05) following 3-day unloading, while there was no significant change after 10days. Cancellous bone volume density was 58% lower (P<0.001, compared to cage controls) in the unloaded limb but not significantly affected in the loaded limb. The results suggest that Sost mRNA expression in metaphyseal bone responds to mechanical unloading in an opposite direction to that observed in diaphyseal cortical bone. This proposes a more complex expression pattern for Sost in response to unloading. Therapeutics that target Sclerostin during altered loading conditions may result in local bone mass changes that are difficult to predict. PMID:23337040

  19. THE BISPHOSPHONATE ZOLEDRONIC ACID DECREASES TUMOR GROWTH IN BONE IN MICE WITH DEFECTIVE OSTEOCLASTS*

    PubMed Central

    Hirbe, Angela C.; Roelofs, Anke J.; Floyd, Desiree H.; Deng, Hongju; Becker, Stephanie N.; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Apicelli, Anthony J.; Xu, Zhiqiang; Prior, Julie L.; Eagleton, Mark C.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rogers, Michael J.; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs), bone targeted drugs that disrupt osteoclast function, are routinely used to treat complications of bone metastasis. Studies in preclinical models of cancer have shown that BPs reduce skeletal tumor burden and increase survival. Similarly, we observed in the present study that administration of the Nitrogen-containing BP (N-BP), zoledronic acid (ZA) to osteolytic tumor-bearing Tax+ mice beginning at 6 months of age led to resolution of radiographic skeletal lesions. N-BPs inhibit farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase, thereby inhibiting protein prenylation and causing cellular toxicity. We found that ZA decreased Tax+ tumor and B16 melanoma viability and caused the accumulation of unprenylated Rap1a proteins in vitro. However, it is presently unclear whether N-BPs exert anti-tumor effects in bone independent of inhibition of osteoclast (OC) function in vivo. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of treatment with ZA on B16 melanoma bone tumor burden in irradiated mice transplanted with splenic cells from src-/- mice, which have non-functioning OCs. OC-defective mice treated with ZA demonstrated a significant 88% decrease in tumor growth in bone compared to vehicle-treated OC-defective mice. These data support an osteoclast-independent role for N-BP therapy in bone metastasis. PMID:19442620

  20. Structural and Mechanical Repair of Diffuse Damage in Cortical Bone in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Kennedy, Oran D.; Philemon, Claudy J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological wear and tear causes bone microdamage at several hierarchical levels, and these have different biological consequences. Bone remodeling is widely held to be the mechanism by which bone microdamage is repaired. However, recent studies showed that unlike typical linear microcracks, small crack damage, the clusters of submicron-sized matrix cracks also known as diffuse damage (Dif.Dx), does not activate remodeling. Thus, the fate of diffuse damage in vivo is not known. To examine this, we induced selectively Dif.Dx in rat ulnae in vivo by using end-load ulnar bending creep model. Changes in damage content were assessed by histomorphometry and mechanical testing immediately after loading (i.e., acute loaded) or at 14 days after damage induction (i.e., survival ulnae). Dif.Dx area was markedly reduced over the 14-day survival period after loading (p<0.02). We did not observe any intracortical resorption and there was no increase in cortical bone area in survival ulnae. The reduction in whole bone stiffness in acute loaded ulnae was restored to baseline levels in survival ulnae (p>0.6). Microindentation studies showed that Dif.Dx caused a highly localized reduction in elastic modulus in diffuse damage regions of the ulnar cortex. Moduli in these previously damaged bone areas were restored to control values by 14 days after loading. Our current findings indicate that small crack damage in bone can be repaired without bone remodeling, and suggest that alternative repair mechanisms exist in bone to deal with submicron-sized matrix cracks. Those mechanisms are currently unknown and further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which this direct repair occurs. PMID:25042459

  1. Structural and mechanical repair of diffuse damage in cortical bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Kennedy, Oran D; Philemon, Claudy J; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2014-12-01

    Physiological wear and tear causes bone microdamage at several hierarchical levels, and these have different biological consequences. Bone remodeling is widely held to be the mechanism by which bone microdamage is repaired. However, recent studies showed that unlike typical linear microcracks, small crack damage, the clusters of submicron-sized matrix cracks also known as diffuse damage (Dif.Dx), does not activate remodeling. Thus, the fate of diffuse damage in vivo is not known. To examine this, we induced selectively Dif.Dx in rat ulnae in vivo by using end-load ulnar bending creep model. Changes in damage content were assessed by histomorphometry and mechanical testing immediately after loading (ie, acute loaded) or at 14 days after damage induction (ie, survival ulnae). Dif.Dx area was markedly reduced over the 14-day survival period after loading (p < 0.02). We did not observe any intracortical resorption, and there was no increase in cortical bone area in survival ulnae. The reduction in whole bone stiffness in acute loaded ulnae was restored to baseline levels in survival ulnae (p > 0.6). Microindentation studies showed that Dif.Dx caused a highly localized reduction in elastic modulus in diffuse damage regions of the ulnar cortex. Moduli in these previously damaged bone areas were restored to control values by 14 days after loading. Our current findings indicate that small crack damage in bone can be repaired without bone remodeling, and they suggest that alternative repair mechanisms exist in bone to deal with submicron-sized matrix cracks. Those mechanisms are currently unknown and further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which this direct repair occurs. PMID:25042459

  2. Disruption of NF-κB1 prevents bone loss caused by mechanical unloading.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Wataru; Alles, Neil; Nagano, Kenichi; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Osawa, Kenji; Yasuda, Hisataka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Ohya, Keiichi; Maki, Kenshi; Jimi, Eijiro

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical unloading, such as in a microgravity environment in space or during bed rest (for patients who require prolonged bed rest), leads to a decrease in bone mass because of the suppression of bone formation and the stimulation of bone resorption. To address the challenges presented by a prolonged stay in space and the forthcoming era of a super-aged society, it will be important to prevent the bone loss caused by prolonged mechanical unloading. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors are activated by mechanical loading and inflammatory cytokines. Our objective was to elucidate the role of NF-κB pathways in bone loss that are caused by mechanical unloading. Eight-week-old wild-type (WT) and NF-κB1-deficient mice were randomly assigned to a control or mechanically unloaded with tail suspension group. After 2 weeks, a radiographic analysis indicated a decrease in bone mass in the tibias and femurs of the unloaded WT mice but not in the NF-κB1-deficient mice. An NF-κB1 deficiency suppressed the unloading-induced reduction in bone formation by maintaining the proportion and/or potential of osteoprogenitors or immature osteoblasts, and by suppression of bone resorption through the inhibition of intracellular signaling through the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoclast precursors. Thus, NF-κB1 is involved in two aspects of rapid reduction in bone mass that are induced by disuse osteoporosis in space or bed rest. PMID:23322687

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis: Which Targets Came from the Bench to the Bedside?

    PubMed

    Casimiro, Sandra; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases ultimately result from a complex interaction between cancer cells and bone microenvironment. However, prior to the colonization of the bone, cancer cells must succeed through a series of steps that will allow them to detach from the primary tumor, enter into circulation, recognize and adhere to specific endothelium, and overcome dormancy. We now know that as important as the metastatic cascade, tumor cells prime the secondary organ microenvironment prior to their arrival, reflecting the existence of specific metastasis-initiating cells in the primary tumor and circulating osteotropic factors. The deep comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of bone metastases may allow the future development of specific anti-tumoral therapies, but so far the approved and effective therapies for bone metastatic disease are mostly based in bone-targeted agents, like bisphosphonates, denosumab and, for prostate cancer, radium-223. Bisphosphonates and denosumab have proven to be effective in blocking bone resorption and decreasing morbidity; furthermore, in the adjuvant setting, these agents can decrease bone relapse after breast cancer surgery in postmenopausal women. In this review, we will present and discuss some examples of applied knowledge from the bench to the bed side in the field of bone metastasis. PMID:27618899

  4. Beta-nerve growth factor promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis during the repair of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-hui; Mao, Chuan-qing; Zhuo, Li-li; Ong, Joo L.

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the repair of bone defects is regulated by neural and vascular signals. In the present study, we examined the effect of topically applied β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) on neurogenesis and angiogenesis in critical-sized bone defects filled with collagen bone substitute. We created two symmetrical defects, 2.5 mm in diameter, on either side of the parietal bone of the skull, and filled them with bone substitute. Subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse 10 μg β-NGF in PBS (β-NGF + PBS) into the right-hand side defect, and PBS into the left (control) defect, over the 7 days following surgery. Immunohistochemical staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining were carried out at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postoperatively. On day 7, expression of β III-tubulin was lower on the β-NGF + PBS side than on the control side, and that of neurofilament 160 was greater. On day 14, β III-tubulin and protein gene product 9.5 were greater on the β-NGF + PBS side than on the control side. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was greater on the experimental side than the control side at 7 days, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression was elevated on days 14 and 21, but lower than control levels on day 28. However, no difference in the number of blood vessels was observed between sides. Our results indicate that topical application of β-NGF promoted neurogenesis, and may modulate angiogenesis by promoting nerve regeneration in collagen bone substitute-filled defects. PMID:26330843

  5. Stimulation of Mucosal Mast Cell Growth in Normal and Nude Rat Bone Marrow Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David M.; McMenamin, Christine; Gunneberg, Christian; Woodbury, Richard; Jarrett, Ellen E. E.

    1983-07-01

    Mast cells with the morphological and biochemical properties of mucosal mast cells (MMC) appear and proliferate to form the predominant cell type in rat bone marrow cultures stimulated with factors from antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Conditioned media causing a selective proliferation of MMC were derived from mesenteric lymph node cells of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats restimulated in vitro with specific antigen or from normal or infected rat mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated with concanavalin A. MMC growth factor is not produced by T-cell-depleted mesenteric lymph node cells or by the mesenteric lymph node cells of athymic rats. By contrast, MMC precursors are present in the bone marrow of athymic rats and are normally receptive to the growth factor produced by the lymphocytes of thymus-intact rats. The thymus dependence of MMC hyperplasia is thus based on the requirement of a thymus-independent precursor for a T-cell-derived growth promoter.

  6. Histopathologic study of long-bone growth plates confirms the basset hound as an osteochondrodysplastic breed.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Valdés, Jesús; Ulloa-Arvizu, Raúl; Alonso, Rogelio

    2007-01-01

    Osteochondrodysplasias are caused by abnormal development and growth of cartilage and bone. These abnormalities have been reported in both humans and animals with dwarfism. The basset hound is considered a breed with a disproportionate prevalence of dwarfism, the cause of which is unknown. To determine the type of osteochondrodysplasia in this breed, we analyzed histologically the growth plates from the long bones of a basset hound and a Doberman pinscher, both 2 mo old. Tissue was fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 microm, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and analyzed by light microscopy. Our results suggest that by this method the basset hound can be defined only as a breed having osteochondrodysplasia due to a primary cartilage problem in the growth plate. PMID:17195339

  7. Arthritis Induces Early Bone High Turnover, Structural Degradation and Mechanical Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Bruno; Cascão, Rita; Vale, Ana Catarina; Cavaleiro, Inês; Vaz, Maria Fátima; Brito, José Américo Almeida; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2015-01-01

    Background We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months) inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone. Methods Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers. Results AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively) and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046). Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002) and bone volume (p = 0.0003) and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009) in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively) in the arthritic group. Conclusions We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness. PMID:25617902

  8. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brady, Robert T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Hoey, David A

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24 hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. PMID:25721667

  9. Free bone graft reconstruction of irradiated facial tissue: Experimental effects of basic fibroblast growth factor stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, B.L.; Connolly, D.T.; Winkelmann, T.; Sadove, A.M.; Heuvelman, D.; Feder, J. )

    1991-07-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the potential utility of basic fibroblast growth factor in the induction of angiogenesis and osseous healing in bone previously exposed to high doses of irradiation. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were evaluated by introducing basic fibroblast growth factor into irradiated mandibular resection sites either prior to or simultaneous with reconstruction by corticocancellous autografts harvested from the ilium. The fate of the free bone grafts was then evaluated at 90 days postoperatively by microangiographic, histologic, and fluorochrome bone-labeling techniques. Sequestration, necrosis, and failure to heal to recipient osseous margins was observed both clinically and histologically in all nontreated irradiated graft sites as well as those receiving simultaneous angiogenic stimulation at the time of graft placement. No fluorescent activity was seen in these graft groups. In the recipient sites pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor prior to placement of the graft, healing and reestablishment of mandibular contour occurred in nearly 50 percent of the animals. Active bone formation was evident at cortical margins adjacent to the recipient sites but was absent in the more central cancellous regions of the grafts.

  10. Insight into characteristic features of cartilage growth plate as a physiological template for bone formation.

    PubMed

    Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Kosowska, Anna; Hutmacher, Dietmar; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Moskalewski, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    Cartilage growth plate is a natural template from both a biochemical and structural point of view and allows osteoblasts migration, proliferation, differentiation, and ultimately, bone formation. It is evolutionary adjusted to support bone formation within strictly defined spatial framework serving as an interesting model for studying more mechanistically aspects which might be important for specific scaffold-based bone tissue engineering strategies. Surprisingly little is known about the geometric features of this physiological template. To this purpose we analyzed cartilage growth plate from rat, mouse, and human costochondral junction and tibia. High-resolution X-ray tomography showed that pore size in the zone of provisional calcification was within 20 to 30 µm range and in the metaphysis in 35 to 50 µm range. The thickness of calcified longitudinal septa in zone of provisional calcification was 3 to 5 µm and in metaphysis 7 to 12 µm. The porosity varied from 84 to 88%. We observed that numerical values characteristic for cartilage growth plate were not significantly influenced by the species of origin, by the type of bone, or by age. In addition, electron microscopy of calcified fragments of longitudinal septa showed that the calcium aggregates were globular, connected with each other, and formed a shell covering cartilage matrix located within longitudinal septa. PMID:26453900

  11. Chondrocytes transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in endochondral bone during development, postnatal growth and fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; von der Mark, Klaus; Henry, Stephen; Norton, William; Adams, Henry; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    One of the crucial steps in endochondral bone formation is the replacement of a cartilage matrix produced by chondrocytes with bone trabeculae made by osteoblasts. However, the precise sources of osteoblasts responsible for trabecular bone formation have not been fully defined. To investigate whether cells derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes contribute to the osteoblast pool in trabecular bones, we genetically labeled either hypertrophic chondrocytes by Col10a1-Cre or chondrocytes by tamoxifen-induced Agc1-CreERT2 using EGFP, LacZ or Tomato expression. Both Cre drivers were specifically active in chondrocytic cells and not in perichondrium, in periosteum or in any of the osteoblast lineage cells. These in vivo experiments allowed us to follow the fate of cells labeled in Col10a1-Cre or Agc1-CreERT2 -expressing chondrocytes. After the labeling of chondrocytes, both during prenatal development and after birth, abundant labeled non-chondrocytic cells were present in the primary spongiosa. These cells were distributed throughout trabeculae surfaces and later were present in the endosteum, and embedded within the bone matrix. Co-expression studies using osteoblast markers indicated that a proportion of the non-chondrocytic cells derived from chondrocytes labeled by Col10a1-Cre or by Agc1-CreERT2 were functional osteoblasts. Hence, our results show that both chondrocytes prior to initial ossification and growth plate chondrocytes before or after birth have the capacity to undergo transdifferentiation to become osteoblasts. The osteoblasts derived from Col10a1-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes represent about sixty percent of all mature osteoblasts in endochondral bones of one month old mice. A similar process of chondrocyte to osteoblast transdifferentiation was involved during bone fracture healing in adult mice. Thus, in addition to cells in the periosteum chondrocytes represent a major source of osteoblasts contributing to endochondral bone formation in vivo

  12. Chondrocytes Transdifferentiate into Osteoblasts in Endochondral Bone during Development, Postnatal Growth and Fracture Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; von der Mark, Klaus; Henry, Stephen; Norton, William; Adams, Henry; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in endochondral bone formation is the replacement of a cartilage matrix produced by chondrocytes with bone trabeculae made by osteoblasts. However, the precise sources of osteoblasts responsible for trabecular bone formation have not been fully defined. To investigate whether cells derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes contribute to the osteoblast pool in trabecular bones, we genetically labeled either hypertrophic chondrocytes by Col10a1-Cre or chondrocytes by tamoxifen-induced Agc1-CreERT2 using EGFP, LacZ or Tomato expression. Both Cre drivers were specifically active in chondrocytic cells and not in perichondrium, in periosteum or in any of the osteoblast lineage cells. These in vivo experiments allowed us to follow the fate of cells labeled in Col10a1-Cre or Agc1-CreERT2 -expressing chondrocytes. After the labeling of chondrocytes, both during prenatal development and after birth, abundant labeled non-chondrocytic cells were present in the primary spongiosa. These cells were distributed throughout trabeculae surfaces and later were present in the endosteum, and embedded within the bone matrix. Co-expression studies using osteoblast markers indicated that a proportion of the non-chondrocytic cells derived from chondrocytes labeled by Col10a1-Cre or by Agc1-CreERT2 were functional osteoblasts. Hence, our results show that both chondrocytes prior to initial ossification and growth plate chondrocytes before or after birth have the capacity to undergo transdifferentiation to become osteoblasts. The osteoblasts derived from Col10a1-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes represent about sixty percent of all mature osteoblasts in endochondral bones of one month old mice. A similar process of chondrocyte to osteoblast transdifferentiation was involved during bone fracture healing in adult mice. Thus, in addition to cells in the periosteum chondrocytes represent a major source of osteoblasts contributing to endochondral bone formation in vivo

  13. Muscular development and physical activity as major determinants of femoral bone mass acquisition during growth

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Ara, I; Perez-Gomez, J; Dorado, C; Calbet, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent bone mass accrual is determined by physical activity and changes in lean, fat, and total body mass during growth. Methods: Twenty six physically active and 16 age matched control boys were followed up for three years. All subjects were prepubertal at the start of the survey (mean (SEM) age 9.4 (0.3) years). The weekly physical activity of the active boys included compulsory physical education sessions (80–90 minutes a week), three hours a week of extracurricular sports participation, and occasional sports competitions at weekends. The physical activity of the control group was limited to the compulsory physical education curriculum. Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (BMD), lean mass, and fat mass were measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. Results: The effect of sports participation on femoral bone mass accrual was remarkable. Femoral BMC and BMD increased twice as much in the active group as in the controls over the three year period (p<0.05). The greatest correlation was found between the increment in femoral bone mass and the increment in lean mass (BMC r = 0.67 and BMD r = 0.69, both p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed enhancement in lean mass as the best predictor of the increment in femoral bone BMC (R = 0.65) and BMD (R = 0.69). Conclusions: Long term sports participation during early adolescence results in greater accrual of bone mass. Enhancement of lean mass seems to be the best predictor of this bone mass accumulation. However, for a given muscle mass, a greater level of physical activity is associated with greater bone mass and density in peripubertal boys. PMID:16118297

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  15. Imaging-Based Methods for Non-invasive Assessment of Bone Properties Influenced by Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    Lorbergs, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the most common in vivo imaging-based research tools used to assess bone properties that are influenced by mechanical loading associated with exercise, habitual physical activity, or disease states. Bone is a complex metabolically active tissue that adapts to changes in mechanical loading by altering the amount and spatial organization of mineral. Method: Using a narrative review design, the authors provide an overview of bone biology and biomechanics to emphasize the importance of bone size scale, porosity, and degree of mineralization when interpreting measures acquired using quantitative ultrasound (QUS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and finite element analysis (FEA). For each imaging modality, basic imaging principles, typical outcome measures associated with changes in mechanical loading, and salient features for physiotherapists are described. Main Results: While each imaging modality has strengths and limitations, currently CT-based methods are best suited for determining the effects of mechanical loading on bone properties—particularly in the peripheral skeleton. Conclusions: Regardless of the imaging technology used, the physiotherapist must carefully consider the assumptions of the imaging-based method, the clinical context, the nature of the change in mechanical loading, and the expected time course for change in bone properties. PMID:23449969

  16. Bone and skeletal muscle: Key players in mechanotransduction and potential overlapping mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A; Robling, Alexander G

    2015-11-01

    The development and maintenance of skeletal muscle and bone mass is critical for movement, health and issues associated with the quality of life. Skeletal muscle and bone mass are regulated by a variety of factors that include changes in mechanical loading. Moreover, bone mass is, in large part, regulated by muscle-derived mechanical forces and thus by changes in muscle mass/strength. A thorough understanding of the cellular mechanism(s) responsible for mechanotransduction in bone and skeletal muscle is essential for the development of effective exercise and pharmaceutical strategies aimed at increasing, and/or preventing the loss of, mass in these tissues. Thus, in this review we will attempt to summarize the current evidence for the major molecular mechanisms involved in mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle and bone. By examining the differences and similarities in mechanotransduction between these two tissues, it is hoped that this review will stimulate new insights and ideas for future research and promote collaboration between bone and muscle biologists.(1). PMID:26453495

  17. Quantification of various growth factors in different demineralized bone matrix preparations.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, B; Kadow-Romacker, A; Haas, N P; Schmidmaier, G

    2007-05-01

    Besides autografts, allografts, and synthetic materials, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is used for bone defect filling and treatment of non-unions. Different DBM formulations are introduced in clinic since years. However, little is known about the presents and quantities of growth factors in DBM. Aim of the present study was the quantification of eight growth factors important for bone healing in three different "off the shelf" DBM formulations, which are already in human use: DBX putty, Grafton DBM putty, and AlloMatrix putty. All three DBM formulations are produced from human donor tissue but they differ in the substitutes added. From each of the three products 10 different lots were analyzed. Protein was extracted from the samples with Guanidine HCL/EDTA method and human ELISA kits were used for growth factor quantification. Differences between the three different products were seen in total protein contend and the absolute growth factor values but also a large variability between the different lots was found. The order of the growth factors, however, is almost comparable between the materials. In the three investigated materials FGF basic and BMP-4 were not detectable in any analyzed sample. BMP-2 revealed the highest concentration extractable from the samples with approximately 3.6 microg/g tissue without a significant difference between the three DBM formulations. In DBX putty significantly more TGF-beta1 and FGFa were measurable compared to the two other DBMs. IGF-I revealed the significantly highest value in the AlloMatrix and PDGF in Grafton. No differences were accessed for VEGF. Due to the differences in the growth factor concentration between the individual samples, independently from the product formulation, further analyzes are required to optimize the clinical outcome of the used demineralized bone matrix. PMID:17117475

  18. Physical and mechanical characterization of a porous cement for metaphyseal bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Cimatti, Bruno; Engel, Edgard Eduard; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Frighetto, Paulo Donato; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Macroporous cement with mechanical properties similar to cancellous bone may improve the treatment of large bone defects in relation to solid acrylic cement. The aim of this study was to compare physical and mechanical characteristics of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based porous cement with cancellous bone. METHODS: Compressive strength and pore size, interconnectivity, and distribution of cylindrical porous PMMA cement samples containing 10% (G1), 20% (G2) or 30% (G3) effervescent components were analyzed. Results were compared to bovine cancellous bone (G4) and solid PMMA (G5) samples. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of all experimental samples (G1 - G3) revealed a random distribution and a wide size variation of pores ranging from 50 µm to 3 mm. Micro-CT showed that G2 have high porosity and lower interconnectivity of pores. No significant differences in yield strength and Young's modulus were observed among G1, G2 and G3. G4 samples were slightly stronger and less elastic than the other groups. Solid PMMA is extremely strong and inelastic. CONCLUSIONS: PMMA based porous cement met the expected characteristics. High porosity with large and interconnected pores may allow for bone ingrowth. Strength and elasticity similar to cancellous bone may enhance mechanical stimuli to bone remodeling. Observational Descriptive Study. PMID:26327801

  19. Relationship between insulin-like growth factor I, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and proresorptive cytokines and bone density in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Binello, E.; LeBoff, M. S.; Wohl, M. E.; Rosen, C. J.; Colin, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are known to be at risk for early osteoporosis, and the mechanisms that mediate bone loss are still being delineated. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate if a correlation exists in these patients between skeletal measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two anabolic factors, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and proresorptive factors such as the cytokines interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6. Methods We studied 32 outpatients (18 females; mean age: 26.2 ± 7.9 years) at a tertiary care medical center. The subjects had venous samples obtained, underwent anthropometric and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, and completed a health survey. Serum IGF-I concentrations were below the age-adjusted mean in 78% of the participants, and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were low in 72%. Serum concentrations of all cytokines were on the low side of normal; nonetheless, there was a modest inverse correlation between IL-1β and BMD at all sites. Results In univariate analyses, IGF-I and DHEAS were significant correlates of BMD or bone mineral content. In final multivariate models controlling for anthropometric and other variables of relevance to bone density, only IGF-I was identified as a significant independent skeletal predictor. While alterations in DHEAS, IGF-I, and specific cytokines may contribute to skeletal deficits in patients with CF, of these factors a low IGF-I concentration appears to be most strongly correlated with BMD. Conclusions These findings may have therapeutic implications for enhancing bone density in these patients. PMID:16541207

  20. Cabozantinib inhibits prostate cancer growth and prevents tumor-induced bone lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Karatsinides, Andreas; Keller, Jill M.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Aftab, Dana T.; Schimmoller, Frauke; Keller, Evan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cabozantinib, an orally available multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), induces resolution of bone scan lesions in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer bone metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cabozantinib elicited a direct anti-tumor effect, an indirect effect through modulating bone, or both. Experimental Design Using human prostate cancer xenograft studies in mice we determined cabozantinib's impact on tumor growth in soft tissue and bone. In vitro studies with cabozantinib were performed using (1) prostate cancer cell lines to evaluate its impact on cell growth, invasive ability and MET and (2) osteoblast cell lines to evaluate its impact on viability and differentiation and VEGFR2. Results Cabozantinib inhibited progression of multiple prostate cancer cell lines (Ace-1,C4-2B, and LuCaP 35) in bone metastatic and soft tissue murine models of prostate cancer, except for PC-3 prostate cancer cells in which it inhibited only subcutaneous growth. Cabozantinib directly inhibited prostate cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo and inhibited cell invasion in vitro. Cabozantinib had a dose-dependent biphasic effect on osteoblast activity and inhibitory effect on osteoclast production in vitro, that was reflected in vivo. It blocked MET and VEGFR2 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells and osteoblast-like cells, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that cabozantinib has direct anti-tumor activity; and that its ability to modulate osteoblast activity may contribute to its anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:24097861

  1. Research of mechanics of the compact bone microvolume and porous ceramics under uniaxial compression

    SciTech Connect

    Kolmakova, T. V. Buyakova, S. P. Kul’kov, S. N.

    2015-11-17

    The research results of the mechanics are presented and the effective mechanical characteristics under uniaxial compression of the simulative microvolume of the compact bone are defined subject to the direction of the collagen-mineral fibers, porosity and mineral content. The experimental studies of the mechanics are performed and the effective mechanical characteristics of the produced porous zirconium oxide ceramics are defined. The recommendations are developed on the selection of the ceramic samples designed to replace the fragment of the compact bone of a definite structure and mineral content.

  2. Noninvasive Determination of Bone Mechanical Properties Using Vibration Response: A Refined Model and Validation in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, S. G.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Kiratli, B. J; Steele, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate non-invasive mechanical measurement of long bones is made difficult by the masking effect of surrounding soft tissues. Mechanical response tissue analysis (MRTA) offers a method for separating the effects of the soft tissue and bone; however, a direct validation has been lacking. A theoretical analysis of wave propagation through the compressed tissue revealed a strong mass effect dependent on the relative accelerations of the probe and bone. The previous mathematical model of the bone and overlying tissue system was reconfigured to incorporate the theoretical finding. This newer model (six-parameter) was used to interpret results using MRTA to determine bone cross-sectional bending stiffness, EI(sub MRTA). The relationship between EI(sub MRTA) and theoretical EI values for padded aluminum rods was R(sup 2) = 0.999. A biological validation followed using monkey tibias. Each bone was tested in vivo with the MRTA instrument. Postmortem, the same tibias were excised and tested to failure in three-point bending to determine EI(sub 3-PT) and maximum load. Diaphyseal bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were also made. The relationship between EI(sub 3-PT) and in vivo EI(sub MRTA) using the six-parameter model is strong (R(sup 2) = 0.947) and better than that using the older model (R(sup 2) = 0.645). EI(sub MRTA) and BMD are also highly correlated (R(sup 2) = 0.853). MRTA measurements in vivo and BMD ex vivo are both good predictors of scaled maximum strength (R(sup 2) = 0.915 and R(sup 2) = 0.894, respectively). This is the first biological validation of a non- invasive mechanical measurement of bone by comparison to actual values. The MRTA technique has potential clinical value for assessing long-bone mechanical properties.

  3. Noninvasive Determination of Bone Mechanical Properties using Vibration Response: A Refined Model and Validation in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, S. G.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Steele, C. R.; Kiratli, B. J.; Martin, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate non-invasive mechanical measurement of long bones is made difficult by the masking effect of surrounding soft tissues. Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA) offers a method for separating the effects of the soft tissue and bone; however, a direct validation has been lacking. A theoretical analysis of wave propagation through the compressed tissue revealed a strong mass effect dependent on the relative accelerations of the probe and bone. The previous mathematical model of the bone and overlying tissue system was reconfigured to incorporate the theoretical finding. This newer model (six-parameter) was used to interpret results using MRTA to determine bone cross-sectional bending stiffness, EI(sub MRTA). The relationship between EI(MRTA) and theoretical EI values for padded aluminum rods was R(exp 2) = 0.999. A biological validation followed using monkey tibias. Each bone was tested in vivo with the MRTA instrument. Postmortem, the same tibias were excised and tested to failure in three-point bending to determine EI(sub 3-PT) and maximum load. Diaphyseal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurements were also made. The relationship between E(sub 3-PT) and in vivo EI(sub MRTA) using the six-parameter model is strong (R(exp 2) = 0.947) and better than that using the older model (R(exp 2) = 0.645). EI(MRTA) and BMD are also highly correlated (R(exp 2) = 0.853). MRTA measurements in vivo and BMD ex vivo are both good predictors of scaled maximum strength (R(exp 2) = 0.915 and R(exp 2) = 0.894, respectively). This is the first biological validation of a non-invasive mechanical measurement of bone by comparison to actual values. The MRTA technique has potential clinical value for assessing long-bone mechanical properties.

  4. Quantitation of Bone Growth Rate Variability in Rats Exposed to Micro-(near zero G) and Macrogravity (2G)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromage, Timothy G.; Doty, Stephen B.; Smolyar, Igor; Holton, Emily

    1997-01-01

    Our stated primary objective is to quantify the growth rate variability of rat lamellar bone exposed to micro- (near zero G: e.g., Cosmos 1887 & 2044; SLS-1 & SLS-2) and macrogravity (2G). The primary significance of the proposed work is that an elegant method will be established that unequivocally characterizes the morphological consequences of gravitational factors on developing bone. The integrity of this objective depends upon our successful preparation of thin sections suitable for imaging individual bone lamellae, and our imaging and quantitation of growth rate variability in populations of lamellae from individual bone samples.

  5. Quantification of Bone Growth Rate Variability in Rats Exposed to Micro- (near zero G) and Macrogravity (2G)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromage, Timothy G.; Doty, Stephen B.; Smolyar, Igor; Holton, Emily

    1996-01-01

    Our stated primary objective is to quantify the growth rate variability of rat lamellar bone exposed to micro and macrogravity (2G). The primary significance of the proposed work is that an elegant method will be established that unequivocally characterizes the morphological consequences of gravitational factors on developing bone. The integrity of this objective depends upon our successful preparation of thin sections suitable for imaging individual bone lamellae, and our imaging and quantitation of growth rate variability in populations of lamellae from individual bone samples.

  6. Conception on the cell mechanisms of bone tissue loss under spase flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Oganov, Victor; Kabitskaya, Olga

    Basing on the analysis of available literature and the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morpho-functional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys, mice) to microgravity (SLS-2, Bion-11, BionM-1). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and surface osteocytes as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and to those lying on bone surfaces. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, some of the osteoblasts undergo apoptosis. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts and bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn’t occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in these remodeling loci. These cell reactions are considered as adaptive-compensatory, but they don’t result

  7. Systems biology and mechanics of growth.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mona; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to inert systems, living biological systems have the advantage to adapt to their environment through growth and evolution. This transfiguration is evident during embryonic development, when the predisposed need to grow allows form to follow function. Alterations in the equilibrium state of biological systems breed disease and mutation in response to environmental triggers. The need to characterize the growth of biological systems to better understand these phenomena has motivated the continuum theory of growth and stimulated the development of computational tools in systems biology. Biological growth in development and disease is increasingly studied using the framework of morphoelasticity. Here, we demonstrate the potential for morphoelastic simulations through examples of volume, area, and length growth, inspired by tumor expansion, chronic bronchitis, brain development, intestine formation, plant shape, and myopia. We review the systems biology of living systems in light of biochemical and optical stimuli and classify different types of growth to facilitate the design of growth models for various biological systems within this generic framework. Exploring the systems biology of growth introduces a new venue to control and manipulate embryonic development, disease progression, and clinical intervention. PMID:26352286

  8. 5. Accelerated Fracture Healing Targeting Periosteal Cells: Possibility of Combined Therapy of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS), Bone Graft, and Growth Factor (bFGF).

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kentaro; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Koji; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Inoue, Gen; Takaso, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the mechanism of fracture healing, and the effect of LIPUS, bone graft and growth factor on accelerating fracture healing. We present here the results of our research. To examine callus formation cells in fracture healing, we made marrow GFP chimera mice and a fracture model of marrow mesenchymal stem cell GFP chimera mice. It was demonstrated that periosteal cells were essential for callus formation. We focused on periosteal cells and examined the effect of LIPUS. In an in vitro experiment using a cultured part of the femur, LIPUS promoted ossification of the periosteal tissue. Further, LIPUS accelerated VEGF expression in the experiment using the femoral fracture model of mice. From these results, it was suggested that activation of periosteal cells might play a role in the fracture healing mechanism of LIPUS. Next, we discussed the possibility of combined therapy of LIPUS, bone graft and growth factor. Therapy involving the topical administration of bFGF using a controlled release system and bone graft could promote callus formation. In addition, LIPUS was able to promote membranaceous ossification after the bone graft. It was suggested that combined therapy of LIPUS, bone graft and bFGF could be a new option for treating fractures. PMID:27441766

  9. Plumbagin attenuates cancer cell growth and osteoclast formation in the bone microenvironment of mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Wang, Ting-yu; Fan, Qi-ming; Du, Lin; Xu, Jia-ke; Zhai, Zan-jing; Li, Hao-wei; Tang, Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human breast cancer cell growth and the cancer cell-induced osteolysis in the bone microenvironment of mice. Methods: Human breast cancer cell subline MDA-MB-231SA with the ability to spread and grow in the bone was tested. The cell proliferation was determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V/PI double-labeled flow cytometry. Red fluorescent protein-labeled MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were injected into the right tibia of female BALB/c-nu/nu mice. Three days after the inoculation, the mice were injected with plumbagin (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg, ip) 5 times per week for 7 weeks. The growth of the tumor cells was monitored using an in vivo imaging system. After the mice were sacrificed, the hind limbs were removed for radiographic and histological analyses. Results: Plumbagin (2.5–20 μmol/L) concentration-dependently inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231SA cells in vitro (the IC50 value of inhibition of cell viability was 14.7 μmol/L). Administration of plumbagin to breast cancer bearing mice delayed the tumor growth by 2–3 weeks and reduced the tumor volume by 44%–74%. The in vivo imaging study showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited MDA-MB-231SArfp cell growth in bone microenvironment. Furthermore, X-ray images and micro-CT study demonstrated that plumbagin reduced bone erosion area and prevented a decrease in bone tissue volume. Histological studies showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited the breast cancer cell growth, enhanced the cell apoptosis and reduced the number of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts. Conclusion: Plumbagin inhibits the cell growth and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in mice bone microenvironment, leading to significant reduction in osteolytic lesions caused by the tumor cells. PMID:24384612

  10. Changes in Mechanical Properties of Rat Bones under Simulated Effects of Microgravity and Radiation†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Azida H.; Perkins, Otis; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Dobretsov, Maxim; Chowdhury, Parimal

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in elasticity and lattice structure in leg bone of rats which were: 1) under Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for 2 weeks and 2) exposed to a total radiation of 10 Grays in 10 days. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 2 weeks and the leg bones were surgically removed, cleaned and fixed with a buffered solution. The mechanical strength of the bone (elastic modulus) was determined from measurement of bending of a bone when under an applied force. Two methodologies were used: i) a 3-point bending technique and ii) classical bending where bending is accomplished keeping one end fixed. Three point bending method used a captive actuator controlled by a programmable IDEA drive. This allowed incremental steps of 0.047 mm for which the force is measured. The data is used to calculate the stress and the strain. In the second method a mirror attached to the free end of the bone allowed a reflected laser beam spot to be tracked. This provided the displacement measurement as stress levels changed. Analysis of stress vs. strain graph together with solution of Euler-Bernoulli equation for a cantilever beam allowed determination of the elastic modulus of the leg bone for (i) control samples, (ii) HLS samples and (iii) HLS samples with radiation effects. To ascertain changes in the bone lattice structure, the bones were cross-sectioned and imaged with a 20 keV beam of electrons in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). A backscattered detector and a secondary electron detector in the SEM provided the images from well-defined parts of the leg bones. Elemental compositions in combination with mechanical properties (elastic modulus and lattice structure) changes indicated weakening of the bones under space-like conditions of microgravity and radiation.

  11. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Bone Biology and Osteoporosis: Can They Drive Therapeutic Choices?

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial disorder of the skeleton. Genetic factors are important in determining peak bone mass and structure, as well as the predisposition to bone deterioration and fragility fractures. Nonetheless, genetic factors alone are not sufficient to explain osteoporosis development and fragility fracture occurrence. Indeed, epigenetic factors, representing a link between individual genetic aspects and environmental influences, are also strongly suspected to be involved in bone biology and osteoporosis. Recently, alterations in epigenetic mechanisms and their activity have been associated with aging. Also, bone metabolism has been demonstrated to be under the control of epigenetic mechanisms. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), the master transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, has been shown to be regulated by histone deacetylases and microRNAs (miRNAs). Some miRNAs were also proven to have key roles in the regulation of Wnt signalling in osteoblastogenesis, and to be important for the positive or negative regulation of both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Exogenous and environmental stimuli, influencing the functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of bone metabolism, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis and other bone disorders, in synergy with genetic determinants. The progressive understanding of roles of epigenetic mechanisms in normal bone metabolism and in multifactorial bone disorders will be very helpful for a better comprehension of disease pathogenesis and translation of this information into clinical practice. A deep understanding of these mechanisms could help in the future tailoring of proper individual treatments, according to precision medicine’s principles. PMID:27529237

  12. Determinants of bone marrow adiposity: the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 activity as a central mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sadie-Van Gijsen, H; Hough, F S; Ferris, W F

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of adipocytes in the bone marrow is a normal physiological phenomenon, the role of these cells in bone homeostasis and during pathological states has not yet been fully delineated. As osteoblasts and adipocytes originate from a common progenitor, with an inverse relationship existing between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis, bone marrow adiposity often negatively correlates with osteoblast number and bone mineral density. Bone adiposity can be affected by several physiological and pathophysiological factors, with abnormal, elevated marrow fat resulting in a pathological state. This review focuses on the regulation of bone adiposity by physiological factors, including aging, mechanical loading and growth factor expression, as well as the pathophysiological factors, including diseases such as anorexia nervosa and dyslipidemia, and pharmacological agents such as thiazolidinediones and statins. Although these factors regulate bone marrow adiposity via a plethora of different intracellular signaling pathways, these diverse pathways often converge on the modulation of the expression and/or activity of the pro-adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2, suggesting that any factor that affects PPAR-γ2 may have an impact on the fat content of bone. PMID:23800517

  13. Extracting accurate strain measurements in bone mechanics: A critical review of current methods.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis related fractures are a social burden that advocates for more accurate fracture prediction methods. Mechanistic methods, e.g. finite element models, have been proposed as a tool to better predict bone mechanical behaviour and strength. However, there is little consensus about the optimal constitutive law to describe bone as a material. Extracting reliable and relevant strain data from experimental tests is of fundamental importance to better understand bone mechanical properties, and to validate numerical models. Several techniques have been used to measure strain in experimental mechanics, with substantial differences in terms of accuracy, precision, time- and length-scale. Each technique presents upsides and downsides that must be carefully evaluated when designing the experiment. Moreover, additional complexities are often encountered when applying such strain measurement techniques to bone, due to its complex composite structure. This review of literature examined the four most commonly adopted methods for strain measurements (strain gauges, fibre Bragg grating sensors, digital image correlation, and digital volume correlation), with a focus on studies with bone as a substrate material, at the organ and tissue level. For each of them the working principles, a summary of the main applications to bone mechanics at the organ- and tissue-level, and a list of pros and cons are provided. PMID:26099201

  14. In Vitro Fracture of Human Cortical Bone: Local Fracture Criteria and Toughening Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nalla, R; Stolken, J; Kinney, J; Ritchie, R

    2004-08-18

    A micro-mechanistic understanding of bone fracture that encompasses how cracks interact with the underlying microstructure and defines their local failure mode is lacking, despite extensive research on the response of bone to a variety of factors like aging, loading, and/or disease. Micro-mechanical models for fracture incorporating such local failure criteria have been widely developed for metallic and ceramic materials systems; however, few such deliberations have been undertaken for the fracture of bone. In fact, although the fracture event in mineralized tissues such as bone is commonly believed to be locally strain controlled, until recently there has been little experimental evidence to support this widely held belief. In the present study, a series of in vitro experiments involving a double-notch bend test geometry are performed in order to shed further light on the nature of the local cracking events that precede catastrophic fracture in bone and to define their relationship to the microstructure. Specifically, crack-microstructure interactions are examined to determine the salient toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone and to characterize how these may affect the anisotropy in fracture properties. Based on preliminary micro-mechanical models of these processes, in particular crack deflection and uncracked ligament bridging, the relative importance of these toughening mechanisms is established.

  15. Validation of Long Bone Mechanical Properties from Densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, R.; Katz, B.; Cleek, T.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether cross-sectional areal properties, calculated from densitometry, correlate to the true flexural properties. Right and left male embalmed tibiae were used in the study. Prior to scanning, the proximal end of each tibia was potted in a fixture with registration pins, flushed thoroughly with water under pressure to remove trapped air, and then placed in a constant thickness water bath attached to a precision indexer. Two sets of three scans of the entire tibia were taken with an Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer at rotations of 0, 45, and 90 degrees about the tibia long axis. An aluminum step phantom and a bone step phantom, machined from bovine cortical bone, were also in the bath and scanned separately. Pixel attenuation data from the two sets of scans were averaged to reduce noise. Pixel data from the high energy beam were then converted to equivalent thicknesses using calibration equations. Cross-sectional areal properties (centroid, principal area moments and principal angle) along the length were computed from the three registered scans using methods developed in our laboratory. Flexural rigidities. Four strain gages were bonded around the circumference of each of 5 cross-sections encompassing the entire diaphysis. A known transverse load was then applied to the distal end and the bone was rotated 360 degrees in eight increments of 45 degrees each. Strains from the eight orientations were analyzed along with the known applied bending moments at each section to compute section centroids, curvatures, principal flexural rigidities and principal angle. Reference axes between the two methods were maintained within +/- 0.5 degrees using an electronic inclinometer. Principal angles (flexural - areal) differed by -2.0 +/- 4.0 degrees, and 1.0 +/- 2.5 degrees for the right and left tibia, respectively. Section principal flexural rigidities were highly correlated to principal areal moments (right: r(sup 2)= 0.997; left: r

  16. Simulated weightlessness and synbiotic diet effects on rat bone mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarper, Hüseyin; Blanton, Cynthia; DePalma, Jude; Melnykov, Igor V.; Gabaldón, Annette M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports results on exposure to simulated weightlessness that leads to a rapid decrease in bone mineral density known as spaceflight osteopenia by evaluating the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with synbiotics to counteract the effects of skeletal unloading. Forty adult male rats were studied under four different conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of diet (synbiotic and control) and weight condition (unloaded and control). Hindlimb unloading was performed at all times for 14 days followed by 14 days of recovery (reambulation). The synbiotic diet contained probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis lactis and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. This paper also reports on the development of a desktop three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of bones from rats subjected to simulated weightlessness. The importance of quantifying bone resistance to breakage is critical when examining the effectiveness of interventions against osteopenia resulting from skeletal unloading, such as astronauts experience, disuse or disease. Mechanical strength indices provide information beyond measures of bone density and microarchitecture that enhance the overall assessment of a treatment's potency. In this study we used a newly constructed three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of femur and tibia bones from hindlimb-unloaded rats fed an experimental synbiotic diet enriched with probiotics and fermentable fiber. Two calculated outputs for each sample were Young's modulus of elasticity and fracture stress. Bone major elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous) were quantified using ICP-MS analysis. Hindlimb unloading was associated with a significant loss of strength in the femur, and with significant reductions in major bone elements. The synbiotic diet did not protect against these unloading effects. Tibia strength and major elements were not reduced by hindlimb unloading, as was

  17. Stochastic Interdigitation as a Toughening Mechanism at the Interface between Tendon and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yizhong; Birman, Victor; Demyier-Black, Alix; Schwartz, Andrea G.; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    Reattachment and healing of tendon to bone poses a persistent clinical challenge and often results in poor outcomes, in part because the mechanisms that imbue the uninjured tendon-to-bone attachment with toughness are not known. One feature of typical tendon-to-bone surgical repairs is direct attachment of tendon to smooth bone. The native tendon-to-bone attachment, however, presents a rough mineralized interface that might serve an important role in stress transfer between tendon and bone. In this study, we examined the effects of interfacial roughness and interdigital stochasticity on the strength and toughness of a bimaterial interface. Closed form linear approximations of the amplification of stresses at the rough interface were derived and applied in a two-dimensional unit-cell model. Results demonstrated that roughness may serve to increase the toughness of the tendon-to-bone insertion site at the expense of its strength. Results further suggested that the natural tendon-to-bone attachment presents roughness for which the gain in toughness outweighs the loss in strength. More generally, our results suggest a pathway for stochasticity to improve surgical reattachment strategies and structural engineering attachments. PMID:25606690

  18. Controlling Stem Cell-mediated Bone Regeneration through Tailored Mechanical Properties of Collagen Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongli; Zhu, Feng; Hu, Qingang; Krebsbach, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play an essential role in cell fate determination. To study the role of mechanical properties of ECM in stem cell-mediated bone regeneration, we used a 3D in vivo ossicle model that recapitulates endochondral bone formation. Three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds with distinct stiffness were developed using 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) mediated zero-length crosslinking. The mechanical strength of the scaffolds was significantly increased by EDC treatment, while the microstructure of the scaffold was preserved. Cell behavior on the scaffolds with different mechanical properties was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. EDC-treated scaffolds promoted early chondrogenic differentiation, while it promoted both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation at later time points. Both micro-computed tomography and histologic data demonstrated that EDC-treatment significantly increased trabecular bone formation by transplanted cells transduced with AdBMP. Moreover, significantly increased chondrogenesis was observed in the EDC-treated scaffolds. Based on both in vitro and in vivo data, we conclude that the high mechanical strength of 3D scaffolds promoted stem cell mediated bone regeneration by promoting endochondral ossification. These data suggest a new method for harnessing stem cells for bone regeneration in vivo by tailoring the mechanical properties of 3D scaffolds. PMID:24211076

  19. Progress in the research on the mechanism of bone metastasis in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qinqin; Xu, Zhenye; Wang, Lifang; Ruan, Mingyu; Jin, Guiyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the predominant cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The bone metastasis of lung cancer brings great suffering to the patient. Previous advances have provided insights into the mechanism of bone metastasis. Previous research has investigated lung cancer stem cells and three steps were determined for the lung cancer cells to metastasize to the bone: i) Escaping from the primary tumor; ii) moving in the circulation; iii) colonizing in the bone. Key molecules are involved in each of these process. Although there is a close association and similarity, dynamic microenvironments affect these processes. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK)/RANKL axis serves a vital role in the regulation of the generation and activation of osteoclasts during the osteolytic lesion. However, the specific molecules for the lung cancer cells to metastasize to the bone require further research and exploration. The present study aimed to investigate the relative molecular mechanisms of bone metastasis in lung cancer in recent years, providing a general understanding about the features of lung cancer preferences to bone, and discussing other things that require investigation. PMID:27446555

  20. Intermittent PTH administration and mechanical loading are anabolic for periprosthetic cancellous bone

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Matthew J.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Yang, Xu; Sutherland, James P.; Stoner, Kirsten; Nguyen, Joseph; Fahlgren, Anna; Ross, F. Patrick; van der Meulen, Marjolein C. H.; Bostrom, Mathias P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the individual and combined effects on periprosthetic cancellous bone of intermittent PTH (iPTH) and mechanical loading at the cellular, molecular, and tissue levels. Porous titanium implants were inserted bilaterally on the cancellous bone of adult rabbits beneath a loading device attached to the distal lateral femur. The left femur received a sham loading device. The right femur was loaded daily, and half of the rabbits received daily PTH. Periprosthetic bone was evaluated up to 28 days for gene expression, histology, and µCT analysis. Loading and iPTH increased bone mass by a combination of two mechanisms: 1) altering cell populations in a pro-osteoblastic/anti-adipocytic direction, and 2) controlling bone turnover by modulating the RANKL-OPG ratio. At the tissue level, BV/TV increased with both loading (+53%, p<0.05) and iPTH (+54%, p<0.05). Combined treatment showed only small additional effects at the cellular and molecular levels that corresponded to a small additive effect on bone volume (+13% compared to iPTH alone, p>0.05). This study suggests that iPTH and loading are potential therapies for enhancing periprosthetic bone formation. The elucidation of the cellular and molecular response may help further enhance the combined therapy and related targeted treatment strategies. PMID:25408434

  1. Electron and mechanical properties of bone during heating, evaluated by exoelectron emission and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dekhtyar, Y; Gamza, A; Tatarinov, A; Jansons, H

    1995-07-01

    Exoelectron spectroscopy and ultrasound velocity (USV) measurements have been applied to analyse both the electron and mechanical behaviour of compact bone tissue and its main components--collagen and hydroxyapatite (HAP)--in the temperature range 20-80 degrees C. The special exoelectron method with additional IR illumination has been pioneered for the above objective. Thermally induced variations of the electron structure of bone tissue and HAP were manifested at 55 degrees C, but in collagen they were near 75 degrees C. The greatest decrease in USV was at 35-65 degrees C in collagen and at 55-70 degrees C in bone. No changes of USV in HAP were revealed. The coincidence of temperatures of the exoemission maxima and of the USV most expressed gradient in fresh bone and collagen proves the correlation between electron and mechanical behaviour during heating, connected with the partial denaturation of collagen. PMID:8527602

  2. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. Jayed; Rahman, M. Moshiur; Alam, Morshed

    2016-07-01

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  3. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  4. PTHrP regulates the modeling of cortical bone surfaces at fibrous insertion sites during growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; VanHouten, Joshua N; Nasiri, Ali R; Johnson, Randy L; Broadus, Arthur E

    2013-03-01

    The sites that receive ligament and tendon insertions (entheses) on the cortical surfaces of long bones are poorly understood, particularly regarding modeling and regulation. Entheses are classified as either fibrocartilaginous or fibrous based on their structures. Fibrous entheses typically insert into the metaphysis or diaphysis of a long bone, bear a periosteal component, and are modeled during long-bone growth. This modeling forms a root system by which the insertions attach to the cortical surface. In the case of the medial collateral ligament, modeling drives actual migration of the ligament along the cortical surface in order to accommodate linear growth, whereas in other sites modeling may excavate a deep cortical root system (eg, the teres major insertion) or a shallow root system with a large footprint (eg, the latissimus dorsi insertion). We report here that conditionally deleting parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in fibrous entheses via Scleraxis-Cre targeting causes modeling to fail in these three iterations of osteoclast-driven enthesis excavation or migration. These iterations appear to represent formes frustes of a common modeling strategy, presumably differing from each other as a consequence of differences in biomechanical control. In sites in which PTHrP is not induced, either physiologically or because of conditional deletion, modeling does not take place and fibrocartilage is induced. These findings represent the initial genetic evidence that PTHrP regulates periosteal/intramembranous bone cell activity on cortical bone surfaces and indicate that PTHrP serves as a load-induced modeling tool in fibrous insertion sites during linear growth. PMID:23109045

  5. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Fujitani, W.; Ishimoto, T.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-Kα radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  6. Mesenchyme-specific overexpression of nucleolar protein 66 in mice inhibits skeletal growth and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Zhang, Liping; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Krahe, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that nucleolar protein 66 (NO66), the Jumonji C-domain-containing histone demethylase for methylated histone H3K4 and H3K36 (H3K36me), negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro by inhibiting the activity of transcription factor osterix (Osx). However, whether NO66 affects mammalian skeletogenesis in vivo is not yet known. Here, we generated transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing a flag-tagged NO66 transgene driven by the Prx1 (paired related homeobox 1) promoter. We found that NO66 overexpression in Prx1-expressing mesenchymal cells inhibited skeletal growth and bone formation. The inhibitory phenotype was associated with >50% decreases in chondrocyte/osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, we found that in bones of NO66-TG mice, expression of Igf1, Igf1 receptor (Igf1r), runt-related transcription factor 2, and Osx was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). Consistent with these results, we observed >50% reduction in levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and H3K36me3 in bones of NO66-TG mice, suggesting an inverse correlation between NO66 histone demethylase and the activity of IGF1R/Akt signaling. This correlation was further confirmed by in vitro assays of C2C12 cells with NO66 overexpression. We propose that the decrease in the IGF1R/Akt signaling pathway in mice with mesenchymal overexpression of NO66 may contribute in part to the inhibition of skeletal growth and bone formation.—Chen, Q., Zhang, L., de Crombrugghe, B., Krahe, R. Mesenchyme-specific overexpression of nucleolar protein 66 in mice inhibits skeletal growth and bone formation. PMID:25746793

  7. Statistical mechanics model of angiogenic tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Lipowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We examine a lattice model of tumor growth where the survival of tumor cells depends on the supplied nutrients. When such a supply is random, the extinction of tumors belongs to the directed percolation universality class. However, when the supply is correlated with the distribution of tumor cells, which as we suggest might mimic the angiogenic growth, the extinction shows different critical behavior. Such a correlation affects also the morphology of the growing tumors and drastically raises tumor-survival probability. PMID:22400505

  8. Fatigue creep damage at the cement-bone interface: an experimental and a micro-mechanical finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface under tensile fatigue loading using finite element analysis (FEA) and to understand the underlying mechanisms that play a role in the fatigue behavior of this interface. Laboratory cement-bone specimens were subjected to a tensile fatigue load, while local displacements and crack growth on the specimen's surface were monitored. FEA models were created from these specimens based upon micro-computed tomography data. To accurately model interfacial gaps at the interface between the bone and cement, a custom-written erosion algorithm was applied to the bone model. A fatigue load was simulated in the FEA models while monitoring the local displacements and crack propagation. The results showed the FEA models were able to capture the general experimental creep damage behavior and creep stages of the interface. Consistent with the experiments, the majority of the deformation took place at the contact interface. Additionally, the FEA models predicted fatigue crack patterns similar to experimental findings. Experimental surface cracks correlated moderately with FEA surface cracks (r2=0.43), but did not correlate with the simulated crack volume fraction (r2=0.06). Although there was no relationship between experimental surface cracks and experimental creep damage displacement (r2=0.07), there was a strong relationship between the FEA crack volume fraction and the FEA creep damage displacement (r2=0.76). This study shows the additional value of FEA of the cement-bone interface relative to experimental studies and can therefore be used to optimize its mechanical properties. PMID:19682690

  9. Toward smart implant synthesis: bonding bioceramics of different resorbability to match bone growth rates.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, Rafael; Lusquiños, Fernando; Del Val, Jesús; Quintero, Félix; Riveiro, Antonio; Boutinguiza, Mohamed; Jones, Julian R; Hill, Robert G; Pou, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstructive surgery requires a bioactive bone implant capable to provide a gradual resorbability and to adjust to the kinetics of new bone formation during healing. Biomaterials made of calcium phosphate or bioactive glasses are currently available, mainly as bone defect fillers, but it is still required a versatile processing technique to fabricate composition-gradient bioceramics for application as controlled resorption implants. Here it is reported the application of rapid prototyping based on laser cladding to produce three-dimensional bioceramic implants comprising of a calcium phosphate inner core, with moderate in vitro degradation at physiological pH, surrounded by a bioactive glass outer layer of higher degradability. Each component of the implant is validated in terms of chemical and physical properties, and absence of toxicity. Pre-osteoblastic cell adhesion and proliferation assays reveal the adherence and growth of new bone cells on the material. This technique affords implants with gradual-resorbability for restoration of low-load-bearing bone. PMID:26032983

  10. Toward Smart Implant Synthesis: Bonding Bioceramics of Different Resorbability to Match Bone Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Comesaña, Rafael; Lusquiños, Fernando; del Val, Jesús; Quintero, Félix; Riveiro, Antonio; Boutinguiza, Mohamed; Jones, Julian R.; Hill, Robert G.; Pou, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstructive surgery requires a bioactive bone implant capable to provide a gradual resorbability and to adjust to the kinetics of new bone formation during healing. Biomaterials made of calcium phosphate or bioactive glasses are currently available, mainly as bone defect fillers, but it is still required a versatile processing technique to fabricate composition-gradient bioceramics for application as controlled resorption implants. Here it is reported the application of rapid prototyping based on laser cladding to produce three-dimensional bioceramic implants comprising of a calcium phosphate inner core, with moderate in vitro degradation at physiological pH, surrounded by a bioactive glass outer layer of higher degradability. Each component of the implant is validated in terms of chemical and physical properties, and absence of toxicity. Pre–osteoblastic cell adhesion and proliferation assays reveal the adherence and growth of new bone cells on the material. This technique affords implants with gradual-resorbability for restoration of low-load-bearing bone. PMID:26032983

  11. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J.; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual’s past behaviour. PMID:25467113

  12. Osteoblast growth and function in porous poly epsilon -caprolactone matrices for bone repair: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ciapetti, G; Ambrosio, L; Savarino, L; Granchi, D; Cenni, E; Baldini, N; Pagani, S; Guizzardi, S; Causa, F; Giunti, A

    2003-09-01

    Current methods for the replacement of skeletal tissue involve the use of autografts, allografts and, recently, synthetic substitutes, which provide a proper amount of material to repair large bone defects. Engineered bone seems a promising approach, but a number of variables have to be set prior to any clinical application. In this study, four different poly caprolactone-based polymers (PCL) were prepared and tested in vitro using osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Differences among three-dimensional polymers include porosity, addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, and treatment with simulated body fluid. Biochemical parameters to assess cell/material interactions include viability, growth, alkaline phosphatase release, and mineralization of osteoblastic cells seeded onto three-dimensional samples, while their morphology was observed using light microscopy and SEM. Preliminary results show that the polymers, though degrading in the medium, have a positive interaction with cells, as they support cell growth and functions. In the short-term culture (3-7 days) of Saos-2 on polymers, little differences were found among PCL samples, with the presence of HA moderately improving the number of cells onto the surfaces. In the long term (3-4 weeks), it was found that the HA-added polymers obtained the best colonization by cells, and more mineral formation was observed after coating with SBF. It can be concluded that PCL is a promising material for three-dimensional scaffold for bone formation, and the presence of bone-like components improves osteoblast activity. PMID:12818554

  13. Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Honami, Tatsuki; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Okui, Tatsuo; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling have been identified in several human cancers, and increased levels of its expression appear to correlate with disease progression and metastasis. However, the role of Shh in bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas, which frequently invade the maxilla or the mandible, is still unclear. In this study we show that the use of siRNA for Shh to block SHH secreted by SAS oral squamous cell carcinoma cells suppressed the tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of subcutaneous SAS xenografts in vivo. Moreover, blockade of Shh in SAS cells decreased tumor growth and osteoclast number in a tibial metaphysis mouse model. Significantly, we clearly show that SHH stimulated osteoclast formation in a co-culture system consisting of murine bone stromal ST2 cells and murine CD11b(+) bone marrow cells. These findings suggest that Shh signaling is a potential target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction. PMID:21945071

  14. Mechanisms limiting the growth of aeolian megaripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katra, I.; Yizhaq, Hezi; Kok, Jasper F.

    2014-02-01

    Megaripples are distinguished from regular ripples by their larger size and bimodal sediment distribution. The interplay between wind, grain size, and morphology controls their development, but the exact mechanisms that limit the size of megaripples have been unclear. Using wind tunnel experiments, we found two main mechanisms that limit the height of megaripples. The first mechanism is megaripple flattening due to strong enough winds that drive the coarse grains into saltation; the second mechanism is megaripple deflation by impacts of faster saltation grains. In this latter mechanism, the coarse grains are propelled by the impacts of fine saltating grains. The occurrence of both these mechanisms depends on the grain size distribution and increases with both megaripple height and wind speed. Thus, for a given wind environment and grain size distribution, there exists a limit on the size of megaripples, which is determined by these two mechanisms.

  15. Repair mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhuzhi; Zheng, Shaoxin; Zhou, Changqing; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Tong

    2011-05-01

    The prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and resultant chronic heart failure remains extremely poor despite advances in optimal medical therapy and interventional procedures. Animal experiments and clinical trials using adult stem cell therapy following MI have shown a global improvement of myocardial function. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold promise for cardiac repair following MI, due to their multilineage, self-renewal and proliferation potential. In addition, MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in culture, and have immunoprivileged properties to the host tissue. Experimental studies and clinical trials have revealed that MSCs not only differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, but also secrete amounts of growth factors and cytokines which may mediate endogenous regeneration via activation of resident cardiac stem cells and other stem cells, as well as induce neovascularization, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, anti-remodelling and cardiac contractility in a paracrine manner. It has also been postulated that the anti-arrhythmic and cardiac nerve sprouting potential of MSCs may contribute to their beneficial effects in cardiac repair. Most molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the MSC-based therapy after MI are still unclear at present. This article reviews the potential repair mechanisms of MSCs in the setting of MI. PMID:21199333

  16. Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sevenler, Derin; Buckley, Mark R.; Kim, Grace; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long bones of growing children that is susceptible to mechanical failure as well as structural and functional disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal tibial growth plate of rats raised either on normal or vitamin D and calcium deficient diets were measured. A sinusoidal oscillating shear load was applied to small excised growth plate specimens perpendicular to the direction of growth while imaging the deformation in real time with a fast confocal microscope. Local deformations and shear strains were quantified using image correlation. The proliferative zone of the growth plate bores the majority of the shear strain and the resting, hypertrophic and calcification zones deformed less. Surprisingly, we regularly observed discontinuous deformations in the proliferative zone in both groups that resembled cell columns sliding past one another in the direction of growth. These discontinuities manifested as regions of concentrated longitudinal shear strain. Furthermore, these shear strain concentrations were spaced evenly in the proliferative zone and the spacing between them was similar across growth plate regions and across control specimens. In contrast to the healthy controls, the vitamin D deficient growth plate exhibited larger variations in the size and orientation of cellular columns in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. High strains were observed between columns, much as they were in the controls. However, the regular spacing of shear strain concentrations was not preserved, echoing the observation of decreased structural organization. PMID:23706979

  17. Combined treatment with a transforming growth factor beta inhibitor (1D11) and bortezomib improves bone architecture in a mouse model of myeloma-induced bone disease.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Merkel, Alyssa R; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Nayak, Bijaya; Rowland, Barbara; Makowski, Alexander J; Oyajobi, Babatunde O; Sterling, Julie A

    2016-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients frequently develop tumor-induced bone destruction, yet no therapy completely eliminates the tumor or fully reverses bone loss. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity often contributes to tumor-induced bone disease, and pre-clinical studies have indicated that TGF-β inhibition improves bone volume and reduces tumor growth in bone metastatic breast cancer. We hypothesized that inhibition of TGF-β signaling also reduces tumor growth, increases bone volume, and improves vertebral body strength in MM-bearing mice. We treated myeloma tumor-bearing (immunocompetent KaLwRij and immunocompromised Rag2-/-) mice with a TGF-β inhibitory (1D11) or control (13C4) antibody, with or without the anti-myeloma drug bortezomib, for 4weeks after inoculation of murine 5TGM1 MM cells. TGF-β inhibition increased trabecular bone volume, improved trabecular architecture, increased tissue mineral density of the trabeculae as assessed by ex vivo micro-computed tomography, and was associated with significantly greater vertebral body strength in biomechanical compression tests. Serum monoclonal paraprotein titers and spleen weights showed that 1D11 monotherapy did not reduce overall MM tumor burden. Combination therapy with 1D11 and bortezomib increased vertebral body strength, reduced tumor burden, and reduced cortical lesions in the femoral metaphysis, although it did not significantly improve cortical bone strength in three-point bending tests of the mid-shaft femur. Overall, our data provides rationale for evaluating inhibition of TGF-β signaling in combination with existing anti-myeloma agents as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve outcomes in patients with myeloma bone disease. PMID:27423464

  18. Enhancing the mechanical integrity of the implant-bone interface with BoneWelding technology: determination of quasi-static interfacial strength and fatigue resistance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephen J; Weber, Urs; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Mayer, Joerg

    2006-04-01

    The BoneWelding technology is an innovative bonding method, which offers new alternatives in the treatment of fractures and other degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The BoneWelding process employs ultrasonic energy to liquefy a polymeric interface between orthopaedic implants and the host bone. Polymer penetrates the pores of the surrounding bone and, following a rapid solidification, forms a strong and uniform bond between implant and bone. Biomechanical testing was performed to determine the quasi-static push-out strength and fatigue performance of 3.5-mm-diameter polymeric dowels bonded to a bone surrogate material (Sawbones solid and cellular polyurethane foam) using the BoneWelding process. Fatigue tests were conducted over 100,000 cycles of 20-100 N loading. Mechanical test results were compared with those obtained with a comparably-sized, commercial metallic fracture fixation screw. Tests in surrogate bone material of varying density demonstrated significantly superior mechanical performance of the bonded dowels in comparison to conventional bone screws (p < 0.01), with holding strengths approaching 700 N. Even in extremely porous host material, the performance of the bonded dowels was equivalent to that of the bone screws. For both cellular and solid bone analog materials, failure always occurred within the bone analog material surrounding and distant to the implant; the infiltrated interface was stronger than the surrounding bone analog material. No significant decrease in interfacial strength was observed following conditioning in a physiological saline solution for a period of 1 month prior to testing. Ultrasonically inserted implants migrated, on average, less than 20 microm over, and interfacial stiffness remained constant the full duration of fatigue testing. With further refinement, the BoneWelding technology may offer a quicker, simpler, and more effective method for achieving strong fixation and primary stability for fracture

  19. Mechanical property determination of bone through nano- and micro-indentation testing and finite element simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingzhou; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the mechanical properties of bone is important for estimating the stresses and strains exerted at the cellular level due to loading experienced on a macro-scale. Nano- and micro-mechanical properties of bone are also of interest to the pharmaceutical industry when drug therapies have intentional or non-intentional effects on bone mineral content and strength. The interactions that can occur between nano- and micro-indentation creep test condition parameters were considered in this study, and average hardness and elastic modulus were obtained as a function of indentation testing conditions (maximum load, load/unload rate, load-holding time, and indenter shape). The results suggest that bone reveals different mechanical properties when loading increases from the nano- to the micro-scale range (μN to N), which were measured using low- and high-load indentation testing systems. A four-parameter visco-elastic/plastic constitutive model was then applied to simulate the indentation load vs. depth response over both load ranges. Good agreement between the experimental data and finite element model was obtained when simulating the visco-elastic/plastic response of bone. The results highlight the complexity of bone as a biological tissue and the need to understand the impact of testing conditions on the measured results. PMID:17961578

  20. Mechanical stimulation orchestrates the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells by regulating HDAC1.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wang, C D; Zhang, N; Tong, W X; Zhang, Y F; Shan, S Z; Zhang, X L; Li, Q F

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have essential roles in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone formation. However, little is known regarding what regulates HDAC expression and therefore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs during osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether mechanical loading regulates HDAC expression directly and examined the role of HDACs in mechanical loading-triggered osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. We first studied the microarrays of samples from patients with osteoporosis and found that the NOTCH pathway and skeletal development gene sets were downregulated in the BMSCs of patients with osteoporosis. Then we demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can regulate osteogenesis and bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. NOTCH signaling was upregulated during cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS)-induced osteogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC1 protein expression was downregulated. The perturbation of HDAC1 expression also had a significant effect on matrix mineralization and JAG1-mediated Notch signaling, suggesting that HDAC1 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Notch signaling in the mechanotransduction of BMSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results suggest that HDAC1 modulates the CMS-induced histone H3 acetylation level at the JAG1 promoter. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of Hdac1 in regulating bone formation in response to hindlimb unloading in mice, and pretreatment with an HDAC1 inhibitor partly rescued the osteoporosis caused by mechanical unloading. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that mechanical stimulation orchestrates genes expression involved in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the direct regulation of HDAC1, and the therapeutic inhibition of HDAC1 may be an efficient strategy for enhancing bone formation under mechanical stimulation. PMID:27171263

  1. Mechanical stimulation orchestrates the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells by regulating HDAC1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Wang, C D; Zhang, N; Tong, W X; Zhang, Y F; Shan, S Z; Zhang, X L; Li, Q F

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have essential roles in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone formation. However, little is known regarding what regulates HDAC expression and therefore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs during osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether mechanical loading regulates HDAC expression directly and examined the role of HDACs in mechanical loading-triggered osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. We first studied the microarrays of samples from patients with osteoporosis and found that the NOTCH pathway and skeletal development gene sets were downregulated in the BMSCs of patients with osteoporosis. Then we demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can regulate osteogenesis and bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. NOTCH signaling was upregulated during cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS)-induced osteogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC1 protein expression was downregulated. The perturbation of HDAC1 expression also had a significant effect on matrix mineralization and JAG1-mediated Notch signaling, suggesting that HDAC1 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Notch signaling in the mechanotransduction of BMSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results suggest that HDAC1 modulates the CMS-induced histone H3 acetylation level at the JAG1 promoter. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of Hdac1 in regulating bone formation in response to hindlimb unloading in mice, and pretreatment with an HDAC1 inhibitor partly rescued the osteoporosis caused by mechanical unloading. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that mechanical stimulation orchestrates genes expression involved in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the direct regulation of HDAC1, and the therapeutic inhibition of HDAC1 may be an efficient strategy for enhancing bone formation under mechanical stimulation. PMID:27171263

  2. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Farley, Julie A; Logan, Sreemathi; Yan, Han; Ungvari, Zoltan; Hodges, Erik L; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-02-01

    Advanced aging is associated with increased risk of bone fracture, especially within the vertebrae, which exhibit significant reductions in trabecular bone structure. Aging is also associated with a reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Studies have suggested that the reduction in IGF-1 compromises healthspan, whereas others report that loss of IGF-1 is beneficial because it increases healthspan and lifespan. To date, the effect of decreases in circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we delineate the consequences of a loss of circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging in male and female Igf(f/f) mice. IGF-1 was reduced at multiple specific time points during the mouse lifespan: early in postnatal development (crossing albumin-cyclic recombinase [Cre] mice with Igf(f/f) mice); and in early adulthood and in late adulthood using hepatic-specific viral vectors (AAV8-TBG-Cre). Vertebrae bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry. Consistent with previous studies, both male and female mice exhibited age-related reductions in vertebral bone structure. In male mice, reduction of circulating IGF-1 induced at any age did not diminish vertebral bone loss. Interestingly, early-life loss of IGF-1 in females resulted in a 67% increase in vertebral bone volume fraction, as well as increased connectivity density and increased trabecular number. The maintenance of bone structure in the early-life IGF-1-deficient females was associated with increased osteoblast surface and an increased ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) levels in circulation. Within 3 months of a loss of IGF-1, there was a 2.2-fold increase in insulin receptor expression within the vertebral bones of our female mice, suggesting that local signaling may compensate for the loss of circulating IGF-1. Together, these data

  3. Simulated Space Radiation and Weightlessness: Vascular-Bone Coupling Mechanisms to Preserve Skeletal Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Delp, M. D.; Castillo, A. B.; Globus, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Weightlessness causes a cephalad fluid shift and reduction in mechanical stimulation, adversely affecting both cortical and trabecular bone tissue in astronauts. In rodent models of weightlessness, the onset of bone loss correlates with reduced skeletal perfusion, reduced and rarified vasculature and lessened vasodilation, which resembles blood-bone symbiotic events that can occur with fracture repair and aging. These are especially serious risks for long term, exploration class missions when astronauts will face the challenge of increased exposure to space radiation and abrupt transitions between different gravity environments upon arrival and return. Previously, we found using the mouse hindlimb unloading model and exposure to heavy ion radiation, both disuse and irradiation cause an acute bone loss that was associated with a reduced capacity to produce bone-forming osteoblasts from the bone marrow. Together, these findings led us to hypothesize that exposure to space radiation exacerbates weightlessness-induced bone loss and impairs recovery upon return, and that treatment with anti-oxidants may mitigate these effects. The specific aims of this recently awarded grant are to: AIM 1 Determine the functional and structural consequences of prolonged weightlessness and space radiation (simulated spaceflight) for bone and skeletal vasculature in the context of bone cell function and oxidative stress. AIM 2 Determine the extent to which an anti-oxidant protects against weightlessness and space radiation-induced bone loss and vascular dysfunction. AIM 3 Determine how space radiation influences later skeletal and vasculature recovery from prolonged weightlessness and the potential of anti-oxidants to preserve adaptive remodeling.

  4. Mechanisms inducing low bone density in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro-computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. PMID:21509823

  5. Comparison of mechanical behavior between implant-simulated bone tissue and implant-jaw bone tissue interfaces based on Pull Out testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C.; Muñoz, J. C.; Pinillos, J. C.

    2013-11-01

    The main purpose of this research was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship within the mechanical properties of human cadaver jaw bone with kind D2 density regarding a substitute polymer to simulate bone tissue, proposed by the ASTM, to evaluate orthopedic implants. However, despite the existence of several densities of foams and his mechanical characterization has been classified into different degrees of tissue densities to simulate cancellous and cortical bone, the value of the densities are different contrasted with the densities of bone tissue, making difficult to establish direct relationship about mechanical behavior between the polymer and the bone material, and therefore no clear criteria known for choosing the polymeric foam which describes the mechanical behavior of tissue for a specific or particular study. To understand such behavior from bone tissue regarding the polymer samples, on this research was a dental implant inserted into the samples, and subjected to destructive Pull Out test according to ASTM F543The Pull Out strength was compared between implant-jawbone and implant-rigid polyurethane foam interfaces. Thus, the test pieces with mechanical behavior similar to bone tissue, enabling an approximation to choose degree appropriate of polymer to replace the bone tissue in future trials biomechanical.

  6. Establishing Biomechanical Mechanisms in Mouse Models: Practical Guidelines for Systematically Evaluating Phenotypic Changes in the Diaphyses of Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J; Silva, Matthew J; Vashishth, Deepak; Guo, X Edward; van der Meulen, Marjolein CH

    2016-01-01

    Mice are widely used in studies of skeletal biology, and assessment of their bones by mechanical testing is a critical step when evaluating the functional effects of an experimental perturbation. For example, a gene knockout may target a pathway important in bone formation and result in a “low bone mass” phenotype. But how well does the skeleton bear functional loads; eg, how much do bones deform during loading and how resistant are bones to fracture? By systematic evaluation of bone morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties, investigators can establish the “biomechanical mechanisms” whereby an experimental perturbation alters whole-bone mechanical function. The goal of this review is to clarify these biomechanical mechanisms and to make recommendations for systematically evaluating phenotypic changes in mouse bones, with a focus on long-bone diaphyses and cortical bone. Further, minimum reportable standards for testing conditions and outcome variables are suggested that will improve the comparison of data across studies. Basic biomechanical principles are reviewed, followed by a description of the cross-sectional morphological properties that best inform the net cellular effects of a given experimental perturbation and are most relevant to biomechanical function. Although morphology is critical, whole-bone mechanical properties can only be determined accurately by a mechanical test. The functional importance of stiffness, maximum load, postyield displacement, and work-to-fracture are reviewed. Because bone and body size are often strongly related, strategies to adjust whole-bone properties for body mass are detailed. Finally, a comprehensive framework is presented using real data, and several examples from the literature are reviewed to illustrate how to synthesize morphological, tissue-level, and whole-bone mechanical properties of mouse long bones. PMID:25917136

  7. The Influence of the Type of Continuous Exercise Stress Applied during Growth Periods on Bone Metabolism and Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takao; Izawa, Hiromi; Satoh, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined the influence of exercise loading characteristics on bone metabolic responses and bone morphology in the growth phase and adulthood. Methods Running exercise (RUN) and jumping exercise (JUM) were used for the exercise loading in 28-day-old male Wistar rats. Bone metabolism was measured by blood osteocalcin (OC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) levels. For bone morphology, the maximum bone length, bone weight, and bone strength of the femur and tibia were measured. Results A pre- and post-exercise loading comparison in the growth phase showed significantly increased OC levels in the RUN and JUM groups and significantly decreased TRACP levels in the JUM group. On the other hand, a pre- and post-exercise loading comparison in adulthood showed significantly decreased TRACP levels in the RUN and JUM groups. Femur lengths were significantly shorter in the RUN and JUM groups than in the control (CON) group, while bone weight was significantly greater in the JUM group than in the CON group. Conclusions Exercise loading activates OC levels in the growth phase and suppresses TRACP levels in adulthood. On the other hand, these results suggest that excessive exercise loading may suppress bone length. PMID:27622180

  8. An Alginate-based Hybrid System for Growth Factor Delivery in the Functional Repair of Large Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kolambkar, Yash M.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Boerckel, Joel D.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of challenging fractures and large osseous defects presents a formidable problem for orthopaedic surgeons. Tissue engineering/regenerative medicine approaches seek to solve this problem by delivering osteogenic signals within scaffolding biomaterials. In this study, we introduce a hybrid growth factor delivery system that consists of an electrospun nanofiber mesh tube for guiding bone regeneration combined with peptide-modified alginate hydrogel injected inside the tube for sustained growth factor release. We tested the ability of this system to deliver recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for the repair of critically-sized segmental bone defects in a rat model. Longitudinal μ-CT analysis and torsional testing provided quantitative assessment of bone regeneration. Our results indicate that the hybrid delivery system resulted in consistent bony bridging of the challenging bone defects. However, in the absence of rhBMP-2, the use of nanofiber mesh tube and alginate did not result in substantial bone formation. Perforations in the nanofiber mesh accelerated the rhBMP-2 mediated bone repair, and resulted in functional restoration of the regenerated bone. μ-CT based angiography indicated that perforations did not significantly affect the revascularization of defects, suggesting that some other interaction with the tissue surrounding the defect such as improved infiltration of osteoprogenitor cells contributed to the observed differences in repair. Overall, our results indicate that the hybrid alginate/nanofiber mesh system is a promising growth factor delivery strategy for the repair of challenging bone injuries. PMID:20864165

  9. A Simple Mechanical Experiment on Exponential Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    With a rod, cord, pulleys, and slotted masses, students can observe and graph exponential growth in the cord tension over a factor of increase as large as several hundred. This experiment is adaptable for use either in algebra-based or calculus-based physics courses, fitting naturally with the study of sliding friction. Significant parts of the…

  10. Expression of the genes for insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in bone during skeletal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Roberts, C. T.; Leroith, D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are important regulators of skeletal growth. To determine whether the capacity to produce and respond to these growth factors changes during skeletal development, we measured the protein and mRNA levels for IGF-I, IGF-II, and their receptors (IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, respectively) in the tibia and femur of rats before and up to 28 mo after birth. The mRNA levels remained high during fetal development but fell after birth, reaching a nadir by 3-6 wk. This fall was most pronounced for IGF-II and IGF-IIR mRNA and least pronounced for IGF-I mRNA. However, after 6 wk, both IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNA levels recovered toward the levels observed at birth. In the prenatal bones, the signals for the mRNAs of IGF-II and IGF-IIR were stronger than the signals for the mRNAs of IGF-I and IGF-IR, although the content of IGF-I was three- to fivefold greater than that of IGF-II. IGF-II levels fell postnatally, whereas the IGF-I content rose after birth such that the ratio IGF-I/IGF-II continued to increase with age. We conclude that, during development, rat bone changes its capacity to produce and respond to IGFs with a progressive trend toward the dominance of IGF-I.

  11. Tumour Transfer to Bone Graft Donor Site: A Case Report and Review of the Literature of the Mechanism of Seeding

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Richard G.; Carter, Simon R.; Grimer, Robert J.; Tillman, Roger M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. Transmission of malignant tumour cells to a bone graft donor site is a rare complication of bone grafting.We report a case of seeding of malignant fibrous histiocytoma from the femur to a pelvic bone graft donor site. Discussion. We review the literature, discuss the possible mechanism of tumour transfer and offer advice aimed at avoiding this complication. PMID:18521435

  12. Hybrid use of combined and sequential delivery of growth factors and ultrasound stimulation in porous multilayer composite scaffolds to promote both vascularization and bone formation in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Haoran; Liu, Xia; Zhu, Minghua; Luo, Guilin; Sun, Tao; Peng, Qiang; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Taijun; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Keliang; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie; Wang, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a multilayer coating technology would be adopted to prepare a porous composite scaffold and the growth factor release and ultrasound techniques were introduced into bone tissue engineering to finally solve the problems of vascularization and bone formation in the scaffold whilst the designed multilayer composite with gradient degradation characteristics in the space was used to match the new bone growth process better. The results of animal experiments showed that the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) combined with growth factors demonstrated excellent capabilities and advantages in both vascularization and new bone formation in bone tissue engineering. The degradation of the used scaffold materials could match new bone formation very well. The results also showed that only RGD-promoted cell adhesion was insufficient to satisfy the needs of new bone formation while growth factors and LIPUS stimulation were the key factors in new bone formation. PMID:26282063

  13. Calcium requirements for bone growth in Canadian boys and girls during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Whiting, Susan J

    2010-02-01

    Adequate dietary intake during the growth period is critical for bone mineral accretion. In 1997, an adequate intake (AI) of 1300 mg/d Ca was set for North American adolescents aged 9-18 years based on best available data. We determined bone Ca accrual values from age 9 to 18 years taking into account sex and maturity. Furthermore, we used the accrual data to estimate adolescents' Ca requirements. Total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) of eighty-five boys and sixty-seven girls participating in the Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study were used to determine annual TBBMC accumulation over the pubertal growth period. Using a similar factorial approach as the AI, we estimated Ca requirements of adolescent boys and girls for two age groups: 9-13 and 14-18 years. Between 9 and 18 years, boys accrued 198.8 (SD 74.5) g bone mineral content (BMC) per year, equivalent to 175.4 (SD 65.7) mg Ca per d with the maximum BMC accrual of 335.9 g from age 13 to 14 years. Girls had 138.1 (SD 64.2) g BMC per year, equalling121.8 (SD 56.6) mg Ca per d with the maximum annual BMC accrual of 266.0 g from age 12 to 13 years. Differences were observed between both sex and age groups with respect to Ca needs: boys and girls aged 9-13 years would require 1000-1100 mg/d Ca, and from age 14 to 18 years, the mean Ca requirements would be relatively stable at 1000 mg/d for girls but would rise to 1200 mg/d for boys. PMID:19852873

  14. A living thick nanofibrous implant bifunctionalized with active growth factor and stem cells for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sandy; Keller, Laetitia; Schiavi, Jessica; Huck, Olivier; Jacomine, Leandro; Fioretti, Florence; Gauthier, Christian; Sebastian, Victor; Schwinté, Pascale; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    New-generation implants focus on robust, durable, and rapid tissue regeneration to shorten recovery times and decrease risks of postoperative complications for patients. Herein, we describe a new-generation thick nanofibrous implant functionalized with active containers of growth factors and stem cells for regenerative nanomedicine. A thick electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous implant (from 700 μm to 1 cm thick) was functionalized with chitosan and bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7 as growth factor using layer-by-layer technology, producing fish scale-like chitosan/BMP-7 nanoreservoirs. This extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold enabled in vitro colonization and bone regeneration by human primary osteoblasts, as shown by expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein (BSPII), 21 days after seeding. In vivo implantation in mouse calvaria defects showed significantly more newly mineralized extracellular matrix in the functionalized implant compared to a bare scaffold after 30 days’ implantation, as shown by histological scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microscopy study and calcein injection. We have as well bifunctionalized our BMP-7 therapeutic implant by adding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The activity of this BMP-7-functionalized implant was again further enhanced by the addition of hMSCs to the implant (living materials), in vivo, as demonstrated by the analysis of new bone formation and calcification after 30 days’ implantation in mice with calvaria defects. Therefore, implants functionalized with BMP-7 nanocontainers associated with hMSCs can act as an accelerator of in vivo bone mineralization and regeneration. PMID:25709432

  15. Mechanical properties of the porcine growth plate vary with developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Roxanne; Sergerie, Kim; Lévesque, Martin; Villemure, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate at four different stages of growth and to compare two different methods of extracting these properties. Porcine distal ulnar growth plate samples were obtained from newborn, 4-, 8-, and 18-week (W) pigs and were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression. A four-parameter curve fitting procedure was developed to extract mechanical properties using the Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Elastic model(TIBPE) (Cohen et al. in J Biomech Eng Trans Asme 120(4):491-496, 1998) and the Differential Evolution (DE) optimization algorithm (Price et al. Natural computing series, Springer, Germany 2005). Optimization was done on all experimental curves for the first method and on one average experimental curve per developmental stage in the second. The 4-week stage was studied in two subgroups (a) and (b) due to distinct differences in mechanical properties. Intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate varied nonlinearly with developmental stage. Both methods showed that transverse and out-of-plane Young's moduli (E (1), E (3)) decrease with developmental stage, whereas transverse permeability (k (1)) increases. The exception is a sharp increase in stiffness and reduction in permeability at the 4W(a) stage, which may be associated with rapid porcine developmental changes at the 3-4 week period. The second method provides a more reliable representation of the average mechanical behavior, whereas the first method allows statistical comparison of optimized mechanical properties. This study characterizes, for the first time, the variation in growth plate mechanical properties for the same animal (porcine) and bone (ulna) model with developmental stage and provides new insight into the progression of musculoskeletal diseases during growth spurts in response to mechanical loading. PMID:21559968

  16. A mechanical and histomorphometric analysis of bone bonding by hydroxyapatite-coated strain gages.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D L; Szivek, J A; Anderson, P L; Miera, V L; Battraw, G A

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the strains controlling bone remodeling is important for determining ways to prevent bone loss due to load deprivation, or implant placement. Long-term monitoring of strains can potentially provide the best information. Glues are resorbed within 2-3 weeks. Two formulations of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) were used to attach strain gages to rat femora to assess their long-term in vivo strain measurement capability. Seven male rats received HA-coated gages, and 2 animals underwent a sham procedure. The gages were prepared using a published technique and placed on the antero-lateral aspect of the left femora. After 6-7 weeks, the animals were euthanized and both femora explanted. Gages were attached to the right femora with cyanoacrylate. All femora were tested in cantilever bending, then embedded, sectioned, and stained with mineralized bone stain. The undecalcified sections were examined using transmitted and ultraviolet light microscopy. Mechanical testing showed one HA formulation provided 70-100% bonding. Histology showed intimate contact between the gage and bone surface. Histomorphometry indicated increased bone activity under the gage compared to the remaining bone, the controls, and the shams. The results indicate that microcrystalline HAs bond to bone quickly and can allow long term in vivo measurements. PMID:9659635

  17. Effect of MMA-g-UHMWPE grafted fiber on mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Huang, P Y; Yang, M C; Lo, S K

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers were treated with argon plasma for 5 min, followed by uv irradiation in methyl methacrylate (MMA)-chloroform solution for 5 h to obtain MMA-g-UHMWPE grafted fiber. The grafting content was estimated by the titration of esterification method. The grafting amount of 5280 nmol/g was the largest for the MMA concentration at 18.75 vol%. To improve the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement, pure UHMWPE fiber and MMA-g-UHMWPE fiber were added to the surgical Simplex. P radiopaque bone cement. The mechanical properties including tensile strength, tensile modulus, compressive strength, bending strength, and bending stiffness were measured. Dynamic mechanical analysis was also performed. By comparing the effect of the pure UHMWPE fiber and MMA-g-UHMWPE grafted fiber on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement, it was found that the acrylic bone cement with MMA-g-UHMWPE grafted fiber had a more significant reinforcing effect than that with untreated UHMWPE fiber. This might be due to the improvement of the interfacial bonding between the grafted fibers and the acrylic bone cement matrix. PMID:9421758

  18. Mechanisms of fluid-flow-induced matrix production in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Morris, H L; Reed, C I; Haycock, J W; Reilly, G C

    2010-12-01

    Matrix production by tissue-engineered bone is enhanced when the growing tissue is subjected to mechanical forces and/or fluid flow in bioreactor culture. Cells deposit collagen and mineral, depending upon the mechanical loading that they receive. However, the molecular mechanisms of flow-induced signal transduction in bone are poorly understood. The hyaluronan (HA) glycocalyx has been proposed as a potential mediator of mechanical forces in bone. Using a parallel-plate flow chamber the effects of removal of HA on flow-induced collagen production and NF-kappaB activation in MLO-A5 osteoid osteocytes were investigated. Short periods of fluid flow significantly increased collagen production and induced translocation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 to the cell's nuclei in 65 per cent of the cell population. Enzymatic removal of the HA coat and antibody blocking of CD44 (a transmembrane protein that binds to HA) eliminated the fluid-flow-induced increase in collagen production but had no effect on the translocation of p65. HA and CD44 appear to play roles in transducing the flow signals that modulate collagen production over long-term culture but not in the short-term flow-induced activation of NF-kappaB, implying that multiple signalling events are initiated from the commencement of flow. Understanding the mechanotransduction events that enable fluid flow to stimulate bone matrix production will allow the optimization of bioreactor design and flow profiles for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21287834

  19. Links between mechanical behavior of cancellous bone and its microstructural properties under dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Prot, M; Saletti, D; Pattofatto, S; Bousson, V; Laporte, S

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies show that in vivo assessment of fracture risk can be achieved by identifying the relationships between microarchitecture description from clinical imaging and mechanical properties. This study demonstrates that results obtained at low strain rates can be extrapolated to loadings with an order of magnitude similar to trauma such as car crashes. Cancellous bovine bone specimens were compressed under dynamic loadings (with and without confinement) and the mechanical response properties were identified, such as Young׳s modulus, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and ultimate strain energy. Specimens were previously scanned with pQCT, and architectural and structural microstructure properties were identified, such as parameters of geometry, topology, connectivity and anisotropy. The usefulness of micro-architecture description studied was in agreement with statistics laws. Finally, the differences between dynamic confined and non-confined tests were assessed by the bone marrow influence and the cancellous bone response to different boundary conditions. Results indicate that architectural parameters, such as the bone volume fraction (BV/TV), are as strong determinants of mechanical response parameters as ultimate stress at high strain rates (p-value<0.001). This study reveals that cancellous bone response at high strain rates, under different boundary conditions, can be predicted from the architectural parameters, and that these relations with mechanical properties can be used to make fracture risk prediction at a determined magnitude. PMID:25577437

  20. Triazolopyrimidine (trapidil), a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, inhibits parathyroid bone disease in an animal model for chronic hyperparathyroidism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Sibonga, Jean D.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    Parathyroid bone disease in humans is caused by chronic hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Continuous infusion of PTH into rats results in histological changes similar to parathyroid bone disease, including increased bone formation, focal bone resorption, and severe peritrabecular fibrosis, whereas pulsatile PTH increases bone formation without skeletal abnormalities. Using a cDNA microarray with over 5000 genes, we identified an association between increased platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) signaling and PTH-induced bone disease in rats. Verification of PDGF-A overexpression was accomplished with a ribonuclease protection assay. Using immunohistochemistry, PDGF-A peptide was localized to mast cells in PTH-treated rats. We also report a novel strategy for prevention of parathyroid bone disease using triazolopyrimidine (trapidil). Trapidil, an inhibitor of PDGF signaling, did not have any effect on indexes of bone turnover in normal rats. However, dramatic reductions in marrow fibrosis and bone resorption, but not bone formation, were observed in PTH-treated rats given trapidil. Also, trapidil antagonized the PTH-induced increases in mRNA levels for PDGF-A. These results suggest that PDGF signaling is important for the detrimental skeletal effects of HPT, and drugs that target the cytokine or its receptor might be useful in reducing or preventing parathyroid bone disease.

  1. Mechanical microenvironments and protein expression associated with formation of different skeletal tissues during bone healing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory J; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Morgan, Elise F

    2015-11-01

    Uncovering the mechanisms of the sensitivity of bone healing to mechanical factors is critical for understanding the basic biology and mechanobiology of the skeleton, as well as for enhancing clinical treatment of bone injuries. This study refined an experimental method of measuring the strain microenvironment at the site of a bone injury during bone healing. This method used a rat model in which a well-controlled bending motion was applied to an osteotomy to induce the formation of pseudarthrosis that is composed of a range of skeletal tissues, including woven bone, cartilage, fibrocartilage, fibrous tissue, and clot tissue. The goal of this study was to identify both the features of the strain microenvironment associated with formation of these different tissues and the expression of proteins frequently implicated in sensing and transducing mechanical cues. By pairing the strain measurements with histological analyses that identified the regions in which each tissue type formed, we found that formation of the different tissue types occurs in distinct strain microenvironments and that the type of tissue formed is correlated most strongly to the local magnitudes of extensional and shear strains. Weaker correlations were found for dilatation. Immunohistochemical analyses of focal adhesion kinase and rho family proteins RhoA and CDC42 revealed differences within the cartilaginous tissues in the calluses from the pseudarthrosis model as compared to fracture calluses undergoing normal endochondral bone repair. These findings suggest the involvement of these proteins in the way by which mechanical stimuli modulate the process of cartilage formation during bone healing. PMID:25822264

  2. Temporal Changes of Microarchitectural and Mechanical Parameters of Cancellous Bone in the Osteoporotic Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin-Xin; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fa-Qi; Feng, Ya-Fei; Zhao, Xiong; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit model induced by ovariectomy (OVX) combined with glucocorticoid (GC) administration. Osteoporotic (OP) group received bilateral OVX combined with injections of GC, while sham group only received sham operation. Cancellous bone quality in vertebrae and femoral condyles in each group was assessed by DXA, μCT, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests at pre-OVX and 4, 6, and 8 weeks after injection. With regard to femoral condyles, nanoindentation test could detect significant decline in tissue modulus and hardness at 4 weeks. However, BMD and microarchitecture of femoral condylar cancellous bone changed significantly at 6 weeks. In vertebrae, BMD, microarchitecture, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests changed significantly at 4 weeks. Our data demonstrated that temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit were significant. The temporal changes of cancellous bone in different anatomical sites might be different. The nanoindentation method could detect the changes of bone quality at an earlier stage at both femoral condyle and vertebra in the osteoporotic rabbit model than other methods (μCT, BMD). PMID:25918705

  3. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  4. The Contribution of Experimental in vivo Models to Understanding the Mechanisms of Adaptation to Mechanical Loading in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Lee B.; Price, Joanna S.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing loading regimens by natural means such as exercise, with or without interference such as osteotomy, has provided useful information on the structure:function relationship in bone tissue. However, the greatest precision in defining those aspects of the overall strain environment that influence modeling and remodeling behavior has been achieved by relating quantified changes in bone architecture to quantified changes in bones’ strain environment produced by direct, controlled artificial bone loading. Jiri Hert introduced the technique of artificial loading of bones in vivo with external devices in the 1960s using an electromechanical device to load rabbit tibiae through transfixing stainless steel pins. Quantifying natural bone strains during locomotion by attaching electrical resistance strain gages to bone surfaces was introduced by Lanyon, also in the 1960s. These studies in a variety of bones in a number of species demonstrated remarkable uniformity in the peak strains and maximum strain rates experienced. Experiments combining strain gage instrumentation with artificial loading in sheep, pigs, roosters, turkeys, rats, and mice has yielded significant insight into the control of strain-related adaptive (re)modeling. This diversity of approach has been largely superseded by non-invasive transcutaneous loading in rats and mice, which is now the model of choice for many studies. Together such studies have demonstrated that over the physiological strain range, bone’s mechanically adaptive processes are responsive to dynamic but not static strains; the size and nature of the adaptive response controlling bone mass is linearly related to the peak loads encountered; the strain-related response is preferentially sensitive to high strain rates and unresponsive to static ones; is most responsive to unusual strain distributions; is maximized by remarkably few strain cycles, and that these are most effective when interrupted by short periods of rest between them

  5. Role of Growth Hormone, Exercise and Serum Phosphorus in Unloaded Bone of Young Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnnaud, Sara B.; Harper, J. S.; Gosselink, K. L.; Navidi, M.; Fung, P.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone, known to be stimulated by exercise, is suppressed in rats after space flight and in a ground-based model in which the hind-limbs are unloaded (S). To determine the role of GH in the osteopenia of unloaded bones of S rats, young males were treated with GH combined with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a peptide that mediates the local actions of the hormone. 200 g rats, hypophysectomized (hypox) 17 d earlier, were treated with 1 mg/kg/d GH/IGF-1 (H) or saline (C) in 3 divided daily doses x10 d. Hind-limb bones were unloaded (S), ambulated (A) or exercised (X) by climbing a ladder while carrying a weight. Growth was monitored daily. Tibial growth plate (Tepi) was measured with a micrometer, and femoral (F) area, length, and mineral content (BMC) by DEXA. Parameters of calcium metabolism were measured by autoanalyzer and calciotropic hormones by radioimmunoassay. F bone density, g/square cm, (BMD) or BW were not affected by S in Hypox. However, FBMD was lower in S+H than A+H (p is less than 0.002) and H stimulated whole body growth in S (5.2 g/d) and SX (5.6 g/d) to a lesser extent than in A (6.6 g/d) (p is less than 0.05). Adjusted for BW, Tepi showed the greatest increase in S+H+X (64%), the next highest increase in S+H (50%) and no change in S+X. F area, length and BMC/100 g BW were lower in all H groups than respective C's. By multiple regression analysis, serum phosphorus (Pi) which correlated with Tepi (r = 0.88, p is less than 0.001) and was inversely related to FBMC (r = -0.68, p is less than 0.001) proved to be the most significant determinant of BMC. This illustrates the dependence of osteopenia in S on GH, the maximizing effect of X for epiphyseal growth and the major role of Pi metabolism on BMC in weight bearing bone during growth.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical and material properties of goat bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, M.J.; Butler, D.L.; Grood, E.S.; Bylski-Austrow, D.I.; Levy, M.S.; Noyes, F.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical properties of the composite bone-patellar tendon-bone unit (CU) and the tendon midsubstance (TM) were studied. Frozen specimens were exposed to either 2 or 3 Mrad of gamma irradiation. Paired frozen specimens served as intraanimal controls. Treatment effects on the CU were assessed using four mechanical parameters. Effects on the TM were assessed using four material parameters measured using an optical surface-strain analysis system. The maximum force and strain energy to maximum force of the composite unit were significantly reduced 27% and 40%, respectively, after 3 Mrad of irradiation (p less than .05). Mechanical properties of the CU were not significantly altered, however, following 2 Mrad of irradiation. Based on individual paired contrasts between treatment and control, significant differences were also found in the material properties of the tendon midsubstance. The maximum stress, maximum strain, and strain energy density to maximum stress were significantly reduced following 3 Mrad, but not 2 Mrad, of irradiation. The results provide important time zero material property data, which will be useful for later anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction studies using irradiated allograft patellar tendons in the goat model and other animal models as well.

  7. Polarity and the diversity of growth mechanisms in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pamela J.B.; Kysela, David T.; Brun, Yves V.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cell growth is a complex process consisting of two distinct phases: cell elongation and septum formation prior to cell division. Although bacteria have evolved several different mechanisms for cell growth, it is clear that tight spatial and temporal regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis is a common theme. In this review, we discuss bacterial cell growth with a particular emphasis on bacteria that utilize tip extension as a mechanism for cell elongation. We describe polar growth among diverse bacteria and consider the advantages and consequences of this mode of cell elongation. PMID:21736947

  8. Raloxifene: Mechanism of Action, Effects on Bone Tissue, and Applicability in Clinical Traumatology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jose R. Caeiro; Cervino, Eduardo Vaquero; Rentero, Maria Luz; Crespo, Emilio Calvo; Álvaro, Angel Oteo; Casillas, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Raloxifene, a member of the class of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), reproduces the beneficial effects of estrogens on the skeletal systems, without the negative effects estrogens on breast and endometrium. This is a review article summarizing its mechanism, effects on bone and its applicability in traumatology clinical practice. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, this drug has been proven to decrease accelerated bone turnover, increase bone mineral density (BMD), and to structurally recover bone, decreasing the risk of vertebral fractures and the risk of non-vertebral fractures in patients with previous, severe vertebral fractures. Moreover, raloxifene appears to lower the risk of invasive breast cancer. Raloxifene would be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We can therefore conclude that raloxifene would be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, while reducing the risk of breast cancer when used at the indicated dose of 60 mg/day and with a low incidence of side effects. PMID:19516920

  9. Mechanical regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean and eggplant grown and shaken in a greenhouse exhibited decreased internode length, internode diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots in much the same way as outdoor-exposed plants. Perhaps more important than decreased dimensions of plant parts resulting from periodic seismic treatment is the inhibition of photosynthetic productivity that accompanies this stress. Soybeam plants briefly shaken or rubbed twice daily experienced a decrease in relative as well as absolute growth rate compared to that of undisturbed controls. Growth dynamics analysis revealed that virtually all of the decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was due to a decline in net assimilation rate (NAR), but not in leaf area ratio (LAR). Lower NAR suggests that the stress-induced decrease in dry weight gain is due to a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Possible effects on stomatal aperture was investigated by measuring rates of whole plant transpiration as a function of seismo-stress, and a transitory decrease followed by a gradual, partial recovery was detected.

  10. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic. PMID:24755526

  11. The relevance of leukotrienes for bone resorption induced by mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Moura, A P; Taddei, S R A; Queiroz-Junior, C M; Madeira, M F M; Rodrigues, L F D; Garlet, G P; Souza, D G; Machado, F S; Andrade, I; Teixeira, M M; Silva, T A

    2014-12-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolites are important pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. However, much still remains to be understood about the role of such mediators in bone remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs, in a model of mechanical loading-induced bone remodeling. Strain-induced tooth movement and consequently alveolar bone resorption/apposition was achieved by using a coil spring placed on molar and attached to incisors of C57BL6 (wild-type-WT), 5-LO deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)) and mice treated with 5-LO inhibitor (zileuton-ZN) or with antagonist of CysLTs receptor (montelukast-MT). The amount of bone resorption and the number of osteoclasts were determined morphometrically. The expression of inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in periodontium was analyzed by qPCR. Osteoclast differentiation and TNF-α production were evaluated in vitro using RAW 264.7 cells treated with LTB4 or LTD4. Bone resorption, TRAP(+) cells and expression of Tnfa, Il10 and Runx2 were significantly diminished in 5-LO(-/-), ZN- and MT-treated mice. The expression of Rank was also reduced in 5-LO(-/-) and MT-treated mice. Accordingly, LTB4 and LTD4 in association with RANKL promoted osteoclast differentiation and increased TNF-α release in vitro. These data demonstrate that the absence of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs reduces osteoclast recruitment and differentiation, consequently diminishing bone resorption induced by mechanical loading. Thus, 5-LO might be a potential target for controlling bone resorption in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25270168

  12. Growth Mechanism of the (110) Face of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadarajah, Arunan; Li, Meirong; Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    The measured macroscopic growth rates of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme show an unexpectedly complex dependence on the supersaturation. In earlier studies it has been shown that an aggregate growth unit could account for experimental growth-rate trends. In particular molecular packing and interactions in the growth of the crystal were favored by completion of the helices along the 4, axes. In this study the molecular orientations of the possible growth units and the molecular growth mechanism were identified. This indicated that growth was a two-step process: aggregate growth units corresponding to the 4, helix are first formed in the bulk solution by stronger intermolecular bonds and then attached to the crystal face by weaker bonds. A more comprehensive analysis of the measured (110) growth rates was also undertaken. They were compared with the predicted growth rates from several dislocation and two-dimensional nucleation growth models, employing tetramer and Octamer growth units in polydisperse solutions and monomer units in monodisperse solutions. The calculations consistently showed that the measured growth rates followed the expected model relations with octamer growth units, in agreement with the predictions from the molecular level analyses.

  13. Adhesion, growth and differentiation of osteoblasts on surface-modified materials developed for bone implants.

    PubMed

    Vandrovcová, M; Bačáková, L

    2011-01-01

    This review briefly outlines the history and possibilities of bone reconstruction using various types of artificial materials, which allow interaction with cells only on the surface of the implant or enable ingrowth of cells inside the material. Information is also provided on the most important properties of bone cells taking part in bone tissue development, and on diseases and regeneration. The most common cell types used for testing cell-material interaction in vitro are listed, and the most commonly used approaches to this testing are also mentioned. A considerable part of this review is dedicated to the physical and chemical properties of the material surface, which are decisive for the cell-material interaction, and also to modifications to the surface of the material aimed at integrating it better with the surrounding bone tissue. Special attention is paid to the effects of nanoscale and microscale surface roughness on cell behaviour, to material surface patterning, which allows regionally-selective adhesion and growth of cells, and also to the surface chemistry. In addition, coating the materials with bioactive layers is examined, particularly those created by deposition of fullerenes, hybrid metal-fullerene composites, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystalline diamond films, diamond-like carbon, and nanocomposite hydrocarbon plasma polymer films enriched with metals. PMID:21401307

  14. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-01

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1 5.0 μm in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as ˜109 cm-2. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1 Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  15. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  16. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Robert T.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Hoey, David A.

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  17. Cabozantinib inhibits growth of androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and affects bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Holly M; Ruppender, Nazanin; Zhang, Xiaotun; Brown, Lisha G; Gross, Ted S; Morrissey, Colm; Gulati, Roman; Vessella, Robert L; Schimmoller, Frauke; Aftab, Dana T; Corey, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET and VEGFR2. In a phase II clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), cabozantinib treatment improved bone scans in 68% of evaluable patients. Our studies aimed to determine the expression of cabozantinib targets during PCa progression and to evaluate its efficacy in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa in preclinical models while delineating its effects on tumor and bone. Using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays containing normal prostate, primary PCa, and soft tissue and bone metastases, our data show that levels of MET, P-MET, and VEGFR2 are increasing during PCa progression. Our data also show that the expression of cabozantinib targets are particularly pronounced in bone metastases. To evaluate cabozantinib efficacy on PCa growth in the bone environment and in soft tissues we used androgen-sensitive LuCaP 23.1 and castration-resistant C4-2B PCa tumors. In vivo, cabozantinib inhibited the growth of PCa in bone as well as growth of subcutaneous tumors. Furthermore, cabozantinib treatment attenuated the bone response to the tumor and resulted in increased normal bone volume. In summary, the expression pattern of cabozantinib targets in primary and castration-resistant metastatic PCa, and its efficacy in two different models of PCa suggest that this agent has a strong potential for the effective treatment of PCa at different stages of the disease. PMID:24205338

  18. Selective Laser Melting: a regular unit cell approach for the manufacture of porous, titanium, bone in-growth constructs, suitable for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Lewis; Stamp, Robin C; Brooks, Wesley K; Jones, Eric; Sutcliffe, Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    In this study, a novel porous titanium structure for the purpose of bone in-growth has been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The structure was produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM); a rapid manufacturing process capable of producing highly intricate, functionally graded parts. The technique described utilizes an approach based on a defined regular unit cell to design and produce structures with a large range of both physical and mechanical properties. These properties can be tailored to suit specific requirements; in particular, functionally graded structures with bone in-growth surfaces exhibiting properties comparable to those of human bone have been manufactured. The structures were manufactured and characterized by unit cell size, strand diameter, porosity, and compression strength. They exhibited a porosity (10-95%) dependant compression strength (0.5-350 Mpa) comparable to the typical naturally occurring range. It is also demonstrated that optimized structures have been produced that possesses ideal qualities for bone in-growth applications and that these structures can be applied in the production of orthopedic devices. PMID:18837456

  19. A multiscale mechanobiological model of bone remodelling predicts site-specific bone loss in the femur during osteoporosis and mechanical disuse.

    PubMed

    Lerebours, C; Buenzli, P R; Scheiner, S; Pivonka, P

    2016-02-01

    We propose a multiscale mechanobiological model of bone remodelling to investigate the site-specific evolution of bone volume fraction across the midshaft of a femur. The model includes hormonal regulation and biochemical coupling of bone cell populations, the influence of the microstructure on bone turnover rate, and mechanical adaptation of the tissue. Both microscopic and tissue-scale stress/strain states of the tissue are calculated from macroscopic loads by a combination of beam theory and micromechanical homogenisation. This model is applied to simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of a human midshaft femur scan subjected to two deregulating circumstances: (i) osteoporosis and (ii) mechanical disuse. Both simulated deregulations led to endocortical bone loss, cortical wall thinning and expansion of the medullary cavity, in accordance with experimental findings. Our model suggests that these observations are attributable to a large extent to the influence of the microstructure on bone turnover rate. Mechanical adaptation is found to help preserve intracortical bone matrix near the periosteum. Moreover, it leads to non-uniform cortical wall thickness due to the asymmetry of macroscopic loads introduced by the bending moment. The effect of mechanical adaptation near the endosteum can be greatly affected by whether the mechanical stimulus includes stress concentration effects or not. PMID:26239380

  20. Lovastatin stimulates human vascular smooth muscle cell expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein-stimulated cell growth.

    PubMed

    Emmanuele, Luca; Ortmann, Jana; Doerflinger, Tim; Traupe, Tobias; Barton, Matthias

    2003-02-28

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulate ectopic bone formation in skeletal muscle. Here we show that human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) abundantly express mRNA encoding for BMP receptor type II, BMP-2, and BMP-7 proteins. Treatment with the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitor lovastatin (34 microM) increased BMP-2 gene transcription >14-fold as measured by real-time PCR analysis (P<0.05 vs. solvent control). Moreover, VSMC proliferation stimulated with native low-density lipoprotein (100 microg of protein/mL) was prevented by either human recombinant BMP-2 or BMP-7 at concentrations of 100 ng/mL (P<0.05). Both BMPs also inhibited basal cell proliferation (P<0.05). Induction of BMPs and subsequent inhibition of VSMC growth and/or induction of vascular bone formation could contribute to the mechanisms by which statins increase plaque stability in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:12593849

  1. Aging and loading rate effects on the mechanical behavior of equine bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulin, Robb M.; Jiang, Fengchun; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2008-06-01

    Whether due to a sporting accident, high-speed impact, fall, or other catastrophic event, the majority of clinical bone fractures occur under dynamic loading conditions. However, although extensive research has been performed on the quasi-static fracture and mechanical behavior of bone to date, few high-quality studies on the fracture behavior of bone at high strain rates have been performed. Therefore, many questions remain regarding the material behavior, including not only the loading-rate-dependent response of bone, but also how this response varies with age. In this study, tests were performed on equine femoral bone taken post-mortem from donors 6 months to 28 years of age. Quasi-static and dynamic tests were performed to determine the fracture toughness and compressive mechanical behavior as a function of age at varying loading rates. Fracture paths were then analyzed using scanning confocal and scanning-electron microscopy techniques to assess the role of various microstructural features on toughening mechanisms.

  2. In vivo demonstration of cell types in bone that harbor epidermal growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau-Doize, B.; Lai, W.H.; Warshawsky, H.; Bergeron, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The binding and internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoepidermal growth factor (EGF) by bone cells of the rat was demonstrated in situ by quantitative radioautography. Specific binding sites were observed on a cell profile enriched in endocytic components, including lysosome-like structures, a rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell profile, and a cell profile that histologically resembles an undifferentiated precursor cell. By the criteria of gel filtration and precipitability by trichloroacetic acid, most of the bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF was considered intact. By morphological criteria none of the cell profiles that bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF corresponded to fully formed osteoclasts or osteoblasts. The endocytic cell was found in the epiphyseal plate between the invading capillary and the transverse and longitudinal cartilage septa as well as near osteoclasts in the zone of mixed spicules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell was present in vacated chondrocyte lacunae of the epiphyseal plate close to the metaphysis, and the poorly differentiated cell was observed between the mixed spicules of the metaphysis. Similar cell types were also found in the alveolar bone surrounding the incisors. These cells may be the origin of established bone cell lines that harbor high concentrations of EGF receptors and may also be responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia in response to the reported actions of injected E