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Sample records for bone marrow-derived dendritic

  1. Distinct functional responses to stressors of bone marrow derived dendritic cells from diverse inbred chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Van Goor, Angelica; Slawinska, Anna; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Differences in responses of chicken bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) to in vitro treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat, and LPS + heat were identified. The Fayoumi is more disease resistant and heat tolerant than the Leghorn line. Nitric Oxide (NO) production, phagocytic ability, MHC II surface expression and mRNA expression were measured. NO was induced in BMDC from both lines in response to LPS and LPS + heat stimulation; Fayoumi produced more NO with LPS treatment. Fayoumi had higher phagocytic ability and MHC II surface expression. Gene expression for the heat-related genes BAG3, HSP25, HSPA2, and HSPH1 was strongly induced with heat and few differences existed between lines. Expression for the immune-related genes CCL4, CCL5, CD40, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and iNOS was highly induced in response to LPS and different between lines. This research contributes to the sparse knowledge of genetic differences in chicken BMDC biology and function. PMID:27238770

  2. Recognization of receptors on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells bound with Pholiota nameko polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiping; Tao, Yongqing; Zhao, Pei; Ban, Xiaopan; Zhi, Dexian; Li, Guoliang; Wang, Fenlin; Yang, Xiaoli; Huai, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Three major active polysaccharides isolated from Pholiota nameko (PNPS), including PNPS-1, PNPS-2 and PNPS-3, had been proved to inhibit the maturation of the murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). This paper recognized the affinity bind between PNPS and the five receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, Dectin-1 and Mannose receptor) on BMDCs, using the bio-layer interferometry (BLI)-based biosensor technology developed by ForteBio on Octet RED system (Fortebio, Inc.). From the primary binding experiment, the gradient binding experiment and the inhibition binding experiment between the receptor proteins and PNPS, combined with the binding experiment between PNPS and the BMDCs membranes, we found that PNPS-1, PNPS-2 and PNPS-3 presented strong affinity bind with both TLR2 and Dectin-1 on BMDCs, only PNPS-3 with Mannose receptor. These data confirmed that PNPS could interact with TLR2, Dectin-1 and Mannose receptor that were very important for the affinity bind of these receptors and PNPS, which triggered the further stimulation on BMDCs. PMID:25158288

  3. RAT CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION DEPLETES MHC II IN BONE MARROW DERIVED DENDRITIC CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Baca Jones, Carmen C.; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Vomaske, Jennifer; McCartney, Erin; Orloff, Susan L.; Nelson, Jay A.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    While cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects and replicates in a multitude of cell types, the ability of the virus to replicate in antigen presenting cells (APCs) is believed to play a critical role in the viral dissemination and latency. CMV infection of APCs and manipulation of their function is an important area of investigation. CMV down regulation of MHC II is reportedly mediated by the HCMV proteins US2, US3, UL83, UL111a (vIL10) or through the induction of cellular IL10. In this study, we demonstrate that rat CMV (RCMV) significantly reduces MHC II expression by mechanisms that do not involve orthologues of the known HCMV genes nor by an increase in cellular IL10. Rat bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were highly susceptible to infection with RCMV and a recombinant RCMV expressing eGFP. RCMV infection of BMDCs depleted both surface and intracellular MHC II to nearly undetectable levels as well as reduced surface expression of MHC I. The effect on MHC II only occurred in the infected GFP positive cells and is mediated by an immediate early or early viral gene product. Furthermore, treatment of uninfected immature DCs with virus-free conditioned supernatants from infected cells failed to down regulate MHC II. RCMV depletion of MHC II was sensitve to treatment with lysosomal inhibitors but not proteasomal inhibitors suggesting that the mechanism of RCMV mediated down-regulation of MHC II occurs through endocytic degradation. Since RCMV does not encode homologues of US2, US3, UL83 or UL111a, these data indicate a novel mechanism for RCMV depletion of MHC II. PMID:19349057

  4. Bone Marrow Derived Eosinophil Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas X.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional effector cells implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including asthma, eosinophil gastrointestinal disorders and helminth infection. Mouse bone marrow derived progenitor cells can be differentiated into eosinophils following IL-5 exposure. These bone marrow derived eosinophils are fully differentiated at the end of a 14 day culture based on morphology and expression of molecular markers.

  5. Thy-1+ dendritic cells in murine epidermis are bone marrow-derived

    SciTech Connect

    Breathnach, S.M.; Katz, S.I.

    1984-07-01

    Thy-1+, Ly-5+ dendritic cells have recently been described as a resident cell population in murine epidermis, but their ontogeny and function are unknown. The origin and turnover of epidermal Thy-1+ cells utilizing chimeric mice were investigated. Lethally x-irradiated AKR/J (Thy-1.1+) and AKR/Cum (Thy-1.2+) mice were reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells with or without thymocytes from congenic AKR/Cum or AKR/J mice, respectively. The density of residual indigenous Thy-1.1+ cells in AKR/J chimeras and Thy-1.2+ cells in AKR/Cum chimeras was substantially reduced following x-irradiation, as determined by immunofluorescence staining of epidermal sheets. Epidermal repopulation by allogeneic Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells was first observed at 5 weeks in AKR/J chimeras and at 7 weeks in AKR/Cum chimeras and progressed slowly. Repopulation was not enhanced by increasing the number of allogeneic bone marrow cells injected from 2 X 10(7) to 10(8) cells or by the addition of 8 X 10(7) allogeneic thymocytes to the donor inoculate. Epidermal repopulation by allogeneic Thy-1.2+ cells was not seen in AKR/J mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells and allogeneic Thy-1.2+ AKR/Cum thymocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells are derived from the bone marrow and suggest that they are not related to conventional peripheral T-lymphocytes.

  6. Matrine derivate MASM suppresses LPS-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Qi, Yang; Xu, Wei-Heng; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Lie; Wang, Ke-Qi; Hu, Hong-Gang; He, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation process is a crucial step for the development of T cell immune responses and immune tolerance. In this study, we evaluated MASM, a novel derivative of the natural compound matrine that possesses a significant anti-inflammatory and immune-regulating property, for its efficacy to inhibit lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Here we show that MASM profoundly suppresses LPS-induced phenotypic and functional DC maturation. MASM inhibited LPS-induced expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in a concentration-dependent manner. MASM also attenuated LPS-induced IL-12p70, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO release of DCs. The MASM-treated DCs were highly efficient at antigen capture via mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis but showed weak stimulatory capacity for allogeneic T cell proliferation. Furthermore, MASM inhibited LPS-induced PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB pathways. These novel findings provide new insight into the immunopharmacological role of MASM in impacting on the DCs. PMID:27107799

  7. High Physiological Concentrations of Progesterone Reverse Estradiol-Mediated Changes in Differentiation and Functions of Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fangming; Anipindi, Varun C; Nguyen, Philip V; Boudreau, Jeanette; Liang, Hong; Wan, Yonghong; Snider, Denis P; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Female sex steroids, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), play a key role in regulating immune responses in women, including dendritic cell (DC) development, and functions. Although the two hormones co-occur in the body of women throughout the reproductive years, no studies have explored their complex combinatorial effects on DCs, given their ability to regulate each other's actions. We examined murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) differentiation and functions, in the presence of a wide range of physiological concentrations of each hormone, as well as the combination of the two hormones. E2 (10-12 to 10-8M) enhanced the differentiation of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs from BM precursor cells, and promoted the expression of CD40 and MHC Class-II, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, P4 (10-9 to 10-5M) inhibited DC differentiation, but only at the highest concentrations. These effects on BMDCs were observed both in the presence or absence of LPS. When both hormones were combined, higher concentrations of P4, at levels seen in pregnancy (10-6M) reversed the E2 effects, regardless of the concentration of E2, especially in the absence of LPS. Functionally, antigen uptake was decreased and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IL-1 and IL-6 production by CD11b+CD11c+ DCs, was increased in the presence of E2 and these effects were reversed by high concentrations of P4. Our results demonstrate the distinct effects of E2 and P4 on differentiation and functions of bone marrow myeloid DCs. The dominating effect of higher physiological concentrations of P4 provides insight into how DC functions could be modulated during pregnancy. PMID:27064901

  8. High Physiological Concentrations of Progesterone Reverse Estradiol-Mediated Changes in Differentiation and Functions of Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiu, Fangming; Anipindi, Varun C.; Nguyen, Philip V.; Boudreau, Jeanette; Liang, Hong; Wan, Yonghong; Snider, Denis P.; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Female sex steroids, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), play a key role in regulating immune responses in women, including dendritic cell (DC) development, and functions. Although the two hormones co-occur in the body of women throughout the reproductive years, no studies have explored their complex combinatorial effects on DCs, given their ability to regulate each other’s actions. We examined murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) differentiation and functions, in the presence of a wide range of physiological concentrations of each hormone, as well as the combination of the two hormones. E2 (10−12 to 10-8M) enhanced the differentiation of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs from BM precursor cells, and promoted the expression of CD40 and MHC Class-II, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, P4 (10−9 to 10-5M) inhibited DC differentiation, but only at the highest concentrations. These effects on BMDCs were observed both in the presence or absence of LPS. When both hormones were combined, higher concentrations of P4, at levels seen in pregnancy (10-6M) reversed the E2 effects, regardless of the concentration of E2, especially in the absence of LPS. Functionally, antigen uptake was decreased and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IL-1 and IL-6 production by CD11b+CD11c+ DCs, was increased in the presence of E2 and these effects were reversed by high concentrations of P4. Our results demonstrate the distinct effects of E2 and P4 on differentiation and functions of bone marrow myeloid DCs. The dominating effect of higher physiological concentrations of P4 provides insight into how DC functions could be modulated during pregnancy. PMID:27064901

  9. Effects of Pholiota nameko polysaccharide on NF-κB pathway of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiping; Tao, Yongqing; Zhao, Pei; Huai, Lihua; Zhi, Dexian; Liu, Jiangmei; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Chunlan; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a polysaccharide purified from Pholiota nameko (PNPS-1) on the NF-κB signaling pathway of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and relevant mechanisms. The results showed that PNPS-1 could decrease the expression of maturation markers CD40 and CD80 on BMDCs. PNPS-1 also could decrease the mRNA expression of Myd88, TRAF6, TIRAP, IRAKI, IKBKB, NFKB1, NFKB2 and RelA in immature BMDCs determined by RT-PCR, and decreased the IKKβ and P65 production in BMDCs determined by Western blot, and decreased the NF-кB P65 production determined by ELISA. In addition, the effects of PNPS-1 on BMDCs were significantly impaired by treating the cells with anti-TLR2 antibody prior to PNPS-1 treatment, implying direct interaction between PNPS-1 and TLR2 on cell surface. These results indicate that PNPS-1 regulates BMDCs through TLR2 and downstream NF-кB signalings. PMID:25812973

  10. Microscopic examination and cytokine expression of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells following exposure to low pathogenic avian ionfluenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) function as professional antigen presenting cells, and act as sentinels of the immune system. They are a part of the primary immune response to pathogens and help bridge the innate and adaptive immune responses. They are believed to migrate from bone marrow into the blood stre...

  11. Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Transduced by Light-Helper-Dependent Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Amplicon Vector Acquire a Mature Dendritic Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Oz-Arslan, Devrim; Tsitoura, Eliza; Kazazi, Dorothea; Kouvatsis, Vlasis; Epstein, Alberto L; Mavromara, Penelope

    2015-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) turn into the most potent antigen-presenting cells following a complex transforming process, which leads to their maturation. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors represent highly versatile viral vector platforms with the ability to transduce immature DCs at exceedingly high efficiencies, while the efficiency of infection of mature DCs is significantly low. However, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-dependent (BD) amplicon vectors tested so far do not result in the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) in vitro. In this study we investigated the effects of light-helper-dependent (LHD) amplicon vectors produced with the replication-defective HSV-1 LaLΔJ helper virus system. First, we observed that transgene expression in BMDC cultures was equally potent between the LHD and the BD amplicon vectors. We determined that the percentage of transduced cells and the duration of transgene expression were negatively influenced by the presence of increasing levels of helper virus. Second, infection by the LHD amplicon vector as well as the helper HSV-1 LaLΔJ virus alone resulted in the phenotypic maturation of BMDCs and the expression of both interferon-stimulated genes and proinflammatory cytokines. Further comparisons of the gene expression of infected DCs showed that while interferon-stimulated genes such as Ifit1, Ifit3, Mx2, Isg15, and Cxcl10 were induced by both BD and LHD amplicon vectors, early proinflammatory cytokine gene expression (Tnfa, Il1a, Il1b, Il6, Il10, Il12b, Cxcl1, and Cxcl16) and DC maturation were mediated only by the LHD amplicons. PMID:26046494

  12. Natural IgM Switches the Function of Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells to a Regulatory Dendritic Cell That Suppresses Innate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Peter I; Schlegel, Kailo H; Bajwa, Amandeep; Huang, Liping; Kurmaeva, Elvira; Wang, Binru; Ye, Hong; Tedder, Thomas F; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Okusa, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that polyclonal natural IgM protects mice from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) by inhibiting the reperfusion inflammatory response. We hypothesized that a potential mechanism involved IgM modulation of dendritic cells (DC), as we observed high IgM binding to splenic DC. To test this hypothesis, we pretreated bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) with polyclonal murine or human IgM prior to LPS activation and demonstrated that 0.5 × 10(6) IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC, when injected into wild-type C57BL/6 mice 24 h before renal ischemia, protect mice from developing renal IRI. We show that this switching of LPS-activated BMDC to a regulatory phenotype requires modulation of BMDC function that is mediated by IgM binding to nonapoptotic BMDC receptors. Regulatory BMDC require IL-10 and programmed death 1 as well as downregulation of CD40 and p65 NF-κB phosphorylation to protect in renal IRI. Blocking the programmed death ligand 1 binding site just before i.v. injection of IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC or using IL-10 knockout BMDC fails to induce protection. Similarly, IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC are rendered nonprotective by increasing CD40 expression and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. How IgM/LPS regulatory BMDC suppress in vivo ischemia-induced innate inflammation remains to be determined. However, we show that suppression is dependent on other in vivo regulatory mechanisms in the host, that is, CD25(+) T cells, B cells, IL-10, and circulating IgM. There was no increase in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the spleen either before or after renal IRI. Collectively, these findings show that natural IgM anti-leukocyte Abs can switch BMDC to a regulatory phenotype despite the presence of LPS that ordinarily induces BMDC maturation. PMID:26519533

  13. Inhibitory effect of ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on the LPS-stimulated IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Son, Jeong-Hyun; Koo, Jung-Eun; Hong, Hye-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Song, Gyu Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-04-01

    Interleukin-12, a heterodimeric cytokine comprising p40 and p35 subunits, plays an essential role in the regulating the differentiation of Th cells, which establish and maximize the capabilities of the immune system. The aim of present study is to screen the effect of 21 ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Noticeably, ginsenoside Rg(6) (12) and ginsenoside F(4) (13) exhibited particularly inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IL-12 production with the inhibition values of 80 and 82%; and ginsenoside ST(1) (4), ginsenoside SL(2) (8), ginsenoside SL(3) (9), ginsenoside Rh(3) (14), ginsenoside Rk(2) (15), and ginsenoside Rs(4) (18) showed moderate effects with inhibition rates of 63, 65, 67, 68, 71, 73, and 67%, respectively. These results warrant further studies concerning potential of saponin extracts of steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers for medicinal uses. PMID:21544734

  14. Contact-dependent abrogation of bone marrow-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cell differentiation by murine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, Holger; Tschipakow, Inna; Bein, Gregor; Nold, Philipp; Brendel, Cornelia; Baal, Nelli

    2016-07-15

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are rare central regulators of antiviral immunity and unsurpassed producers of interferon-α (IFN-α). Despite their crucial role as a link between innate and adaptive immunity, little is known about the modulation of pDC differentiation by other bone marrow (BM) cells. In this study, we investigated the modulation of pDC differentiation in Flt-3 ligand (Flt3L)-supplemented BM cultures, using highly purified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were FACS-isolated from murine BM based on surface marker expression and used after in vitro expansion. Initial analysis revealed an almost complete inhibition of BM-derived pDC expansion in the presence of >2% MSC. This inhibition was cell contact-dependent and soluble factor-independent, as indicated by trans-well experiments. The abrogation of functional pDC development by MSCs was confirmed after TLR9 stimulation, revealing a complete, contact-dependent suppression of the IFN-a producing capacity of pDCs in Flt3L MSC BM co-cultures. MSC selectively inhibited pDC development in contrast to myeloid DC development, as indicated by the significantly increased numbers of myeloid DC in Flt3L-supplemented BM cultures. The absence of significant MSC-mediated inhibitory effects on myeloid DC differentiation was confirmed by additional experiments in GM-CSF/IL-4-supplemented BM cultures. In summary, we describe a novel contact-dependent immunomodulatory mechanism of MSC that targets the BM-derived expansion of functional pDCs. PMID:27233615

  15. Effects of histamine and its antagonists on murine T-cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiufen; Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of histamine and its antagonists on the surface marker expression of dendritic cells (DCs) and the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), histamine, and histamine receptor antagonists on DCs and T-cells. The bone marrow was extracted from the femurs and tibiae of 6- to 8-week-old female Balb/c mice and cultured in medium containing penicillin, streptomycin, L-glutamine, fetal calf serum, or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) alone or with interleukin (IL)-4. The cells received three different doses of LPS and histamine, plus three different doses of descarboethoxyloratadine (DCL). We assayed the supernatant for various cytokines. The spleen cells of DO11.10 mice were examined by flow cytometry, which included labeling and sorting CD4+ T-cells, as well as coculture of DCs and T-cells with ovalbumin (OVA)323–339 peptide. Histamine or histamine plus DCL did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD11c, CD11b, CD86, and CD80. However, GM-CSF increased the expression of all markers except CD80. Histamine increased interferon-γ production in GM-CSF + IL-4-cultured cells; it also enhanced IL-10 production, but suppressed IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated DCs with no DCL. Cimetidine inhibited IL-10 production and restored IL-12 secretion in LPS-treated DCs. LPS increased IL-10 and decreased IL-12 levels. GM-CSF + IL-4-generated DCs had a stronger stimulatory effect on DO11.10 T-cell proliferation than GM-CSF-generated DCs. Inducible costimulator ligand expression was higher in GM-CSF + IL-4- than in GM-CSF-generated DC groups after 2 days of coculture, but decreased 4 days later. IL-13 production was higher in bone marrow DCs generated with GM-CSF than in those generated with GM-CSF + IL-4. OVA-pulsed DCs and OVA-plus-DCL DCs showed increased IL-12 levels. OVA plus LPS increased both IL-10 and interferon-α. Although histamine or histamine receptor-1 antagonists did not influence DC LPS

  16. Lead effects on development and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells promote Th2 immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Donghong; Mondal, Tapan K.; Lawrence, David A. . E-mail: lawrencd@wadsworth.org

    2007-07-01

    Although lead (Pb) has significant effects on the development and function of macrophages, B cells, and T cells and has been suggested to promote allergic asthma in mice and humans, Pb modulation of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and the resultant DC effects on Th1 and Th2 development have not been examined. Accordingly, we cultured BM cells with murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) {+-} PbCl{sub 2}. At day 10, culture supernatant (SN) and non-adherent cells were harvested for analysis. Additionally, day 10 non-adherent BM-DCs were harvested and recultured with mGM-CSF + LPS {+-} Pb for 2 days. The day 10 Pb exposure significantly inhibited BM-DC generation, based on CD11c expression. Although fewer DCs were generated with Pb, the existing Pb-exposed DCs had significantly greater MHC-II expression than did the non-Pb-exposed DCs. However, these differences diminished upon LPS stimulation. After LPS stimulation, CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54, and MHC-II were all up-regulated on both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs expressed significantly less CD80 than did DCs. The CD86:CD80 ratio suggests a Pb-DC potential for Th2 cell development. After LPS stimulation, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), and TNF-{alpha} levels significantly increased with both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs produced significantly less cytokines than did DCs, except for IL-10, which further supports Pb-DC preferential skewing toward type-2 immunity. In vitro studies confirm that Pb-DCs have the ability to polarize antigen-specific T cells to Th2 cells. Pb-DCs also enhanced allogeneic and autologous T cell proliferation in vitro, and in vivo studies suggested that Pb-DCs inhibited Th1 effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The Pb effect was mainly on DCs, rather than on T cells, and Pb's modification of DC function appears to be the main cause of Pb's promotion of type-2-related immunity, which may relate to Pb's enhanced activation of the Erk/MAP kinase pathway.

  17. Antigen-pulsed bone marrow derived and pulmonary dendritic cells promote Th2 cell responses and immunopathology in lungs during the pathogenesis of murine mycoplasma pneumonia1

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Nicole A.; Zhou, Xia; Pulse, Mark; Hodge, Lisa M.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Simecka, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a common cause of pneumonia in humans and animals, and attempts to create vaccines have not only failed to generate protective host responses, but exacerbated the disease. Mycoplasma pulmonis causes a chronic inflammatory lung disease resulting from a persistent infection, similar to other mycoplasma respiratory diseases. Using this model, Th1 subsets promote resistance to mycoplasma disease and infection, while Th2 responses contribute to immunopathology. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the capacity of cytokine differentiated dendritic cells (DC) populations to influence the generation of protective and/or pathologic immune responses during M. pulmonis respiratory disease in BALB/c mice. We hypothesized that intratracheal inoculation of mycoplasma antigen-pulsed bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) could result in the generation of protective T cell responses during mycoplasma infection. However, intratracheal inoculation (priming) of mice with antigen-pulsed DCs resulted enhanced pathology in the recipient mice when challenged with mycoplasma. Inoculation of immunodeficient SCID mice with antigen-pulsed DCs demonstrated that this effect was dependent on lymphocyte responses. Similar results were observed when mice were primed with antigen-pulsed pulmonary, but not splenic, DCs. Lymphocytes generated in uninfected mice after the transfer of either antigen-pulsed BMDCs or pulmonary DCs were shown to be IL13+ Th2 cells, known to be associated with immunopathology. Thus, resident pulmonary DC most likely promote the development of immunopathology in mycoplasma disease through the generation of mycoplasma-specific Th2 responses. Vaccination strategies that disrupt or bypass this process could potentially result in a more effective vaccination. PMID:24973442

  18. Antitumor immune response of dendritic cells (DCs) expressing tumor-associated antigens derived from induced pluripotent stem cells: in comparison to bone marrow-derived DCs.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiromitsu; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Hayata, Keiji; Katsuda, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Motoki; Iida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masaki; Nakamori, Mikihito; Iwahashi, Makoto; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2014-01-15

    It is generally accepted that the difficulty in obtaining a sufficient number of functional dendritic cells (DCs) is a serious problem in DC-based immunotherapy. Therefore, we used the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived DCs (iPSDCs). If the therapeutic efficacy of iPSDCs is equivalent to that of bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), then the aforementioned problems may be solved. In our study, we induced iPSDCs from iPS cells and examined the capacity for maturation of iPSDCs compared to that of BMDCs in addition to the capacity for migration of iPSDCs to regional lymph nodes. We adenovirally transduced the hgp100 gene, natural tumor antigens, into DCs and immunized mice once with the genetically modified DCs. The cytotoxic activity of CD8 (+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was assayed using a (51) Cr-release assay. The therapeutic efficacy of the vaccination was examined in a subcutaneous tumor model. Our results showed that iPSDCs have an equal capacity to BMDCs in terms of maturation and migration. Furthermore, hgp100-specific CTLs were generated in mice immunized with genetically modified iPSDCs. These CTLs exhibited as high a level of cytotoxicity against B16 cells as BMDCs. Moreover, vaccination with the genetically modified iPSDCs achieved as high a level of therapeutic efficacy as vaccination with BMDCs. Our study clarified experimentally that genetically modified iPSDCs have an equal capacity to BMDCs in terms of tumor-associated antigen-specific therapeutic antitumor immunity. This vaccination strategy may therefore be useful for future clinical application as a cancer vaccine. PMID:23824921

  19. Pleurotus ferulae water extract enhances the maturation and function of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells through TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyao; Wang, Xinhui; Wang, Weilan; Luo, JiaoJiao; Aipire, Adila; Li, Jinyu; Zhang, Fuchun

    2015-04-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in the regulation of immune system, which link innate and adaptive immune responses. Mature DCs produced interleukin (IL)-12 promote optimal type 1 T helper (Th1) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The extracts of traditional herbal medicines have been shown to enhance immune responses through promoting the maturation and cytokine production of DCs. Here, we investigated the effects of Pleurotus ferulae water extract (PFWE) on the maturation and function of bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs). Upon PFWE treatment, BM-DCs dose-dependently upregulated the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC II and increased the production of IL-12, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α but not for IL-10, which is mediated by TLR4 signaling pathway, at least partially. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in BM-DCs was decreased by the treatment of PFWE. Moreover, PFWE treatment decreased the expression of active caspase-3 but increased the expression of CCR7. PFWE treated DCs enhanced the proliferation of allogenic CD8(+) T cells and the capacity of antigen presenting to autologous CD8(+) T cells. The combination of PFWE and CpG-ODN further enhanced the maturation and function of murine BM-DCs. The results showed that PFWE could enhance the maturation and function of DCs through TLR4 signaling pathway and has additive effect when combined with CpG-ODN, suggesting that PFWE alone or combined with CpG-ODN could be used to enhance the immune responses. PMID:25748337

  20. Genetic response and morphologic characterization of chicken bone-marrow derived dendritic cells during infection with high and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that function to initiate primary immune responses. Progenitors of DCs are derived from haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) that migrate in non-lymphoid tissues to develop into immature DCs. Here, they ...

  1. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand is required for thymic dendritic cell generation from bone marrow-derived CD117⁺ hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunyun; Jiang, Dong; Hu, Yizhou; Li, Yiping; Zhang, Xueguang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Thymic dendritic cells (TDCs) are a type of dendritic cell (DC) in the thymus, which can enhance the proliferation of thymic T lymphocytes, regulate negative selection and induce central tolerance through autoantigen presentation. However, further investigations using TDCs has been restricted due to insufficient numbers. Therefore, an effective expansion method for TDCs in vitro is urgently required to further examine their biological characteristics. In the present study, a novel system was established using fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC) and a hanging drop culture system in the presence of fms‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), termed the Flt3L/FTOC system. TDCs were successfully generated and expanded from CD117+ bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conventional DCs (cDCs; CD11c+B220‑ DCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs; CD11c+B220+ DCs) were found in the TDCs generated using the Flt3L/FTOC system. These cells exhibited the specific morphological features of DCs, which were confirmed using Giemsa staining. Furthermore, the cytokine and surface marker profiles were also analyzed. Higher expression levels of interferon‑α and interleukin‑12 were observed in the pDCs, compared with the cDCs, and higher expression levels of toll‑like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 were found in the pDCs than in the cDCs. In addition, the Flt3L/FTOC‑derived TDCs also exhibited the ability to stimulate the allogenic T cell response. In conclusion, a novel in vitro culture system of thymic cDCs and pDCs using Flt3L was established, and this may provide a methodological basis for understanding the properties of TDCs. PMID:26397863

  2. MicroRNA-155 Mediates Augmented CD40 Expression in Bone Marrow Derived Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Symptomatic Lupus-Prone NZB/W F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Sheng; Yim, Lok Yan; Tam, Rachel Chun Yee; Chan, Albert; Lu, Liwei; Lau, Chak Sing; Chan, Vera Sau-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactivated immune responses to self-antigens and persistent systemic inflammation. Previously, we reported abnormalities in circulating and bone marrow (BM)-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from SLE patients. Here, we aim to seek for potential regulators that mediate functional aberrations of pDCs in SLE. BM-derived pDCs from NZB/W F1 mice before and after the disease onset were compared for toll-like receptor (TLR) induced responses and microRNA profile changes. While pDCs derived from symptomatic mice were phenotypically comparable to pre-symptomatic ones, functionally they exhibited hypersensitivity to TLR7 but not TLR9 stimulation, as represented by the elevated upregulation of CD40, CD86 and MHC class II molecules upon R837 stimulation. Upregulated induction of miR-155 in symptomatic pDCs following TLR7 stimulation was observed. Transfection of miR-155 mimics in pre-symptomatic pDCs induced an augmented expression of Cd40, which is consistent with the increased CD40 expression in symptomatic pDCs. Overall, our results provide evidence for miR-155-mediated regulation in pDC functional abnormalities in SLE. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of SLE pathogenesis and ignite future interests in evaluating the molecular regulation in autoimmunity. PMID:27509492

  3. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Inhibits Flt3L/GM-CSF-induced-bone Marrow-derived CD103+ Dendritic Cell Differentiation Regulating Phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ah-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ji; Jeong, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal immune system maintains oral tolerance to harmless antigens or nutrients. One mechanism of oral tolerance is mediated by regulatory T cell (Treg)s, of which differentiation is regulated by a subset of dendritic cell (DC)s, primarily CD103+ DCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, plays an important role in regulating immunity. The intestines are exposed to various AhR ligands, including endogenous metabolites and phytochemicals. It was previously reported that AhR activation induced tolerogenic DCs in mice or in cultures of bone marrow-derived DCs. However, given the variety of tolerogenic DCs, which type of tolerogenic DCs is regulated by AhR remains unknown. In this study, we found that AhR ligand 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) inhibited the development of CD103+ DCs from mouse bone marrow cells stimulated with Flt3L and GM-CSF. DIM interfered with phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 inhibiting the expression of genes, including Id2, E2-2, IDO-1, and Aldh1a2, which are associated with DC differentiation and functions. Finally, DIM suppressed the ability of CD103+ DCs to induce Foxp3+ Tregs. PMID:26770182

  4. A Method for Generation of Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages from Cryopreserved Mouse Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Djalma S.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2010-01-01

    The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells. PMID:21179419

  5. 4-Hydroxy-2,3-Dimethyl-2-Nonen-4-Olide Has an Inhibitory Effect on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in CpG-Stimulated Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Zahid; Koo, Jung-Eun; Ali, Irshad; Kim, Jung-Eun; Byeon, Sang-Hee; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Hyun, Jin-Won; Lee, Nam-Ho; Koh, Young-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-2-nonen-4-olide (Comp) isolated from Ulva pertusa Kjellman on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Comp revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Comp pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDCs exhibited strong inhibition of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-6 production with IC50 values ranging from 7.57 ± 0.2 to 10.83 ± 0.3, respectively. It revealed an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. Comp displayed noteworthy inhibitory effects on phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and on NF-κB reporter activity. In summary, these data propose that Comp has substantial anti-inflammatory properties and warrants further study concerning its potential use as a therapeutic agent for inflammation-associated maladies. PMID:27153074

  6. 4-Hydroxy-2,3-Dimethyl-2-Nonen-4-Olide Has an Inhibitory Effect on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in CpG-Stimulated Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Zahid; Koo, Jung-Eun; Ali, Irshad; Kim, Jung-Eun; Byeon, Sang-Hee; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Hyun, Jin-Won; Lee, Nam-Ho; Koh, Young-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-2-nonen-4-olide (Comp) isolated from Ulva pertusa Kjellman on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Comp revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Comp pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDCs exhibited strong inhibition of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-6 production with IC50 values ranging from 7.57 ± 0.2 to 10.83 ± 0.3, respectively. It revealed an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. Comp displayed noteworthy inhibitory effects on phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and on NF-κB reporter activity. In summary, these data propose that Comp has substantial anti-inflammatory properties and warrants further study concerning its potential use as a therapeutic agent for inflammation-associated maladies. PMID:27153074

  7. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contribute to Fibrosis in the Chronically Failing Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Po-Yin; Mariani, Justin; Finch, Samara; McMullen, Julie R.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Marshall, Tanneale; Kaye, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis contributes significantly to the phenotype of the chronically failing heart. It is not clear whether in this setting the fibrosis is contributed by native cardiac fibroblasts or alternatively by recruitment of cells arising from the bone marrow. We aimed to determine the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to cardiac fibrosis in the failing heart and to investigate potentially contributing cytokines. Bone marrow-derived fibrocyte recruitment to the failing heart was studied in a transgenic (Mst1 mice) model of dilated cardiomyopathy. In conjunction, we examined the role of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), a key chemoattractant, by assessing myocardial expression and secretion by cardiomyocytes and in clinical samples. Bone marrow-derived cells were recruited in significantly greater numbers in Mst1 versus control mice (P < 0.001), contributing 17 ± 4% of the total fibroblast load in heart failure. Patients with heart failure had higher plasma levels of SDF-1 than healthy control subjects (P < 0.01). We found that cardiomyocytes constitutively secrete SDF-1, which is significantly up-regulated by angiotensin II. SDF-1 was shown to increases cardiac fibroblast migration by 59% (P < 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells under the influence of factors, including SDF-1, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis in heart failure. PMID:20150435

  8. Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting. PMID:12567137

  9. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  10. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, He; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-08

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a {sup 137}Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that

  11. Cigarette smoke inhibits recruitment of bone-marrow-derived stem cells to the uterus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuping; Gan, Ye; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to female infertility and a decreased incidence of endometriosis. Bone marrow derived stem cells are recruited to uterine endometrium and endometriosis. The effect of cigarette smoking on stem cell recruitment to any organ is uncharacterized. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to the uterus and differentiation would be diminished by cigarette smoke. We used human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in vitro and a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure. After myeloablation female C57BL/6J received bone marrow cells from males. Mice were exposed to room air or smoke from unfiltered cigarettes. Immunofluorescence and Y-FISH was performed on uterine sections. In vitro hMSCs were treated with 8-Br-cAMP to induce endometrial cell differentiation with or without cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and decidualization assessed morphologically and by prolactin expression. After 4 weeks the total number of Y-chromosome cells in the uterus was reduced by 68% in the smoke exposed mice. Both leukocytes and bone marrow derived endometrial cells were reduced by 60% and 73%, respectively. Differentiation of bone marrow derived cell to endometrial epithelial cells was reduced by 84%. hMSC treated with CSE failed to show cytological characteristics of decidualization. mRNA levels of the decidualization marker prolactin were decreased by 90% in CSE treated cells. Smoking inhibits both recruitment of bone marrow derived stem cells to uterus and stem cell differentiation. Inhibition of stem cells recruitment may be a general mechanism by which smoking leads to long term organ damage through inability to repair or regenerate multiple tissues. PMID:20955787

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells: a Mixed Blessing in the Multifaceted World of Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the main economic burdens in health care, which threatens to worsen dramatically if prevalence forecasts are correct. What makes diabetes harmful is the multi-organ distribution of its microvascular and macrovascular complications. Regenerative medicine with cellular therapy could be the dam against life-threatening or life-altering complications. Bone marrow-derived stem cells are putative candidates to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, the bone marrow itself is affected by diabetes, as it can develop a microangiopathy and neuropathy similar to other body tissues. Neuropathy leads to impaired stem cell mobilization from marrow, the so-called mobilopathy. Here, we review the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in diabetes: how they are affected by compromised bone marrow integrity, how they contribute to other diabetic complications, and how they can be used as a treatment for these. Eventually, we suggest new tactics to optimize stem cell therapy. PMID:27025211

  13. Adeno associated viral-mediated intraosseous labeling of bone marrow derived cells for CNS tracking.

    PubMed

    Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Reid, Patrick; Pena, Gabriela; Alvarez, Jennifer; Hunt, Jerry B; Nash, Kevin R; Morgan, Dave; Gordon, Marcia N; Lee, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation, including microglial activation in the CNS, is an important hallmark in many neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial stimuli not only impact the brain microenvironment by production and release of cytokines and chemokines, but also influence the activity of bone marrow derived cells and blood born macrophage populations. In many diseases including brain disorders and spinal cord injury, researchers have tried to harbor the neuroprotective and repair properties of these subpopulations. Hematopoietic bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) are of great interest, especially during gene therapy because certain hematopoietic cell subpopulations traffic to the sites of injury and inflammation. The aim of this study was to develop a method of labeling endogenous bone marrow derived cells through intraosseous impregnation of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) or lentivirus. We utilized rAAV serotype 9 (rAAV-9) or lentivirus for gene delivery of green florescence protein (GFP) to the mouse bone marrow cells. Flow cytometry showed that both viruses were able to efficiently transduce mouse bone marrow cells in vivo. However, the rAAV9-GFP viral construct transduced BMDCs more efficiently than the lentivirus (11.2% vs. 6.8%), as indicated by cellular GFP expression. We also demonstrate that GFP labeled cells correspond to bone marrow cells of myeloid origin using CD11b as a marker. Additionally, we characterized the ability of bone marrow derived, GFP labeled cells to extravasate into the brain parenchyma upon acute and subchronic neuroinflammatory stimuli in the mouse CNS. Viral mediated over expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or intracranial injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recruited GFP labeled BMDCs from the periphery into the brain parenchyma compared to vehicle treated mice. Altogether our findings demonstrate a useful method of labeling endogenous BMDCs via viral transduction and the ability to track subpopulations throughout the body

  14. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carla P; Rankin, Sara M

    2011-07-01

    Adult bone marrow contains a number of discrete populations of progenitor cells, including endothelial, mesenchymal, and epithelial progenitor cells and fibrocytes. In the context of a range of diseases, endothelial progenitor cells have been reported to promote angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells are potent immunosuppressors but can also contribute directly to tissue regeneration, and fibrocytes have been shown to induce tissue fibrosis. This article provides an overview of the basic biology of these different subsets of progenitor cells, reporting their distinct phenotypes and functional activities. The differences in their secretomes are highlighted, and the relative role of cellular differentiation vs paracrine effects of progenitor cells is considered. The article reviews the literature examining the contribution of progenitor cells to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, and discusses recent studies using bone marrow progenitor cells as stem cell therapies in the context of pulmonary hypertension, COPD, and asthma. PMID:21729891

  15. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and radiation response.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Joel S; Epperly, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The recovery of tissues and organs from ionizing irradiation is critically dependent on the repopulation of resident stem cells, defined as the subset of cells with capacity for both self-renewal and differentiation. Stem cells of both hematopoietic and epithelial origin reside in defined areas of the cellular microenvironment (recently defined as the stem cell "niche"). Experiments using serial repopulation assays in serial generations of total body irradiated mice receiving transplanted marrow and in continuous bone marrow cultures both identified specific microanatomic sites that comprise the bone marrow stem cell niche. Supportive cells of the hematopoietic microenvironment not only contribute to stem cell repopulation capacity but also to the maintenance of their quiescent or nonproliferative state, which allows the most primitive hematopoietic stem cells to stay in a noncycling state protected from both direct ionizing radiation-induced cell-cycle phase-specific killing and indirect cytokine and free radical mediated killing. Recent evidence has defined both cell contact and humoral mechanisms of protection of hematopoietic stem cells by stromal cells. There is also recent evidence for multilineage differentiation capacity of cells of the hematopoietic microenvironment termed bone marrow stromal cells (mesenchymal stem cells). Both hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cell populations have been shown to be involved in the repair of ionizing irradiation damage of distant epithelial as well as other hematopoietic sites through their capacity to migrate through the circulation. The radiobiology of these 2 bone marrow stem cell populations is the subject of intense investigation. This review defines the status of research in the areas of stem cell quiescence, niche contact, and migratory responses to ionizing irradiation. PMID:19249651

  16. Chronic foot-shock stress potentiates the influx of bone marrow-derived microglia into hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Brevet, Marie; Kojima, Hideto; Asakawa, Akihiro; Atsuchi, Kaori; Ushikai, Miharu; Ataka, Koji; Inui, Akio; Kimura, Hiroshi; Sevestre, Henri; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2010-07-01

    For several years, a new population of microglia derived from bone marrow has been described in multiple settings such as infection, trauma, and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the migration of bone marrow-derived cells to the brain parenchyma after stress exposure. Stress exposure was performed in mice that had received bone marrow transplantation from GFP mice, allowing identification of blood-derived elements within the brain. Electric foot-shock exposure was chosen because of its ability to serve as fundamental and physical stress in mice. Bone marrow-derived GFP(+) cells migrated to the ventral part of the hippocampus and acquired a ramified microglia-like morphology. Microglia marker Iba1 was expressed by 100% of the ramified cells, whereas ramified cells were negative for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Compared with the case in the control group, ramified cells significantly increased after chronic exposure to stress (5 days). One month after 5 days of stress exposure, ramified cells significantly decreased in ventral hippocampus compared with the group examined immediately after the last stress exposure. We report for the first time the migration of bone marrow-derived cells to the ventral hippocampus after stress exposure. These cells have the characteristics of microglia. Mechanisms responsible for this migration and their roles in the brain remain to be determined. PMID:20155811

  17. Adipose lineage specification of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy; Erickson, Paul F.; Kong, Raymond; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Nemenoff, Raphael; Moldovan, Radu; Morandi, Shelley A.; Davis, James A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported the production of white adipocytes in adipose tissue from hematopoietic progenitors arising from bone marrow. However, technical challenges have hindered detection of this adipocyte population by certain other laboratories. These disparate results highlight the need for sensitive and definitive techniques to identify bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes. In these studies we exploited new models and methods to enhance detection of this adipocyte population. Here we showed that confocal microscopy with spectrum acquisition could effectively identify green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive BMP-derived adipocytes by matching their fluorescence spectrum to that of native GFP. Likewise, imaging flow cytometry made it possible to visualize intact unilocular and multilocular GFP-positive BMP-derived adipocytes and distinguished them from non-fluorescent adipocytes and cell debris in the cytometer flow stream. We also devised a strategy to detect marker genes in flow-enriched adipocytes from which stromal cells were excluded. This technique also proved to be an efficient means for detecting genetically labeled adipocytes and should be applicable to models in which marker gene expression is low or absent. Finally, in vivo imaging of mice transplanted with BM from adipocyte-targeted luciferase donors showed a time-dependent increase in luciferase activity, with the bulk of luciferase activity confined to adipocytes rather than stromal cells. These results confirmed and extended our previous reports and provided proof-of-principle for sensitive techniques and models for detection and study of these unique cells. PMID:23700536

  18. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

    1987-11-01

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Gisela; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hofmeister-Mielke, Nicole; Koczan, Dirk; Jaster, Robert; Liebe, Stefan; Wolff, Daniel; Emmrich, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model of stable hematopoietic chimerism by grafting enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-expressing BM cells after irradiation of acceptor rats. Chimerism was detected by FACS analysis of eGFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was used to induce acute pancreatic inflammation with subsequent recovery over 4 weeks. Investigations have been focused on isolated cells to detect the resting PSC population. The incidence of eGFP-positive PSC obtained from the pancreas of chimeric rats was approximately 7% in healthy pancreatic tissue and increased significantly to a mean of 18% in the restored pancreas 4 weeks after DBTC-induced acute inflammation. Our results suggest that BM-derived progenitor cells represent a source of renewable stellate cells in the pancreas. Increased numbers of resting PSCs after regeneration point toward enhanced recruitment of BM-derived cells to the pancreas and/or re-acquisition of a quiescent state after inflammation-induced activation. PMID:20101265

  20. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R; Centonze, Victoria E; Waite, Lindsay L; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2009-02-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2(-/-) mice into irradiated WT or CCR2(-/-) host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2(-/-) BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34(+)/Sca-1(-)/CD45(-) cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2(-/-) BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

  1. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  2. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in the Pathogenesis of Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bethany B.; Thannickal, Victor J.; Toews, Galen B.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by failed alveolar reepithelialization and fibroblast/myofibroblast accumulation, with deposition of extracellular matrix. This results in loss of lung elasticity, alveolar collapse and fibrosis, impaired gas exchange and progressive decline in pulmonary function. Myofibroblasts represent an activated, contractile cellular phenotype that are potent producers of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. It is generally thought that myofibroblasts derive from local tissue fibroblasts. However, recent evidence suggests a portion of the progenitors for these cells may arise from the bone marrow. Fibrocytes, which share both leukocyte and mesenchymal markers, are found in increased numbers in bone marrow and lung of injured mice. Fibrocytes circulate in blood and are recruited to injured sites via chemotactic signals. Studies with bone marrow chimeric and parabiotic mice suggest that fibroblasts (and in some cases myofibroblasts) arise from circulating bone marrow precursors. Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions are critical for the recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitors. Once fibrocytes arrive in injured tissues, local factors induce their differentiation into fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. This review will summarize the experimental findings, supporting a role for the participation of bone marrow-derived cells in animal models of lung fibrosis, and potential implications for the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung diseases.

  3. Effect of autologous bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration or not in the treatment of peri-implant defects.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F V; Suaid, F F; Ruiz, K G S; Rodrigues, T L; Carvalho, M D; Nociti, F H; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration in the treatment of dehiscence bone defects around dental implants. Iliac-derived bone marrow cells were harvested from dogs and phenotypically characterized with regard to their osteogenic properties. After teeth extraction, three implant sites were drilled, dehiscences created and implants placed. Dehiscences were randomly assigned to: bone marrow-derived cells, bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration, and control (no treatment). After 3 months, implants with adjacent tissues were processed histologically, bone-to-implant contact, bone fill within the threads, new bone area in a zone lateral to the implant, new bone height, and new bone weight at the bottom of the defect were determined. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells presented osteogenic potential. Statistically higher bone fill within the threads was observed in both bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration bone marrow-derived cell groups compared with the control group (P<0.05), with no difference between the groups treated with cells (P>0.05). For the other parameters (new bone area, bone-to-implant contact, new bone height and new bone weight), only the bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration group presented higher values compared with the non-treated control (P<0.05). Bone marrow-derived cells provided promising results for peri-implantar bone regeneration, although the combined approach seems to be relevant, especially to bone formation out of the implant threads. PMID:21924867

  4. Repopulation of the Irradiation Damaged Lung with Bone Marrow-derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Mark E.; Kim, Hyun; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Stone, Brandon; Salimi, Umar; Rwigema, Jean-Claude; Epperly, Michael W.; Shen, Hongmei; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Cao, Shaonan; Zhang, Xichen; Wang, Hong; Stolz, Donna B.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The effect of lung irradiation on reduction of lung stem cells and repopulation with bone marrow-derived cells was measured. Materials and Methods Expression of green fluorescent protein positive cells (GFP+) in the lungs of thoracic irradiated FVB/NHsd mice (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, IN, USA) was determined. This was compared to the repopulation of bone marrow-derived cells found in the lungs from naphthalene treated male FVB/NHsd mice and gangciclovir (GVC) treated FeVBN GFP+ male marrow chimeric HSV-TK-CCSP. The level of mRNA for lung stem cell markers clara cell (CCSP), epithelium 1 (FOXJ1) and surfactant protein C (SP-C), and sorted single cells positive for marrow origin epithelial cells (GFP+ CD45−) was measured. Results The expression of pulmonary stem cells as determined by PCR was reduced most by GCV, then naphthalene, and least by thoracic irradiation. Irradiation, like GCV, reduced mRNA expression of CCSP, CYP2F2, and FOXJ1, while naphthalene reduced that of CCSP and CYP2F2. Ultrastructural analysis showed GFP+ pulmonary cells of bone marrow origin, with the highest frequency being found in GCV-treated groups. Conclusion Bone marrow progenitor cells may not participate in the repopulation of the lung following irradiation. PMID:22210711

  5. Onset of apoprotein E secretion during differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-10-01

    A number of macrophage functions were sequentially expressed when the bone marrow precursors of mononuclear phagocytes differentiated in culture in the presence of a specific growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1. The authors defined the expression of apoprotein E (ApoE), a major secreted protein of resident peritoneal macrophages, during maturation of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes into macrophages. By 5 d the bone marrow macrophages were active secretory cells, but few cells contained intracellular immunoreactive ApoE, and little, if any, ApoE was secreted. ApoE secretion was initiated at 9 d, and this correlated with an increase in the percentage of macrophages containing intracellular ApoE. The onset of ApoE secretion was selective, and little change occurred in the other major secreted proteins detected by (/sup 35/S)methionine incorporation. In parallel, the high rate of plasminogen activator secretion, which peaked at 7 d, decreased markedly. ApoE secretion was not associated with altered expression of the macrophage surface antigen, la, or with secretion of fibronectin. Virtually all cells in independent colonies of bone marrow-derived macrophages eventually expressed ApoE. The proliferating monocyte/macrophage-like cell lines P388D1, J774.2, WHEI-3, RAW 264.1, and MGI.D/sup +/ secreted little or no ApoE. These data establish that ApoE secretion is developmentally regulated.

  6. Quercetin protects against high glucose-induced damage in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Du, Yu-Jun; Chen, Lei; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Pan, Yue-Hai; Liu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a group of bone marrow-derived pro-angiogenic cells, contribute to vascular repair after damage. EPC dysfunction exists in diabetes and results in poor wound healing in diabetic patients with trauma or surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of quercetin, a natural flavonoid on high glucose‑induced damage in EPCs. Treatment with high glucose (40 mM) decreased cell viability and migration, and increased oxidant stress, as was evidenced by the elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase in bone marrow-derived EPCs. Moreover, high glucose reduced the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, nitric oxide (NO) production and intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Quercetin supplement protected against high glucose‑induced impairment in cell viability, migration, oxidant stress, eNOS phosphorylation, NO production and cGMP levels. Quercetin also increased Sirt1 expression in EPCs. Inhibition of Sirt1 by a chemical antagonist sirtinol abolished the protective effect of quercetin on eNOS phosphorylation, NO production and cGMP levels following high glucose stress. To the best of our knowledge, the results provide the first evidence that quercetin protects against high glucose‑induced damage by inducing Sirt1-dependent eNOS upregulation in EPCs, and suggest that quercetin is a promising therapeutic agent for diabetic patients undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures. PMID:25197782

  7. The fate of transplanted xenogeneic bone marrow-derived stem cells in rat intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aiqun; Tao, Helen; Chung, Sylvia A; Brisby, Helena; Ma, David D; Diwan, Ashish D

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is a major cause and a risk factor for chronic low back pain. The potential of using stem cells to treat disc degeneration has been raised. The aims of our study were to assess whether xenogeneic bone-marrow derived stem cells could survive in a rat disc degeneration model and to determine which cell types, if any, survived and differentiated into disc-like cells. Human bone-marrow derived CD34(+) (hematopoietic progenitor cells) and CD34(-) (nonhematopoietic progenitor cells, including mesenchymal stem cells) cells were isolated, fluorescent-labeled, and injected into rat coccygeal discs. The rats were sacrificed at day 1, 10, 21, and 42. Treated discs were examined by histological and immunostaining techniques and compared to control discs. The survival of transplanted cells was further confirmed with a human nuclear specific marker. Fluorescent labeled CD34(-) cells were detected until day 42 in the nucleus pulposus of the injected discs. After 3 weeks these cells had differentiated into cells expressing chondrocytic phenotype (Collagen II and Sox-9). In contrast, the fluorescent labeled CD34(+) cells could not be detected after day 21. No fluorescence-positive cells were detected in the noninjected control discs. Further, no inflammatory cells infiltrated the nucleus pulposus, even though these animals had not received immunosuppressive treatment. Our data provide evidence that transplanted human BM CD34(-) cells survived and differentiated within the relative immune privileged nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:18853431

  8. Intravitreal Implantation of Genetically Modified Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Retinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher J; Sanders, Douglas N; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Jensen, Cheryl A; Castaner, Leilani J; Kirk, Mark D; Katz, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    A number of retinal degenerative diseases may be amenable to treatment with continuous intraocular delivery of therapeutic agents that cannot be delivered effectively to the retina via systemic or topical administration. Among these disorders are lysosomal storage diseases resulting from deficiencies in soluble lysosomal enzymes. Most cells, including those of the retina, are able to take up these enzymes and incorporate them in active form into their lysosomes. In theory, therefore, continuous intraocular administration of a normal form of a soluble lysosomal enzyme should be able to cure the molecular defect in the retinas of subjects lacking this enzyme. Experiments were conducted to determine whether genetically modified bone marrow-derived stem cells implanted into the vitreous could be used as -vehicles for continuous delivery of such enzymes to the retina. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from normal mice were implanted into the vitreous of mice undergoing retinal degeneration as a result of a mutation in the PPT1 gene. The implanted cells appeared to survive indefinitely in the vitreous without proliferating or invading the retina. This indicates that intravitreal implantation of MSCs is likely a safe means of long-term delivery of proteins synthesized by the implanted cells. Experiments have been initiated to test the efficacy of using genetically modified autologous MSCs to inhibit retinal degeneration in a canine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26427461

  9. Intravitreal Implantation of Genetically Modified Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Retinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Christopher J.; Sanders, Douglas N.; Bryan, Jeffrey N.; Jensen, Cheryl A.; Castaner, Leilani J.; Kirk, Mark D.; Katz, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    A number of retinal degenerative diseases may be amenable to treatment with continuous intraocular delivery of therapeutic agents that cannot be delivered effectively to the retina via systemic or topical administration. Among these disorders are lysosomal storage diseases resulting from deficiencies in soluble lysosomal enzymes. Most cells, including those of the retina, are able to take up these enzymes and incorporate them in active form into their lysosomes. In theory, therefore, continuous intraocular administration of a normal form of a soluble lysosomal enzyme should be able to cure the molecular defect in the retinas of subjects lacking this enzyme. Experiments were conducted to determine whether genetically modified bone marrow-derived stem cells implanted into the vitreous could be used as vehicles for continuous delivery of such enzymes to the retina. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from normal mice were implanted into the vitreous of mice undergoing retinal degeneration as a result of a mutation in the PPT1 gene. The implanted cells appeared to survive indefinitely in the vitreous without proliferating or invading the retina. This indicates that intravitreal implantation of MSCs is likely a safe means of long-term delivery of proteins synthesized by the implanted cells. Experiments have been initiated to test the efficacy of using genetically modified autologous MSCs to inhibit retinal degeneration in a canine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26427461

  10. Impact of parathyroid hormone on bone marrow-derived stem cell mobilization and migration.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bruno C; Grabmaier, Ulrich; Brunner, Stefan

    2014-11-26

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is well-known as the principal regulator of calcium homeostasis in the human body and controls bone metabolism via actions on the survival and activation of osteoblasts. The intermittent administration of PTH has been shown to stimulate bone production in mice and men and therefore PTH administration has been recently approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. Besides to its physiological role in bone remodelling PTH has been demonstrated to influence and expand the bone marrow stem cell niche where hematopoietic stem cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentiation, reside. Moreover, intermittent PTH treatment is capable to induce mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. This novel function of PTH on modulating the activity of the stem cell niche in the bone marrow as well as on mobilization and regeneration of bone marrow-derived stem cells offers new therapeutic options in bone marrow and stem cell transplantation as well as in the field of ischemic disorders. PMID:25426261

  11. Suppression of ornithine decarboxylase promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yo-Hsian; Lin, Kuan-Lian; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chen, Yuhsin; Sie, Min-Hua; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2015-07-22

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis. Suppression of ODC by its irreversible inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), or by RNA interference through siRNA, enhanced osteogenic gene expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and accelerated matrix mineralization of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Besides, adipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation was attenuated, indicating that the enhanced osteogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of adipogenesis when ODC was suppressed. A decrease in the intracellular polyamine content of hBMSCs during osteogenic induction was observed, suggesting that the level of endogenous polyamines is regulated during differentiation of hBMSCs. This study elucidates the role of polyamine metabolism in the lineage commitment of stem cells and provides a potential new indication for DFMO as bone-stimulating drug. PMID:26140984

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo H; Silva-Junior, Almir J; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F

    2016-01-01

    Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized. PMID:26649049

  13. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A.; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo H.; Silva-Junior, Almir J.; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M.; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized. PMID:26649049

  14. Use of bone marrow derived stem cells in trauma and orthopaedics: A review of current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pastides, Philip S; Welck, Matthew J; Khan, Wasim S

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of interest in the future role of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) and tissue engineering techniques to manage conditions within the musculoskeletal system. Repair of soft tissue and bone defects, in the early stages of injury, may lead to a reduction in progression of symptoms. Furthermore, troublesome soft tissue injuries that are notoriously fraught with problems either in healing or function, could be augmented with such techniques. The aim of this review paper is to look at the advances in such strategies to tackle these problems and assess how BMDSCs, with the aid of growth factors and scaffolds, are being used in vitro, animal and even human models to treat problems within the field of trauma and orthopaedics. There is plenty of evidence that the results are encouraging and thus gaining momentum toward their use in human studies. PMID:26191493

  15. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus; Kastrup, Jens; Baandrup, Ulrik; Zachar, Vladimir; Fink, Trine; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal MI models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of MI using a fully grown non-immune-compromised rat model. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive intramyocardial injections of adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, or phosphate-buffered saline 1 week following induction of MI. After 4 weeks, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was improved in the adipose-derived stem cell group, and scar wall thickness was greater compared with the saline group. Adipose-derived as well as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevented left ventricular end diastolic dilation. Neither of the cell groups displayed increased angiogenesis in the myocardium compared with the saline group. Adipose-derived stem cells from a human ischemic patient preserved cardiac function following MI, whereas this could not be demonstrated for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, with only adipose-derived stem cells leading to an improvement in LVEF. Neither of the stem cell types induced myocardial angiogenesis, raising the question whether donor age and health have an effect on the efficacy of stem cells used in the treatment of MI. PMID:23211469

  16. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit gastric aspiration lung injury and inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Jiang, Liyan; Long, Xuan; Fu, Cuiping; Wang, Xiangdong; Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zilong; Zhu, Fen; Shi, Jindong; Li, Shanqun

    2016-09-01

    Gastric aspiration lung injury is one of the most common clinical events. This study investigated the effects of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on combined acid plus small non-acidified particle (CASP)-induced aspiration lung injury. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+) ) or EGFP(-) BMSCs or 15d-PGJ2 were injected via the tail vein into rats immediately after CASP-induced aspiration lung injury. Pathological changes in lung tissues, blood gas analysis, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung, levels of total proteins and number of total cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment significantly reduced alveolar oedema, exudation and lung inflammation; increased the arterial partial pressure of oxygen; and decreased the W/D of the lung, the levels of total proteins and the number of total cells and neutrophils in BALF in the rats with CASP-induced lung injury. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and the expression of p-p65 and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and 15d-PGJ2 and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in the lung tissue in CASP-induced rats. Tumour necrosis factor-α stimulated BMSCs to secrete 15d-PGJ2 . A tracking experiment showed that EGFP(+) BMSCs were able to migrate to local lung tissues. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 also significantly inhibited CASP-induced lung inflammation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results show that BMSCs can protect lung tissues from gastric aspiration injury and inhibit lung inflammation in rats. A beneficial effect might be achieved through BMSC-derived 15d-PGJ2 activation of the PPAR-γ receptor, reducing the production of

  17. The healing effect of bone marrow-derived stem cells in acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Shekoohi-Shooli, Fatemeh; Aghamir, Seyed Mahmood Reza; Mehrabani, Davood; Dehghanian, Amirreza; Zare, Shahrokh; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on regeneration of bone marrow and intestinal tissue and survival rate in experimental mice with acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Methods: Forty mice were randomly divided into two equal groups of A receiving no BMSC transplantation and B receiving BMSCs. BMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow and cultured in DMEM media. Both groups were irradiated with 10 Gy (dose rate 0.28 Gy/ min) 60CO during 35 minutes with a field size of 35×35 for all the body area. Twenty-four hours after γ irradiation, 150×103 cells of passage 5 in 150 µl medium were injected intravenously into the tail. Animals were euthanized one and two weeks after cell transplantation. They were evaluated histologically for any changes in bone marrow and intestinal tissues. The survival rate in mice were also determined. Results: A significant increase for bone marrow cell count and survival rate were observed in group B in comparison to group A. Histological findings denoted to a healing in sample tissues. Conclusion: BMSCs could significantly reduce the side effects of ARS and increase the survival rate and healing in injured tissue. As such their transplantation may open a window in treatment of patients with ARS. PMID:27375707

  18. Therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jerry S; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in wound care, many wounds never heal and become chronic problems that result in significant morbidity and mortality to the patient. Cellular therapy for cutaneous wounds has recently come under investigation as a potential treatment modality for impaired wound healing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source of adult progenitor cells for cytotherapy as they are easy to isolate and expand and have been shown to differentiate into various cell lineages. Early studies have demonstrated that MSCs may enhance epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and neovascularization resulting in accelerated wound closure. It is currently unclear if these effects are mediated through cellular differentiation or by secretion of cytokines and growth factors. This review discusses the proposed biological contributions of MSCs to cutaneous repair and their clinical potential in cell-based therapies. PMID:22787462

  19. Bone marrow derived stem cells in regenerative medicine as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products

    PubMed Central

    Astori, Giuseppe; Soncin, Sabrina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Siclari, Francesco; Sürder, Daniel; Turchetto, Lucia; Soldati, Gianni; Moccetti, Tiziano

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow derived stem cells administered after minimal manipulation represent an important cell source for cellbased therapies. Clinical trial results, have revealed both safety and efficacy of the cell reinfusion procedure in many cardiovascular diseases. Many of these early clinical trials were performed in a period before the entry into force of the US and European regulation on cellbased therapies. As a result, conflicting data have been generated on the effectiveness of those therapies in certain conditions as acute myocardial infarction. As more academic medical centers and private companies move toward exploiting the full potential of cellbased medicinal products, needs arise for the development of the infrastructure necessary to support these investigations. This review describes the regulatory environment surrounding the production of cell based medicinal products and give practical aspects for cell isolation, characterization, production following Good Manufacturing Practice, focusing on the activities associated with the investigational new drug development. PMID:20589167

  20. Role of endothelial nitric oxide in bone marrow-derived progenitor cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    de Resende, M Monterio; Huw, L-Y; Qian, H-S; Kauser, K

    2007-01-01

    Mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMDPCs) play an important role in postischemic tissue repair. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral vascular disease (PVD) exhibit endothelial dysfunction, and as a result are likely to have a reduced number of progenitor cells mobilized in their peripheral circulation following ischemic injury. Identification of eNOS independent pathways for BMDPC mobilization may have important therapeutic value in this patient population. To identify such mechanisms we investigated the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in eNOS-KO mice with and without surgical hind-limb ischemia. Our results suggest that BMDPC mobilization can be achieved via activation of NO-independent pathways. PMID:17554503

  1. Generation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiajia; Xie, Rongxia; Li, Qiaoqiao; Chen, Wuju; Zhang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Macrophages, as the forefront of innate immune defense, have an important role in the host responses to mycobacterial infection. Therefore, a stable macrophage cell line is needed for future bovine immune system research on the bacterial infection. In this study, we established a bovine macrophage cell line by introducing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages (bBMMs). The TERT-bBMMs cells expressed macrophage surface antigen (CD11b, CD282) and upregulated expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α in response to bacterial invasion. These results demonstrate that this cell line provide reliable cell model system for future studies on interactions between the bovine macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:26936441

  2. Immunoregulatory effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the nasal polyp microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Pezato, Rogério; de Almeida, Danilo Cândido; Bezerra, Thiago Freire; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Perez-Novo, Claudina; Gregório, Luís Carlos; Voegels, Richard Louis; Câmara, Niels Olsen; Bachert, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Nasal polyposis is a severe, chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and is frequently associated with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a potent immunosuppressive effect in several inflammatory conditions, and their role in nasal polyposis remains little explored. Hence, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells could modulate cell phenotype in the nasal polyp milieu. After coculture with mesenchymal stem cells, the frequency of these inflammatory cells was found to decrease. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cells promoted strong inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T cells, and changed the global cytokine profile from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response. We believe that mesenchymal stem cells may be a very useful adjunct for investigation of the inflammatory process in nasal polyposis, contributing to better understanding of the inflammatory course of this condition. PMID:24707116

  3. Different Balance of Wnt Signaling in Adult and Fetal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Paciejewska, Maja M; Maijenburg, Marijke W; Gilissen, Christian; Kleijer, Marion; Vermeul, Kim; Weijer, Kees; Veltman, Joris A; von Lindern, Marieke; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Voermans, Carlijn

    2016-06-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are applied as novel therapeutics for their regenerative and immune-suppressive capacities. Clinical applications, however, require extensive expansion of MSCs. Fetal bone marrow-derived MSCs (FBMSCs) proliferate faster than adult bone marrow-derived MSC (ABMSCs). To optimize expansion and function of MSC in general, we explored the differences between ABMSC and FBMSC. Gene expression profiling implicated differential expression of genes encoding proteins in the Wnt signaling pathway, including excreted inhibitors of Wnt signaling, particularly by ABMSC. Both MSC types had a similar basal level of canonical Wnt signaling. Abrogation of autocrine Wnt production by inhibitor of Wnt production-2 (IWP2) reduced canonical Wnt signaling and cell proliferation of FBMSCs, but hardly affected ABMSC. Addition of exogenous Wnt3a, however, induced expression of the target genes lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor (LEF) and T-cell factor (TCF) faster and at lower Wnt3a levels in ABMSC compared to FBMSC. Medium replacement experiments indicated that ABMSC produce an inhibitor of Wnt signaling that is effective on ABMSC itself but not on FBMSC, whereas FBMSC excrete (Wnt) factors that stimulate proliferation of ABMSC. In contrast, FBMSC were not able to support hematopoiesis, whereas ABMSC displayed hematopoietic support sensitive to IWP2, the inhibitor of Wnt factor excretion. In conclusion, ABMSC and FBMSC differ in their Wnt signature. While FBMSC produced factors, including Wnt signals, that enhanced MSC proliferation, ABMSC produced Wnt factors in a setting that enhanced hematopoietic support. Thus, further unraveling the molecular basis of this phenomenon may lead to improvement of clinical expansion protocols of ABMSCs. PMID:27154244

  4. Caffeine inhibits the viability and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y; Guan, XX; Zhu, ZL; Guo, J; Huang, YC; Hou, WW; Yu, HY

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Caffeine is consumed extensively in Europe and North America. As a risk factor for osteoporosis, epidemiological studies have observed that caffeine can decrease bone mineral density, adversely affect calcium absorption and increase the risk of bone fracture. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effects of caffeine on the viability and osteogenesis of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified using thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry. Sequential gene expressions in osteogenic process were measured by real-time PCR. cAMP, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assessed by immunoassay, spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Mineralization was determined by calcium deposition. KEY RESULTS After treating BMSCs with high caffeine concentrations (0.1–1 mM), their viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. This cell death was primarily due to necrosis and, to a small extent, apoptosis. Genes and protein sequentially expressed in osteogenesis, including Cbfa1/Runx2, collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and its protein, were significantly downregulated except for osteocalcin and its protein. Moreover, caffeine inhibited calcium deposition in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but increased intracellular cAMP in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS By suppressing the commitment of BMSCs to the osteogenic lineage and selectively inhibiting gene expression, caffeine downregulated some important events in osteogenesis and ultimately affected bone mass. PMID:20726981

  5. Selective Retention of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells to Enhance Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, Yoichi; Nitto, Hironori; Boehm, Cynthia A.; Valdevit, Antonio D.; Kambic, Helen E.; Davros, William J.; Easley, Kirk A.; Powell, Kimerly A.

    2005-01-01

    Connective tissue progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from fresh bone marrow aspirates using some porous matrices as a surface for cell attachment and selective retention, and for creating a cellular graft that is enriched with respect to the number of progenitor cells. We evaluated the potential value of this method using demineralized cortical bone powder as the matrix. Matrix alone, matrix plus marrow, and matrix enriched with marrow cells were compared in an established canine spinal fusion model. Fusions were compared based on union score, fusion mass, fusion volume, and by mechanical testing. Enriched matrix grafts delivered a mean of 2.3 times more cells and approximately 5.6 times more progenitors than matrix mixed with bone marrow. The union score with enriched matrix was superior to matrix alone and matrix plus marrow. Fusion volume and fusion area also were greater with the enriched matrix. These data suggest that the strategy of selective retention provides a rapid, simple, and effective method for concentration and delivery of marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting procedures in various clinical settings. PMID:15738828

  6. On the origin of human adipocytes and the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Rydén, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, results in both animal models and humans have demonstrated that white adipocytes are generated over the entire life-span. This adds to the plasticity of adipose tissue and alterations in adipocyte turnover are linked to metabolic dysfunction. Adipocytes are derived from precursors present primarily in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. The multipotent differentiation capacity of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) has prompted the suggestion that BMDC may contribute to different cell tissue pools, including adipocytes. However, data in murine transplantation models have been conflicting and it has been a matter of debate whether BMDC actually differentiate into adipocytes or just fuse with resident fat cells. To resolve this controversy in humans, we recently performed a study in 65 subjects that had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Using a set of newly developed assays including single cell genome-wide analyses of mature adipocytes, we demonstrated that bone marrow contributes with approximately 10 % to the adipocyte pool. This proportion was more than doubled in obesity, suggesting that BMDC may constitute a reserve pool for adipogenesis, particularly upon weight gain. This commentary discusses the possible relevance of these and other recent findings for human pathophysiology. PMID:27617752

  7. Restoration of the GM2 ganglioside metabolism in bone marrow-derived stromal cells from Tay-Sachs disease animal model.

    PubMed

    Martino, S; Cavalieri, C; Emiliani, C; Dolcetta, D; Cusella De Angelis, M G; Chigorno, V; Severini, G M; Sandhoff, K; Bordignon, C; Sonnino, S; Orlacchio, A

    2002-08-01

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived stromal cells for the therapy of Tay-Sachs disease is primarily related to the restoration of their own GM2 ganglioside storage. With this aim, we produced bone marrow-derived stromal cells from the adult Tay-Sachs animal model and transduced them with a retroviral vector encoding for the alpha-subunit of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A (E.C. 3.2.1.52). Our results demonstrate that transduced Tay-Sachs bone marrow-derived stromal cells have beta-hexosaminidase A comparable to that of bone marrow-derived stromal cells from wild-type mice. Moreover, beta-hexosaminidase A in transduced Tay-Sachs bone marrow-derived stromal cells was able to hydrolyze the GM2 ganglioside in a feeding experiment, thus demonstrating the correction of the altered phenotype. PMID:12374215

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Bone Marrow-Derived Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Production and Survival

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Jiang, Wei; Roy, Patrick; Champigny, Camille; LeBlanc, Éric; Morley, Barbara J.; Hao, Junwei; Simard, Alain R.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in immune regulation, and that their activation can protect against inflammatory diseases. Previous data have shown that nicotine diminishes the numbers of peripheral monocytes and macrophages, especially those of the pro-inflammatory phenotype. The goal of the present study was to determine if nicotine modulates the production of bone marrow -derived monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we first found that murine bone marrow cells express multiple nAChR subunits, and that the α7 and α9 nAChRs most predominant subtypes found in immune cells and their precursors. Using primary cultures of murine bone marrow cells, we then determined the effect of nicotine on monocyte colony-stimulating factor and interferon gamma (IFNγ)-induced monocyte production. We found that nicotine lowered the overall number of monocytes, and more specifically, inhibited the IFNγ-induced increase in pro-inflammatory monocytes by reducing cell proliferation and viability. These data suggested that nicotine diminishes the ratio of pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory monocyte produced in the bone marrow. We thus confirmed this hypothesis by measuring cytokine expression, where we found that nicotine inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12, while stimulating the secretion of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Finally, nicotine also reduced the number of pro-inflammatory monocytes in the bone marrow of LPS-challenged mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that both α7 and α9 nAChRs are involved in the regulation of pro-inflammatory M1 monocyte numbers. PMID:26925951

  9. Intracoronary infusion of a combination of bone marrow-derived stem cells in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Minguell, José J; Florenzano, Fernando M; Ramírez, Manuel R; Martínez, Ramón F; Lasala, Gabriel P

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infusion of diverse types of bone marrow cells, as a source of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), into the ischemic myocardium is emerging as a promising therapy for coronary ischemia, probably mediated by the formation of new blood vessels. Studies have shown that while the procedure is safe and feasible, efficacy results are contentious. The investigators in the present preclinical translation study hypothesized that the infusion of a combination cell product consisting of EPCs and other cell types, such as mesenchymal stem cells, promotes the formation of more stable and mature blood vessels resulting in improved clinical outcomes. The safety and feasibility of the intracoronary infusion of such a cell combination was assessed in a canine model. METHODS: A mixture of canine autologous mononuclear cells (as the source of EPCs) and ex vivo-expanded bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or a placebo solution were intracoronarily infused into healthy dogs. Follow-up after cell/placebo infusion included an electrocardiogram, serum cardiac enzyme testing, a transthoracic echocardiography and a histopathological heart examination. RESULTS: On follow-up at all time points after infusion, no significant changes or abnormalities in vital signs, electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography and heart histology were detected. CONCLUSIONS: From a clinical perspective, the safety and feasibility of the protocol used in the present animal study demonstrated clinical relevance and provided direct evidence supporting the intracoronary infusion of combination stem/progenitor cell products. PMID:20631864

  10. Chemically Functionalized Silk for Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ke; Chen, Ying; Huang, Wenwen; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L; Fan, Yimin

    2016-06-15

    To produce biocompatible, mechanically robust, and conductive materials for bone tissue engineering, chemical oxidation using sodium hyprochlorite (NaClO) was utilized to introduce carboxyl groups onto silk fibroin (SF). A final carboxyl content of 1.09 mM/g SF was obtained, corresponding to ∼47% of the primary hydroxymethyl groups on the silk. Interestingly, both infrared (IR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectra demonstrated that the resulting oxidized silk (OxSF) self-assembled into β-sheet structures under aqueous conditions and this contributed to the mechanical properties of the as-prepared silk-based scaffolds and the mineralized OxSF scaffolds (M-OxSF). The OxSF scaffolds had a compressive modulus of 211 ± 75 KPa in the hydrated state, 10 times higher than that of the SF scaffolds, and the modulus of the M-OxSF scaffolds was increased to 758 ± 189 KPa. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) grown on the scaffolds during osteogenesis showed that the OxSF scaffolds supported the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. PMID:27177120

  11. Bone marrow-derived cells serve as proangiogenic macrophages but not endothelial cells in wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Yuji; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Kishi, Kazuo; Suda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) contribute to postnatal vascular growth by differentiating into endothelial cells or secreting angiogenic factors. However, the extent of their endothelial differentiation highly varies according to the angiogenic models used. Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. As a process also observed in cancer progression, neoangiogenesis into wound tissues is profoundly involved in this healing process, suggesting the contribution of BMDCs. However, the extent of the differentiation of BMDCs to endothelial cells in wound healing is unclear. In this study, using the green fluorescent protein-bone marrow chim-eric experiment and high resolution confocal microscopy at a single cell level, we observed no endothelial differentiation of BMDCs in 2 acute wound healing models (dorsal excisional wound and ear punch) and a chronic wound healing model (decubitus ulcer). Instead, a major proportion of BMDCs were macrophages. Indeed, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) inhibition depleted approximately 80% of the BMDCs at the wound healing site. CSF-1–mutant (CSF-1op/op) mice showed significantly reduced neoangiogenesis into the wound site, supporting the substantial role of BMDCs as macrophages. Our data show that the proangiogenic effects of macrophages, but not the endothelial differentiation, are the major contribution of BMDCs in wound healing. PMID:21411758

  12. Multiple loci govern the bone marrow-derived immunoregulatory mechanism controlling dominant resistance to autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, N D; Hickey, W F; Korngold, R; Hansen, W K; Sudweeks, J D; Wardell, B B; Griffith, J S; Teuscher, C

    1995-01-01

    The existence of immunoregulatory genes conferring dominant resistance to autoimmunity is well documented. In an effort to better understand the nature and mechanisms of action of these genes, we utilized the murine model of autoimmune orchitis as a prototype. When the orchitis-resistant strain DBA/2J is crossed with the orchitis-susceptible strain BALB/cByJ, the F1 hybrid is completely resistant to the disease. By using reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimeras, the functional component mediating this resistance was mapped to the bone marrow-derived compartment. Resistance is not a function of either low-dose irradiation- or cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg)-sensitive immunoregulatory cells, but can be adoptively transferred by primed splenocytes. Genome exclusion mapping identified three loci controlling the resistant phenotype. Orch3 maps to chromosome 11, whereas Orch4 and Orch5 map to the telomeric and centromeric regions of chromosome 1, respectively. All three genes are linked to a number of immunologically relevant candidate loci. Most significant, however, is the linkage of Orch3 to Idd4 and Orch5 to Idd5, two susceptibility genes which play a role in autoimmune insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus in the nonobese diabetic mouse. PMID:7777570

  13. The Healing Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Mojtahed Jaberi, Fereidoon; Zakerinia, Maryam; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Jalli, Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Zare, Shahrokh

    2016-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic disease impacting on quality of life and has societal and economical burden increasing with age. Yet, no confirmed pharmacological, biological or surgical therapy could prevent the progressive destruction of OA joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with immunosuppressive activities emerged a potential therapy. We describe a magnetic resonance images (MRI) approved 47 years old nomad female suffering from a severe right knee OA. After intra-articular injection of 36×10(6) passage 2 of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), the patient's functional status of the knee, the number of stairs she could climb, the pain on visual analog scale (VAS) and walking distance improved after two months post-transplantation. MRI revealed an extension of the repaired tissue over subchondral bone. So as MSC transplantation is a simple technique, resulted into pain relief, minimized donor-site morbidity, provided a better quality of life, significantly improved cartilage quality with no need to hospitalization or surgery, cell transplantation can be considered as a reliable alternative treatment for chronic knee OA. Therefore these findings can be added to the literature on using BMSCs for treatment of OA. PMID:27579273

  14. The Healing Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Mojtahed Jaberi, Fereidoon; Zakerinia, Maryam; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Jalli, Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Zare, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic disease impacting on quality of life and has societal and economical burden increasing with age. Yet, no confirmed pharmacological, biological or surgical therapy could prevent the progressive destruction of OA joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with immunosuppressive activities emerged a potential therapy. We describe a magnetic resonance images (MRI) approved 47 years old nomad female suffering from a severe right knee OA. After intra-articular injection of 36×106 passage 2 of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), the patient’s functional status of the knee, the number of stairs she could climb, the pain on visual analog scale (VAS) and walking distance improved after two months post-transplantation. MRI revealed an extension of the repaired tissue over subchondral bone. So as MSC transplantation is a simple technique, resulted into pain relief, minimized donor-site morbidity, provided a better quality of life, significantly improved cartilage quality with no need to hospitalization or surgery, cell transplantation can be considered as a reliable alternative treatment for chronic knee OA. Therefore these findings can be added to the literature on using BMSCs for treatment of OA. PMID:27579273

  15. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Saadat, Anbarieh; Fazilah, Maizatul; Bazli, Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul; Qazi, Rida-e-Maria; Khalid, Ramla Sana; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Naeem, Nadia; Khan, Irfan; Salim, Asmat; Shamsuddin, ShamsulAzlin Ahmad; Mohan, Gokula

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin. PMID:26766903

  16. Data on nitric oxide production by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Najar, Mehdi; Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Meuleman, Nathalie; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive potential, Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous radical, is of special importance during graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD) and feoto-maternal tolerance. NO is a major mediator of murine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-immunosuppressive capacity. In this data article, we characterized NO production by human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs). MSCs, isolated from healthy donors (n=5), were defined according to the International Society for cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines. Based on a fluorometric detection system, and upon using Nitrite ([Formula: see text])/Nitrate ( [Formula: see text]) Assay Kit, the amounts of NO metabolites ( [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) produced by hBMSCs, being grown in a culture medium either lacking (constitutive condition) or containing IL-4, IL-10 or a pro-inflammatory cytokine cocktail made of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-γ, were assessed. All assays were carried out in triplicates and the mean values are reported. The data from this study supports and corroborates the discussion associated with our previously published work entitled "The Immunomodulatory Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Story of a Regulatory Network" (Najar et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27536712

  17. Bone marrow-derived macrophages exclusively expressed caveolin-2: The role of inflammatory activators and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Maceckova, Michaela; Martiskova, Hana; Koudelka, Adolf; Kubala, Lukas; Lojek, Antonin; Pekarova, Michaela

    2015-11-01

    Caveolins are specific proteins involved in regulation of signal transduction to intracellular space. Still, their contribution to immune functions has not been completely clarified. Thus, we decided to characterize the expression of caveolins in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) under resting and inflammatory conditions. The effect of classical activators (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; interferon-gamma, IFN-γ) was further potentiated with hypoxic (5% O2) conditions. The activation of p44/42-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and expression of caveolin-1, -2, and -3, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was monitored using the Western blot technique. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) was analyzed by Griess method or ELISA, respectively. BMDMs were also transfected with siRNA against caveolin-2. Importantly, our study showed for the first time that BMDMs expressed only caveolin-2, and its level decreased after activation of macrophages with LPS, IFN-γ, and/or hypoxia. The expression of caveolin-2 negatively correlates with the iNOS and HIF-1α protein levels, as well as with the LPS/IFN-γ- and hypoxia-induced activation of ERK1/2. We concluded that caveolin-2 is most probably involved in regulation of pro-inflammatory responses of BMDMs, triggered via activation of ERK1/2. PMID:26215374

  18. Multiple Tumor Types May Originate from Bone Marrow-Derived Cells1*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Chen, Zhongwei; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract It was believed that tumors originated from the transformation of their tissue-specific stem cells. However, bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which possess an unexpected degree of plasticity and often reside in other tissues, might also represent a potential source of malignancy. To study whether BMDCs play a role in the source of other tumors, BMDCs from mice were treated with 3-methycholanthrene until malignant transformation was achieved. Here we show that transformed BMDCs could form many tumor types, including epithelial tumors, neural tumors, muscular tumors, tumors of fibroblasts, blood vessel endothelial tumors, and tumors of poor differentiation in vivo. Moreover, a single transformed BMDC has the ability to self-renew, differentiate spontaneously into various types of tumor cells in vitro, express markers associated with multipotency, and form teratoma in vivo. These data suggest that multipotent cancer stem cells seemed to originate from transformed BMDCs. Conclusively, these findings reveal that BMDCs might be a source of many tumor types, even teratoma. In addition, multipotent cancer stem cells might originate from malignant transformed BMDCs. PMID:16984729

  19. Retinal Electrophysiological Effects of Intravitreal Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akkoç, Tolga; Eraslan, Muhsin; Şahin, Özlem; Özkara, Selvinaz; Vardar Aker, Fugen; Subaşı, Cansu; Karaöz, Erdal; Akkoç, Tunç

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of legal blindness in developed countries at middle age adults. In this study diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Wistar albino rats. After 3 months of diabetes, rights eye were injected intravitreally with green fluorescein protein (GFP) labelled bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) and left eyes with balanced salt solution (Sham). Animals were grouped as Baseline (n = 51), Diabetic (n = 45), Diabetic+BMSC (n = 45 eyes), Diabetic+Sham (n = 45 eyes), Healthy+BMSC (n = 6 eyes), Healthy+Sham (n = 6 eyes). Immunohistology analysis showed an increased retinal gliosis in the Diabetic group, compared to Baseline group, which was assessed with GFAP and vimentin expression. In the immunofluorescence analysis BMSC were observed to integrate mostly into the inner retina and expressing GFP. Diabetic group had prominently lower oscillatory potential wave amplitudes than the Baseline group. Three weeks after intravitreal injection Diabetic+BMSC group had significantly better amplitudes than the Diabetic+Sham group. Taken together intravitreal BMSC were thought to improve visual function. PMID:27300133

  20. Sertoli cells promote proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenxi; Lu, Ming; Liu, Hengxing; Ren, Tongming; Miao, Yingying; Wang, Jingjing

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a major source for cell transplantation. The proliferative ability of BMSCs is an important determinant of the efficiency of transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are "nurse" cells for development of sperm cells. Our recent study showed that Sertoli cells promoted proliferation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in co-culture. Studies by other groups also showed that Sertoli cells promoted growth of endothelial cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of Sertoli cells on proliferation of BMSCs. Our results showed that Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced proliferation of BMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, co-culture with Sertoli cells also markedly increased mRNA and/or protein expressions of Mdm2, p-Akt and Cyclin D1, and decreased p53 expression in BMSCs (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). These findings indicate that Sertoli cells have the potential to enhance proliferation of BMSCs. PMID:27319049

  1. Age-associated metabolic dysregulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fei, Fan; Lee, Keith M; McCarry, Brian E; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are major contributors to age-associated inflammation. Metabolic processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and the urea cycle regulate inflammatory responses by macrophages. Metabolic profiles changes with age; therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of metabolic processes could contribute to macrophage hyporesponsiveness to LPS. We examined the intracellular metabolome of bone marrow-derived macrophages from young (6-8 wk) and old (18-22 mo) mice following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and tolerance. We discovered known and novel metabolites that were associated with the LPS response of macrophages from young mice, which were not inducible in macrophages from old mice. Macrophages from old mice were largely non-responsive towards LPS stimulation, and we did not observe a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The critical regulatory metabolites succinate, γ-aminobutyric acid, arginine, ornithine and adenosine were increased in LPS-stimulated macrophages from young mice, but not macrophages from old mice. A shift between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was not observed during LPS tolerance in macrophages from either young or old mice. Metabolic bottlenecks may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the dysregulation of LPS responses with age. PMID:26940652

  2. Vanadate inhibits dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qie; Zhan, Xinli; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jinmin; Chen, Yueping

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been shown to contribute to the development of osteoporosis, which is often the result of long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs such as dexamethasone (Dex). However, it remains unknown whether Dex induces apoptosis of BM-MSCs, and whether a chemical agent like vanadate can block such effects. To investigate these two issues, we isolated BM-MSCs from SD rats and treated the cells with different doses of Dex. We found that Dex induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Pretreating BM-MSCs with vanadate prevented Dex-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that expression of caspases (3, 8, and 9) increased in Dex-treated BM-MSC and was attenuated by vanadate pretreatment. These results not only demonstrate the role of vanadate in the inhibition of Dex-induced apoptosis of BM-MSCs, but also reveal the therapeutic potential of vanadate in glucocorticoid-mediated osteoporosis. PMID:25887871

  3. A Modified Method of Insulin Producing Cells' Generation from Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Czubak, Paweł; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells. PMID:25405207

  4. A modified method of insulin producing cells' generation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Czubak, Paweł; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells. PMID:25405207

  5. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells are involved in aneurysm repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinggen; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Kuizhong; Li, Zifu; Yang, Penfei; Huang, Qinghai; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Liu, Jianmin

    2012-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are believed to be involved in aneurysmal repair and remodeling. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis and, if true, explore how EPC contribute to aneurysm repair in a rabbit model of elastase-induced carotid aneurysm. Rabbits were divided randomly into an in situ carotid EPC transfusion group (ISCT group, n=5), and an intravenous EPC transfusion group (IVT group, n=5). Autologous EPC were double-labeled with Hoechst 33342 and 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester before injection into the animals in either the carotid artery (ISCT group) or marginal ear veins (IVT group). Three weeks later, labeled cells in the aneurysms were observed with respect to location, adhesion, and growth to detect signs of aneurysm repair. Labeled EPC were detected within the neointima in all five aneurysms in the ISCT group and in three of the five aneurysms in the IVT group, but there was no endothelial growth in the aneurysmal neointima in either group. These results show that bone marrow-derived EPC are involved in the process of aneurysm repair in this rabbit model. PMID:22789632

  6. Immune Dysfunction Associated with Abnormal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stroma Cells in Senescence Accelerated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Guo, Kequan; Adachi, Yasushi; Ikehara, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Senescence accelerated mice (SAM) are a group of mice that show aging-related diseases, and SAM prone 10 (SAMP10) show spontaneous brain atrophy and defects in learning and memory. Our previous report showed that the thymus and the percentage of T lymphocytes are abnormal in the SAMP10, but it was unclear whether the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMMSCs) were abnormal, and whether they played an important role in regenerative medicine. We thus compared BMMSCs from SAMP10 and their control, SAM-resistant (SAMR1), in terms of cell cycle, oxidative stress, and the expression of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase in the SAMP10. We also found increased reactive oxygen stress and decreased PI3K and MAPK on the BMMSCs. These results suggested the BMMSCs were abnormal in SAMP10, and that this might be related to the immune system dysfunction in these mice. PMID:26840301

  7. Imperatorin Suppresses Degranulation and Eicosanoid Generation in Activated Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Eujin; Park, Na-Young; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Hyo-Hyun; Lee, Jiean; Lee, Youn Ju; Lee, Eunkyung

    2015-01-01

    Imperatorin has been known to exert many biological functions including anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of imperatorin on the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Imperatorin inhibited degranulation and the generation of eicosanoids (leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2)) in IgE/antigen (Ag)-stimulated BMMC. To elucidate the molecular mechanism involved in this process, we investigated the effect of imperatorin on intracellular signaling in BMMC. Biochemical analyses of the IgE/Ag-mediated signaling pathway demonstrated that imperatorin dramatically attenuated degranulation and the production of 5-lipoxygenase-dependent LTC4 and cyclooxygenase-2-dependent PGD2 through the inhibition of intracellular calcium influx/phospholipase Cγ1, cytosolic phospholipase A2/mitogen-activated protein kinases and/or nuclear factor-κB pathways in BMMC. These results suggest that the effects of imperatorin on inhibition of degranulation and eicosanoid generation through the suppression of multiple steps of IgE/Ag-mediated signaling pathways would be beneficial for the prevention of allergic inflammation. PMID:26336581

  8. Resistance of LPS-activated bone marrow derived macrophages to apoptosis mediated by dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Yasmin Ohana; Unger, Naamit Deshet; Souroujon, Miriam C.; Mittelman, Moshe; Neumann, Drorit

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) display pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Macrophages are a major target for GC action. Here we show that dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic GC, decreased viability of naïve bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), involving an apoptotic mechanism. Administration of DEX together with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protected BMDM against DEX-mediated cell death, suggesting that activated BMDM respond to DEX differently than naïve BMDM. An insight to the molecular basis of LPS actions was provided by a 7 fold increase in mRNA levels of glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRβ), a GR dominant-negative splice variant which inhibits GRα's transcriptional activity. LPS did not inhibit all DEX-mediated effects on BMDM; DEX significantly reduced the percentage of BMDM expressing high levels of the cell surface markers F4/80 and CD11b and led to a decrease in macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP1-α) mRNA and protein levels. These two DEX-mediated effects were not prevented by LPS. Our finding that LPS did not reduce the DEX-induced elevation of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a mediator of GCs anti-inflammatory actions, may provide an underlying mechanism. These findings enable a better understanding of clinical states, such as sepsis, in which macrophages are activated by endotoxins and treatment by GCs is considered. PMID:24608810

  9. Engineering interaction between bone marrow derived endothelial cells and electrospun surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqan; Dutta, Naba K; Zannettino, Andrew; Vandyke, Kate; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2014-04-14

    The aim of this investigation was to understand and engineer the interactions between endothelial cells and the electrospun (ES) polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) nanofiber surfaces and evaluate their potential for endothelialization. Elastomeric PVDF-HFP samples were electrospun to evaluate their potential use as small diameter artificial vascular graft scaffold (SDAVG) and compared with solvent cast (SC) PVDF-HFP films. We examined the consequences of fibrinogen adsorption onto the ES and SC samples for endothelialisation. Bone marrow derived endothelial cells (BMEC) of human origin were incubated with the test and control samples and their attachment, proliferation, and viability were examined. The nature of interaction of fibrinogen with SC and ES samples was investigated in detail using ELISA, XPS, and FTIR techniques. The pristine SC and ES PVDF-HFP samples displayed hydrophobic and ultrahydrophobic behavior and accordingly, exhibited minimal BMEC growth. Fibrinogen adsorbed SC samples did not significantly enhance endothelial cell binding or proliferation. In contrast, the fibrinogen adsorbed electrospun surfaces showed a clear ability to modulate endothelial cell behavior. This system also represents an ideal model system that enables us to understand the natural interaction between cells and their extracellular environment. The research reported shows potential of ES surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications. PMID:24564790

  10. Age-associated metabolic dysregulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fan; Lee, Keith M.; McCarry, Brian E.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are major contributors to age-associated inflammation. Metabolic processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and the urea cycle regulate inflammatory responses by macrophages. Metabolic profiles changes with age; therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of metabolic processes could contribute to macrophage hyporesponsiveness to LPS. We examined the intracellular metabolome of bone marrow-derived macrophages from young (6–8 wk) and old (18–22 mo) mice following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and tolerance. We discovered known and novel metabolites that were associated with the LPS response of macrophages from young mice, which were not inducible in macrophages from old mice. Macrophages from old mice were largely non-responsive towards LPS stimulation, and we did not observe a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The critical regulatory metabolites succinate, γ-aminobutyric acid, arginine, ornithine and adenosine were increased in LPS-stimulated macrophages from young mice, but not macrophages from old mice. A shift between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was not observed during LPS tolerance in macrophages from either young or old mice. Metabolic bottlenecks may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the dysregulation of LPS responses with age. PMID:26940652

  11. Donor age and cell passage affects differentiation potential of murine bone marrow-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D; Jin, Yu-Qing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie; Hong, Tan-Hui; Zhou, Guangdong; Baggett, L Scott; Mikos, Antonios G; Cao, Yilin

    2008-01-01

    Background Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a widely researched adult stem cell population capable of differentiation into various lineages. Because many promising applications of tissue engineering require cell expansion following harvest and involve the treatment of diseases and conditions found in an aging population, the effect of donor age and ex vivo handling must be understood in order to develop clinical techniques and therapeutics based on these cells. Furthermore, there currently exists little understanding as to how these two factors may be influenced by one another. Results Differences in the adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of murine MSCs harvested from donor animals of different age and number of passages of these cells were observed. Cells from younger donors adhered to tissue culture polystyrene better and proliferated in greater number than those from older animals. Chondrogenic and osteogenic potential decreased with age for each group, and adipogenic differentiation decreased only in cells from the oldest donors. Significant decreases in differentiation potentials due to passage were observed as well for osteogenesis of BMSCs from the youngest donors and chondrogenesis of the cells from the oldest donors. Conclusion Both increasing age and the number of passages have lineage dependent effects on BMSC differentiation potential. Furthermore, there is an obvious interplay between donor age and cell passage that in the future must be accounted for when developing cell-based therapies for clinical use. PMID:18957087

  12. Age-associated metabolic dysregulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Fan; Lee, Keith M.; McCarry, Brian E.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are major contributors to age-associated inflammation. Metabolic processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and the urea cycle regulate inflammatory responses by macrophages. Metabolic profiles changes with age; therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of metabolic processes could contribute to macrophage hyporesponsiveness to LPS. We examined the intracellular metabolome of bone marrow-derived macrophages from young (6–8 wk) and old (18–22 mo) mice following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and tolerance. We discovered known and novel metabolites that were associated with the LPS response of macrophages from young mice, which were not inducible in macrophages from old mice. Macrophages from old mice were largely non-responsive towards LPS stimulation, and we did not observe a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The critical regulatory metabolites succinate, γ-aminobutyric acid, arginine, ornithine and adenosine were increased in LPS-stimulated macrophages from young mice, but not macrophages from old mice. A shift between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was not observed during LPS tolerance in macrophages from either young or old mice. Metabolic bottlenecks may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the dysregulation of LPS responses with age.

  13. Bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy for metastatic brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Staples, Meaghan; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Sanberg, Paul R; Freeman, Thomas B; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    We propose that stem cell therapy may be a potent treatment for metastatic melanoma in the brain. Here we discuss the key role of a leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) that accompanies the development of brain metastases. We review the need to characterize the immunological and inflammatory responses associated with tumor-derived BBB damage in order to reveal the contribution of this brain pathological alteration to the formation and growth of brain metastatic cancers. Next, we discuss the potential repair of the BBB and attenuation of brain metastasis through transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with the endothelial progenitor cell phenotype. In particular, we review the need for evaluation of the efficacy of stem cell therapy in repairing a disrupted BBB in an effort to reduce neuroinflammation, eventually attenuating brain metastatic cancers. The demonstration of BBB repair through augmented angiogenesis and vasculogenesis will be critical to establishing the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment/prevention of metastatic brain tumors. The overarching hypothesis we advanced here is that BBB breakdown is closely associated with brain metastatic cancers of melanoma, exacerbating the inflammatory response of the brain during metastasis, and ultimately worsening the outcome of metastatic brain cancers. Abrogating this leaky BBB-mediated inflammation via stem cell therapy represents a paradigm-shifting approach to treating brain cancer. This review article discusses the pros and cons of cell therapy for melanoma brain metastases. PMID:25310691

  14. Increased Differentiation Capacity of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aquaporin-5 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5−/− mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5+/+ mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5−/− and AQP5+/+ mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5−/− than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPARγ2, C/EBPα, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5−/− -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5−/− BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5−/− mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5−/− than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5+/+ than AQP5−/− BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22420587

  15. Genetic stability of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells in the Quantum System

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Skokan, Margaret; Bryce, Steven; Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Peters, Rebecca; Vang, Boah; Brecheisen, Michelle; Startz, Thomas; Frank, Nathan; Nankervis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background aims The Quantum® Cell Expansion System (Quantum; Terumo BCT, Inc, Lakewood, CO, USA) is a novel hollow fiber-based device that automates and closes the cell culture process, reducing labor intensive tasks such as manual cell culture feeding and harvesting. The manual cell selection and expansion processes for the production of clinical-scale quantities of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-hMSCs) have been successfully translated onto the Quantum platform previously. The formerly static, manual, in vitro process performed primarily on tissue culture polystyrene substrates may raise the question of whether BM-hMSCs cultured on a hollow fiber platform yields comparable cell quality. Methods A rigorous battery of assays was used to determine the genetic stability of BM-hMSCs selected and produced with the Quantum. In this study, genetic stability was determined by assessing spectral karyotype, micronucleus formation and tumorigenicity to resolve chromosomal aberrations in the stem cell population. Cell phenotype, adherent growth kinetics and tri-lineage differentiation were also evaluated. HMSC bone marrow aspirates, obtained from three approved donors, were expanded in parallel using T225 culture flasks and the Quantum. Results BM-hMSCs harvested from the Quantum demonstrated immunophenotype, morphology and tri-lineage differentiation capacity characteristics consistent with the International Society of Cell Therapy standard for hMSCs. Cell populations showed no malignant neoplastic formation in athymic mice 60 days post-transplant, no clonal chromosomal aberrations were observed and no DNA damage was found as measured by micronucleus formation. Conclusions Quantum-produced BM-hMSCs are of comparable quality and demonstrate analogous genetic stability to BM-hMSCs cultured on tissue culture polystyrene substrates. PMID:23992670

  16. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto . E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  17. Infection of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages by porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus impairs phagosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Sibapriya; McKenna, Neil; Balce, Dale R; Yates, Robin M

    2016-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a positive-sense, ssRNA virus of the genus Arterivirus, is a devastating disease of swine worldwide. Key early targets of PRRSV infection in pigs include professional phagocytes in the lung, such as alveolar and interstitial macrophages and dendritic cells, the dysfunction of which is believed to be responsible for much of the associated mortality. In order to study the effect of virus infection on phagocyte function, the development of a robust, reproducible model would be advantageous. Given the limitations of current models, we set out to develop a porcine bone marrow-derived macrophage (PBMMΦ) cell model to study phagosomal maturation and function during PRRSV infection. Derivation of PBMMΦs from marrow using cultured L929 fibroblast supernatant produced a homogeneous population of cells that exhibited macrophage-like morphology and proficiency in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and phagosomal maturation. PBMMΦs were permissive to PRRSV infection, resulting in a productive infection that peaked at 24 h. Assessment of the effect of PRRSV infection on the properties of phagosomal maturation in PBMMΦs revealed a significant decrease in phagosomal proteolysis and lowered production of reactive oxygen species, but no change in PBMMΦ viability, phagocytosis or the ability of phagosomes to acidify. In this study, we present a new model to investigate PRRSV infection of phagocytes, which demonstrates a significant effect on phagosomal maturation with the associated implications on proper macrophage function. This model can also be used to study the effect on the phagosomal microenvironment of infection by other viruses targeting porcine macrophages. PMID:26702996

  18. The effect of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for restoration of olfactory disorder.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyogyeong; Jung, Minyoung; Seo, Dong Jin; Park, Dong Joon

    2015-11-13

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on olfactory epithelium (OE) of morphologic and functional restoration following neural Sensorineural Disorder in rats. Except the Normal group, twenty-one rats underwent Triton X-100 (TX-100) irrigation to induce degeneration of OE, and then BMSCs and PBS were treated from the both medial canthus to the rear part of the both nasal cavity into the experimental group and then were observed for restoration according to time point. At two and four weeks after transplantation with BMSCs, restoration of OE was observed with olfactory marker protein (OMP) and behavioral test. And we observed the expression of OMP, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). After TX-100 irrigation, the OE almost disappeared in 3 days. At four weeks after transplantation with BMSCs, the thickness and cellular composition of OE was considerably restored to normal group and expression of OMP was markedly increased when compared with PBS group and reduced the searching time in the behavioral test. Furthermore at two weeks after treatment with BMSCs, expression of NGF and BDNF was greatly increased when compared with PBS group. However at four weeks after treatment with BMSCs, expression of NGF and BDNF was slightly decreased. Our results suggest the BMSCs transplantation affect restoration of OE and olfaction, most likely via regulation of the neurotrophic factor expression, especially the expression of NGF and BDNF and has a possibility of a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of olfactory disorder caused by the degeneration of OE. PMID:26427869

  19. Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Yoshinori; Liu, Younan; Khalili, Saeed; Maria, Ola M.; Xia, Dengsheng; Key, Sharon; Cotrim, Ana P.; Mezey, Eva; Tran, Simon D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands (SGs), which is accompanied by a loss of fluid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. While there are currently no adequate conventional treatments for this condition, cell-based therapies are receiving increasing attention to regenerate SGs. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can differentiate into salivary epithelial cells and restore SG function in head and neck irradiated mice. BMDCs from male mice were transplanted into the tail-vein of 18 Gy-irradiated female mice. Salivary output was increased in mice that received BMDCs transplantation at week 8 and 24 post-irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation (IR), harvested SGs (submandibular and parotid glands) of BMDC-treated mice had greater weights than those of non-treated mice. Histological analysis shows that SGs of treated mice demonstrated an increased level of tissue regenerative activity such as blood vessel formation and cell proliferation, while apoptotic activity was increased in non-transplanted mice. The expression of stem cell markers (Sca-1 or c-kit) was detected in BMDC-treated SGs. Finally, we detected an increased ratio of acinar-cell area and approximately 9% of Y-chromosome-positive (donor-derived) salivary epithelial cells in BMDC-treated mice. We propose here that cell therapy using BMDCs can rescue the functional damage of irradiated SGs by direct differentiation of donor BMDCs into salivary epithelial cells. PMID:20933096

  20. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Gillian M.; Nicol, Marlynne Q.; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J.; Nash, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. PMID:26297234

  1. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. PMID:26297234

  2. CD44 promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward glioma

    PubMed Central

    YIN, QIANG; ZHOU, YANG-YANG; WANG, PENG; MA, LI; LI, PENG; WANG, XIAO-GUANG; SHE, CHUN-HUA; LI, WEN-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit tropism for gliomas. However, the mechanism underlying this directed migration remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism underlying platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced chemotactic migration of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) toward glioma. Rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium was utilized to evaluate the chemotactic response of BMSCs toward glioma using an in vitro migration assay. Recombinant rat PDGF-BB was added to C6 cell-conditioned medium to assess its effect on the tropism of BMSCs. The effect of PDGF-BB on the expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assays. The results revealed that chemotactic migration was induced in BMSCs by rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium, which was enhanced by PDGF-BB treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays showed that CD44 expression was upregulated in BMSCs following treatment with 40 ng/ml PDGF-BB for 12 h. Additionally, 3-h pretreatment with the anti-CD44 neutralizing antibody OX-50 was observed to attenuate the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma in the presence or absence of PDGF-BB. The results of the present study indicate that CD44 mediates the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma, and PDGF-BB promotes the migration of BMSCs toward glioma via the upregulation of CD44 expression in BMSCs. These findings suggest CD44 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27073479

  3. Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to NDEA-induced lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Liu, Dengqun; Zhou, Xiangdong; Yang, Shiming; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2013-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs) have the ability to differentiate into lung epithelial cells in response to damage; however, their role in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether BMDC-derived lung epithelial cells could contribute to SCC formation. A model of lung SCC induced with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in recipient female mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive BMDCs from male donors was established. Incorporation of BMDCs in lung tissue was determined using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to detect GFP expression and fluorescence in situ hybridization to Y chromosomes. BMDC appeared at three stages of lung SCC progression: metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma. There was a significantly higher proportion of GFP-positive (GFP(+)) cells within SCC than was found in metaplasia and dysplasia 16 weeks post-transplantation (both P < 0.017); GFP(+) BMDCs were also observed in clusters within several SCC nests. Furthermore, most GFP(+) cells in SCC were pancytokeratin-positive (PCK(+)) epithelial cells, and some exhibited proliferative activity as determined by Ki67 staining (9.7 ± 3.92 %). The presence of GFP(+)Ki67(+)PCK(+) cells within SCC nests suggested that some donor BMDCs differentiated into proliferating epithelial cells. Finally, analysis of p63 expression, a marker of SCC cells, indicated that the presence of GFP(+)p63(+) cells (green) in inner parts of the SCC. These findings strongly suggest that BMDC-derived lung epithelial cells could participate in lung SCC formation and partially contribute to tumor growth, which might have significant potential implications for both clinical cancer therapy using BMDCs. PMID:23055190

  4. Therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on radiation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chengcheng; Chang, Pengyu; Zhang, Yuyu; Shi, Weiyan; Liu, Bin; Ding, Lijuan; Liu, Min; Gao, Ling; Dong, Lihua

    2016-02-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a fatal condition featured by interstitial pneumonitis and fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used for treating RILI in rodent models. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the therapeutic effects of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) on RILI were in a dose-dependent manner. A total of 100 mice were randomly divided into: a control group (n=25), subject to lung irradiation and injection of phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) via the tail vein; and the hBM-MSC group, subject to lung irradiation followed by injection of a low dose (1x103 hBM-MSCs/g), medium dose (5x103 hBM-MSCs/g) and high dose (1x104 hBM-MSCs/g) of hBM-MSCs in PBS through the tail vein, respectively. After sacrifice, the pulmonary tissues were subject to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemical staining to investigate the pathological changes. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to evaluate the differentiation capacity of hBM-MSCs in vivo by analyzing the expression of SPC and PECAM. hBM-MSCs improved the survival rate and histopathological features in the irradiated mice, especially in the low-dose group. Marked decrease in collagen deposition was noted in the irradiated mice treated using a low dose of hBM-MSCs. In addition, hBM-MSCs attenuated secretion and expression of IL-10 and increased the expression of TNF-α. Furthermore, hBM-MSCs had the potential to differentiate into functional cells upon lung injury. Low-dose hBM-MSCs contributed to functional recovery in mice with RILI. PMID:26717975

  5. Low level light promotes the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jin-Chul; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Dae Yu; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) reported to stimulate the proliferation or differentiation of a variety of cell types. However, very little is known about the effect of light therapy on stem cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI on the molecular physiological change of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) by wavelength (470, 630, 660, 740 and 850, 50mW). The laser diode was performed with different time interval (0, 7.5, 15, 30J/cm2, 50mW) on hBMSC. To determine the molecular physiological changes of cellular level of hBMSC, the clonogenic assay, ATP assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondria membrane potential (MMPΦ) staining and calcium efflux assay were assessed after irradiation. There was a difference between with and without irradiation on hBMSCs. An energy density up to 30 J/cm² improved the cell proliferation in comparison to the control group. Among these irradiated group, 630 and 660nm were significantly increased the cell proliferation. The cellular level of ATP and calcium influx was increased with energy dose-dependent in all LLLI groups. Meanwhile, ROS and MMPΦ were also increased after irradiation except 470nm. It can be concluded that LLLI using infrared light and an energy density up to 30 J/cm² has a positive stimulatory effect on the proliferation or differentiation of hBMSCs. Our results suggest that LLLI may influence to the mitochondrial membrane potential activity through ATP synthesis and increased cell metabolism which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation.

  6. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  7. Bone marrow derived myeloid cells orchestrate antiangiogenic resistance in glioblastoma through coordinated molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Angara, Kartik; Zeng, Peng; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2015-12-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a hypervascular and malignant form of brain tumors. Anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in clinical and preclinical studies, which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) to the tumor microenvironment (TME). In vivo animal models to track BMDCs and investigate molecular mechanisms in AAT resistance are rare. We exploited recently established chimeric mouse to develop orthotopic U251 tumor, which uses as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice and engrafted >70% GFP+ cells within 14 days. Our unpublished data and published studies have indicated the involvement of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in therapeutic resistance in glioma. Similarly, in the present study, vatalanib significantly increased CD68+ myeloid cells, and CD133+, CD34+ and Tie2+ endothelial cell signatures. Therefore, we tested inhibition of CSF1R+ myeloid cells using GW2580 that reduced tumor growth by decreasing myeloid (Gr1+ CD11b+ and F4/80+) and angiogenic (CD202b+ and VEGFR2+) cell signatures in TME. CSF1R blockade significantly decreased inflammatory, proangiogenic and immunosuppressive molecular signatures compared to vehicle, vatalanib or combination. TCK1 or CXCL7, a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils, was observed as most significantly decreased cytokine in CSF1R blockade. ERK MAPK pathway was involved in cytokine network regulation. In conclusion, present study confirmed the contribution of myeloid cells in GBM development and therapeutic resistance using chimeric mouse model. We identified novel molecular networks including CXCL7 chemokine as a promising target for future studies. Nonetheless, survival studies are required to assess the beneficial effect of CSF1R blockade. PMID:26404753

  8. Euphorbia supina inhibits inflammatory mediators in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chae, Hee-Sung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mi; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Chin, Young-Won

    2015-12-01

    Euphorbia supina has been traditionally used for the treatment of furuncle and bloody diarrhea relevant to the inflammatory process. It has been proven to have a variety of pharmacological efficacies including antiarthritic, detoxification, hemostatic, and diuretic activities. RAW 264.7 macrophages and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were used to determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of E. supina (ES). NO production was assayed by measuring the nitrite content of the supernatants of cultured RAW 264.7 cells. β-hexosaminidase, a marker of mast cell degranulation, was quantitated by spectrophotometric analysis. ELISA was used for the analysis of interleukin-6 expression, and Western blotting was used to analyze 5-LOX, iNOS, and MAPK activation. The relevant gene expression upon ES treatment was measured by RT-PCR. ES inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 cells, and IL-6 and LTC4 production in PMA- and A23187-induced BMMCs along with the downregulation of 5-LOX gene expression. Furthermore, in the present study, a decrease in p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-P38 expression, as well as the suppression of degranulation, were observed by treatment with ES. Further in vivo study revealed that ES treatment also remarkably inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema and MPO levels in mice ears. This study demonstrates that ES has a potential regulatory effect on the expression of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of both the phosphorylation of MAPK signaling and the activation of degranulation. PMID:26386544

  9. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Meagan; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Eisenhauer, Philip; Ziats, Nicholas P; LeClair, Laurie; Poynter, Matthew E; Steele, Chad; Rincon, Mercedes; Weiss, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) mitigate inflammation in mouse models of acute lung injury. However, specific mechanisms of BMSC actions on CD4 T lymphocyte-mediated inflammation in vivo remain poorly understood. Limited data suggests promotion of Th2 phenotype in models of Th1-mediated diseases. However, whether this might alleviate or worsen Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic asthma is unknown. To ascertain the effects of systemic administration of BMSCs in a mouse model of Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airways inflammation was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as in interferon-γ (IFNγ) receptor null mice. Effects of systemic administration during antigen sensitization of either syngeneic or allogeneic BMSC on airways hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes, and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Both syngeneic and allogeneic BMSCs inhibited airways hyperreactivity and lung inflammation through a mechanism partly dependent on IFNγ. However, contrary to existing data, BMSCs did not affect antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte proliferation but rather promoted Th1 phenotype in vivo as assessed by both OVA-specific CD4 T lymphocyte cytokine production and OVA-specific circulating immunoglobulins. BMSCs treated to prevent release of soluble mediators and a control cell population of primary dermal skin fibroblasts only partly mimicked the BMSC effects and in some cases worsened inflammation. In conclusion, BMSCs inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation by influencing antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte differentiation. Promotion of a Th1 phenotype in antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes by BMSCs is sufficient to inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation through an IFNγ-dependent process. PMID:21544902

  10. Treatment of radiation-induced acute intestinal injury with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, KAI; WU, WEIZHEN; YANG, SHUNLIANG; HUANG, LIANGHU; CHEN, JIN; GONG, CHUNGUI; FU, ZHICHAO; LIN, RUOFEI; TAN, JIANMING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to repair radiation-induced acute intestinal injury, and to elucidate the underlying repair mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to whole abdominal irradiation using a single medical linear accelerator (12 Gy) and randomly assigned to two groups. Rats in the BMSC-treated group were injected with 1 ml BMSC suspension (2×106 cells/ml) via the tail vein, while the control group rats were injected with normal saline. BMSCs were identified by detecting the expression of CD29, CD90, CD34 and CD45 using flow cytometry. The expression of the cytokines stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin (IL)-2 was detected using immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma citrulline concentrations were evaluated using an ELISA kit. Rat general conditions, including body weight, and changes in cellular morphology were also recorded. The results suggested that BMSCs exerted a protective effect on radiation-induced acute intestinal injury in rats. The histological damage was rapidly repaired in the BMSC-treated group. In addition, the BMSC-treated group showed significantly reduced radiation injury scores (P<0.01), mildly reduced body weight and plasma citrulline levels, significantly more rapid recovery (P<0.01), significantly reduced expression of the cytokines PGE2 and IL-2 (P<0.05) and significantly increased SDF-1 expression (P<0.01) compared with the control group. In summary, the present results indicate that BMSCs are able to effectively reduce inflammation and promote repair of the structure and function of intestinal tissues damaged by radiation exposure, suggesting that they may provide a promising therapeutic agent. PMID:27284330

  11. Osteoanagenesis after transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells using polyvinylidene chloride film as a scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Soichiro; Hayashi, Tatsuhide; Sato, Yamato; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawai, Tatsushi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new cell transplantation technique for osteoanagenesis at bone defect sites. Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) film was evaluated because of its good biocompatibility and flexibility. We used this film as both a cell scaffold and a barrier membrane. Initially, the cell compatibility of the PVDC film for fibroblast-like cells and osteoblast-like cells was confirmed. Subsequently, bone marrow cells were obtained from rats and cultured on PVDC films in two kinds of medium. The PVDC films with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were then applied to critical-sized bone defects in the calvarial bone of rats. After the transplantation, the surgical sites were dissected out and evaluated by soft X-ray radiography, micro-CT analysis and histological examinations. The bone marrow-derived MSC-transplanted rats showed greater bone regeneration than the control rats. Therefore, PVDC film is considered to be useful as a scaffold for bone regeneration. PMID:21946492

  12. Fluid shear stress stimulates prostaglandin and nitric oxide release in bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, T. N.; Du, T.; Frangos, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is a porous tissue that is continuously perfused by interstitial fluid. Fluid flow, driven by both vascular pressure and mechanical loading, may generate significant shear stresses through the canaliculi as well as along the bone lining at the endosteal surface. Both osteoblasts and osteocytes produce signaling factors such as prostaglandins and nitric in response to fluid shear stress (FSS); however, these humoral agents appear to have more profound affects on osteoclast activity at the endosteal surface. We hypothesized that osteoclasts and preosteoclasts may also be mechanosensitive and that osteoclast-mediated autocrine signaling may be important in bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effect of FSS on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) release by neonatal rat bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells. These cells were tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive, weakly nonspecific esterase (NSE) positive, and capable of fusing into calcitonin-responsive, bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells. Bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells exposed for 6 h to a well-defined FSS of 16 dynes/cm(2) produced NO at a rate of 7.5 nmol/mg protein/h, which was 10-fold that of static controls. This response was completely abolished by 100 microM N(G)-amino-L-arginine (L-NAA). Flow also stimulated PGE(2) production (3.9 microg/mg protein/h) and PGI(2) production (220 pg/mg protein/h). L-NAA attenuated flow-induced PGE(2) production by 30%, suggesting that NO may partially modulate PGE(2) production. This is the first report demonstrating that marrow derived cells are sensitive to FSS and that autocrine signaling in these cells may play an important role in load-induced remodeling and signal transduction in bone. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Bone reconstruction of large defects using bone marrow derived autologous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Enrico; Donati, Davide; Cenacchi, Annarita; Fornasari, Pier Maria

    2004-04-01

    Bone is a tissue that has the ability to heal itself when fractured. Occasionally, a critical defect can be formed when part of the bone is lost or excised, in this case the bone fails to heal and requires bone reconstruction to prevent a non-union defect. Autogenous cancellous bone is the current gold standard treatment in bone loss. Because the amount of autogenous cancellous bone that can be harvested is limited, the expanding need for bone reconstruction is paired by the growth of interest in the discipline of tissue engineering. Labs worldwide are working to provide the right carrier and the right set of cells that, once retransplanted, will ensure bone repair. Several investigators have focused their attention on a subset of autologous non-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells contained in the adult bone marrow stroma, referred to as stromal stem cells (SSC), as the appropriate cells to be transplanted. The use of autologous cells is facilitated by less stringent ethical and regulatory issues and does not require the patient to be immunologically suppressed. In pre-clinical and clinical protocols of critical defects in which SSC are employed, two approaches are mainly used: in the first, SSC are derived from bone marrow and directly introduced at the lesion site, in the second, SSC are derived from several sites and are expanded ex vivo before being implanted. Both approaches, equally correct in principle, will have to demonstrate, with definitive evidence of their efficacy, their capability of solving a critical clinical problem such as non-union. In this report we outline the difficulties of working with SSC. PMID:15062758

  14. Jaw bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors internalize more bisphosphonate than long-bone marrow precursors.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Jenny A F; Jansen, Ineke D C; Marthi, Matangi; Coxon, Fraser P; McKenna, Charles E; Sun, Shuting; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used in the treatment of several bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and cancers that have metastasized to bone, by virtue of their ability to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Previously, it was shown that osteoclasts present at different bone sites have different characteristics. We hypothesized that BPs could have distinct effects on different populations of osteoclasts and their precursors, for example as a result of a different capacity to endocytose the drugs. To investigate this, bone marrow cells were isolated from jaw and long bone from mice and the cells were primed to differentiate into osteoclasts with the cytokines M-CSF and RANKL. Before fusion occurred, cells were incubated with fluorescein-risedronate (FAM-RIS) for 4 or 24h and uptake was determined by flow cytometry. We found that cultures obtained from the jaw internalized 1.7 to 2.5 times more FAM-RIS than long-bone cultures, both after 4 and 24h, and accordingly jaw osteoclasts were more susceptible to inhibition of prenylation of Rap1a after treatment with BPs for 24h. Surprisingly, differences in BP uptake did not differentially affect osteoclastogenesis. This suggests that jaw osteoclast precursors are less sensitive to bisphosphonates after internalization. This was supported by the finding that gene expression of the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was higher in jaw cells than long bone cells, suggesting that the jaw cells might be more resistant to BP-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that bisphosphonates have distinct effects on both populations of osteoclast precursors and support previous findings that osteoclasts and precursors are bone-site specific. This study may help to provide more insights into bone-site-specific responses to bisphosphonates. PMID:23962725

  15. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X10(7) autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  16. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  17. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors. Methods Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage

  18. Toll-like receptor 4 in bone marrow-derived cells contributes to the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Haojun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Jinxiang; Jiang, Fagang; Xiao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular complication in diabetics, and its mechanism is not fully understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the inflammatory state during DR, and the deletion of TLR4 eventually alleviates the diabetic inflammatory state. To further elucidate the mechanism of DR, we used bone marrow transplantation to establish reciprocal chimeric animals of TLR4 mutant mice and TLR4 WT mice combined with diabetes mellitus (DM) induction by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment to identify the role of TLR4 in different cell types in the development of the proinflammatory state during DR. TLR4 mutation did not block the occurrence of high blood glucose after STZ injection compared with WT mice but did alleviate the progression of DR and alter the expression of the small vessel proliferation-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Grafting bone marrow-derived cells from TLR4 WT mice into TLR4 mutant mice increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-2 and increased the damage to the retina. Similarly, VEGF and HIF-1α expression were restored by the bone marrow transplantation. These findings identify an essential role for TLR4 in bone marrow-derived cells contributing to the progression of DR. PMID:25214718

  19. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangjing; Eid, Saada; Dennis, James E; Cooke, Kenneth R; Auletta, Jeffery J; Lee, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT). Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs) were injected via carotid artery (IA) or tail vein (TV) into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments. PMID:27330253

  20. Induction of prostanoid, nitric oxide, and cytokine formation in rat bone marrow derived macrophages by activin A.

    PubMed

    Nüsing, R M; Barsig, J

    1999-06-01

    1. In this study we describe that activin A, a transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-like polypeptide affects the expression of inflammatory response genes and their products. 2. In rat bone marrow derived macrophages 15 nM activin A caused the stimulation of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and thromboxane (TX) A2 formation, production of nitrite as a marker for nitric oxide (NO) and the release of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) -1beta. As shown by mRNA analysis induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by activin A gave rise to the enhanced release of prostanoids and NO. 3. Costimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages with 15 nM activin A and 100 nM 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) potentiated the synthesis of prostanoids in a synergistic manner. With respect to NO formation the effect of activin A and TPA was additive. 4. In contrast to the nitrite production activin A induced PGE2 synthesis was susceptible to tyrosine kinase inhibition by genistein and tyrphostin 46 (IC50 was 10 and 20 microM, respectively). This observed inhibition was caused by the selective suppression of activin A induced cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA expression. Further, the release of TNFalpha in the presence of activin A was potentiated by tyrosine kinase inhibition. 5. In summary, we report that activin A exerts proinflammatory activity which results in the formation of prostanoids, NO and cytokines in rat bone marrow derived macrophages. Tyrosine kinase dependent and independent signalling pathways are involved leading to the increased synthesis of these metabolites. Based upon these results, we speculate that activin A may be considered as a possible component of inflammatory processes affecting at least the haematopoietic system. PMID:10433499

  1. Small-diameter human vessel wall engineered from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhaodi; Niklason, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    Using biodegradable scaffold and a biomimetic perfusion system, our lab has successfully engineered small-diameter vessel grafts using endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from vessels in various species. However, translating this technique into humans has presented tremendous obstacles due to species and age differences. SMCs from elderly persons have limited proliferative capacity and a reduction in collagen production, which impair the mechanical strength of engineered vessels. As an alternative cell source, adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were studied for their ability to differentiate into SMCs in culture plates as well as in a bioreactor system. In the former setting, immunofluorescence staining showed that MSCs, after induction for 14 days, expressed smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) and calponin, early and mid-SMC phenotypic markers, respectively. In the latter setting, vessel walls were constructed with MSC-derived SMCs. Various factors (i.e., matrix proteins, soluble factors, and cyclic strain) in the engineering system were further investigated for their effects on hMSC cell proliferation and differentiation into SMCs. Based on a screening of multiple factors, the engineering system was optimized by dividing the vessel culture into proliferation and differentiation phases. The vessel walls engineered under the optimized conditions were examined histologically and molecularly, and found to be substantially similar to native vessels. In conclusion, bone marrow-derived hMSCs can serve as a new cell source of SMCs in vessel engineering. Optimization of the culture conditions to drive SMC differentiation and matrix production significantly improved the quality of the hMSC-derived engineered vessel wall.—Gong, Z., Niklason, L. E. Small-diameter human vessel wall engineered from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PMID:18199698

  2. Quantitative and phenotypic analysis of bone marrow-derived cells in the intact and inflamed central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Litwak, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow has been proposed as a possible source of cells capable of replacing injured neural cells in diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the transformation of bone marrow cells into neural cells in vivo. This study is a detailed analysis of the fate of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) in the CNS of C57Bl/6 mice with and without experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using flow cytometry to identify GFP-labeled BMDC that lacked the pan-hematopoietic marker CD45 and co-expressed neural markers polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule or A2B5. A small number of BMDC displaying neural markers and lacking CD45 expression was identified within both the non-inflamed and inflamed CNS. However, the majority of BMDC exhibited a hematopoietic phenotype. PMID:21975545

  3. Bone marrow-derived, neural-like cells have the characteristics of neurons to protect the peripheral nerve in microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Xu, Yan; Zhi, Yun-Xia; Han, Chang-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Hao; Liu, Fang; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that "neural-like cells" may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve. PMID:25861281

  4. Bone Marrow-Derived, Neural-Like Cells Have the Characteristics of Neurons to Protect the Peripheral Nerve in Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shi-lei; Zhang, Zhi-ying; Zhi, Yun-xia; Han, Chang-jie; Zhou, Yu-hao; Liu, Fang; Lin, Hai-yan; Zhang, Chuan-sen

    2015-01-01

    Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that “neural-like cells” may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve. PMID:25861281

  5. Repeated autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell injections improve radiation-induced proctitis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Linard, Christine; Busson, Elodie; Holler, Valerie; Strup-Perrot, Carine; Lacave-Lapalun, Jean-Victor; Lhomme, Bruno; Prat, Marie; Devauchelle, Patrick; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bonneau, Michel; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Benderitter, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The management of proctitis in patients who have undergone very-high-dose conformal radiotherapy is extremely challenging. The fibrosis-necrosis, fistulae, and hemorrhage induced by pelvic overirradiation have an impact on morbidity. Augmenting tissue repair by the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be an important advance in treating radiation-induced toxicity. Using a preclinical pig model, we investigated the effect of autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs on high-dose radiation-induced proctitis. Irradiated pigs received repeated intravenous administrations of autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs. Immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess the MSCs' effect on inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis, in radiation-induced anorectal and colon damages. In humans, as in pigs, rectal overexposure induces mucosal damage (crypt depletion, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis). In a pig model, repeated administrations of MSCs controlled systemic inflammation, reduced in situ both expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage recruitment, and augmented interleukin-10 expression in rectal mucosa. MSC injections limited radiation-induced fibrosis by reducing collagen deposition and expression of col1a2/col3a1 and transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor, and by modifying the matrix metalloproteinase/TIMP balance. In a pig model of proctitis, repeated injections of MSCs effectively reduced inflammation and fibrosis. This treatment represents a promising therapy for radiation-induced severe rectal damage. PMID:24068742

  6. Bone marrow-derived microglia-based neurturin delivery protects against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Biju, K C; Santacruz, Rene A; Chen, Cang; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Jiemin; Rohrabaugh, Sara L; Clark, Robert A; Roberts, James L; Phillips, Kimberley A; Imam, Syed Z; Li, Senlin

    2013-02-22

    Although neurotrophic factors have long been recognized as potent agents for protecting against neuronal degeneration, clinical success in treating Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders has been hindered by difficulties in delivery of trophic factors across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy is emerging as a promising tool for overcoming drug delivery problems, as myeloid cells can cross the BBB and are recruited in large numbers to sites of neurodegeneration, where they become activated microglia that can secrete trophic factors. We tested the efficacy of bone marrow-derived microglial delivery of neurturin (NTN) in protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin-induced death in mice. Bone marrow cells were transduced ex vivo with lentivirus expressing the NTN gene driven by a synthetic macrophage-specific promoter. Infected bone marrow cells were then collected and transplanted into recipient animals. Eight weeks after transplantation, the mice were injected with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropuridine (MPTP) for seven days to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery dramatically ameliorated MPTP-induced degeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons of the substantia nigra and their terminals in the striatum. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery also induced significant recovery of synaptic marker staining in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. Functionally, NTN treatment restored MPTP-induced decline in general activity, rearing behavior, and food intake. Thus, bone marrow-derived microglia can serve as cellular vehicles for sustained delivery of neurotrophic factors capable of mitigating dopaminergic injury. PMID:23295906

  7. Perilipin1 Deficiency in Whole Body or Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Attenuates Lesions in Atherosclerosis-Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Gao, Mingming; He, Jinhan; Zou, Liangqiang; Lyu, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Geng, Bin; Liu, George; Xu, Guoheng

    2015-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study is to determine the role of perilipin 1 (Plin1) in whole body or bone marrow-derived cells on atherogenesis. Methods and Results Accumulated evidence have indicated the role of Plin1 in atherosclerosis, however, these findings are controversial. In this study, we showed that Plin1 was assembled and colocalized with CD68 in macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE-/- mice. We further found 39% reduction of plaque size in the aortic roots of Plin1 and ApoE double knockout (Plin1-/-ApoE-/-) females compared with ApoE-/- female littermates. In order to verify whether this reduction was macrophage-specific, the bone marrow cells from wild-type or Plin1 deficient mice (Plin1-/-) were transplanted into LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-). Mice receiving Plin1-/- bone marrow cells showed also 49% reduction in aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with LDLR-/- mice received wild-type bone marrow cells. In vitro experiments showed that Plin1-/- macrophages had decreased protein expression of CD36 translocase and an enhanced cholesterol ester hydrolysis upon aggregated-LDL loading, with unaltered expression of many other regulators of cholesterol metabolism, such as cellular lipases, and Plin2 and 3. Given the fundamental role of Plin1 in protecting LD lipids from lipase hydrolysis, it is reasonably speculated that the assembly of Plin1 in microphages might function to reduce lipolysis and hence increase lipid retention in ApoE-/- plaques, but this pro-atherosclerotic property would be abrogated on inactivation of Plin1. Conclusion Plin1 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells may be responsible for reduced atherosclerotic lesions in the mice. PMID:25855981

  8. Bone marrow-derived Kruppel-like Factor 10 Controls Re-endothelialization in Response to Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wara, Akm Khyrul; Manica, Andre; Marchini, Julio F.; Sun, Xinghui; Icli, Basak; Tesmenitsky, Yevgenia; Croce, Kevin; Feinberg, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 10, a zinc-finger transcription factor, in bone marrow-derived cell responses to arterial endothelial injury. Accumulating evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived progenitors are recruited to sites of vascular injury and contribute to endothelial repair. Approach and Results In response to carotid artery endothelial denudation, KLF10 mRNA expression was markedlyincreased in both bone marrow and circulating lin− progenitor cells. To examine the specific role for KLF10 in arterial re-endothelialization, we used two models of endothelial denudation (wire- and thermal-induced injury) of the carotid artery in WT and KLF10−/− mice. WT mice displayed higher areas of re-endothelialization compared to KLF10−/− mice following endothelial injury using either method. Bone marrow (BM) transplant studies revealed that re-constitution of KLF10−/− mice with WT BM fully rescued the defect in re-endothelialization and increased lin−CD34+KDR+ progenitors in the blood and injured carotid arteries. Conversely, reconstitution of WT mice with KLF10−/−BM re-capitulated the defects in re-endothelialization and peripheral cell progenitors. The media from cultured KLF10−/− BM progenitors was markedly inefficient at promoting endothelial cell growth and migration compared to the media from WT progenitors, indicative of defective paracrine trophic effects from KLF10−/− BM progenitors. Finally, BM-derived KLF10−/− lin− progenitors from reconstituted mice had reduced CXCR4 expression and impaired migratory responses. Conclusions Collectively, these observations demonstrate a protective role for BM-derived KLF10 in paracrine and homing responses important to arterial endothelial injury and highlight KLF10 as a possible therapeutic target to promote endothelial repair in vascular disease states. PMID:23685559

  9. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras.

    PubMed

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A

    2015-09-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to locally deliver the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720 in tibial defects created in rat bone marrow chimeras containing genetically-labeled bone marrow for monitoring cell origin and fate. Donor bone marrow contributed significantly to both myeloid and osteogenic cells in remodeling tissue surrounding allografts. FTY720 coatings altered the phenotype of immune cells two weeks post-injury, which was associated with increased vascularization and bone formation surrounding allografts. Consequently, degradable polymer coating strategies that deliver small molecule growth factors such as FTY720 represent a novel therapeutic strategy for harnessing endogenous bone marrow-derived progenitors and enhancing healing in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:26125501

  10. Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Required for Angiogenic Function of Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells: Role in Therapeutic Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Jagodzinska, Jolanta; Stachurska, Anna; Volger, Oscar L.; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Florczyk, Urszula; Tertil, Magdalena; Jazwa, Agnieszka; Szade, Krzysztof; Stepniewski, Jacek; Loboda, Agnieszka; Horrevoets, Anton J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that can be down-regulated in diabetes. Its importance for mature endothelium has been described, but its role in proangiogenic progenitors is not well known. We investigated the effect of HO-1 on the angiogenic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and on blood flow recovery in ischemic muscle of diabetic mice. Results: Lack of HO-1 decreased the number of endothelial progenitor cells (Lin−CD45−cKit-Sca-1+VEGFR-2+) in murine bone marrow, and inhibited the angiogenic potential of cultured BMDCs, affecting their survival under oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, formation of capillaries, and paracrine proangiogenic potential. Transcriptome analysis of HO-1−/− BMDCs revealed the attenuated up-regulation of proangiogenic genes in response to hypoxia. Heterozygous HO-1+/− diabetic mice subjected to hind limb ischemia exhibited reduced local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and CXCR-4. This was accompanied by impaired revascularization of ischemic muscle, despite a strong mobilization of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitors (Sca-1+CXCR-4+) into peripheral blood. Blood flow recovery could be rescued by local injections of conditioned media harvested from BMDCs, but not by an injection of cultured BMDCs. Innovation: This is the first report showing that HO-1 haploinsufficiency impairs tissue revascularization in diabetes and that proangiogenic in situ response, not progenitor cell mobilization, is important for blood flow recovery. Conclusions: HO-1 is necessary for a proper proangiogenic function of BMDCs. A low level of HO-1 in hyperglycemic mice decreases restoration of perfusion in ischemic muscle, which can be rescued by a local injection of conditioned media from cultured BMDCs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1677–1692. PMID:24206054

  11. Nestin Positive Bone Marrow Derived Cells Responded to Injury Mobilize into Peripheral Circulation and Participate in Skin Defect Healing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Pang, Danlin; Hu, Chenghu; Lv, Yajie; He, Tao; An, Yulin; Tang, Zhangui; Deng, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to migrate to injury site through peripheral blood stream and participate in tissue repair. However, whether and how endogenous bone marrow MSCs mobilized to circulating and targeted to tissue injury has raised some controversy, and related studies were restricted by the difficulty of MSCs identifying in vivo. Nestin, a kind of intermediate filament protein initially identified in neuroepithelial stem cells, was recently reported as a credible criteria for MSCs in bone marrow. In this study, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone marrow replacement model to trace the nestin positive bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) of skin defected-mice. We found that after skin injured, numbers of nestin+ cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow both increased. A remarkable concentration of nestin+ BMDCs around skin wound was detected, while few of these cells could be observed in uninjured skin or other organs. This recruitment effect could not be promoted by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), suggests a different mobilization mechanism from ones G-CSF takes effect on hematopoietic cells. Our results proposed nestin+ BMDCs as mobilized candidates in skin injury repair, which provide a new insight of endogenous MSCs therapy. PMID:26633897

  12. Nestin Positive Bone Marrow Derived Cells Responded to Injury Mobilize into Peripheral Circulation and Participate in Skin Defect Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yajie; He, Tao; An, Yulin; Tang, Zhangui; Deng, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to migrate to injury site through peripheral blood stream and participate in tissue repair. However, whether and how endogenous bone marrow MSCs mobilized to circulating and targeted to tissue injury has raised some controversy, and related studies were restricted by the difficulty of MSCs identifying in vivo. Nestin, a kind of intermediate filament protein initially identified in neuroepithelial stem cells, was recently reported as a credible criteria for MSCs in bone marrow. In this study, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone marrow replacement model to trace the nestin positive bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) of skin defected-mice. We found that after skin injured, numbers of nestin+ cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow both increased. A remarkable concentration of nestin+ BMDCs around skin wound was detected, while few of these cells could be observed in uninjured skin or other organs. This recruitment effect could not be promoted by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), suggests a different mobilization mechanism from ones G-CSF takes effect on hematopoietic cells. Our results proposed nestin+ BMDCs as mobilized candidates in skin injury repair, which provide a new insight of endogenous MSCs therapy. PMID:26633897

  13. [Present status of research in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Juan; Jia, Chi-Yu

    2012-08-01

    The delayed healing of diabetic ulcer has been haunting the surgeons and researchers for a long time. Although we have been researching and exploring the effective therapies for many years, the progress has been limited. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have gradually won worldwide attention for their characteristics of differentiating into tissue repair cells and secreting multiple cytokines as well as growth factors. In recent years, the role of BMSCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcer has been drawing more and more attention. This article reviewed the advancement in the research of BMSCs in promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer. Through a discussion of the treatment of diabetic ulcer, the related research in BMSCs, as well as its role in diabetic ulcer treatment, the mechanism of BMSCs in promoting healing of diabetic ulcers is discussed. We expect through further research, unified criteria for the quality of BMSCs, application approach and dosage of BMSCs could be established. PMID:23248965

  14. Novel animal models for tracking the fate and contributions of bone marrow derived cells in diabetic healing.

    PubMed

    Caskey, Robert C; Liechty, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    There is a vast wealth of information to be gained by tracking both the fate and contribution of individual cell types to the wound healing response. This is particularly important in research focused on impaired healing, such as diabetic wound healing, where the number or function of one or more specific cell types may be abnormal and contribute to the observed healing derangements. Specifically, diabetic wounds have been shown to have an overactive inflammatory response and decreased angiogenesis. The ability to track specific cell types participating in these responses would dramatically improve our understanding of the cellular derangements in diabetic healing. In this chapter, we review two novel chimeric models based on the leptin deficient Db/Db mouse. The use of these models allows for the tracking of bone marrow derived inflammatory and progenitor cell populations as well as the determination of the molecular contributions of these cell populations to the wound healing response. PMID:24029932

  15. The temporal expression of estrogen receptor alpha-36 and runx2 in human bone marrow derived stromal cells during osteogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, W.R.; Owens, S.E.; Wilde, C.; Pallister, I.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Zou, W.; Xia, Z.

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ERα36 is the predominant ERα isoform involved in bone regulation in human BMSC. • ERα36 mRNA is significantly upregulated during the process of osteogenesis. • The pattern of ERα36 and runx2 mRNA expression is similar during osteogenesis. • ERα36 appears to be co-localised with runx2 during osteogenesis. - Abstract: During bone maintenance in vivo, estrogen signals through estrogen receptor (ER)-α. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal expression of ERα36 and ascertain its functional relevance during osteogenesis in human bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSC). This was assessed in relation to runt-related transcription factor-2 (runx2), a main modulatory protein involved in bone formation. ERα36 and runx2 subcellular localisation was assessed using immunocytochemistry, and their mRNA expression levels by real time PCR throughout the process of osteogenesis. The osteogenically induced BMSCs demonstrated a rise in ERα36 mRNA during proliferation followed by a decline in expression at day 10, which represents a change in dynamics within the culture between the proliferative stage and the differentiative stage. The mRNA expression profile of runx2 mirrored that of ERα36 and showed a degree subcellular co-localisation with ERα36. This study suggests that ERα36 is involved in the process of osteogenesis in BMSCs, which has implications in estrogen deficient environments.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Is Dependent on Glutamine and Alters Migratory Profile of Infected Host Bone Marrow Derived Immune Cells through SNAT2 and CXCR4 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Ping; Works, Melissa G.; Kumar, Vineet; De Miguel, Zurine; Manley, Nathan C.; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, disseminates through its host inside infected immune cells. We hypothesize that parasite nutrient requirements lead to manipulation of migratory properties of the immune cell. We demonstrate that 1) T. gondii relies on glutamine for optimal infection, replication and viability, and 2) T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) display both “hypermotility” and “enhanced migration” to an elevated glutamine gradient in vitro. We show that glutamine uptake by the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) is required for this enhanced migration. SNAT2 transport of glutamine is also a significant factor in the induction of migration by the small cytokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in uninfected DCs. Blocking both SNAT2 and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4; the unique receptor for SDF-1) blocks hypermotility and the enhanced migration in T. gondii-infected DCs. Changes in host cell protein expression following T. gondii infection may explain the altered migratory phenotype; we observed an increase of CD80 and unchanged protein level of CXCR4 in both T. gondii-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. However, unlike activated DCs, SNAT2 expression in the cytosol of infected cells was also unchanged. Thus, our results suggest an important role of glutamine transport via SNAT2 in immune cell migration and a possible interaction between SNAT2 and CXCR4, by which T. gondii manipulates host cell motility. PMID:25299045

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone marrow-derived cells prevents acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, T-T; Jia, L-X; Zhang, W-M; Li, X-Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y-L; Li, H-H; Qi, Y-F; Du, J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in hypertensive cardiac injury. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is involved in the inflammatory response. However, the role of ER stress in elevated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress in Ang II-induced hypertensive cardiac injury. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ang II infusion in mice increased ER stress-related genes expression in the heart. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency, a key mediator of ER stress, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines in Ang II-infused mouse hearts. CHOP deficiency increased Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury: (1) Masson trichrome staining showed increased fibrotic areas, (2) immunohistochemistry staining showed increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β1 and (3) quantitative real-time PCR showed increased expression of collagen in CHOP-deficient mouse heart. Bone marrow transplantation experiments indicated that CHOP deficiency in bone marrow cells was responsible for Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury. Moreover, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry revealed that CHOP deficiency decreased neutrophil apoptosis in response to Ang II. Taken together, our study demonstrated that hypertension induced ER stress after Ang II infusion. ER stress in bone marrow-derived cells protected acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to Ang II. PMID:27277680

  18. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  19. Bone Marrow-Derived Cell-Specific Chemokine (C-C motif) Receptor-2 Expression is Required for Arteriolar Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Meghan M.; Song, Ji; Meisner, Joshua K.; Bajikar, Sameer; Burke, Caitlin W.; Shuptrine, Casey W.; Owens, Gary K.; Skalak, Thomas C.; Price, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) and inflammatory chemokine receptors regulate arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. Here, we tested whether arteriolar remodeling in response to an inflammatory stimulus is dependent on BMC-specific chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and whether this response involves BMC transdifferentiation into smooth muscle. Methods and Results Dorsal skinfold window chambers were implanted into C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) mice, as well as the following bone marrow chimeras (donor-host): WT-WT, CCR2−/−-WT, WT-CCR2−/−, and EGFP+-WT. One day after implantation, tissue MCP-1 levels rose from “undetectable” to 463pg/mg, and the number of EGFP+ cells increased more than 4-fold, indicating marked inflammation. A 66% (28μm) increase in maximum arteriolar diameter was observed over 7 days in WT-WT mice. This arteriolar remodeling response was completely abolished in CCR2−/−-WT mice but largely rescued in WT-CCR2−/− mice. EGFP+ BMCs were numerous throughout the tissue, but we found no evidence that EGFP+ BMCs transdifferentiate into smooth muscle, based on examination of >800 arterioles and venules. Conclusions BMC-specific CCR2 expression is required for injury/inflammation-associated arteriolar remodeling, but this response is not characterized by the differentiation of BMCs into smooth muscle. PMID:19734197

  20. Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaafar, Taghrid Mohamed; Raafat, Inas Ismail; Aly, Azza Ahmed; Mohamed, Nagwa Abd EL-Ghaffar; Farid, Reem Jan; Saad, Neveen Ezzat; EL-Hawary, Rabab; Mostafaa, Naglaa; Ahmed, Mirhan Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of hematopoietic stem cells. It is characterized at the cytogenetic level by Philadelphia (ph) chromosome and at the molecular level by the BCR/ABL gene rearrangement. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells that can differentiate into several mesenchymal tissues. AIM: To observe the biological characteristics of MSCS from CML patients and to determine whether MSCs harbor the abnormal BCR/ABL translocation similar to CML bone marrow cells. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Characterized MSCs were isolated from 12 newly diagnosed Philadelphia positive untreated CML patients. RESULTS: MSCs can be readily isolated from CML marrow and exhibit major expansion. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the typical MSC phenotype. Moreover; MSCs do not harbor the BCR/ABL translocation confirmed by karyotype and real time PCR. CONCLUSION: MSCs from CML patients express the typical MSC phenotype; and do not express the BCR/ABL gene. Since; MSCs are able to support engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells in stem cell transplantation(SCT) as well as suppress alloreactive T cells causing graft versus –host disease, this current study provides evidence that in a SCT setting of CML patients, autologous MSCs could be a source of stem cell support in future cell therapy applications.

  1. The role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of ex vivo murine bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Wak Harto, Muhd Khairul Akmal; Budin, Siti Balkis

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1(+) cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. PMID:25405216

  2. Induction of Spermatogenesis by Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Busulfan-induced Azoospermia in Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Tamadon, Amin; Mehrabani, Davood; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Jahromi, Alireza Raayat; Panahi, Mohadeseh; Zare, Shahrokh; Khodabandeh, Zahra; Jahromi, Iman Razeghian; Tanideh, Nader; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Ramzi, Mani; Koohi-Hoseinabadi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have potential of differentiation and they secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors which make them appropriate for cell therapy. Aim of the Work Were to evaluate the healing effect of BM-MSCs transplantation on germinal cells of busulfan-induced azoospermic hamsters. Material and Methods In the present experimental case control study, BM-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of donor albino hamsters. Five mature male recipient hamsters received two doses of 10 mg/kg of busulfan with 21 days interval to stop endogenous spermatogenesis. After induction of azoospermia, right testis of hamsters was injected with 106 BM-MSCs via efferent duct and the left one remained as azoospermia control testis. Five normal mature hamsters were selected as normal intact control. After 35 days, testes and epididymis of three groups were removed for histological evaluation. Results Histomorphological analyses of BM-MSCs treated testes and epididymis showed the epithelial tissue of seminiferous tubules had normal morphology and spermatozoa were present in epididymis tubes. Spermatogenesis was observed in most cell-treated seminiferous tubules. The untreated seminiferous tubules were empty. Conclusion Transplanted BM-MSCs could successfully induce spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of azoospermic hamster. Therefore, BM-MSCs can be an attractive candidate in cell transplantation of azoospermia. PMID:26634062

  3. Resorption of monetite calcium phosphate cement by mouse bone marrow derived osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Montazerolghaem, M; Karlsson Ott, M; Engqvist, H; Melhus, H; Rasmusson, A J

    2015-01-01

    Recently the interest for monetite based biomaterials as bone grafts has increased; since in vivo studies have demonstrated that they are degradable, osteoconductive and improve bone healing. So far osteoclastic resorption of monetite has received little attention. The current study focuses on the osteoclastic resorption of monetite cement using primary mouse bone marrow macrophages, which have the potential to differentiate into resorbing osteoclasts when treated with receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL). The osteoclast viability and differentiation were analysed on monetite cement and compared to cortical bovine bone discs. After seven days live/dead stain results showed no significant difference in viability between the two materials. However, the differentiation was significantly higher on the bone discs, as shown by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and Cathepsin K gene expression. Moreover monetite samples with differentiated osteoclasts had a 1.4 fold elevated calcium ion concentration in their culture media compared to monetite samples with undifferentiated cells. This indicates active resorption of monetite in the presence of osteoclasts. In conclusion, this study suggests that osteoclasts have a crucial role in the resorption of monetite based biomaterials. It also provides a useful model for studying in vitro resorption of acidic calcium phosphate cements by primary murine cells. PMID:25953560

  4. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suna Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-04-15

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative {sup RT}PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  5. Characterization of Nestin, a Selective Marker for Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Zeng, Xin; Hu, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and contributing to tissue repair and regeneration. Characterization of the physiological function of MSCs has been largely hampered by lack of unique markers. Nestin, originally found in neuroepithelial stem cells, is an intermediate filament protein expressed in the early stages of development. Increasing studies have shown a particular association between Nestin and MSCs. Nestin could characterize a subset of bone marrow perivascular MSCs which contributed to bone development and closely contacted with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Nestin expressing (Nes+) MSCs also play a role in the progression of various diseases. However, Nes+ cells were reported to participate in angiogenesis as MSCs or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in several tissues and be a heterogeneous population comprising mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells in the developing bone marrow. In this review article, we will summarize the progress of the research on Nestin, particularly the function of Nes+ cells in bone marrow, and discuss the feasibility of using Nestin as a specific marker for MSCs. PMID:26236348

  6. Clinical-scale expansion of a mixed population of bone-marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells for potential use in bone-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dennis, James E; Esterly, Kelly; Awadallah, Amad; Parrish, Christopher R; Poynter, Gregory M; Goltry, Kristin L

    2007-10-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the ability of bone marrow derived stem and progenitor cells to regenerate many tissues, including bone. Methods to expand or enrich progenitors from bone marrow are common; however, these methods include many steps not amenable to clinical use. A closed automated cell production culture system was developed for clinical-scale ex vivo production of bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells for hematopoietic reconstitution. The current study tested the ability of this bioreactor system to produce progenitor cells, termed tissue repair cells (TRC), possessing osteogenic potential. Three TRC formulations were evaluated: (a) cells cultured without exogenous cytokines (TRC); (b) cells cultured with exogenous cytokines (TRC-C); and (c) an adherent subset of TRC-C (TRC-C(Ad)). Starting human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNC) and TRC products were characterized for the expression of cell surface markers, in vitro colony forming ability, and in vivo osteogenic potential. Results showed significant expansion of mesenchymal progenitors (CD90+, CD105+, and CD166+) in each TRC formulation. In vivo bone formation, measured by histology, was highest in the TRC group, followed by TRC-C(Ad) and TRC-C. The TRC product outperformed starting BM MNC and had equivalent bone forming potential to purified MSCs at the same cell dose. Post hoc analysis revealed that the presence of CD90+, CD105+, and CD166+ correlated strongly with in vivo bone formation scores (r(2) > .95). These results demonstrate that this bioreactor system can be used to generate, in a single step, a population of progenitor cells with potent osteogenic potential. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17585167

  7. Platelet-rich Plasma and Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Fishman, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine is a fast-growing field in orthopedic sports medicine. Platelet-rich plasma contains multiple factors that have been shown to augment healing, thereby stimulating its use in multiple areas of acute and chronic injuries. Mesenchymal stem cells have pluripotent potential to form into tissues pertinent to orthopedics, such as cartilage and bone. As such, there is been a surge in the research directed toward steering those stem cells into a particular lineage as part of treatment for a variety of soft-tissue, cartilage, and bone pathologies. Overall, there are promising reports of their potential success, but there is a need for continued investigation into the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and stem cells in sports medicine. PMID:27135289

  8. Chimeric Mouse model to track the migration of bone marrow derived cells in glioblastoma following anti-angiogenic treatments.

    PubMed

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to contribute in the tumor development. In vivo animal models to investigate the role of BMDCs in tumor development are poorly explored. We established a novel chimeric mouse model using as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice, which resulted in >70% engraftment within 14 d. In addition, chimera was established in NOD-SCID mice, which displayed >70% with in 28 d. Since anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in glioblastoma (GBM), which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited BMDCs to the tumor microenvironment (TME). We exploited chimeric mice in athymic nude background to develop orthotopic U251 tumor and tested receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and CXCR4 antagonist against GBM. We were able to track GFP+ BMDCs in the tumor brain using highly sensitive multispectral optical imaging instrument. Increased tumor growth associated with the infiltration of GFP+ BMDCs acquiring suppressive myeloid and endothelial phenotypes was seen in TME following treatments. Immunofluorescence study showed GFP+ cells accumulated at the site of VEGF, SDF1 and PDGF expression, and at the periphery of the tumors following treatments. In conclusion, we developed a preclinical chimeric model of GBM and phenotypes of tumor infiltrated BMDCs were investigated in context of AATs. Chimeric mouse model could be used to study detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of interaction of BMDCs and TME in cancer. PMID:26797476

  9. The Effect of Quercetin on the Osteogenesic Differentiation and Angiogenic Factor Expression of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuning; Wu, Yuqiong; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Xiuli; Xia, Lunguo; Lin, Kaili; Xu, Yuanjin

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely used in regenerative medicine in light of their ability to differentiate along the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. As a type of traditional Chinese medicine, quercetin has been preliminarily reported to promote osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the proliferation, viability, cellular morphology, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rat BMSCs (rBMSCs) were examined by MTT assay, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition assays, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were involved in these processes was also explored. The results showed that quercetin significantly enhanced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration of 2 μM achieving the greatest stimulatory effect. Moreover, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) and p38 pathways was observed in quercetin-treated rBMSCs. Furthermore, these induction effects could be repressed by either the ERK inhibitor PD98059 or the p38 inhibitor SB202190, respectively. These data indicated that quercetin could promote the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in vitro, partially through the ERK and p38 signaling pathways. PMID:26053266

  10. Galectin-9 is Involved in Immunosuppression Mediated by Human Bone Marrow-derived Clonal Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Na; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Yi, TacGhee; Song, Sun U

    2015-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory properties and can suppress exaggerated pro-inflammatory immune responses. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, a variety of soluble factors are known to contribute to MSC-mediated immunosuppression. However, functional redundancy in the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs indicates that other uncharacterized factors could be involved. Galectin-9, a member of the β-galactoside binding galectin family, has emerged as an important regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. We examined whether galectin-9 contributes to MSC-mediated immunosuppression. Galectin-9 was strongly induced and secreted from human MSCs upon stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. An in vitro immunosuppression assay using a knockdown approach revealed that galectin-9-deficient MSCs do not exert immunosuppressive activity. We also provided evidence that galectin-9 may contribute to MSC-mediated immunosuppression by binding to its receptor, TIM-3, expressed on activated lymphocytes, leading to apoptotic cell death of activated lymphocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that galectin-9 is involved in MSC-mediated immunosuppression and represents a potential therapeutic factor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26557808

  11. Therapeutic effects of mouse bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seok; Yi, Tac-Ghee; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Shin, Dong-Hee; Tak, Seon Ji; Lee, Kyuheon; Lee, Youn Sook; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Hahm, Ki-Baik; Song, Sun U; Park, Seok Hee

    2015-11-01

    Mouse bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells (mcMSCs), which were originated from a single cell by a subfractionation culturing method, are recognized as new paradigm for stem cell therapy featured with its homogenous cell population. Next to proven therapeutic effects against pancreatitis, in the current study we demonstrated that mcMSCs showed significant therapeutic effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis model supported with anti-inflammatory and restorative activities. mcMSCs significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI) score, including weight loss, stool consistency, and intestinal bleeding and significantly increased survival rates. The pathological scores were also significantly improved with mcMSC. We have demonstrated that especial mucosal regeneration activity accompanied with significantly lowered level of apoptosis as beneficiary actions of mcMSCs in UC models. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 were all significantly concurrent with significantly repressed NF-κB activation compared to the control group and significantly decreased infiltrations of responsible macrophage and neutrophil. Conclusively, our findings provide the rationale that mcMSCs are applicable as a potential source of cell-based therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases, especially contributing either to prevent relapse or to accelerate healing as solution to unmet medical needs in IBD therapy. PMID:26566304

  12. NR2F2 regulates bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell-promoted proliferation of Reh cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ni; Wang, Huafang; Wei, Jieping; Wang, Binsheng; Shan, Wei; Lai, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yanmin; Yu, Jian; Huang, He

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are pivotal components of the leukemic microenvironment. BM-MSCs have been previously reported to promote the proliferation of leukemic cells. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of BM-MSC-induced proliferation of leukemic cells, the present study co-cultured acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Reh cells with BM-MSCs. The current study used methods including shRNA, flow cytometry, MTT, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and western blotting. The data of the present study demonstrated that BM‑MSCs promote the proliferation of Reh cells and the NR2F2 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in BM‑MSCs following co‑culture. Additionally, it was demonstrated that shRNA knockdown of NR2F2 inhibited BM‑MSC‑induced proliferation of Reh cells. Furthermore, following downregulation of NR2F2, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) secretion by BM‑MSCs was reduced. The present study demonstrated that NR2F2 mediates BM‑MSC‑induced proliferation of Reh cells, partially via regulation of VEGFA. Disrupting microenvironmental support by targeting NR2F2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for ALL. PMID:27314877

  13. Effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on lung pathology and inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthma in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Maryam; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Jahromi, Gila Pirzad; Omidi, Amene; Nejad, Amir Kavian; Khamse, Safoura; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have attracted significant interest to treat asthma and its complication. In this study, the effects of BMSCs on lung pathology and inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model in mouse were examined. Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: control group (animals were not sensitized), asthma group (animals were sensitized by ovalbumin), asthma+BMSC group (animals were sensitized by ovalbumin and treated with BMSCs). BMSCs were isolated and characterized and then labeled with Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). After that the cells transferred into asthmatic mice. Histopathological changes of the airways, BMSCs migration and total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were evaluated. Results: A large number of BrdU-BMSCs were found in the lungs of mice treated with BMSCs. The histopathological changes, BAL total WBC counts and the percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were increased in asthma group compared to the control group. Treatment with BMSCs significantly decreased airway pathological indices, inflammatory cell infiltration, and also goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that BMSCs therapy significantly suppressed the lung pathology and inflammation in the ovalbumin induced asthma model in mouse. PMID:27096065

  14. Regulation of Tenomodulin Expression Via Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Equine Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyabara, Shihori; Yuda, Yohei; Kasashima, Yoshinori; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Arai, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Tenomodulin has been recognized as a biomarker for tendon differentiation, and its gene expression is regulated by several transcription factors including Scleraxis and Mohawk. In this study, we found a novel regulatory mechanism of tenomodulin expression. Equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in monolayer culture showed a low mRNA level of tenomodulin in comparison with the level in the tendon. When cultured in collagen gel containing a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor (BIO), expression of tenomodulin in BMSCs increased up to the level in the tendon. Participation of GSK-3 in its gene expression was further demonstrated by a gene silencing experiment with small interference RNA corresponding to GSK-3, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin signaling mediated expression of tenomodulin. These results were confirmed by nuclear translocation of β-catenin in BIO-treated BMSCs cultured in collagen gel. Under this culture condition, expression of tenomodulin-related transcription factors including Scleraxis and Mohawk was not affected, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin signaling was independent from these transcription factors. Additionally, BIO strongly enhanced expression of type XIV collagen in collagen-embedded BMSCs up to the level in the tendon, and other tendon-related extracellular matrix components such as decorin and fibromodulin were also upregulated. Taken together, these results indicated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling could induce differentiation of BMSCs into tenomodulin-expressing tendon cells in collagen gel. PMID:24834008

  15. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+, which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  16. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells prevents memory impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Takuya; Kamimura, Naomi; Yokota, Takashi; Nishimaki, Kiyomi; Iuchi, Katsuya; Lee, Hyunjin; Takami, Shinya; Akashiba, Hiroki; Shitaka, Yoshitsugu; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Kimura, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeo

    2015-04-24

    Stem cell transplantation therapy is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of ischemic stroke, and several beneficial aspects have been reported. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), stem cell therapy is expected to provide an efficient therapeutic approach. Indeed, the intracerebral transplantation of stem cells reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and rescued memory deficits in AD model mice. Here, we show that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) improves cognitive function in two different AD mouse models, DAL and APP mice, and prevents neurodegeneration. GFP-positive BMMCs were isolated from tibiae and femurs of 4-week-old mice and then transplanted intravenously into DAL and APP mice. Transplantation of BMMCs suppressed neuronal loss and restored memory impairment of DAL mice to almost the same level as in wild-type mice. Transplantation of BMMCs to APP mice reduced Aβ deposition in the brain. APP mice treated with BMMCs performed significantly better on behavioral tests than vehicle-injected mice. Moreover, the effects were observed even with transplantation after the onset of cognitive impairment in DAL mice. Together, our results indicate that intravenous transplantation of BMMCs has preventive effects against the cognitive decline in AD model mice and suggest a potential therapeutic effect of BMMC transplantation therapy. PMID:25698614

  17. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Angiogenesis via their α6β1 Integrin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Bita; Kong, Yen P.; Kaigler, Darnell; Putnam, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) facilitate the angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) within three-dimensional (3D) matrices in vivo and in engineered tissues in vitro in part through paracrine mediators and by acting as stabilizing pericytes. However, the molecular interactions between BMSCs and nascent tubules during the process of angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we have used a tractable 3D co-culture model to explore the functional role of the α6β1 integrin adhesion receptor on BMSCs in sprouting angiogenesis. We report that knockdown of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs significantly reduces capillary sprouting, and causes their failure to associate with the nascent vessels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BMSCs with attenuated α6 integrin proliferate at a significantly lower rate relative to either control cells expressing non-targeting shRNA or wild type BMSCs; however, despite adding more cells to compensate for this deficit in proliferation, deficient sprouting persists. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs is important for their ability to stimulate vessel morphogenesis. This conclusion may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote angiogenesis. PMID:24056178

  18. The Effect of Quercetin on the Osteogenesic Differentiation and Angiogenic Factor Expression of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuning; Wu, Yuqiong; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Xiuli; Xia, Lunguo; Lin, Kaili; Xu, Yuanjin

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely used in regenerative medicine in light of their ability to differentiate along the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. As a type of traditional Chinese medicine, quercetin has been preliminarily reported to promote osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the proliferation, viability, cellular morphology, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rat BMSCs (rBMSCs) were examined by MTT assay, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition assays, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were involved in these processes was also explored. The results showed that quercetin significantly enhanced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration of 2 μM achieving the greatest stimulatory effect. Moreover, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) and p38 pathways was observed in quercetin-treated rBMSCs. Furthermore, these induction effects could be repressed by either the ERK inhibitor PD98059 or the p38 inhibitor SB202190, respectively. These data indicated that quercetin could promote the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in vitro, partially through the ERK and p38 signaling pathways. PMID:26053266

  19. Immortalization of bone marrow-derived porcine mesenchymal stem cells and their differentiation into cells expressing cardiac phenotypic markers.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Isabel; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Anon, Patricia; Domenech, Nieves

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be among the first stem cell types to be utilized in the clinic for cell therapy, because of their ease of isolation and extensive differentiation potential. Using a porcine model, we have established several cell lines from MSCs to facilitate in vitro and in vivo studies of their potential use for cellular therapy. Bone marrow-derived primary MSCs were immortalized using the pRNS-1 plasmid. We obtained four stable immortalized cell lines that exhibited higher proliferative capacities than the parental cells. All four cell lines displayed a common phenotype similar to that of primary mesenchymal cells, characterized by constitutively high expressions of CD90, CD29, CD44, SLA I and CD46, while CD172a, CD106 and CD56 were less expressed. Remarkably, treatment with 5-azacytidine-stimulated porcine MSCs lines to differentiate into cells that were positive for cardiac phenotypic markers, such as α-actin, connexin-43, sarcomeric actin, serca-2 and, to a lesser extent, desmin and troponin-T. These porcine MSC lines will be valuable biological tools for developing strategies for ex vivo expansion and differentiation of MSCs into a specific lineage. PMID:22162515

  20. Altered MicroRNA Expression Profile in Exosomes during Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84%) could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05) when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221) were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:25503309

  1. Malignant Transformation in Glioma Steered by an Angiogenic Switch: Defining a Role for Bone Marrow-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Raymond; Pisapia, David; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas, such as pilocytic astrocytoma and subependymoma, are often characterized as benign tumors due to their relative circumscription radiologically and typically non-aggressive biologic behavior. In contrast, low-grades that are by their nature diffusely infiltrative, such as diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, have the potential to transform into malignant high-grade counterparts and, given sufficient time, invariably do so. These high-grade gliomas carry very poor prognoses and are largely incurable, warranting a closer look at what causes this adverse transition. A key characteristic that distinguishes low- and high-grade gliomas is neovascularization: it is absent in low-grade gliomas, but prolific in high-grade gliomas, providing the tumor with ample blood supply for exponential growth. It has been well described in the literature that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may contribute to the angiogenic switch that is responsible for malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas. In this review, we will summarize the current literature on BMDCs and their known contribution to angiogenesis-associated tumor growth in gliomas. PMID:26973806

  2. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  3. Detection of organic nanoparticles in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells using ToF-SIMS and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kokesch-Himmelreich, Julia; Woltmann, Beatrice; Torger, Bernhard; Rohnke, Marcus; Arnhold, Stefan; Hempel, Ute; Müller, Martin; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The detection and localization of polymer-based nanoparticles in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSC) by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is reported as an example for the mass spectrometry imaging of organic nanoparticles in cell environments. Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP) made of polyethylenimine (PEI) and cellulose sulfate (CS), which were developed as potential drug carrier and coatings for implant materials, were chosen for the imaging experiments. To investigate whether the PEI/CS-NP were taken up by the hBMSC ToF-SIMS measurements on cross sections of the cells and depth profiling of whole, single cells were carried out. Since the mass spectra of the PEI/CS nanoparticles are close to the mass spectra of the cells principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to get specific masses of the PEI/CS-NP. Mass fragments originating from the NP compounds especially from cellulose sulfate could be used to unequivocally detect and image the PEI/CS-NP inside the hBMSC. The findings were confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Graphical Abstract During ToF-SIMS analysis Bi3 (+) primary ions hit the sample surface and so called secondary ions (SI) are emitted and detected in the mass analyser. Exemplary mass images of cross sections of human mesenchymal stromal cells (red; m/z = 86.1 u) cultured with organic nanoparticles (green; m/z = 143.0 u) were obtained. PMID:25869483

  4. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-1 on the myogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhenyang; Leng, Yan; Zhou, Chen; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhong, Zhigang; Shi, Xing-Ming; Zhang, Weixi

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 is a member of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 has no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 can promote the myogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MyoD and desmin were chosen as myogenic markers in this study. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a member of the family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain non-matrix proteins. It has been shown that MMP-1 can enhance muscle regeneration by improving the differentiation and migration of myoblasts. However, it is still not known whether MMP-1 can promote the myogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To address this question, we isolated BMSCs from C57BL/6J mice and investigated the effects of MMP-1 on their proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Our results showed that MMP-1 treatment, which had no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs, increased the mRNA and protein levels of MyoD and desmin in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that MMP-1 promoted myogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. These results suggest that BMSCs may have a therapeutic potential for treating muscular disorders.

  5. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xi-Ying; Wang, Yong; Duan, Xiang; Duan, Qiao-Yan; Li, Ming-Zhong; Lu, Shen-Zhou; Zhang, Huan-Xiang; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2006-12-01

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture. PMID:18458403

  6. Micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-04-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells. PMID:22371072

  7. Inhibition of AQP1 Hampers Osteosarcoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression Mediated by Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Nardelli, Anna; Fontanella, Raffaela; Zannetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The complex cross-talk between tumor cells and their surrounding stromal environment plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Among several cell types that constitute the tumor stroma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) selectively migrate toward the tumor microenvironment and contribute to the active formation of tumor-associated stroma. Therefore, here we elucidate the involvement of BM-MSCs to promote osteosarcoma (OS) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells migration and invasion and deepening the role of specific pathways. We analyzed the function of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a water channel known to promote metastasis and neoangiogenes. AQP1 protein levels were analyzed in OS (U2OS) and HCC (SNU-398) cells exposed to conditioned medium from BM-MSCs. Tumor cell migration and invasion in response to BM-MSC conditioned medium were evaluated through a wound healing assay and Boyden chamber, respectively. The results showed that the AQP1 level was increased in both tumor cell lines after treatment with BM-MSC conditioned medium. Moreover, BM-MSCs-mediated tumor cell migration and invasion were hampered after treatment with AQP1 inhibitor. These data suggest that the recruitment of human BM-MSCs into the tumor microenvironment might cause OS and HCC cell migration and invasion through involvement of AQP1. PMID:27409610

  8. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  9. Homing and restorative effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cisplatin injured ovaries in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Yun; Li, Nan; Wen, Yuku; Cao, Fanglei; Ai, Hao; Xue, Xiaoou

    2014-12-31

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Chemotherapy-induced POF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in rats. BMSCs labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were injected into the rats via the tail vein to investigate the homing and distribution of BMSCs in vivo. The number of BMSCs in the ovarian hilum and medulla was greater than in the cortex, but no BMSCs were found in the follicles and corpus lutea. In addition, the BMSCs treatment group's antral follicle count and estradiol levels increased after 30 days, compared with the POF group. Hence, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered BMSCs can home to the ovaries, and restore its structure and function in POF model rats. PMID:25410907

  10. The Effect of Bone-Marrow-Derived Stem Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Wound Contraction and Epithelization

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Cagri A.; Tobita, Morikuni; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between the wound contraction and levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) has been revealed in different studies. We aimed to investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), mainly bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and find out the α-SMA, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transforming growth factor beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels on an in vivo acute wound healing model after the application of MSCs. Approach: Four circular skin defects were formed on the dorsum of Fisher rats (n=20). The defects were applied phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), ASCs, BSCs, and patchy skin graft, respectively. The healing time and scar area were noted. Results: There was a statistical decrease in the healing time in ASC, BSC, and skin graft groups (p<0.05). However, the scar was smaller in the PBS group (p<0.05). The α-SMA levels were statistically lower in ASC, BSC, and graft groups (p<0.05). The FGF levels were statistically higher in ASC and BSC groups (p<0.05). The differentiation of the injected MSCs to endothelial cells and keratinocytes was observed. Innovation and Conclusion: MSCs decrease the healing time and contraction of the wound while increasing the epithelization rate by increasing angiogenesis. PMID:24940554

  11. Inhibition of AQP1 Hampers Osteosarcoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression Mediated by Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Nardelli, Anna; Fontanella, Raffaela; Zannetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The complex cross-talk between tumor cells and their surrounding stromal environment plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Among several cell types that constitute the tumor stroma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) selectively migrate toward the tumor microenvironment and contribute to the active formation of tumor-associated stroma. Therefore, here we elucidate the involvement of BM-MSCs to promote osteosarcoma (OS) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells migration and invasion and deepening the role of specific pathways. We analyzed the function of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a water channel known to promote metastasis and neoangiogenes. AQP1 protein levels were analyzed in OS (U2OS) and HCC (SNU-398) cells exposed to conditioned medium from BM-MSCs. Tumor cell migration and invasion in response to BM-MSC conditioned medium were evaluated through a wound healing assay and Boyden chamber, respectively. The results showed that the AQP1 level was increased in both tumor cell lines after treatment with BM-MSC conditioned medium. Moreover, BM-MSCs-mediated tumor cell migration and invasion were hampered after treatment with AQP1 inhibitor. These data suggest that the recruitment of human BM-MSCs into the tumor microenvironment might cause OS and HCC cell migration and invasion through involvement of AQP1. PMID:27409610

  12. Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Ma, Zhan; Xu, Songtao; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yao; Yu, Yinglu; Liu, Ruilai; Chen, Zhihong; Lu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy. PMID:24998261

  13. Autologous transplantation of CD34(+) bone marrow derived mononuclear cells in management of non-reconstructable critical lower limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed M; Abdou, Said M; Aty, Hassan Abdel; Kamhawy, Adel H; Elhinedy, Mohammed; Elwageh, Mohammed; Taha, Atef; Ezzat, Amal; Salem, Hoda A; Youssif, Said; Salem, Mohamed L

    2016-08-01

    Patients with a decrease in limb perfusion with a potential threat to limb viability manifested by ischemic rest pain, ischemic ulcers, and/or gangrene are considered to have critical limb ischemia (CLI). Because of this generally poor outcome, there is a strong need for attempting any procedure to save the affected limb. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility to use stem cell therapy as a treatment option for patients with chronic critical lower limb ischemia with no distal run off. This study includes 20 patients with chronic critical lower limb ischemia with no distal run off who are unsuitable for vascular or endovascular option. These patients underwent stem cell therapy (SCT) by autologous transplantation of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells. 55 % of patients treated with SCT showed improvement of the rest pain after the first month, 60 % continued improvement of the rest pain after 6 months, 75 % after 1 year and 80 % after 2 years and continued without any deterioration till the third year. Limb salvage rate after STC was 80 % after the first year till the end of the second and third years. SCT can result in angiogenesis in patients with no-option CLI, providing a foundation for the application of this therapy to leg ischemia. PMID:25511801

  14. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle H.; Goralczyk, Anna G.; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A.; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M. Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced ‘browning’ in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow. PMID:26883894

  15. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced 'browning' in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow. PMID:26883894

  16. Comparison of the osteogenic capacity of minipig and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Heino, Terhi J; Alm, Jessica J; Moritz, Niko; Aro, Hannu T

    2012-07-01

    Minipigs are a recommended large animal model for preclinical testing of human orthopedic implants. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the key repair cells in bone healing and implant osseointegration, but the osteogenic capacity of minipig MSCs is incompletely known. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize minipig bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) MSCs in comparison to human BM-MSCs. BM sample was aspirated from posterior iliac crest of five male Göttingen minipigs (age 15 ± 1 months). PB sample was drawn for isolation of circulating MSCs. MSCs were selected by plastic-adherence as originally described by Friedenstein. Cell morphology, colony formation, proliferation, surface marker expression, and differentiation were examined. Human BM-MSCs were isolated and cultured from adult fracture patients (n = 13, age 19-60 years) using identical techniques. MSCs were found in all minipig BM samples, but no circulating MSCs could be detected. Minipig BM-MSCs had similar morphology, proliferation, and colony formation capacities as human BM-MSCs. Unexpectedly, minipig BM-MSCs had a significantly lower ability than human BM-MSCs to form differentiated and functional osteoblasts. This observation emphasizes the need for species-specific optimization of MSC culture protocol before direct systematic comparison of MSCs between human and various preclinical large animal models can be made. PMID:22570220

  17. Bone regeneration in calvarial defects in a rat model by implantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Suzuki, Yukako; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ushida, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) condensation contributes to membrane ossification by enhancing their osteodifferentiation. We investigated bone regeneration in rats using the human bone marrow-derived MSC-spheroids prepared by rotation culture, without synthetic or exogenous biomaterials. Bilateral calvarial defects (8 mm) were created in nude male rats; the left-sided defects were implanted with MSC-spheroids, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, or β-TCP granules + MSC-spheroids, while the right-sided defects served as internal controls. Micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin/osteopontin indicated formation of new, full-thickness bones at the implantation sites, but not at the control sites in the MSC-spheroid group. Raman spectroscopy revealed similarity in the spectral properties of the repaired bone and native calvarial bone. Mechanical performance of the bones in the MSC-implanted group was good (50 and 60% those of native bones, respectively). All tests showed poor bone regeneration in the β-TCP and β-TCP + MSC-spheroid groups. Thus, significant bone regeneration was achieved with MSC-spheroid implantation into bone defects, justifying further investigation. PMID:26449444

  18. Bone marrow derived stem cells for the treatment of end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Margini, Cristina; Vukotic, Ranka; Brodosi, Lucia; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-07-21

    End-stage disease due to liver cirrhosis is an important cause of death worldwide. Cirrhosis results from progressive, extensive fibrosis and impaired hepatocyte regeneration. The only curative treatment is liver transplantation, but due to the several limitations of this procedure, the interest in alternative therapeutic strategies is increasing. In particular, the potential of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) therapy in cirrhosis has been explored in different trials. In this article, we evaluate the results of 18 prospective clinical trials, and we provide a descriptive overview of recent advances in the research on hepatic regenerative medicine. The main message from the currently available data in the literature is that BMSC therapy is extremely promising in the context of liver cirrhosis. However, its application should be further explored in randomized, controlled trials with large cohorts and long follow-ups. PMID:25083082

  19. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Ryoichi; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may be heterogeneous. However, the infiltration of BM cells in the spinal cord remains controversial because of experimental adverse effects of strong irradiation used for generating BM chimeric mice. In this study, we evaluated the PNI-induced spinal infiltration of BM-derived cells not only by irradiation-induced myeloablation with various conditioning regimens, but also by parabiosis and mice with genetically labelled microglia, models without irradiation and BM transplantation. Results obtained from these independent approaches provide compelling evidence indicating little contribution of circulating BM-derived cells to the population of spinal microglia after PNI. PMID:27005516

  20. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Ryoichi; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may be heterogeneous. However, the infiltration of BM cells in the spinal cord remains controversial because of experimental adverse effects of strong irradiation used for generating BM chimeric mice. In this study, we evaluated the PNI-induced spinal infiltration of BM-derived cells not only by irradiation-induced myeloablation with various conditioning regimens, but also by parabiosis and mice with genetically labelled microglia, models without irradiation and BM transplantation. Results obtained from these independent approaches provide compelling evidence indicating little contribution of circulating BM-derived cells to the population of spinal microglia after PNI. PMID:27005516

  1. Characterization of subsets of bone marrow-derived macrophages by flow cytometry analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.B.; Akporiaye, E.T.; Warner, N.L.; Stewart, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Normal C3H bone marrow cells were grown 7 days in medium containing L cell-derived colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). During the first 4 days of culture, erythroid and granulocytic cells decreased while macrophages increased exponentially with a doubling time of about 31 hr. Only 0.3% of all cells in the initial bone marrrow suspension formed discrete colonies of mononuclear phagocytes, but by day 6 60% of the nonadherent cells were capable of forming macrophage colonies, representing a 200-fold enrichment of the original progenitor population. Using flow cytometry, mononuclear phagocytes obtained after 4 days of culture were separated into two distinct phenotypes based on their autofluorescence. Nonadherent cells were a discrete population of small cells exhibiting low autofluorescence, and the adherent cells were a broad heterogenous population of large cells exhibiting high autofluorescence. A panel of currently available rat monoclonal antibodies (MABs) against murine hematopoietic cells were used to determine whether unique subsets of macrophages could be resolved. The MABs RA 31B6 and H-11 stained virtually all the nonadherent cells but not adherent cells. The MABs E-2 and 11-4.1 (anti-H-2K/sup k/) stained almost all the adherent cells and demonstrated no significant staining of nonadherent cells. Nearly all the nonadherent and adherent cells were stained by the MABs DNL 4.4 and MAC-1. Additionally, the data suggest that the epitopes for MAC-2 and MAC-3 and ..gamma..2a Fc receptors develop late in nonadherent progenitor cells as they mature into adherent macrophages. 37 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Increased recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells into the brain associated with altered brain cytokine profile in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Inaba, Muneo; Li, Ming; Shi, Ming; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Ikehara, Susumu; Shimada, Atsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells enter the brain in a non-inflammatory condition through the attachments of choroid plexus and differentiate into ramified myeloid cells. Neurodegenerative conditions may be associated with altered immune-brain interaction. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) undergoes earlier onset neurodegeneration than C57BL/6 (B6) strain. We hypothesized that the dynamics of immune cells migrating from the bone marrow to the brain is perturbed in SAMP10 mice. We created 4 groups of radiation chimeras by intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation using 2-month-old (2 mo) and 10 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice as recipients with GFP transgenic B6 mice as donors, and analyzed histologically 4 months later. In the [B6 → 10 mo SAMP10] chimeras, more ramified marrow-derived cells populated a larger number of discrete brain regions than the other chimeras, especially in the diencephalon. Multiplex cytokine assays of the diencephalon prepared from non-treated 3 mo and 12 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice revealed that 12 mo SAMP10 mice exhibited higher tissue concentrations of CXCL1, CCL11, G-CSF, CXCL10 and IL-6 than the other groups. Immunohistologically, choroid plexus epithelium and ependyma produced CXCL1, while astrocytic processes in the attachments of choroid plexus expressed CCL11 and G-CSF. The median eminence produced CXCL10, hypothalamic neurons G-CSF and tanycytes CCL11 and G-CSF. These brain cytokine profile changes in 12 mo SAMP10 mice were likely to contribute to acceleration of the dynamics of marrow-derived cells to the diencephalon. Further studies on the functions of ramified marrow-derived myeloid cells would enhance our understanding of the brain-bone marrow interaction. PMID:25577138

  3. Spatiotemporal control of gene expression in bone-marrow derived cells of the tumor microenvironment induced by MRI guided focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Genevois, Coralie; Debeissat, Christelle; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T W; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Couillaud, Franck

    2015-09-15

    The tumor microenvironment is an interesting target for anticancer therapies but modifying this compartment is challenging. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a gene therapy strategy that combined targeting to bone marrow-derived tumor microenvironment using genetically modified bone-marrow derived cells and control of transgene expression by local hyperthermia through a thermo-inducible promoter. Chimera were obtained by engraftment of bone marrow from transgenic mice expressing reporter genes under transcriptional control of heat shock promoter and inoculated sub-cutaneously with tumors cells. Heat shocks were applied at the tumor site using a water bath or magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound device. Reporter gene expression was followed by bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging and immunohistochemistry. Bone marrow-derived cells expressing reporter genes were identified to be mainly tumor-associated macrophages. We thus provide the proof of concept for a gene therapy strategy that allows for spatiotemporal control of transgenes expression by macrophages targeted to the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26299614

  4. Spatiotemporal control of gene expression in bone-marrow derived cells of the tumor microenvironment induced by MRI guided focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Genevois, Coralie; Debeissat, Christelle; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Couillaud, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is an interesting target for anticancer therapies but modifying this compartment is challenging. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a gene therapy strategy that combined targeting to bone marrow-derived tumor microenvironment using genetically modified bone-marrow derived cells and control of transgene expression by local hyperthermia through a thermo-inducible promoter. Chimera were obtained by engraftment of bone marrow from transgenic mice expressing reporter genes under transcriptional control of heat shock promoter and inoculated sub-cutaneously with tumors cells. Heat shocks were applied at the tumor site using a water bath or magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound device. Reporter gene expression was followed by bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging and immunohistochemistry. Bone marrow-derived cells expressing reporter genes were identified to be mainly tumor-associated macrophages. We thus provide the proof of concept for a gene therapy strategy that allows for spatiotemporal control of transgenes expression by macrophages targeted to the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26299614

  5. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived) Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived) Mast Cell Precursors from Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Steffen K.; Neß, Melanie; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Kim, Philipp; Tag, Carmen G.; Kauffmann, Marlies; Huber, Michael; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC) or mucosal (MMC) type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT) and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs) and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM). The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC). These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research. PMID:27337047

  6. Effects of Tricalcium Silicate Cements on Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Ashraf A.; Hussein, Khalid A.; Niu, Li-na; Li, Guo-hua; Watanabe, Ikuya; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements have been successfully employed in the biomedical field as bioactive bone and dentin substitutes, with widely acclaimed osteoactive properties. This research analyzed the effects of different tricalcium silicate cement formulations on the temporal osteoactivity profile of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMW-MSCs). These cells were exposed to 4 commercially-available tricalcium silicate cement formulations in osteogenic differentiation medium. After 1, 3, 7 and 10 days, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of target osteogenic markers ALP, RUNX2, OSX, OPN, MSX2, and OCN. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, alkaline phosphatase assay was performed to detect changes in intracellular enzyme level. Alizarin Red S assay was performed after 28 days to detect extracellular matrix mineralization. In the presence of tricalcium silicate cements, target osteogenic markers were downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels at all time-points. Intracellular alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels and extracellular mineralization of the experimental groups were not significantly different from the untreated control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed increases in downregulation of RUNX2, OSX, MSX2 and OCN with increase in time of exposure to the tricalcium silicate cements, while ALP showed peak downregulation at day 7. For Western blotting, OSX, OPN, MSX2 and OCN showed increased downregulation with increased exposure time to the tested cements. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels generally declined after day 7. Based on these results, it is concluded that tricalcium silicate cements do not induce osteogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs in vitro. PMID:24726977

  7. Evaluation of rhBMP-2 and bone marrow derived stromal cell mediated bone regeneration using transgenic fluorescent protein reporter mice

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Shalini V.; Adams, Douglas J.; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David W.; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is use of transgenic fluorescent protein reporter mouse models to understand the cellular processes in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) mediated bone formation. Bilateral parietal calvarial bone defects in Col3.6Topaz transgenic fluorescent osteoblast reporter mouse were used to understand the bone formation in the presence and absence of rhBMP2 and/or Col3.6Cyan bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs), using collagen-hydroxyapatite matrix (Healos) as a biomaterial. The bone regeneration was not confined to the site of BMP-2 implantation and significant bone formation was observed in the neighboring defect site. Osteogenic cellular activity with overlying alizarin complexone staining was observed in both the defects indicating host cell induced mineralization. However, implantation of BMSCs along with rhBMP-2 demonstrated a donor cell derived bone formation. The presence of rhBMP-2 did not support host cell recruitment in the presence of donor cells. This study demonstrates the potential of multiple fluorescent reporters to understand the cellular processes involved in the bone regeneration process using biomaterials, growth factors, and/or stem cells. PMID:24677665

  8. Bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells inhibit ovalbumin-induced atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Na, K; Yoo, H S; Zhang, Y X; Choi, M-S; Lee, K; Yi, T G; Song, S U; Jeon, M-S

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory activities, including suppression of T- and B-cell activation. However, their effects on atopic dermatitis (AD) have not yet been studied. Using an ovalbumin-induced AD mouse model, we investigated whether MSCs can be used as therapeutics in AD. We isolated both allogeneic and syngeneic clonal MSCs (cMSCs) from mouse bone marrow according to the subfractionation culturing method. Our cMSCs suppressed both T- and B-cell activation. T-cell proliferation and cytokine production, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4, were suppressed by inhibition of transcription factors, such as T-bet, GATA-3, and c-Maf. Those transcription factors were nitric oxide dependent. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) suppression occurred through downregulation of AID and BLIMP-1, important regulators for isotype class switch and B-cell differentiation. The cMSCs were injected intravenously into ovalbumin-induced AD mouse model, and the therapeutic effects were analyzed. Injection of both allogeneic and syngeneic cMSCs in an AD mouse model inhibited cell infiltration in skin lesions and decreased the serum level of IgE. IL-4 expression was also suppressed by cMSCs in both the lymph node and skin. The cMSCs migrated to skin lesions and draining lymph nodes. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cMSCs, which suppressed T- and B-cell functions, can be used for the treatment of AD in mice. PMID:25032868

  9. Adult bone marrow-derived cells recruited during angiogenesis comprise precursors for periendothelial vascular mural cells.

    PubMed

    Rajantie, Iiro; Ilmonen, Maritta; Alminaite, Agne; Ozerdem, Ugur; Alitalo, Kari; Salven, Petri

    2004-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells are thought to participate in the growth of blood vessels during postnatal vascular regeneration and tumor growth, a process previously attributed to stem and precursor cells differentiating to endothelial cells. We used multichannel laser scanning confocal microscopy of whole-mounted tissues to study angiogenesis in chimeric mice created by reconstituting C57BL mice with genetically marked syngeneic BM. We show that BM-derived endothelial cells do not significantly contribute to tumor- or cytokine-induced neoangiogenesis. Instead, BM-derived periendothelial vascular mural cells were persistently detected at sites of tumor- or vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis. Subpopulations of these cells expressed the pericyte-specific NG2 proteoglycan, or the hematopoietic markers CD11b and CD45, but did not detectably express the smooth muscle markers smooth muscle alpha-actin or desmin. Thus, the major contribution of the BM to angiogenic processes is not endothelial, but may come from progenitors for periendothelial vascular mural and hematopoietic effector cells. PMID:15191949

  10. Autologous bone marrow-derived cells in the treatment of liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    AlAhmari, Leenah S; AlShenaifi, Jumanah Y; AlAnazi, Reema A; Abdo, Ayman A

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is universally accepted as a "cure" procedure, and yet is not universally applicable for the treatment of end-stage liver diseases (ESLD) because of the shortage of donors, operative complications, risk of rejection, and high cost. Bioartificial liver device is an option to temporarily improve the liver function and to bridge the patients to liver transplantation. However, bioartificial liver device has many problems in clinical application, such as hepatocyte allograft rejection and maintenance of hepatocyte viability and function. Another therapeutic option is stem cell transplantation. There are two broad types of stem cells: Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. The latter are sourced from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue, and blood. This review will concentrate on BM-derived cells. BM-derived cell transplantation, although not ideal, is theoretically an optimal modality for the treatment of ESLD. Autologous BM-derived cells have no graft rejection, have the capability of regeneration and self-renewal, and are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types which include hepatocytes. The pathway from BM-derived cell to hepatocyte is well documented. The present review summarizes the delivery routes of BM-derived cells to the liver, the evidences of engraftment of BM-derived cells in the liver, and the possible mechanisms of BM-derived cells in liver repair and regeneration, and finally, updates the clinical applications. PMID:25672232

  11. Bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells inhibit ovalbumin-induced atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Na, K; Yoo, H S; Zhang, Y X; Choi, M-S; Lee, K; Yi, T G; Song, S U; Jeon, M-S

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory activities, including suppression of T- and B-cell activation. However, their effects on atopic dermatitis (AD) have not yet been studied. Using an ovalbumin-induced AD mouse model, we investigated whether MSCs can be used as therapeutics in AD. We isolated both allogeneic and syngeneic clonal MSCs (cMSCs) from mouse bone marrow according to the subfractionation culturing method. Our cMSCs suppressed both T- and B-cell activation. T-cell proliferation and cytokine production, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4, were suppressed by inhibition of transcription factors, such as T-bet, GATA-3, and c-Maf. Those transcription factors were nitric oxide dependent. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) suppression occurred through downregulation of AID and BLIMP-1, important regulators for isotype class switch and B-cell differentiation. The cMSCs were injected intravenously into ovalbumin-induced AD mouse model, and the therapeutic effects were analyzed. Injection of both allogeneic and syngeneic cMSCs in an AD mouse model inhibited cell infiltration in skin lesions and decreased the serum level of IgE. IL-4 expression was also suppressed by cMSCs in both the lymph node and skin. The cMSCs migrated to skin lesions and draining lymph nodes. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cMSCs, which suppressed T- and B-cell functions, can be used for the treatment of AD in mice. PMID:25032868

  12. Cell-autonomous sex differences in gene expression in chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M; Clinton, Mike; Hume, David A

    2015-03-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome-specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN-responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes. PMID:25637020

  13. Transplantation of bone marrow derived cells promotes pancreatic islet repair in diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xiaodong; Song Lujun; Shen Kuntang; Wang Hongshan; Niu Weixin Qin Xinyu

    2008-06-20

    The transplantation of bone marrow (BM) derived cells to initiate pancreatic regeneration is an attractive but as-yet unrealized strategy. Presently, BM derived cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were transplanted into diabetic mice. Repair of diabetic islets was evidenced by reduction of hyperglycemia, increase in number of islets, and altered pancreatic histology. Cells in the pancreata of recipient mice co-expressed BrdU and insulin. Double staining revealed {beta} cells were in the process of proliferation. BrdU{sup +} insulin{sup -} PDX-1{sup +} cells, Ngn3{sup +} cells and insulin{sup +} glucagon{sup +} cells, which showed stem cells, were also found during {beta}-cell regeneration. The majority of transplanted cells were mobilized to the islet and ductal regions. In recipient pancreas, transplanted cells simultaneously expressed CD34 but did not express insulin, PDX-1, Ngn3, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Pax4, Pax6, and CD45. It is concluded that BM derived cells especially CD34{sup +} cells can promote repair of pancreatic islets. Moreover, both proliferation of {beta} cells and differentiation of pancreatic stem cells contribute to the regeneration of {beta} cells.

  14. Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Muscle Connective Tissue and Satellite Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Patrick A.; Chretien, Fabrice; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kirova, Youlia; Caramelle, Philippe; Garcia, Luis; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gherardi, Romain K.

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle includes satellite cells, which reside beneath the muscle fiber basal lamina and mainly represent committed myogenic precursor cells, and multipotent stem cells of unknown origin that are present in muscle connective tissue, express the stem cell markers Sca-1 and CD34, and can differentiate into different cell types. We tracked bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells in both muscle connective tissue and satellite cell niches of irradiated mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM cells. An increasing number of GFP+ mononucleated cells, located both inside and outside of the muscle fiber basal lamina, were observed 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation. Sublaminal cells expressed unambiguous satellite cell markers (M-cadherin, Pax7, NCAM) and fused into scattered GFP+ muscle fibers. In muscle connective tissue there were GFP+ cells located close to blood vessels that expressed the ScaI or CD34 stem-cell antigens. The rate of settlement of extra- and intralaminal compartments by BM-derived cells was compatible with the view that extralaminal cells constitute a reservoir of satellite cells. We conclude that both muscle satellite cells and stem cell marker-expressing cells located in muscle connective tissue can derive from BM in adulthood. PMID:14982831

  15. Imaging and Tracking of Bone Marrow-Derived Immune and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Youbo; Bower, Andrew J.; Graf, Benedikt W.; Boppart, Marni D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem and immune cells play critical roles in maintaining the health, regeneration, and repair of many tissues. Given their important functions in tissue regeneration and therapy, tracking the dynamic behaviors of BM-derived cells has been a long-standing research goal of both biologists and engineers. Because of the complex cellular-level processes involved, real-time imaging technologies that have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to visualize them are needed. In addition, in order to track cellular dynamics, special attention is needed to account for changes in the microenvironment where the cells reside, for example, tissue contraction, stretching, development, etc. In this chapter, we introduce methods for real-time imaging and longitudinal tracking of BM-derived immune and stem cells in in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environments with an integrated optical microscope. The integrated microscope combines multiple imaging functions derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM), including optical coherence microscopy (OCM), micro-vasculature imaging, two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Short- and long-term tracking of the dynamic behavior of BM-derived cells involved in cutaneous wound healing and skin grafting in green fluorescent protein (GFP) BM-transplanted mice is demonstrated. Methods and algorithms for nonrigid registration of time-lapse images are introduced, which allows for long-term tracking of cell dynamics over several months. PMID:23737096

  16. Activation of Bone Marrow-Derived Microglia Promotes Photoreceptor Survival in Inherited Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Manabu; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Nakamura, Hajime; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2008-01-01

    The role of microglia in neurodegeneration is controversial, although microglial activation in the retina has been shown to provide an early response against infection, injury, ischemia, and degeneration. Here we show that endogenous bone marrow (BM)-derived microglia play a protective role in vascular and neural degeneration in the retinitis pigmentosa model of inherited retinal degeneration. BM-derived cells were recruited to the degenerating retina where they differentiated into microglia and subsequently localized to the degenerating vessels and neurons. Inhibition of stromal-derived factor-1 in the retina reduced the number of BM-derived microglia and accelerated the rate of neurovascular degeneration. Systemic depletion of myeloid progenitors also accelerated the degenerative process. Conversely, activation of BM-derived myeloid progenitors by systemic administration of both granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin resulted in the deceleration of retinal degeneration and the promotion of cone cell survival. These data indicate that BM-derived microglia may play a protective role in retinitis pigmentosa. Functional activation of BM-derived myeloid progenitors by cytokine therapy may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of inherited retinal degeneration and other neurodegenerative diseases, regardless of the underlying genetic defect. PMID:18483210

  17. Differentiation of Bone Marrow: Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Al Ghrbawy, Nesrien M; Afify, Reham Abdel Aleem Mohamed; Dyaa, Nehal; El Sayed, Asmaa A

    2016-09-01

    Cirrhosis is the end-stage liver fibrosis, whereby normal liver architecture is disrupted by fibrotic bands, parenchymal nodules and vascular distortion. Portal hypertension and hepatocyte dysfunction are the end results and give rise to major systemic complications and premature death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the capacity of self-renew and to give rise to cells of various lineages, so MSC can be isolated from bone marrow (BM) and induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. MSC were induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells by hepatotic growth factor (HGF) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4). Differentiated cells were examined for the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers and hepatocyte functions. MSC were isolated. Flow cytometry analysis showed that they expressed the MSC-specific markers, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that MSC expressed the hepatocyte-specific marker cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) following hepatocyte induction. This study demonstrates that BM-derived-MSC can differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells following the induction of HGF and FGF-4. MSC can serve as a favorable cell source for tissue engineering in the treatment of liver disease. PMID:27429519

  18. Endocannabinoid System Contributes to Liver Injury and Inflammation by Activation of Bone Marrow-Derived Monocytes/Macrophages in a CB1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ping; Yang, Le; Tian, Lei; Wang, Lin; Jia, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic injury undergoes significant increases in endocannabinoidsand infiltrations of macrophages, yet the concrete mechanisms of changes in endocannabinoids and the functions of macrophage-expressed cannabinoid receptors (CBs) are unclear. Biosynthetic and degradative enzymes of endocannabinoids revealed a significant change in human fibrotic liver. Meanwhile, we showed dynamic changes of these enzymes and CBs (CB1 and CB2) from 1 to 56 d in carbon tetrachloride-induced murine liver injury. Biosynthetic enzymes (N-acylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine selective phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipase-α) and CBs were markedly increased, whereas degradative enzymes (fatty acid amidohydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase) were downregulated. Moreover, these enzymes intimately correlated with the fibrosis parameter [procollagen α1(III)]. Bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMM) expressed CBs. Interestingly, CB1 but not CB2 mediated BMM migration through a Boyden chambers assay, and the effect depended on the G(α)i/o/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. ICR mice were lethally irradiated and received BM transplants from enhanced GFP transgenic mice. Four weeks later, mice of BM reconstruction were subjected to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. In the chimeric murine model, we found that blockade of CB1 by administration of a CB1 antagonist inhibited the recruitment of BMM into injured liver using immunofluorescence staining and FACS, but it did not have effects on migration of T cells and dendritic cells without CB1 expression. Furthermore, activation of CB1 enhanced cytokine expression of BMM. In vivo, inhibition of CB1 attenuated the inflammatory cytokine level through real-time RT-PCR and cytometric bead array, ameliorating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we identify inactivation of BMM-expressed CB1 as a therapeutic strategy for reducing hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26320250

  19. Particle Radiation-Induced Nontargeted Effects in Bone-Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Sharath P; Park, Daniel; Muralidharan, Sujatha; Wage, Justin; Kiladjian, Albert; Onufrak, Jillian; Enderling, Heiko; Yan, Xinhua; Goukassian, David A

    2015-01-01

    Bone-marrow- (BM-) derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for endothelial cell maintenance and repair. During future space exploration missions astronauts will be exposed to space irradiation (IR) composed of a spectrum of low-fluence protons ((1)H) and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei (e.g., iron-(56)Fe) for extended time. How the space-type IR affects BM-EPCs is limited. In media transfer experiments in vitro we studied nontargeted effects induced by (1)H- and (56)Fe-IR conditioned medium (CM), which showed significant increase in the number of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated EPCs between 2 and 24 h. A 2-15-fold increase in the levels of various cytokines and chemokines was observed in both types of IR-CM at 24 h. Ex vivo analysis of BM-EPCs from single, low-dose, full-body (1)H- and (56)Fe-IR mice demonstrated a cyclical (early 5-24 h and delayed 28 days) increase in apoptosis. This early increase in BM-EPC apoptosis may be the effect of direct IR exposure, whereas late increase in apoptosis could be a result of nontargeted effects (NTE) in the cells that were not traversed by IR directly. Identifying the role of specific cytokines responsible for IR-induced NTE and inhibiting such NTE may prevent long-term and cyclical loss of stem and progenitors cells in the BM milieu. PMID:26074973

  20. Turnover of bone marrow-derived cells in the irradiated mouse cornea

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Holly R; Humphries, Timothy; Clare, Adam; Dixon, Ariane E; Howes, Kristen; Moran, Caitlin B; Scott, Danielle; Zakrzewski, Marianna; Pearlman, Eric; McMenamin, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    In light of an increasing awareness of the presence of bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages in the normal cornea and their uncertain role in corneal diseases, it is important that the turnover rate of these resident immune cells be established. The baseline density and distribution of macrophages in the corneal stroma was investigated in Cx3cr1gfp transgenic mice in which all monocyte-derived cells express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). To quantify turnover, BM-derived cells from transgenic eGFP mice were transplanted into whole-body irradiated wild-type recipients. Additionally, wild-type BM-derived cells were injected into irradiated Cx3cr1+/gfp recipients, creating reverse chimeras. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-reconstitution, the number of eGFP+ cells in each corneal whole mount was calculated using epifluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. The total density of myeloid-derived cells in the normal Cx3cr1+/gfp cornea was 366 cells/mm2. In BM chimeras 2 weeks post-reconstitution, 24% of the myeloid-derived cells had been replenished and were predominantly located in the anterior stroma. By 8 weeks post-reconstitution 75% of the myeloid-derived cells had been replaced and these cells were distributed uniformly throughout the stroma. All donor eGFP+ cells expressed low to moderate levels of CD45 and CD11b, with approximately 25% coexpressing major histocompatibility complex class II, a phenotype characteristic of previous descriptions of corneal stromal macrophages. In conclusion, 75% of the myeloid-derived cells in the mouse corneal stroma are replenished after 8 weeks. These data provide a strong basis for functional investigations of the role of resident stromal macrophages versus non-haematopoietic cells using BM chimeric mice in models of corneal inflammation. PMID:18540963

  1. Bone Marrow-Derived Nonreactive Astrocytes in the Mouse Brain After Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Zsuzsanna E.; Leker, Ronen R.; Shahar, Tal; Bratincsak, Andras; Szalayova, Ildiko; Key, Sharon; Palkovits, Miklós; Cassiani-Ingoni, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of permanent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) on the generation of bone marrow (BM)-derived astrocytes in female mice previously transplanted with enchanced green fluorescent protein-expressing BM from male donors. In addition to an untreated PMCAO group, one group of mice also received intracerebral infusion of transforming growth factor-alpha, resulting in a decrease in the size of the infarct. Two months after PMCAO, we found a specific type of astrocyte of BM origin in the side of the injury, near the lesion. These astrocytes did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) by conventional fluorescence immunostaining; however, GFAP was easily detectable by tyramide signal amplification. These cells also expressed S100β, confirming their astrocytic character. Unlike the endogenous reactive astrocytes, these BM-derived astrocytes did not proliferate during the first week of ischemia and did not contribute to the glial scar formation. Transforming growth factor-alpha infusion increased the number of BM-derived astrocytes, without affecting their distribution. Interestingly, exclusively by tyramide signal amplification staining, we found that endogenous astrocytes displaying an identical morphology were also present in control mouse and human brains. Our data demonstrate that a subpopulation of nonreactive astrocytes expressing low levels of GFAP can originate from transplanted BM in the ischemic brain. We believe that these cells represent a subpopulation of astrocytes earlier considered to be GFAP negative. The high number of astrocytes with identical morphology and chemical character in control brains suggest that these type of astrocytes may have important functional role in the central nervous system that calls for further studies. PMID:20604679

  2. Altered SDF-1-mediated differentiation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Elena; Avitabile, Daniele; Totta, Pierangela; Straino, Stefania; Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Torella, Anna Rita; Rizzi, Roberto; Porcelli, Daniele; Zacheo, Antonella; Vito, Luca Di; Pompilio, Giulio; Napolitano, Monica; Melillo, Guido; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Pesce, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    In diabetic patients and animal models of diabetes mellitus (DM), circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number is lower than in normoglycaemic conditions and EPC angiogenic properties are inhibited. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays a key role in bone marrow (BM) c-kit+ stem cell mobilization into peripheral blood (PB), recruitment from PB into ischemic tissues and differentiation into endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of DM in vivo and in vitro, on murine BM-derived c-kit+ cells and on their response to SDF-1. Acute hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocin-treated DM and control mice; circulating c-kit+ cells exhibited a rapid increase followed by a return to control levels which was significantly faster in DM than in control mice. CXCR4 expression by BM c-kit+ cells as well as SDF-1 protein levels in the plasma and in the skeletal muscle, both before and after the induction of ischemia, were similar between normoglycaemic and DM mice. However, BM-derived c-kit+ cells from DM mice exhibited an impaired differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype in response to SDF-1; this effect was associated with diminished protein kinase phosphorylation. Interestingly, SDF-1 ability to induce differentiation of c-kit+ cells from DM mice was restored when cells were cultured under normoglycaemic conditions whereas c-kit+ cells from normoglycaemic mice failed to differentiate in response to SDF-1 when they were cultured in hyperglycaemic conditions. These results show that DM diminishes circulating c-kit+ cell number following hindlimb ischemia and inhibits SDF-1-mediated AKT phosphorylation and differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype of BM-derived c-kit+ cells. PMID:20196780

  3. Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Bennett J; Willis, Derall G; Prescott, Joseph; Farrell, Regina M; Coons, Teresa A; Schountz, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC) from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus) granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases. PMID:15458574

  4. Bone marrow-derived CD11b+Jagged2+ cells promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasization in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Caiado, Francisco; Carvalho, Tânia; Rosa, Isadora; Remédio, Leonor; Costa, Ana; Matos, João; Heissig, Beate; Yagita, Hideo; Hattori, Koichi; da Silva, João Pereira; Fidalgo, Paulo; Pereira, António Dias; Dias, Sérgio

    2013-07-15

    Timely detection of colorectal cancer metastases may permit improvements in their clinical management. Here, we investigated a putative role for bone marrow-derived cells in the induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a marker for onset of metastasis. In ectopic and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal cancer, bone marrow-derived CD11b(Itgam)(+)Jagged2 (Jag2)(+) cells infiltrated primary tumors and surrounded tumor cells that exhibited diminished expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin, 2 hallmarks of EMT. In vitro coculture experiments showed that the bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells induced EMT through a Notch-dependent pathway. Using neutralizing antibodies, we imposed a blockade on CD11b(+) cells' recruitment to tumors, which decreased the tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cell population of interest, decreasing tumor growth, restoring E-cadherin expression, and delaying EMT. In support of these results, we found that peripheral blood levels of CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells in mouse models of colorectal cancer and in a cohort of untreated patients with colorectal cancer were indicative of metastatic disease. In patients with colorectal cancer, the presence of circulating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells was accompanied by loss of E-cadherin in the corresponding patient tumors. Taken together, our results show that bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells, which infiltrate primary colorectal tumors, are sufficient to induce EMT in tumor cells, thereby triggering onset of metastasis. Furthermore, they argue that quantifying circulating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells in patients may offer an indicator of colorectal cancer progression to metastatic levels of the disease. PMID:23722542

  5. Specific profiles of ion channels and ionotropic receptors define adipose- and bone marrow derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Forostyak, Oksana; Butenko, Olena; Anderova, Miroslava; Forostyak, Serhiy; Sykova, Eva; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2016-05-01

    Adherent, fibroblastic cells from different tissues are thought to contain subsets of tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells (often called mesenchymal stem cells). These cells display similar cell surface characteristics based on their fibroblastic nature, but also exhibit differences in molecular phenotype, growth rate, and their ability to differentiate into various cell phenotypes. The mechanisms underlying these differences remain poorly understood. We analyzed Ca(2+) signals and membrane properties in rat adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in basal conditions, and then following a switch into medium that contains factors known to modify their character. Modified ADSCs (mADSCs) expressed L-type Ca(2+) channels whereas both L- and P/Q- channels were operational in mBMSCs. Both mADSCs and mBMSCs possessed functional endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores, expressed ryanodine receptor-1 and -3, and exhibited spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. The mBMSCs expressed P2X7 purinoceptors; the mADSCs expressed both P2X (but not P2X7) and P2Y (but not P2Y1) receptors. Both types of stromal cells exhibited [Ca(2+)]i responses to vasopressin (AVP) and expressed V1 type receptors. Functional oxytocin (OT) receptors were, in contrast, expressed only in modified ADSCs and BMSCs. AVP and OT-induced [Ca(2+)]i responses were dose-dependent and were blocked by their respective specific receptor antagonists. Electrophysiological data revealed that passive ion currents dominated the membrane conductance in ADSCs and BMSCs. Medium modification led to a significant shift in the reversal potential of passive currents from -40 to -50mV in cells in basal to -80mV in modified cells. Hence membrane conductance was mediated by non-selective channels in cells in basal conditions, whereas in modified medium conditions, it was associated with K(+)-selective channels. Our results indicate that modification of ADSCs and BMSCs by alteration in medium

  6. Effect of inflammatory environment on equine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells immunogenicity and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, L; Remacha, A R; Romero, A; Vázquez, F J; Albareda, J; Prades, M; Ranera, B; Zaragoza, P; Martín-Burriel, I; Rodellar, C

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being investigated for the treatment of equine joint diseases because of their regenerative potential. Recently, the focus mainly has addressed to their immunomodulatory capacities. Inflammation plays a central role in joint pathologies, since the release of proinflammatory mediators to the synovial fluid (SF) leads to the activation of enzymatic degradation of the cartilage. MSCs can modulate the local immune environment through direct or paracrine interaction with immune cells, suppressing their proliferation and re-addressing their functions. Proinflammatory molecules can induce MSC immunoregulatory potential, but they could also increase the expression of immunogenic molecules. Studying the effect of inflammatory environment on MSC immunomodulation and immunogenicity profiles is mandatory to improve cellular therapies. The aim of this study was to analyse the response of equine bone marrow MSCs (eBM-MSCs) to three inflammatory conditions. Equine BM-MSCs from three animals were exposed to: (a) 20% allogeneic inflammatory SF (SF); (b) 50 ng/ml of TNFα and IFNγ (CK50) and (c) 20 ng/ml of TNFα and IFNγ (CK20). After 72 h of exposure, expression of immunogenic and immunomodulation-related molecules, including cell-to-cell contact and paracrine signalling molecules, were analysed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. The gene expression of adhesion molecules was upregulated whereas MSC migration-related genes were downregulated by all inflammatory conditions tested. CK culture conditions significantly upregulated the expression of COX-2, iNOS, IDO and IL-6. MHC-I gene expression was upregulated by all conditions, whereas MHC-II was upregulated only after CK priming. The expression of CD40 did not significantly change, whereas the ligand, CD40L, was downregulated in CK conditions. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the percentage of positive cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the MHC-I and MHC-II molecules at CK50

  7. Oxygen tension regulates the osteogenic, chondrogenic and endochondral phenotype of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehy, Eamon J.; Buckley, Conor T.; Kelly, Daniel J.

    2012-01-06

    chondrogenic phenotype for use in cartilage repair therapies or to promote hypertrophy of cartilaginous grafts for endochondral bone repair strategies.

  8. Adora2b Signaling on Bone Marrow Derived Cells Dampens Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Koeppen, Michael; Harter, Patrick N.; Bonney, Stephanie; Bonney, Megan; Reithel, Susan; Zachskorn, Cornelia; Mittelbronn, Michel; Eckle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) represents a major cause of cardiac tissue injury. Adenosine signaling dampens inflammation during cardiac I/R. Here, we investigated the role of the adenosine A2b-receptor (Adora2b) on inflammatory cells during cardiac I/R. Methods To study Adora2b signaling on inflammatory cells, we transplanted wild-type (WT) bone marrow (BM) into Adora2b−/− mice or Adora2b−/− BM into WT mice. To study the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), neutrophil-depleted WT mice were treated with an Adora2b agonist. Following treatments, mice were exposed to 60 min of myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Infarct sizes and Troponin-I levels were determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and ELISA, respectively. Results Transplantation of WT-BM into Adora2b−/− mice decreased infarct sizes by 19 ± 4% and Troponin-I by 87.5 ± 25.3 ng/ml (mean ± SD, n = 6). Transplantation of Adora2b−/− BM into WT mice increased infarct sizes by 20 ±3% and Troponin-I levels by 69.7 ± 17.9 ng/ml (mean ± SD, n = 6). Studies on the reperfused myocardium revealed PMNs as dominant cell type. PMN-depletion or Adora2b agonist treatment reduced infarct sizes by 30 ± 11% or 26 ± 13% (mean ± SD, n = 4), however the combination of both did not reveal further cardioprotection. Cytokine profiling showed significantly higher cardiac tumor-necrosis-factor-α levels in Adora2b−/− compared to WT mice (39.3 ± 5.3 vs. 7.5 ± 1.0 pg/mg protein, mean ± SD, n = 4). Pharmacological studies on human activated PMNs revealed an Adora2b dependent tumor-necrosis-factor-α release. Conclusion Adora2b signaling on BM-derived cells such as PMNs represents an endogenous cardioprotective mechanism during cardiac I/R. Our findings suggest that Adora2b agonist treatment during cardiac I/R reduces tumor-necrosis-factor-α release of PMNs, thereby dampening tissue injury. PMID:22531331

  9. Differentiation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells Is Regulated by PDGF-BB and Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Clifford; Yuan, Yifan; Courtman, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key regulators of vascular disease and circulating smooth muscle progenitor cells may play important roles in vascular repair or remodelling. We developed enhanced protocols to derive smooth muscle progenitors from murine bone marrow and tested whether factors that are increased in atherosclerotic plaques, namely platelet-derived growth factor—BB (PDGF-BB) and monomeric collagen, can influence the smooth muscle specific differentiation, proliferation, and survival of mouse bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. During a 21 day period of culture, bone marrow cells underwent a marked increase in expression of the SMC markers α-SMA (1.93 ± 0.15 vs. 0.0008 ± 0.0003 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d), SM22-α (1.50 ± 0.27 vs. 0.005 ± 0.001 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d) and SM-MHC (0.017 ± 0.004 vs. 0.001 ± 0.001 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiments showed that in early culture, the smooth muscle progenitor subpopulation could be identified by high proliferative rates prior to the expression of smooth muscle specific markers. Culture of fresh bone marrow or smooth muscle progenitor cells with PDGF-BB suppressed the expression of α-SMA and SM22-α, in a rapidly reversible manner requiring PDGF receptor kinase activity. Progenitors cultured on polymerized collagen gels demonstrated expression of SMC markers, rates of proliferation and apoptosis similar to that of cells on tissue culture plastic; in contrast, cells grown on monomeric collagen gels displayed lower SMC marker expression, lower growth rates (319 ± 36 vs. 635 ± 97 cells/mm2), and increased apoptosis (5.3 ± 1.6% vs. 1.0 ± 0.5% (Annexin 5 staining)). Our data shows that the differentiation and survival of smooth muscle progenitors are critically affected by PDGF-BB and as well as the substrate collagen structure. PMID:27258003

  10. [The modulation of low-level laser on polarization of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chen; Song, Jiwei; Liang, Zhuowen; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Zhe; Hu, Xueyu

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of 810 nm low-level laser of different energy on the polarization of macrophages. Methods The macrophages were isolated from the bone borrow of BALB/c mice and cultured in macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) conditioned cultural medium. The expression of F4/80 was examined by flow cytometry for identification. After lipopolysaccharide-γ interferon (LPS-IFN-γ) induced polarization status in the macrophages, the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase 1 (Arg1) and CD86 were detected by reverse transcription PCR, and the protein expressions of iNOS and Arg1 were tested by Western blotting. Thereafter, the M1 macrophages were exposed to 810 nm low-level laser of (1, 2, 3, 4) J/cm(2), and then the cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay; the expressions of iNOS and Arg1 were observed by immunofluorescent cytochemical staining; the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and Arg1 were studied by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Results Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of F4/80 positive cells cultured with M-CSF conditioned medium was 99.9%. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and CD86 in macrophages were both significantly raised after induction by LPS-IFN-γ. Compared with the control cells, the viability of M1 cells significantly decreased when the energy of the low-level laser exposure was 4 J/cm(2), while the viability remained unchanged when the energy was 1, 2 or 3 J/cm(2). Immunocytochemistry revealed that the percentage of Arg1 positive cells that represent M2 macrophages was not significantly different from the control group when the irradiation dose was 1 or 2 J/cm(2), however, the Arg1 positive cells significantly increased and the iNOS positive cells that represent M1 macrophages significantly decreased when the irradiation dose was 3 or 4 J/cm(2). When the irradiation dose was 1 or 2 J/cm(2), the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and Arg1 remained unchanged

  11. Continuous AMD3100 Treatment Worsens Renal Fibrosis through Regulation of Bone Marrow Derived Pro-Angiogenic Cells Homing and T-Cell-Related Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Fengming; Wang, Xiaohui; Yao, Weiqi; Wang, Meng; Pei, Guangchang; Hu, Zhizhi; Guo, Yujiao; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Pengge; Mou, Jingyi; Sun, Jie; Zeng, Rui; Xu, Gang; Liao, Wenhui; Yao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    AMD3100 is a small molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is located in the cell membranes of CD34+ cells and a variety of inflammatory cells and has been reported to reduce organ fibrosis in the lung, liver and myocardium. However, the effect of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis is unknown. This study investigated the impact of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis. C57bl/6 mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery with or without AMD3100 administration. Tubular injury, collagen deposition and fibrosis were detected and analyzed by histological staining, immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells (CD45+, CD34+ and CD309+ cells) and capillary density (CD31+) were measured by flow cytometry (FACS) and immunofluorescence (IF). Inflammatory cells, chemotactic factors and T cell proliferation were characterized. We found that AMD3100 treatment did not alleviate renal fibrosis but, rather, increased tissue damage and renal fibrosis. Continuous AMD3100 administration did not improve bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells mobilization but, rather, inhibited the migration of bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells into the fibrotic kidney. Additionally, T cell infiltration was significantly increased in AMD3100-treated kidneys compared to un-treated kidneys. Thus, treatment of UUO mice with AMD3100 led to an increase in T cell infiltration, suggesting that AMD3100 aggravated renal fibrosis. PMID:26900858

  12. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Arshak R. . E-mail: aalexan@mcw.edu

    2005-11-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into {beta}-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs.

  13. Continuous AMD3100 Treatment Worsens Renal Fibrosis through Regulation of Bone Marrow Derived Pro-Angiogenic Cells Homing and T-Cell-Related Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Fengming; Wang, Xiaohui; Yao, Weiqi; Wang, Meng; Pei, Guangchang; Hu, Zhizhi; Guo, Yujiao; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Pengge; Mou, Jingyi; Sun, Jie; Zeng, Rui; Xu, Gang; Liao, Wenhui; Yao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    AMD3100 is a small molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is located in the cell membranes of CD34+ cells and a variety of inflammatory cells and has been reported to reduce organ fibrosis in the lung, liver and myocardium. However, the effect of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis is unknown. This study investigated the impact of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis. C57bl/6 mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery with or without AMD3100 administration. Tubular injury, collagen deposition and fibrosis were detected and analyzed by histological staining, immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells (CD45+, CD34+ and CD309+ cells) and capillary density (CD31+) were measured by flow cytometry (FACS) and immunofluorescence (IF). Inflammatory cells, chemotactic factors and T cell proliferation were characterized. We found that AMD3100 treatment did not alleviate renal fibrosis but, rather, increased tissue damage and renal fibrosis. Continuous AMD3100 administration did not improve bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells mobilization but, rather, inhibited the migration of bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells into the fibrotic kidney. Additionally, T cell infiltration was significantly increased in AMD3100-treated kidneys compared to un-treated kidneys. Thus, treatment of UUO mice with AMD3100 led to an increase in T cell infiltration, suggesting that AMD3100 aggravated renal fibrosis. PMID:26900858

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Regulates High Mobility Group A2 Expression in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Cicchetto, Andrew C; Lakatos, Kinga; Nolta, Jan A; Fierro, Fernando A

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an excellent source for numerous cellular therapies due to their simple isolation, low immunogenicity, multipotent differentiation potential and regenerative secretion profile. However, over-expanded MSCs show decreased therapeutic efficacy. This shortcoming may be circumvented by identifying methods that promote self-renewal of MSCs in culture. HMGA2 is a DNA-binding protein that regulates self-renewal in multiple types of stem cells through chromatin remodeling, but its impact on human bone marrow-derived MSCs is not known. Using an isolation method to obtain pure MSCs within 9 days in culture, we show that expression of HMGA2 quickly decreases during early expansion of MSCs, while let-7 microRNAs (which repress HMGA2) are simultaneously increased. Remarkably, we demonstrate that FGF-2, a growth factor commonly used to promote self-renewal in MSCs, rapidly induces HMGA2 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The signaling pathway involves FGF-2 receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ERK1/2, but acts independent from let-7. By silencing HMGA2 using shRNAs, we demonstrate that HMGA2 is necessary for MSC proliferation. However, we also show that over-expression of HMGA2 does not increase cell proliferation, but rather abrogates the mitogenic effect of FGF-2, possibly through inhibition of FGFR1. In addition, using different methods to assess in vitro differentiation, we show that modulation of HMGA2 inhibits adipogenesis, but does not affect osteogenesis of MSCs. Altogether, our results show that HMGA2 expression is associated with highly proliferating MSCs, is tightly regulated by FGF-2, and is involved in both proliferation and adipogenesis of MSCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2128-2137, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888666

  15. Population doubling level-dependent change of secreted glycosaminoglycan in equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    SASAO, Takafumi; FUKUDA, Yuki; YOSHIDA, Sayako; MIYABARA, Shihori; KASASHIMA, Yoshinori; KUWANO, Atsutoshi; ARAI, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In regenerative medicine using transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the importance of regulating the quality of MSCs has been well recognized; however, there is little information concerning the relationship between the population doubling level (PDL) and the stemness of MSCs in equine medicine. In this study, we showed that the amount of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) secreted by bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) decreases with increase of PDL. Enzymatic digestion and two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that a main component of GAG produced by BMSCs was hyaluronan with a small amount of chondroitin sulfate. Increase of PDL downregulated the expression of MSC CD markers, including CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD146, along with loss of differentiation capacity. Thus, the effect of hyaluronan supplement to the growth medium on both expression of CD markers and the tri-lineage potential of BMSCs was evaluated. Expression of CD73 and CD90 was preserved by continuous addition of hyaluronan to the growth medium, whereas mRNA levels corresponding to CD44, CD105 and CD146 were not preserved by supplementation of hyaluronan. BMSCs subcultured with hyaluronan-supplemented growth medium to PDL-12 showed osteogenic capacity, however adipogenic and chondrogenic activities at PDL-12 were not preserved by exogenous hyaluronan. These results suggest that downregulation of CD44, CD105 and CD146 might not affect the osteogenic capacity. Taken together, the results suggested that supplementation of hyaluronan to the growth medium might be effective at maintaining the osteogenic capacity of equine BMSCs. PMID:26435680

  16. Intervertebral disc regeneration using platelet-rich plasma-containing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHAN-ZHENG; JIN, JI-YANG; GUO, YU-DONG; MA, LIANG-YU; CHANG, QING; PENG, XIN-GUI; GUO, FANG-FANG; ZHANG, HAI-XIANG; HU, XIN-FENG; WANG, CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising strategy for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the short half-life of growth factors released from PRP cannot continuously stimulate the degenerated discs. Thus, the present study hypothesized that the combined use of PRP and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may repair the early degenerated discs in the long term for their synergistic reparative effect. In the present study, following the induction of early IDD by annular puncture in rabbits, PRP was prepared and mixed with BMSCs (PRP-BMSC group) for injection into the early degenerated discs. As controls, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; PBS group) and PRP (PRP group) were similarly injected. Rabbits without any intervention served as a control group. At 8 weeks following treatment, histological changes of the injected discs were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to detect the T2-weighted signal intensity of the targeted discs at weeks 1, 2 and 8 following treatment. Annular puncture resulted in disc narrowing and decreased T2-weighted signal intensity. At weeks 1 and 3, MRI examinations showed regenerative changes in the PRP-BMSC group and PRP group, whereas the PBS group exhibited a continuous degenerative process of the discs. At 8 weeks post-injection, the PRP-BMSCs induced a statistically significant restoration of discs, as shown by MRI (PRP-BMSCs, vs.PRP and PBS; P<0.05), which was also confirmed by histological evaluations. Thus, compared with PRP, the administration of PRP-containing BMSCs resulted in a superior regenerative effect on the early degenerated discs, which may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the restoration of early degenerated discs. PMID:26956080

  17. [Differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells induced by cyclic stretching strain].

    PubMed

    Kuang, Wei; Tang, Min; He, Xueling; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, Liang

    2014-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that differentiate into a variety of cell types and widely used in tissue regeneration engineering. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the cyclic biaxial stretching strain could promote the rat BMSCs (rBMSCs) to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro. The second or third generation of rBMSCs were randomly divided into the cyclic stretching stain group, the control group and the blank group. Those rBMSCs in the cyclic stretching strain group were seeded on a silicone membrane with complete medium were exposed to biaxial stretching strain of 10% of membrane at a frequency of 1 Hz lasting for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Those in the control group were seeded on silicone membrane with complete medium. Those in the blank group were seeded in the 6-wells plates with complete medium. The mRNA expression of GATA4 and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF-2C) were detected by the real-time fluorescent quantification PCR and the protein expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was detected by using the Western blot method. The results showed that the mRNA expression level of the GATA4 and MEF-2C, and the protein expression level of Cx43 were significantly higher in the cyclic stretching strain groups, compared with those in the relative control groups (P < 0.05). It suggests that cyclic biaxial stretching strain could play a part in the induction of rBMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro, but the differentiation mechanism is still unclear. PMID:25219242

  18. Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Protect Against Scopolamine-Induced Alzheimer-Like Pathological Aberrations.

    PubMed

    Safar, Marwa M; Arab, Hany H; Rizk, Sherine M; El-Maraghy, Shohda A

    2016-04-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD have displayed decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) which repair and maintain the endothelial function. Transplantation of EPCs has emerged as a promising approach for the management of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, however, its impact on AD has been poorly described. Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the effects of bone marrow-derived (BM) EPCs transplantation in repeated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, an experimental model that replicates biomarkers of AD. Intravenously transplanted BM-EPCs migrated into the brain of rats and improved the learning and memory deficits. Meanwhile, they mitigated the deposition of amyloid plaques and associated histopathological alterations. At the molecular levels, BM-EPCs blunted the increase of hippocampal amyloid beta protein (Aβ), amyloid precursor protein (APP) and reinstated the Aβ-degrading neprilysin together with downregulation of p-tau and its upstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). They also corrected the perturbations of neurotransmitter levels including restoration of acetylcholine and associated esterase along with dopamine, GABA, and the neuroexitatory glutamate. Furthermore, BM-EPCs induced behavioral recovery via boosting of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its upstream cAMP response element binding (CREB), suppression of the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10). BM-EPCs also augmented Nrf2 and seladin-1. Generally, these actions were analogous to those exerted by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) and the reference anti-Alzheimer donepezil. For the first time, these findings highlight the beneficial actions of BM-EPCs against the memory

  19. Role of stress-inducible protein-1 in recruitment of bone marrow derived cells into the ischemic brains

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Da; Lai, Ted Weita; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Chen-Huan; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Li, Chi-Yuan; Wang, Hsiao-Jung; Lee, Wei; Su, Ching-Yuan; Yu, Yung-Luen; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Stress-inducible protein-1 (STI-1) is the proposed ligand for the cellular prion protein (PrPC), which is thought to facilitate recovery following stroke. Whether STI-1 expression is affected by stroke and how its signalling facilitates recovery remain elusive. Brain slices from patients that died of ischemic stroke were collected for STI-1 immunohistochemistry. These findings were compared to results from cell cultures, mice with or without the PrPC knockout, and rats. Based on these findings, molecular and pharmacological interventions were administered to investigate the underlying mechanisms and to test the possibility for therapy in experimental stroke models. STI-1 was upregulated in the ischemic brains from humans and rodents. The increase in STI-1 expression in vivo was not cell-type specific, as it was found in neurons, glia and endothelial cells. Likewise, this increase in STI-1 expression can be mimicked by sublethal hypoxia in primary cortical cultures (PCCs) in vitro, and appear to have resulted from the direct binding of the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to the STI-1 promoter. Importantly, this STI-1 signalling promoted bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) proliferation and migration in vitro and recruitment to the ischemic brain in vivo, and augmenting its signalling facilitated neurological recovery in part by recruiting BMDCs to the ischemic brain. Our results thus identified a novel mechanism by which ischemic insults can trigger a self-protective mechanism to facilitate recovery. This work identifies HIF-1α-mediated transcription of STI-1 and PrPc interaction as leading to BMDCs recruitment into ischemic brains following stroke in both patients and animal models of stroke, highlighting novel neuroprotective possibilities. PMID:23836498

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells exposed to hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Brian R; Wagner, Jordan R; Prisco, Anthony R; Janiak, Agnieszka; Greene, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and other potent proangiogenic factors. During angiogenesis, an increase in VEGF-A expression stimulates BM-EPCs to enhance endothelial tube formation and contribute to an increase in microvessel density. Hypoxia is known to produce an enhanced angiogenic response and heightened levels of VEGF-A have been seen in oxygen deprived epithelial and endothelial cells, yet the pathways for VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs have not been described. This study explores the influence of hypoxia on VEGF-A signaling in rat BM-EPCs utilizing a novel proteomic strategy to directly identify interacting downstream components of the combined VEGF receptor(s) signaling pathways, gene expression analysis, and functional phenotyping. VEGF-A signaling network analysis following liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry revealed proteins related to inositol/calcium signaling, nitric oxide signaling, cell survival, cell migration, and inflammatory responses. Alterations in BM-EPC expression of common angiogenic genes and tube formation in response to VEGF-A during hypoxia were measured and combined with the proteomic analysis to enhance and support the signaling pathways detected. BM-EPC tube formation assays in response to VEGF-A exhibited little tube formation; however, a cell projection/migratory phenotype supported the signaling data. Additionally, a novel assay measuring BM-EPC incorporation into preformed endothelial cell tubes indicated a significant increase of incorporated BM-EPCs after pretreatment with VEGF-A during hypoxia. This study verifies known VEGF-A pathway components and reveals several unidentified mechanisms of VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs during hypoxia that may be important for migration to sites of vascular regeneration. PMID:24022223

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells exposed to hypoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Brian R.; Wagner, Jordan R.; Prisco, Anthony R.; Janiak, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and other potent proangiogenic factors. During angiogenesis, an increase in VEGF-A expression stimulates BM-EPCs to enhance endothelial tube formation and contribute to an increase in microvessel density. Hypoxia is known to produce an enhanced angiogenic response and heightened levels of VEGF-A have been seen in oxygen deprived epithelial and endothelial cells, yet the pathways for VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs have not been described. This study explores the influence of hypoxia on VEGF-A signaling in rat BM-EPCs utilizing a novel proteomic strategy to directly identify interacting downstream components of the combined VEGF receptor(s) signaling pathways, gene expression analysis, and functional phenotyping. VEGF-A signaling network analysis following liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry revealed proteins related to inositol/calcium signaling, nitric oxide signaling, cell survival, cell migration, and inflammatory responses. Alterations in BM-EPC expression of common angiogenic genes and tube formation in response to VEGF-A during hypoxia were measured and combined with the proteomic analysis to enhance and support the signaling pathways detected. BM-EPC tube formation assays in response to VEGF-A exhibited little tube formation; however, a cell projection/migratory phenotype supported the signaling data. Additionally, a novel assay measuring BM-EPC incorporation into preformed endothelial cell tubes indicated a significant increase of incorporated BM-EPCs after pretreatment with VEGF-A during hypoxia. This study verifies known VEGF-A pathway components and reveals several unidentified mechanisms of VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs during hypoxia that may be important for migration to sites of vascular regeneration. PMID:24022223

  2. An in vitro expansion score for tissue-engineering applications with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Alessandro; Mehr, Marco; Janner-Jametti, Tiziana; Graumann, Ursula; Aebli, Niklaus; Baur, Martin; Ferguson, Stephen J; Stoyanov, Jivko V

    2016-02-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited growth potential in vitro and cease to divide due to replicative senescence, which from a tissue-engineering perspective has practical implications, such as defining the correct starting points for differentiation and transplantation. Time spent in culture before the loss of required differentiation potential is different and reflects patient variability, which is a problem for cell expansion. This study aimed to develop a score set which can be used to quantify the senescent state of MSCs and predict whether cells preserve their ability to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes, based on colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, population doubling time (PDT), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, cell size, telomere length and gene expression of MSCs cultured in vitro over 11 passages. This set of morphological, physiological and genetic senescence markers was correlated to the ability of MSCs to differentiate. Differentiation efficiency was assessed by marker genes and protein expression. CFUs decreased with increasing passage number, whereas SA-β-Gal activity and PDT increased; however, the correlation with MSCs' differentiation potential was sometimes unexpected. The expression of genes related to senescence was higher in late-passage cells than in early-passage cells. Early-passage cells underwent efficient osteogenic differentiation, with mid-passage cells performing best in chondrogenic differentiation. Late-passage cells preserve only adipogenic differentiation potential. Based on this marker set, we propose a senescence score in which combined markers give a reliable quality control of MSCs, not depending only on mechanistic passage number. PMID:23576360

  3. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells feature selective migration behavior on submicro- and nano-dimensional multi-patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Klymov, Alexey; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Te Riet, Joost; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated whether cells have an intrinsic ability to recognize nanopatterns, which could lead to their accumulation or diminution on a biomaterial. A multi-patterned "biochip" was made, containing 36 differently designed surfaces, including squares and grooves varying in feature sizes between 10 and 1000 nm. The grooved patterns could additionally be subdivided into three groups having ridge to groove ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1. These substrates were used for culture of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal cells. In time cells should accumulate on patterns of preference, while migrating away from patterns of disfavor. A regression analysis model was designed for the analysis of the obtained data. Results showed that strong differences existed between the tested patterns regarding the cellular affinity. All sizes of squares showed strong cell-repelling capacity, with the biggest sized squares displaying up to 40% less cells compared to the smooth surface. Among the nano-grooved patterns cell repelling was seen for the grooves with the ridge to groove ratio of 1:3, while grooves with the ridge to groove ratio of 3:1 partially showed cell attraction. Such effects were shown to be based on selective migration rather than proliferation. In conclusion, the use of a multi-patterned biochip setup allows for enhanced evaluation of cell behavior, as compared to uniformly patterned setups. Cells exhibit the ability to actively avoid or migrate to surfaces featuring certain topographies on nanometric scale. Such phenomena may be utilized for the development of biomaterials in regenerative medicine. PMID:25644453

  4. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance angiogenesis via their α6β1 integrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Carrion, Bita; Kong, Yen P.; Kaigler, Darnell; Putnam, Andrew J.

    2013-11-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) facilitate the angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) within three-dimensional (3D) matrices in vivo and in engineered tissues in vitro in part through paracrine mediators and by acting as stabilizing pericytes. However, the molecular interactions between BMSCs and nascent tubules during the process of angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we have used a tractable 3D co-culture model to explore the functional role of the α6β1 integrin adhesion receptor on BMSCs in sprouting angiogenesis. We report that knockdown of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs significantly reduces capillary sprouting, and causes their failure to associate with the nascent vessels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BMSCs with attenuated α6 integrin proliferate at a significantly lower rate relative to either control cells expressing non-targeting shRNA or wild type BMSCs; however, despite adding more cells to compensate for this deficit in proliferation, deficient sprouting persists. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs is important for their ability to stimulate vessel morphogenesis. This conclusion may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote angiogenesis. Highlights: • BMSCs stimulate angiogenesis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. • We silenced the expression of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs. • Silencing this receptor subunit significantly inhibited angiogenic sprouting. • Knocking down α6 integrin affected laminin and αSMA expression. • Silencing α6 integrin expression also reduced BMSC proliferation.

  5. Gamma irradiation preserves immunosuppressive potential and inhibits clonogenic capacity of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Ana Valéria Gouveia; Riewaldt, Julia; Wehner, Rebekka; Schmitz, Marc; Odendahl, Marcus; Bornhäuser, Martin; Tonn, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for the treatment of graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases. Here, by virtue of their immunosuppressive effects, they are discussed to exhibit inhibitory actions on various immune effector cells, including T lymphocytes that promote the underlying pathology. While it becomes apparent that MSCs exhibit their therapeutic effect in a transient manner, they are usually transplanted from third party donors into heavily immunocompromised patients. However, little is known about potential late complications of persisting third party MSCs in these patients. We therefore analysed the effect of gamma irradiation on the potency and proliferation of MSCs to elucidate an irradiation dose, which would allow inhibition of MSC proliferation while at the same time preserving their immunosuppressive function. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were gamma-irradiated at increasing doses of 5, 10 and 30 Gy and subsequently assessed by colony formation unit (CFU)-assay, Annexin V-staining and in a mixed lymphocyte reaction, to assess colony growth, apoptosis and the immunosuppressive capacity, respectively. Complete loss of proliferative capacity measured by colony formation was observed after irradiation with a dose equal to or greater than 10 Gy. No significant decrease of viable cells was detected, as compared to non-irradiated BM-MSCs. Notably, irradiated BM-MSCs remained highly immunosuppressive in vitro for at least 5 days after irradiation. Gamma irradiation does not impair the immunosuppressive capacity of BM-MSCs in vitro and thus might increase the safety of MSC-based cell products in clinical applications. PMID:24655362

  6. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in three-dimensional culture promote neuronal regeneration by neurotrophic protection and immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Sufang; Wang, Bin; Li, Xing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Han, Jin; Zhao, Yannan; Fang, Yongxiang; Yin, Yanyun; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed three-dimensional (3D) culture could better mimic the stem cell niche in vivo in comparison with conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In this study, we found that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in 3D collagen scaffold (3D BMSCs) exhibited distinctive features including significantly enhancing neurotrophic factor secretions and reducing macrophage activations challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. To further evaluate 3D BMSCs' potential benefits to the regeneration of spinal cord injury (SCI), the 3D and 2D BMSCs were respectively implanted in rat hemisected SCI. Compared with 2D cohort, 3D BMSCs transplantation significantly reduced the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at 5 days after transplantation, markedly enhanced axonal regeneration, and promoted motor functional recovery during 8 weeks of observation. When Nocodazole was used to depolymerize the cytoskeleton of 3D BMSCs, the changed expressions of neurotrophic factors and inflammatory cytokines were blunted, at least partially. Thus synergistic effects of neuronal protection and immunomodulation of 3D BMSCs may lead to a better functional recovery of SCI and the underlying mechanism may involve the alteration of their cellular morphology because of 3D culture. This study contributes to a better understanding of the cellular characteristics of 3D BMSCs and provides a novel strategy to promote the repair of the injured spinal cord. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1759-1769, 2016. PMID:26990583

  7. Chemically primed bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells show enhanced expression of chemokine receptors contributed to their migration capability

    PubMed Central

    Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh; Matin, Maryam Moghaddam; Heirani-tabasi, Asieh; Farshchian, Moein; Naderi-meshkin, Hojjat; Shahriyari, Mina; Dastpak, Mahtab; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The limited homing potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) is the key obstacle in MSC-based therapy. It is believed that chemokines and chemokine receptor interactions play key roles in cellular processes associated with migration. Meanwhile, MSCs express a low level of distinct chemokine receptors and they even lose these receptors on their surface after a few passages which influence their therapeutic applications negatively. This study investigated whether treatment of BM-MSCs with hypoxia-mimicking agents would increase expression of some chemokine receptors and cell migration. Materials and Methods: BM-MSCs were treated at passage 2 for our gene expression profiling. All qPCR experiments were performed by SYBR Green method in CFX-96 Bio-Rad Real-Time PCR. The Boyden chamber assay was utilized to investigate BM-MSC homing. Results: Possible approaches to increasing the expression level of chemokine receptors by different hypoxia-mimicking agents such as valproic acid (VPA), CoCl2, and desferrioxamine (DFX) are described. Results show DFX efficiently up-regulate the CXCR7 and CXCR4 gene expression while VPA increase only the CXCR7 gene expression and no significant change in expression level of CXCR4 and the CXCR7 gene was detectable by CoCl2 treatment. Chemotaxis assay results show that pre-treatment with DFX, VPA, and Cocl2 enhances significantly the migration ability of BM-MSCs compared with the untreated control group and DFX treatment accelerates MSCs homing significantly with a higher rate than VPA and Cocl2 treatments. Conclusion: Our data supports the notion that pretreatment of MSC with VPA and DFX improves the efficiency of MSC therapy by triggering homing regulatory signaling pathways. PMID:27096059

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in diabetic polyneuropathy is impaired with aging or diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Masaki; Kamiya, Hideki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Naruse, Keiko; Nakashima, Eitaro; Watarai, Atsuko; Shibata, Taiga; Tosaki, Takahiro; Kato, Jiro; Okawa, Tetsuji; Hamada, Yoji; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Recent studies have shown that cell transplantation therapies, such as endothelial precursor cells, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and mesenchymal stem cells, are effective on diabetic polyneuropathy through ameliorating impaired nerve blood flow in diabetic rats. Here, we investigated the effects of BM-MNCs transplantation in diabetic polyneuropathy using BM-MNCs derived from adult (16-week-old) diabetic (AD), adult non-diabetic (AN) or young (8-week-old) non-diabetic (YN) rats. Materials and Methods BM-MNCs of AD and AN were isolated after an 8-week diabetes duration. The BM-MNCs were characterized using flow cytometry analysis of cell surface markers and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of several cytokines. BM-MNCs or saline were injected into hind limb muscles. Four weeks later, the thermal plantar test, nerve conduction velocity, blood flow of the sciatic nerve and capillary-to-muscle fiber ratio were evaluated. Results The number of CD29+/CD90+ cells that host mesenchymal stem cells in BM-MNCs decreased in AD compared with AN or YN, and transcript expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor in BM-MNCs decreased in AD compared with AN or YN. Impaired thermal sensation, decreased blood flow of the sciatic nerve and delayed nerve conduction velocity in 8-week-diabetic rats were significantly ameliorated by BM-MNCs derived from YN, whereas BM-MNCs from AD or AN rats did not show any beneficial effect in these functional tests. Conclusions These results show that cytokine production abilities and the mesenchymal stem cell population of BM-MNCs would be modified by aging and metabolic changes in diabetes, and that these differences could explain the disparity of the therapeutic efficacy of BM-MNCs between young and adult or diabetic and non-diabetic patients in diabetic polyneuropathy. PMID:25802721

  9. The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and reparative fibroses.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Alberto; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2007-09-01

    Human fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitors that exhibit mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes and fibroblasts. They likely represent the obligate intermediate stage of differentiation into mature mesenchymal cells of a bone marrow-derived precursor of the monocyte lineage under permissive conditions. On in vitro stimulation with pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors, human fibrocytes produce large quantities of extracellular matrix components and further differentiate into cells identical to the contractile myofibroblasts that emerge at the tissue sites during repair processes and in some fibrotic lesions. Studies in various animal models of wound healing or fibrotic diseases have confirmed the ability of fibrocytes to differentiate into mature mesenchymal cells in vivo and have suggested a causal link between fibrocyte accumulation and ongoing tissue fibrogenesis or vascular remodeling in response to tissue damage or hypoxia. Fibrocytes synthesizing new collagen or acquiring myofibroblast markers have been detected in human hypertrophic scars, in the skin of patients affected by nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, in human atherosclerotic lesions, and in pulmonary diseases characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and repair, like asthma. The presence of fibrocyte-like cells has been reported in human chronic pancreatitis and chronic cystitis. Similar cells also populate the stroma surrounding human benign tumors. The available data indicate that human fibrocytes serve as a source of mature mesenchymal cells during reparative processes and in fibrotic disorders or stromal reactions predominantly associated with a persistent inflammatory infiltrate or with the selective recruitment of monocytes induced by ischemic changes and tumor development. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in fibrocyte differentiation in these pathological conditions may lead to the development of novel therapies for

  10. Enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified with bFGF/BMP2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Ni, Qu-Bo; Pan, Zheng-Qi; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies, including various growth factors and gene transfer, have been used to augment healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The biological environment regulated by the growth factors during the stage of tendon-bone healing was considered important in controlling the integrating process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) genetically modified with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on healing after ACL reconstruction. BMSCs were infected with an adenoviral vector encoding BMP2 (AdBMP2) or bFGF (AdbFGF). Then, the infected BMSCs were surgically implanted into the tendon-bone interface. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the formation of abundant cartilage-like cells, smaller tibial bone tunnel and significantly higher ultimate load and stiffness levels, through histological analysis, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing, were observed. In addition, the AdBMP2-plus-AdbFGF group had the smallest bone tunnel and the best mechanical properties among all the groups. The addition of BMP2 or bFGF by gene transfer resulted in better cellularity, new bone formation and higher mechanical property, which contributed to the healing process after ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, the co-application of these two genes was more powerful and efficient than either single gene therapy. PMID:27173013

  11. Enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified with bFGF/BMP2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Ni, Qu-Bo; Pan, Zheng-Qi; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies, including various growth factors and gene transfer, have been used to augment healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The biological environment regulated by the growth factors during the stage of tendon-bone healing was considered important in controlling the integrating process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) genetically modified with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on healing after ACL reconstruction. BMSCs were infected with an adenoviral vector encoding BMP2 (AdBMP2) or bFGF (AdbFGF). Then, the infected BMSCs were surgically implanted into the tendon-bone interface. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the formation of abundant cartilage-like cells, smaller tibial bone tunnel and significantly higher ultimate load and stiffness levels, through histological analysis, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing, were observed. In addition, the AdBMP2-plus-AdbFGF group had the smallest bone tunnel and the best mechanical properties among all the groups. The addition of BMP2 or bFGF by gene transfer resulted in better cellularity, new bone formation and higher mechanical property, which contributed to the healing process after ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, the co-application of these two genes was more powerful and efficient than either single gene therapy. PMID:27173013

  12. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Park, Eui Kyun; Huh, Man-Il; Kim, Hong Kyun; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica) extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr) cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell.) Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr) or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr) on ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT) was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks) augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. PMID:27313644

  13. Effects of in vitro chondrogenic priming time of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on in vivo endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanxun; Both, Sanne K; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Wang, Yining; Jansen, John A; Yang, Fang

    2015-02-01

    Recapitulation of endochondral ossification leads to a new concept of bone tissue engineering via a cartilage intermediate as an osteoinductive template. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of in vitro chondrogenic priming time for the creation of cartilage template on the in vivo endochondral bone formation both qualitatively and quantitatively. To this end, rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were seeded onto two scaffolds with distinguished features: a fibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold (PLGA/PCL) and a porous hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate composite (HA/TCP). The constructs were then chondrogenically differentiated for 2, 3 and 4 weeks in vitro, followed by subcutaneous implantation in vivo for up to 8 weeks. A longer chondrogenic priming time resulted in a significantly increased amount and homogeneous deposition of the cartilage matrix on both the PLGA/PCL and HA/TCP scaffolds in vitro. In vivo, all implanted constructs gave rise to endochondral bone formation, whereas the bone volume was not affected by the length of priming time. An unpolarized woven bone-like structure, with significant amounts of cartilage remaining, was generated in fibrous PLGA/PCL scaffolds, while porous HA/TCP scaffolds supported progressive lamellar-like bone formation with mature bone marrow development. These data suggest that, by utilizing a chondrogenically differentiated MSC-scaffold construct as cartilage template, 2 weeks of in vitro priming time is sufficient to generate a substantial amount of vascularized endochondral bone in vivo. The structure of the bone depends on the chemical and structural cues provided by the scaffold design. PMID:25463490

  14. Using the quantum cell expansion system for the automated expansion of clinical-grade bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Manso, Gema; Hanley, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) constitute a promising therapeutic approach. However, the extremely low frequency of hMSCs in bone marrow makes the translation of these regulatory cells to clinical therapies difficult for large patient populations. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practices-compliant procedure for the expansion of hMSCs using the Quantum Cell Expansion System. This closed and automated system allows the large-scale expansion of hMSCs while maintaining their multipotency, immunophenotype, morphology, and karyotype. PMID:25523809

  15. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the differentiation and bone resorption by osteoclasts generated from Wistar rat bone marrow-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DONG; GU, JIAN-HONG; CHEN, YANG; ZHAO, HONG-YAN; LIU, WEI; SONG, RUI-LONG; BIAN, JIAN-CHUN; LIU, XUE-ZHONG; YUAN, YAN; LIU, ZONG-PING

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2D3] plays an important role in maintaining a balance in calcium and bone metabolism. To study the effects of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 on osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption, OC differentiation was induced in bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells from Wistar rats with the addition of macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand in vitro. Cells were then treated with 1α,25-(OH)2D3 at 10−9, 10−8 or 10−7 mol/l. OCs were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and activity was monitored in the absorption lacunae by scanning electron microscopy. Expression levels of functional proteins associated with bone absorption, namely carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were evaluated by western blot analysis. The results showed that 1α,25-(OH)2D3 inhibited the formation and activation of OCs in a dose-dependent manner and downregulated the expression levels of bone absorption-associated proteins. PMID:26622436

  16. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Lode, A; Helth, A; Gelinsky, M

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated. Strontium ions, known to stimulate bone formation and therefore already used in systemic osteoporosis therapy, were incorporated into a hydroxyapatite-forming calcium phosphate bone cement via two simple approaches: incorporation of strontium carbonate crystals and substitution of Ca(2+) by Sr(2+) ions during cement setting. All modified cements released 0.03-0.07 mM Sr(2+) under in vitro conditions, concentrations that were shown not to impair the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, strontium modification led to a reduced medium acidification and Ca(2+) depletion in comparison to the standard calcium phosphate cement. In indirect and direct cell culture experiments with the novel SrCPCs significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation were observed. In conclusion, the SrCPCs described here could be beneficial for the local treatment of defects, especially in the osteoporotic bone. PMID:23917042

  17. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C.; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J.; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L.; Bloom, Debra D.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M.; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  18. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    PubMed

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L; Bloom, Debra D; Bleedorn, Jason A; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  19. The role of growth factors in maintenance of stemness in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Young Woo; Oh, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jong In; Baik, Soon Koo; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Shin, Ha Cheol; Kim, Yong Man; Ahn, Chan Mug; Kong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Shim, Kwang Yong

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Expression of FGF-2, FGF-4, EGF, and HGF decreased during long-term culture of BMSCs. • Loss of growth factors induced autophagy, senescence and decrease of stemness. • FGF-2 increased proliferation potential via AKT and ERK activation in BMSCs. • FGF-2 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescence of BMSCs. • HGF was important in maintenance of the differentiation potential of BMSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an active topic of research in regenerative medicine due to their ability to secrete a variety of growth factors and cytokines that promote healing of damaged tissues and organs. In addition, these secreted growth factors and cytokines have been shown to exert an autocrine effect by regulating MSC proliferation and differentiation. We found that expression of EGF, FGF-4 and HGF were down-regulated during serial passage of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Proliferation and differentiation potentials of BMSCs treated with these growth factors for 2 months were evaluated and compared to BMSCs treated with FGF-2, which increased proliferation of BMSCs. FGF-2 and -4 increased proliferation potentials at high levels, about 76- and 26-fold, respectively, for 2 months, while EGF and HGF increased proliferation of BMSCs by less than 2.8-fold. Interestingly, differentiation potential, especially adipogenesis, was maintained only by HGF treatment. Treatment with FGF-2 rapidly induced activation of AKT and later induced ERK activation. The basal level of phosphorylated ERK increased during serial passage of BMSCs treated with FGF-2. The expression of LC3-II, an autophagy marker, was gradually increased and the population of senescent cells was increased dramatically at passage 7 in non-treated controls. But FGF-2 and FGF-4 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescent cells during long-term (i.e. 2 month) cultures. Taken together, depletion of growth factors during serial passage

  20. Prognostic value of circulating VEGFR2+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Massard, Christophe; Borget, Isabelle; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Taylor, Melissa; Gomez-Roca, Carlos; Soria, Jean Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesised that host-related markers, possibly reflecting tumour aggressiveness, such as circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and circulating VEGFR2(+) bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells, could have prognostic value in patients with advanced cancer enrolled in early anticancer drug development trials. Baseline CECs (CD45(-)CD31(+)CD146(+)7AAD(-) cells) and circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells (defined as CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) cells) were measured by flow-cytometry in 71 and 58 patients included in phase 1 trials testing novel anti-vascular or anti-angiogenic agents. Correlations between levels of CECs, circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells, clinical and biological prognostic factors (i.e. the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) score), and overall survival (OS) were studied. The median value of CECs was 12 CEC/ml (range 0-154/ml). The median level of VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells was 1.3% (range 0-32.5%) of circulating BMD-CD34(+) progenitors. While OS was not correlated with CEC levels, it was significantly worse in patients with high VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels (>1%) (median OS 9.0 versus 17.0 months), and with a RMH prognostic score >0 (median OS 9.0 versus 24.2 months). The prognostic value of VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels remained significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-4.6, p = 0.02) after multivariate analysis. A composite VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor level/RHM score ≥ 2 was significantly associated with an increased risk of death compared to scores of 0 or 1 (median OS 9.0 versus 18.4 months, HR = 2.6 (95%CI, 1.2-5.8, p = 0.02)). High circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels are associated with poor prognostics and when combined to classical clinical and biological parameters could provide a new tool for patient selection in early anticancer drug trials. PMID:22370181

  1. Isolation, characterization and the multi-lineage differentiation potential of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sik-Loo; Ahmad, Tunku Sara; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Kamarul, Tunku

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recognized by their plastic adherent ability, fibroblastic-like appearance, expression of specific surface protein markers, and are defined by their ability to undergo multi-lineage differentiation. Although rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs (rbMSCs) have been used extensively in previous studies especially in translational research, these cells have neither been defined morphologically and ultrastructurally, nor been compared with their counterparts in humans in their multi-lineage differentiation ability. A study was therefore conducted to define the morphology, surface marker proteins, ultrastructure and multi-lineage differentiation ability of rbMSCs. Herein, the primary rbMSC cultures of three adult New Zealand white rabbits (at least 4 months old) were used for three independent experiments. rbMSCs were isolated using the gradient-centrifugation method, an established technique for human MSCs (hMSCs) isolation. Cells were characterized by phase contrast microscopy observation, transmission electron microscopy analysis, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, immunocytochemistry staining, flow cytometry, alamarBlue® assay, histological staining and quantitative (q)PCR analysis. The isolated plastic adherent cells were in fibroblastic spindle-shape and possessed eccentric, irregular-shaped nuclei as well as rich inner cytoplasmic zones similar to that of hMSCs. The rbMSCs expressed CD29, CD44, CD73, CD81, CD90 and CD166, but were negative (or dim positive) for CD34, CD45, CD117 and HLD-DR. Despite having similar morphology and phenotypic expression, rbMSCs possessed significantly larger cell size but had a lower proliferation rate as compared with hMSCs. Using established protocols to differentiate hMSCs, rbMSCs underwent osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Interestingly, differentiated rbMSCs demonstrated higher levels of osteogenic (Runx2) and chondrogenic (Sox9) gene expressions

  2. In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Powrnima; Fleury, Sean; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Boehm, Cynthia; Vasanji, Amit; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Walker, Esteban; Yaszemski, Michael; Hascall, Vincent; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation. Methods HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment. Results Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells

  3. Novel biomimetic tripolymer scaffolds consisting of chitosan, collagen type 1, and hyaluronic acid for bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Totey, Satish

    2014-11-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an ideal osteogenic cell source for bone tissue engineering (BTE). A scaffold, in the context of BTE, is the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides the unique microenvironment and play significant role in regulating cell behavior, differentiation, and development in an in vitro culture system. In this study, we have developed novel biomimetic tripolymer scaffolds for BTE using an ECM protein, collagen type 1; an ECM glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid; and a natural osteoconductive polymer, chitosan. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling ratio. The scaffolds were seeded with hMSCs and tested for cytocompatibility and osteogenic potential. The scaffolds supported cell adhesion, enhanced cell proliferation, promoted cell migration, showed good cell viability, and osteogenic potential. The cells were able to migrate out from the scaffolds in favorable conditions. SEM, alkaline phosphatase assay, and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the differentiation of hMSCs to osteogenic lineage in the scaffolds. In conclusion, we have successfully developed biomimetic scaffolds that supported the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs. These scaffolds hold great promise as a cell-delivery vehicle for regenerative therapies and as a support system for enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:24723571

  4. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro . E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  5. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  6. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  7. Toxicological effects of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M T; Jeffery, B; Riviere, J E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A

    2016-02-01

    We developed an in vitro method to assess pet food ingredients safety. Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) were differentiated into enterocyte-like cells (ELC) to assess toxicity in cells representing similar patterns of exposure in vivo. The toxicological profile of clove leave oil, eugenol, guanosine monophosphate (GMP), GMP + inosine monophosphate, sorbose, ginger root extract, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, thyme oil, thymol and citric acid was assessed in BMSC and ELC. The LC50 for GMP + inosine monophosphate was 59.42 ± 0.90 and 56.7 ± 3.5 mg ml(-1) for BMSC and ELC; 56.84 ± 0.95 and 53.66 ± 1.36 mg ml(-1) for GMP; 0.02 ± 0.001 and 1.25 ± 0.47 mg ml(-1) for citric acid; 0.077 ± 0.002 and 0.037 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1) for cinnamaldehyde; 0.002 ± 0.0001 and 0.002 ± 0.0008 mg ml(-1) for thymol; 0.080 ± 0.003 and 0.059 ± 0.001 mg ml(-1) for thyme oil; 0.111 ± 0.002 and 0.054 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1) for cinnamon bark oil; 0.119 ± 0.0004 and 0.099 ± 0.011 mg ml(-1) for clove leave oil; 0.04 ± 0.001 and 0.028 ± 0.002 mg ml(-1) for eugenol; 2.80 ± 0.11 and 1.75 ± 0.51 mg ml(-1) for ginger root extract; > 200 and 116.78 ± 7.35 mg ml(-1) for sorbose. Lemon grass oil was evaluated at 0.003-0.9 in BMSC and .03-0.9 mg ml(-1) in ELC and its mechanistic effect was investigated. The gene toxicology studies showed regulation of 61% genes in CYP450 pathway, 37% in cholestasis and 33% in immunotoxicity pathways for BMSC. For ELC, 80% for heat shock response, 69% for beta-oxidation and 65% for mitochondrial energy metabolism. In conclusion, these studies provide a baseline against which differential toxicity of dietary feed ingredients can be assessed in vitro for direct effects on canine cells and demonstrate differential toxicity in differentiated cells that represent gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID

  8. Origin of osteoclasts: Mature monocytes and macrophages are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts under a suitable microenvironment prepared by bone marrow-derived stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Akatsu, Takuhiko; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takahisa; Suda, Tatsuo ); Nishihara, Tatsuji; Koga, Toshihiko ); Martin, T.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors previously reported that osteoclast-like cells were formed in cocultures of a mouse marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2) with mouse spleen cells in the presence of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and dexamethasone. In this study, they developed a new coculture system to determine the origin of osteoclasts. When relatively small numbers of mononuclear cells obtained from mouse bone marrow, spleen, thymus, or peripheral blood were cultured for 12 days on the ST2 cell layers, they formed colonies with a linear relationship between the number of colonies formed and the number of hemopoietic cells inoculated. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase)-positive monoculear and multinucleated cells appeared in the colonies (TRAPase-positive colonies) in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and dexamethasone. When hemopoietic cells suspended in a collagen-gel solution were cultured on the ST2 cell layers to prevent their movement, TRAPase-positive colonies were similarly formed, indicating that each colony originated from a single cell. Salmon {sup 125}I-labeled calcitonin specifically bound to the TRAPase-positive cells. Resorption lacunae were formed on dentine slices on which cocultures were performed. These results indicate that osteoclasts are also derived from the mature monocytes and macrophages when a suitable microenvironment is provided by bone marrow-derived stromal cells.

  9. Murine bone marrow-derived mast cells express chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper class 2 cells (CRTh2).

    PubMed

    Boehme, Stefen A; Franz-Bacon, Karin; Chen, Edward P; Ly, Tai Wei; Kawakami, Yuko; Bacon, Kevin B

    2009-06-01

    Mast cells are bone marrow-derived effector cells that can initiate inflammatory responses to infectious organisms or allergens by releasing a multitude of pro-inflammatory factors including prostaglandin (PG) D(2). We demonstrate that primary murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) express the PGD(2) receptor; chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T(h) class 2 cells (CRT(h)2). Activation of CRT(h)2 on BMMC by PGD(2) or the CRT(h)2-specific agonist, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin D(2) (DK-PGD(2)), resulted in signaling response including Ca(2+) mobilization and phosphorylation of the p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) kinases. Phosphorylation of the ERKs could be blocked by pertussis toxin, as well as a small molecule antagonist of CRT(h)2, Compound A. Activation of CRT(h)2 on BMMC also resulted in the up-regulation of CD23 and CD30 on the cell surface, as well as CD62L shedding. Finally, PGD(2) and DK-PGD(2) induced the migration of BMMC in vitro and in vivo in response to an intra-dermal DK-PGD(2) injection. Both these processes were inhibited by the CRT(h)2 antagonist. These results raise the possibility that the functional consequences of the PGD(2)-CRT(h)2 interaction on mast cells may be relevant in allergic inflammation. PMID:19346259

  10. Effects of corneal stromal cell- and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell-conditioned media on the proliferation of corneal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yu; Yao, Qin-Ke; Chen, Jun-Zhao; Shao, Chun-Yi; Yan, Chen-Xi; Ni, Ni; Fan, Xian-Qun; Gu, Ping; Fu, Yao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the effects of conditioned media on the proliferation of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) and to compare the efficiency of different conditioned media (CM). METHODS Rat CECs, corneal stromal cells (CSCs), bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BEPCs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured in vitro. CM was collected from CSCs, BEPCs, and BMSCs. CECs were cultivated in different culture media. Cell morphology was recorded, and gene and protein expression were analyzed. RESULTS After grown in CM for 5d, CECs in each experimental group remained polygonal, in a cobblestone-like monolayer arrangement. Immunocytofluorescence revealed positive expression of Na+/K+-ATP, aquaporin 1 (AQP1), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1). Based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Na+/K+-ATP expression in CSC-CM was notably upregulated by 1.3-fold (±0.036) (P<0.05, n=3). The expression levels of ZO-1, neuron specific enolase (NSE), Vimentin, paired homebox 6 (PAX6), and procollagen type VIII (COL8A1) were notably upregulated in each experimental group. Each CM had a positive effect on CEC proliferation, and CSC-CM had the strongest effect on proliferation. CONCLUSION CSC-CM, BEPC-CM, and BMSC-CM not only stimulated the proliferation of CECs, but also maintained the characteristic differentiated phenotypes necessary for endothelial functions. CSC-CM had the most notable effect on CEC proliferation. PMID:27158599