Science.gov

Sample records for bone morphogenic proteins

  1. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  2. Bone morphogenic protein-4 expression in vascular lesions of calciphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Griethe, Wanja; Schmitt, Roland; Jurgensen, Jan Steffen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Schindler, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is characterized by an extensive media-calcification of cutaneous and subcutaneous arterioles and capillaries. Recent studies have provided evidence that vascular calcification is a process with similarities to bone metabolism. Bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP-4) is physiologically involved in bone development and repair. The presence of BMP-4 in atherosclerosis and in sclerotic heart valves led us to suggest that BMP-4 is also involved in calciphylaxis. A 47-year-old male patient developed end-stage renal failure due to chronic glomerulonephritis. He has had two kidney transplants with an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of cyclosporine A and steroids. He was admitted to our hospital because of an increase in serum creatinine (Cr) and he subsequently developed progressive dermal ulcerations. A skin biopsy led to the diagnosis of calciphylaxis. Immunohistochemistry for BMP-4 of a skin specimen from our patient showed strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of intradermal cells with clear spatial association to arterioles and hair follicles. Whereas there are identified inhibitors and promoters of vascular calcification, the presence of BMP-4 has not been demonstrated in calcific uremic arteriolopathy. In contrast to atherosclerosis, BMP-4 in calciphylaxis cannot be found in vascular media, but in intradermal cells at the border of arterioles and hair follicles. Therefore, in calciphylaxis BMP-4 can play the role of a cytokine, a growth factor or a media-calcification promoter. PMID:14733421

  3. Effects of Bone Morphogenic Proteins on Engineered Cartilage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Keith, J.; Blunk, Torsten; Courter, Donald L.; Sieminski, Alisha; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    A report describes experiments on the effects of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) on engineered cartilage grown in vitro. In the experiments, bovine calf articular chondrocytes were seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds and cultured in, variously, a control medium or a medium supplemented with BMP-2, BMP-12, or BMP-13 in various concentrations. Under all conditions investigated, cell-polymer constructs cultivated for 4 weeks macroscopically and histologically resembled native cartilage. At a concentration of 100 ng/mL, BMP-2, BMP-12, or BMP-13 caused (1) total masses of the constructs to exceed those of the controls by 121, 80, or 62 percent, respectively; (2) weight percentages of glycosaminoglycans in the constructs to increase by 27, 18, or 15, respectively; and (3) total collagen contents of the constructs to decrease to 63, 89, or 83 percent of the control values, respectively. BMP-2, but not BMP-12 or BMP-13, promoted chondrocyte hypertrophy. These observations were interpreted as suggesting that the three BMPs increase the growth rates and modulate the compositions of engineered cartilage. It was also concluded that in vitro engineered cartilage is a suitable system for studying effects of BMPs on chondrogenesis in a well-defined environment.

  4. Evaluation of bone morphogenic proteins in periodontal practice.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Supreet; Grover, Vishakha; Kaur, Harkiran; Malhotra, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Forty years ago Marshal R. Urist discovered a substance in bone matrix that had inductive properties for the development of bone and cartilage, until date, at least 20 bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been identified, some of which have been shown in vitro to stimulate the process of stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts in human and animal models. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of BMPs and to review critically the clinical data currently available on the use of BMPs in various periodontal applications. The literature on BMPs was reviewed. A comprehensive search was designed. The articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal applications were included. The available literature was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicates BMPs to be a promising, as well as an effective novel approach to reconstruct and engineer the periodontal apparatus. Here, we represent several articles, as well as recent texts that make up a special and an in-depth review on the subject. On the basis of the data provided in the studies that were reviewed BMPs provide revolutionary therapies in periodontal practice. PMID:27134452

  5. Evaluation of bone morphogenic proteins in periodontal practice

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Grover, Vishakha; Kaur, Harkiran; Malhotra, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Forty years ago Marshal R. Urist discovered a substance in bone matrix that had inductive properties for the development of bone and cartilage, until date, at least 20 bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been identified, some of which have been shown in vitro to stimulate the process of stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts in human and animal models. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of BMPs and to review critically the clinical data currently available on the use of BMPs in various periodontal applications. The literature on BMPs was reviewed. A comprehensive search was designed. The articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal applications were included. The available literature was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicates BMPs to be a promising, as well as an effective novel approach to reconstruct and engineer the periodontal apparatus. Here, we represent several articles, as well as recent texts that make up a special and an in-depth review on the subject. On the basis of the data provided in the studies that were reviewed BMPs provide revolutionary therapies in periodontal practice. PMID:27134452

  6. Curcumin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Up-Regulating Bone Morphogenic Protein-7 in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, Thambi; Diouri, Janane; O'Shea, Orla; Doty, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have focused on the beneficial properties of Curcumin (diferuloyl methane, used in South Asian cuisine and traditional medicine) such as the chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies have also indicated that this material has significant benefits for the treatment of cancer and is currently undergoing several clinical trials. We have been interested in the application of this compound as a therapeutic agent for advanced prostate cancer, particularly the skeletal complications in this malignancy. Our earlier work indicated that this compound could inhibit the osteomimetic properties which occur in castration resistant prostate cancer cells, by interfering with the common denominators between these cancer cells and the bone cells in the metastatic tumor microenvironment, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclast. We predicted that curcumin could break the vicious cycle of reciprocal stimulation that results in uncontrolled osteolysis in the bony matrix. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of this compound in inhibiting the bone metastasis of hormone refractory prostate cancer cells in an established animal model. Our results strongly suggest that curcumin modulates the TGF-β signaling that occurs due to bone matrix degradation by up-regulating the metastasis inhibitory bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP- 7). This enhancement of BMP-7 in the context of TGF-βin the tumor microenvironment is shown to enhance the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Most importantly, we show that as a result of BMP-7 up-regulation, a novel brown/beige adipogenic differentiation program is also up-regu- lated which plays a role in the inhibition of bone metastasis. Our results suggest that curcumin may subvert the TGF-βsignaling to an alternative adipogenic differentiation program in addition to the previously established interference with the osteomimetic properties, thus inhibiting the bone metastatic processes in a chemopreventive as well as therapeutic

  7. Curcumin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Up-Regulating Bone Morphogenic Protein-7 in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Dorai, Thambi; Diouri, Janane; O'Shea, Orla; Doty, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies have focused on the beneficial properties of Curcumin (diferuloyl methane, used in South Asian cuisine and traditional medicine) such as the chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies have also indicated that this material has significant benefits for the treatment of cancer and is currently undergoing several clinical trials. We have been interested in the application of this compound as a therapeutic agent for advanced prostate cancer, particularly the skeletal complications in this malignancy. Our earlier work indicated that this compound could inhibit the osteomimetic properties which occur in castration resistant prostate cancer cells, by interfering with the common denominators between these cancer cells and the bone cells in the metastatic tumor microenvironment, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclast. We predicted that curcumin could break the vicious cycle of reciprocal stimulation that results in uncontrolled osteolysis in the bony matrix. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of this compound in inhibiting the bone metastasis of hormone refractory prostate cancer cells in an established animal model. Our results strongly suggest that curcumin modulates the TGF-β signaling that occurs due to bone matrix degradation by up-regulating the metastasis inhibitory bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP- 7). This enhancement of BMP-7 in the context of TGF-βin the tumor microenvironment is shown to enhance the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Most importantly, we show that as a result of BMP-7 up-regulation, a novel brown/beige adipogenic differentiation program is also up-regu- lated which plays a role in the inhibition of bone metastasis. Our results suggest that curcumin may subvert the TGF-βsignaling to an alternative adipogenic differentiation program in addition to the previously established interference with the osteomimetic properties, thus inhibiting the bone metastatic processes in a chemopreventive as well as therapeutic

  8. Systems analysis of the role of bone morphogenic protein 4 in endothelial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weiwei; Jo, Hanjoong; Voit, Eberhard O

    2010-02-01

    Shear stress is an important factor in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. High and unidirectional laminar stress is seen as protective, while low and oscillatory shear stress is considered pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic. The mechanosensitive response of endothelial cells is governed by a complex system of genes, proteins, and signals that operate at distinctly different time scales. We propose a dynamic mathematical model that quantitatively describes this mechanosensing system and permits novel insights into its functioning. The model, the first of its kind, is constructed within the guidelines of Biochemical Systems Theory and accounts for different time scales by means of approximated delays. Parameter values are obtained directly from biochemical observations in an ad hoc fashion. The model reflects most documented observations well and leads to a number of predictions and novel hypotheses. In particular, it demonstrates the crucial role of Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 and p47(phox)-dependent NADPH oxidases in endothelial inflammation. PMID:19851868

  9. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  10. The bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, noggin, reduces glycemia and vascular inflammation in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Mitsuhisa; Engberding, Niels; Dikalova, Anna E; Chang, Kyung Hwa; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Long, James S; Lassègue, Bernard; Jo, Hanjoong; Griendling, Kathy K

    2013-09-01

    Vascular diseases frequently accompany diabetes mellitus. Based on the current understanding of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disorder of the vascular wall, it has been speculated that diabetes may accelerate atherosclerosis by inducing a proinflammatory milieu in the vasculature. ANG II and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in vascular inflammation. We evaluated the effect of angiotensin receptor blockade by valsartan and BMP inhibition by noggin on markers of vascular inflammation in a mouse model of diabetes. Noggin had no effect on blood pressure but decreased serum glucose levels, whereas valsartan significantly decreased blood pressure, but not serum glucose. Both inhibitors reduced reactive oxygen species production in the aorta. Additionally, noggin and valsartan diminish gene transcription and protein expression of various inflammatory molecules in the vascular wall. These observations indicate that although both inhibitors block superoxide production and have similar effects on inflammatory gene expression, glycemia and blood pressure may represent a secondary target differentially affected by noggin and valsartan. Our data clearly identify the BMP pathway as a potentially potent therapeutic target in diabetic inflammatory vascular disease. PMID:23812391

  11. The bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, noggin, reduces glycemia and vascular inflammation in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Mitsuhisa; Engberding, Niels; Dikalova, Anna E.; Chang, Kyung Hwa; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Long, James S.; Lassègue, Bernard; Jo, Hanjoong

    2013-01-01

    Vascular diseases frequently accompany diabetes mellitus. Based on the current understanding of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disorder of the vascular wall, it has been speculated that diabetes may accelerate atherosclerosis by inducing a proinflammatory milieu in the vasculature. ANG II and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in vascular inflammation. We evaluated the effect of angiotensin receptor blockade by valsartan and BMP inhibition by noggin on markers of vascular inflammation in a mouse model of diabetes. Noggin had no effect on blood pressure but decreased serum glucose levels, whereas valsartan significantly decreased blood pressure, but not serum glucose. Both inhibitors reduced reactive oxygen species production in the aorta. Additionally, noggin and valsartan diminish gene transcription and protein expression of various inflammatory molecules in the vascular wall. These observations indicate that although both inhibitors block superoxide production and have similar effects on inflammatory gene expression, glycemia and blood pressure may represent a secondary target differentially affected by noggin and valsartan. Our data clearly identify the BMP pathway as a potentially potent therapeutic target in diabetic inflammatory vascular disease. PMID:23812391

  12. Public awareness of the bone morphogenic protein controversy: Evidence from news publications

    PubMed Central

    Drazin, Doniel; Shweikeh, Faris; Wieshofer, Erich; Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal fusion has seen a tremendous increase. Public awareness of rhBMP-2 and its complications has not been assessed. The authors studied published news media articles to analyze information provided to the public on this bone graft substitute. Methods: We utilized the academic database, LexisNexis, to locate newspaper articles published between January 2001 and July 2013. All articles were coded by a coder and reviewed by the principal investigator. Results: The search identified 87 national and 99 local newspaper articles. Complications mentioned in national newspapers included cancer (24%), retrograde ejaculation (24%), and abnormal bone growth (14%). Local newspapers cited cancer (14%), inflammation (14%), and retrograde ejaculation (9.2%) most frequently. Fifty national (59%) and 35 local (54%) articles had no mention of complications. Sources of evidence cited by articles were (in order of frequency): Governmental agencies, medical research or published studies, healthcare personnel or patients, and companies or corporations. Conclusions: Only a small percentage of newspaper articles presented potential complications. Despite lack of clear scientific causal relationship between rhBMP-2 and cancer, this risk was disproportionately reported. Additionally, many did not cite scientific sources. Lack of reliable information available to the public reiterates the role of physicians in discussing risks and benefits BMP use in spinal surgery, assuring that patients are making informed decisions. Future news media articles should present risks in an impartial and evidence-based manner. Collaboration between advocacy groups, medical institutions, and media outlets would be beneficial in achieving this goal. PMID:25593772

  13. High glucose and palmitate increases bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Oak-Kee; Yoo, Soon-Jib; Son, Jang-Won; Kim, Mee-Kyoung; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Jo, Hanjoong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we investigated whether hyperglycemia and/or free fatty acids (palmitate, PAL) aff ect the expression level of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), a proatherogenic marker, in endothelial cells and the potential role of BMP4 in diabetic vascular complications. To measure BMP4 expression, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose concentrations and/or PAL for 24 or 72 h, and the effects of these treatments on the expression levels of adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. BMP4 loss-of-function status was achieved via transfection of a BMP4-specific siRNA. High glucose levels increased BMP4 expression in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. PAL potentiated such expression. The levels of adhesion molecules and ROS production increased upon treatment with high glucose and/or PAL, but this eff ect was negated when BMP4 was knocked down via siRNA. Signaling of BMP4, a proinflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokine marker, was increased by hyperglycemia and PAL. BMP4 induced the expression of infl ammatory adhesion molecules and ROS production. Our work suggests that BMP4 plays a role in atherogenesis induced by high glucose levels and/or PAL. PMID:26937213

  14. Transforming Growth Factor {beta} Can Stimulate Smad1 Phosphorylation Independently of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, Katharine H; Lin, Xia; Yu, Paul B; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2009-04-10

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily ligands control a diverse set of cellular processes by activating type I and type II serine-threonine receptor kinases. Canonical TGFbeta signaling is mediated via the TbetaRI/ALK5 type I receptor that phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in their SXS motif to facilitate their activation and subsequent role in transcriptional regulation. Canonical bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is mediated via the ALK1/2/3/6 type I receptors that phosphorylate Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 in their SXS motif. However, studies in endothelial cells have shown that TGFbeta can also lead to the phosphorylation of Smad1, dependent on ALK1 receptor activity. Here we present data showing that TGFbeta can significantly induce Smad1 phosphorylation in several non-endothelial cell lineages. Additionally, by using chemical inhibitors specific for the TGFbeta/activin/nodal (ALK4/5/7) and BMP (ALK1/2/3/6) type I receptors, we show that in some cell types TGFbeta induces Smad1 phosphorylation independently of the BMP type I receptors. Thus, TGFbeta-mediated Smad1 phosphorylation appears to occur via different receptor complexes in a cell type-specific manner. PMID:19224917

  15. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm3) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm3) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone. PMID:27189411

  16. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone.

    PubMed

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm(3)) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm(3)) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone. PMID:27189411

  17. Intraosseous Delivery of Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Using a Self-Assembling Peptide Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Matthew C; Monte, Felipe; Mehta, Manav; Kim, Harry K W

    2016-07-11

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a debilitating hip disorder, which often produces a permanent femoral head deformity and osteoarthritis. The local delivery of biological agents capable of stimulating bone healing offer potential new treatment options for patients with ONFH. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that a local intraosseous infusion of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) was effective in stimulating new bone formation in a piglet model of ischemic ONFH. However, infusion of BMP-2 solution was associated with unwanted dissemination of BMP-2 out of the femoral head and produced heterotopic ossification in the hip capsule. Injectable hydrogels offer a potential method to control the dissemination of biological molecules in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of a peptide-based, self-assembling hydrogel called RADA16 to transition from a solution to a gel following infusion into the femoral head, thereby preventing backflow, as well as its potential use as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2. Cadaver pig femoral heads were used to study the backflow and the distribution of RADA16 following an intraosseous infusion. Microcomputed tomography analysis following the infusion of RADA16 mixed with a radiocontrast agent revealed a significant decrease in the amount of back flow of radiocontrast agent down the needle track compared to the soluble infusion of radiocontrast without RADA16. Furthermore, RADA16 mixed with radiocontrast agent showed good distribution within the femoral head. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that higher concentrations of RADA16 decreased the rate of BMP-2 dissemination out of the hydrogel. The BMP-2 that was released from RADA16 maintains its biological activity, inducing the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in pig primary bone marrow stromal cells. Lastly, pig primary bone marrow stromal cells showed significantly increased in vitro proliferation on RADA16 hydrogels over 1 week compared to tissue

  18. Bone regeneration using hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel with bone morphogenic protein-2 and human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungju; Kim, In Sook; Cho, Tae Hyung; Lee, Kyu Back; Hwang, Soon Jung; Tae, Giyoong; Noh, Insup; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Yongdoo; Sun, Kyung

    2007-04-01

    Acrylated hyaluronic acid (HA) was used as a scaffold for bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for rat calvarial defect regeneration. HA was acrylated by two-step reactions: (1) introduction of an amine group using adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH); (2) acrylation by N-acryloxysuccinimide. Tetrathiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG-SH(4)) was used as a cross-linker by a Michael-type addition reaction and the hydrogel was formed within 10min under physiological conditions. This hydrogel is degraded completely by 100U/ml hyaluronidase in vitro. hMSCs and/or BMP-2 was added during gelation. Cellular viability in vitro was increased up to 55% in the hydrogels with BMP-2 compared with the control. For in vivo calvarial defect regeneration, five different samples (i.e., control, hydrogel, hydrogel with BMP-2, hydrogel with MSCs, and hydrogel with BMP-2 and MSCs) were implanted for 4 weeks. The histological results demonstrated that the hydrogels with BMP-2 and MSCs had the highest expression of osteocalcin and mature bone formation with vascular markers, such as CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factors, compared with the other samples. This study demonstrated that HA base hydrogel can be used for cell and growth factor carriers for tissue regeneration. PMID:17208295

  19. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  20. The Immunologic Properties of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IB Positive Subpopulation before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Mouse Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jia-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that human dermal bone morphogenic protein receptor (BMPR) IB positive subpopulation had a high osteogenic differentiation potential and may be a promising cell source for allogeneic bone tissue engineering. In this study, the immunologic properties of dermal BMPR-IB+ subpopulation before and after osteogenic differentiation were reported. The results confirmed that dermal BMPR-IB+ cells possessed a similar osteogenic differentiation potential with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model. Furthermore, the expression of immune rejection-related surface antigens such as major histocompatibility class II and co-stimulatory proteins (CD40, CD80, and CD86) were absent on dermal BMPRIB+ cells. Dermal BMPRIB+ cells elicited no proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes and suppressed the proliferation of stimulated immune cells. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation in vitro had no adverse effect on the immunological features of these cells. Most importantly, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was involved in immunoregulatory effects by undifferentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was related to mediating immunomodulatory function by osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts. In conclusion, dermal BMPRIB+ cells have a low immunogenicity and possess immunosuppressive capacity before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, which would facilitate the allotransplantation in the future. However, mechanisms mediating immunoregulatory property between undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts may be different and need further investigation. PMID:27552226

  1. The Immunologic Properties of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IB Positive Subpopulation before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Mouse Dermis.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Guang; Wang, Ting-Liang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jia-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that human dermal bone morphogenic protein receptor (BMPR) IB positive subpopulation had a high osteogenic differentiation potential and may be a promising cell source for allogeneic bone tissue engineering. In this study, the immunologic properties of dermal BMPR-IB+ subpopulation before and after osteogenic differentiation were reported. The results confirmed that dermal BMPR-IB+ cells possessed a similar osteogenic differentiation potential with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model. Furthermore, the expression of immune rejection-related surface antigens such as major histocompatibility class II and co-stimulatory proteins (CD40, CD80, and CD86) were absent on dermal BMPRIB+ cells. Dermal BMPRIB+ cells elicited no proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes and suppressed the proliferation of stimulated immune cells. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation in vitro had no adverse effect on the immunological features of these cells. Most importantly, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was involved in immunoregulatory effects by undifferentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was related to mediating immunomodulatory function by osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts. In conclusion, dermal BMPRIB+ cells have a low immunogenicity and possess immunosuppressive capacity before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, which would facilitate the allotransplantation in the future. However, mechanisms mediating immunoregulatory property between undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts may be different and need further investigation. PMID:27552226

  2. Microarray gene expression profiling of osteoarthritic bone suggests altered bone remodelling, WNT and transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenic protein signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Blair; Tsykin, Anna; Findlay, David M; Fazzalari, Nicola L

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by alterations to subchondral bone as well as articular cartilage. Changes to bone in OA have also been identified at sites distal to the affected joint, which include increased bone volume fraction and reduced bone mineralization. Altered bone remodelling has been proposed to underlie these bone changes in OA. To investigate the molecular basis for these changes, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of bone obtained at autopsy from individuals with no evidence of joint disease (control) and from individuals undergoing joint replacement surgery for either degenerative hip OA, or fractured neck of femur (osteoporosis [OP]). The OP sample set was included because an inverse association, with respect to bone density, has been observed between OA and the low bone density disease OP. Compugen human 19K-oligo microarray slides were used to compare the gene expression profiles of OA, control and OP bone samples. Four sets of samples were analyzed, comprising 10 OA-control female, 10 OA-control male, 10 OA-OP female and 9 OP-control female sample pairs. Print tip Lowess normalization and Bayesian statistical analyses were carried out using linear models for microarray analysis, which identified 150 differentially expressed genes in OA bone with t scores above 4. Twenty-five of these genes were then confirmed to be differentially expressed (P < 0.01) by real-time PCR analysis. A substantial number of the top-ranking differentially expressed genes identified in OA bone are known to play roles in osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. Many of these genes are targets of either the WNT (wingless MMTV integration) signalling pathway (TWIST1, IBSP, S100A4, MMP25, RUNX2 and CD14) or the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signalling pathway (ADAMTS4, ADM, MEPE, GADD45B, COL4A1 and FST). Other differentially expressed genes included WNT (WNT5B, NHERF1, CTNNB1 and PTEN) and TGF-β/BMP (TGFB1, SMAD3

  3. Sequential injection immunoassay for human bone morphogenic protein-7 using an immunoreactor immobilized with anti-human bone morphogenic protein-7 antibody--CdSe/ZnS quantum dot conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Kwang; Duong, Hong Dinh; Rhee, Jong Il

    2013-07-01

    The detection of human bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) was achieved using a sequential injection immunoassay (SIIA) system. The SIIA system is based on the binding between BMP-7 and anti-human BMP-7 (AbBMP7)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) conjugates immobilized onto a glass disk or an optical fiber, using fluorescence detection at excitation and emission wavelengths of 470 nm and 580 nm, respectively. The AbBMP7-QD conjugates were prepared by conjugating anti-human BMP-7 antibody (AbBMP7) to hydrophilic CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). The SIIA system was fully automated using software written in the LabVIEW™ development environment. The analytical performance of the SIIA system was characterized with a number of variables such as carrier flow rate and elution buffer. Under partially optimized operating conditions, the SIIA system had a linear calibration graph at up to 10.0 ng mL(-1) BMP-7 (R(2)≥0.975) and a sample frequency of two samples per hour. The SIIA system with an optical fiber immunosensor was used to detect and quantify BMP-7 in spiked real samples obtained from a biological process with recoveries in the range of 95-102%. PMID:23790295

  4. Plasma Surface Modification for Immobilization of Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 on Polycaprolactone Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Myung, Sung Woon; Jung, Sang Chul; Ko, Yeong Mu

    2013-11-01

    The immobilization of recombinant human bone formation protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds was performed by plasma polymerization. RhBMP-2, which induces osteoblast differentiation in various cell types, is a growth factor that plays an important role in bone formation and repair. The surface of the PCL scaffold was functionalized with the carboxyl groups of plasma-polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) thin films. Plasma polymerization was carried out at a discharge power of 60 W at an acrylic acid flow rate of 7 sccm for 5 min. The PPAA thin film exhibited moderate hydrophilic properties and possessed a high density of carboxyl groups. Carboxyl groups and rhBMP-2 on the PCL scaffolds surface were identified by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase activity assay showed that the rhBMP-2 immobilized PCL scaffold increased the level of MG-63 cell differentiation. Plasma surface modification for the preparation of biomaterials, such as biofunctionalized polymer scaffolds, can be used for the binding of bioactive molecules in tissue engineering.

  5. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Ventura, F; Doody, J; Massagué, J

    1995-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including BMPR-IA/Brk1, BMPR-IB, and ActR-I, which is also an activin type I receptor. Cloning of BMPR-II resulted from a strong interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with diverse transforming growth factor beta family type I receptor cytoplasmic domains in a yeast two-hybrid system. In mammalian cells, however, the interaction of BMPR-II is restricted to BMP type I receptors and is ligand dependent. BMPR-II binds BMP-2 and -7 on its own, but binding is enhanced by coexpression of type I BMP receptors. BMP-2 and BMP-7 can induce a transcriptional response when added to cells coexpressing ActR-I and BMPR-II but not to cells expressing either receptor alone. The kinase activity of both receptors is essential for signaling. Thus, despite their ability to bind to type I and II receptors receptors separately, BMPs appear to require the cooperation of these two receptors for optimal binding and for signal transduction. The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. PMID:7791754

  6. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-Nin; Wang, Guan-Song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:26071935

  7. The Role of Hepatocyte Hemojuvelin in the Regulation of Bone Morphogenic Protein-6 and Hepcidin Expression in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Gao, Junwei; Koeberl, Dwight D.; Enns, Caroline A.

    2010-01-01

    Both hemojuvelin (HJV) and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP6) are essential for hepcidin expression. Hepcidin is the key peptide hormone in iron homeostasis, and is secreted predominantly by hepatocytes. HJV expression is detected in hepatocytes, as well as in skeletal and heart muscle. HJV binds BMP6 and increases hepcidin expression presumably by acting as a BMP co-receptor. We characterized the role of hepatocyte HJV in the regulation of BMP6 and hepcidin expression. In HJV-null (Hjv−/−) mice that have severe iron overload and marked suppression of hepcidin expression, we detected 4-fold higher hepatic BMP6 mRNA than in wild-type counterparts. These results indicate that Hjv−/− mice do not lack BMP6. Furthermore, iron depletion in Hjv−/− mice decreased hepatic BMP6 mRNA. Expression of HJV in hepatocytes of Hjv−/− mice using an AAV2/8 vector, increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA by 65-fold and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 in the liver by about 2.5-fold. However, no significant change in BMP6 mRNA was detected in either the liver or the small intestine of these animals. Our results revealed a close correlation of hepatic BMP6 mRNA expression with hepatic iron-loading. Together, our data indicate that the regulation of hepatic BMP6 expression by iron is independent of HJV, and that expression of HJV in hepatocytes plays an essential role in hepcidin expression by potentiating the BMP6-mediated signaling. PMID:20363739

  8. The role of hepatocyte hemojuvelin in the regulation of bone morphogenic protein-6 and hepcidin expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Gao, Junwei; Koeberl, Dwight D; Enns, Caroline A

    2010-05-28

    Both hemojuvelin (HJV) and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP6) are essential for hepcidin expression. Hepcidin is the key peptide hormone in iron homeostasis, and is secreted predominantly by hepatocytes. HJV expression is detected in hepatocytes, as well as in skeletal and heart muscle. HJV binds BMP6 and increases hepcidin expression presumably by acting as a BMP co-receptor. We characterized the role of hepatocyte HJV in the regulation of BMP6 and hepcidin expression. In HJV-null (Hjv(-/-)) mice that have severe iron overload and marked suppression of hepcidin expression, we detected 4-fold higher hepatic BMP6 mRNA than in wild-type counterparts. These results indicate that Hjv(-/-) mice do not lack BMP6. Furthermore, iron depletion in Hjv(-/-) mice decreased hepatic BMP6 mRNA. Expression of HJV in hepatocytes of Hjv(-/-) mice using an AAV2/8 vector, increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA by 65-fold and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 in the liver by about 2.5-fold. However, no significant change in BMP6 mRNA was detected in either the liver or the small intestine of these animals. Our results revealed a close correlation of hepatic BMP6 mRNA expression with hepatic iron-loading. Together, our data indicate that the regulation of hepatic BMP6 expression by iron is independent of HJV, and that expression of HJV in hepatocytes plays an essential role in hepcidin expression by potentiating the BMP6-mediated signaling. PMID:20363739

  9. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-nin; Wang, Guan-song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-sheng; Lu, Kai-zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • CBDL-rat serum promotes the myogenic

  10. Macrophage bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 depletion in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and Group III pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning-Yuan; D Collum, Scott; Luo, Fayong; Weng, Tingting; Le, Thuy-Trahn; M Hernandez, Adriana; Philip, Kemly; Molina, Jose G; Garcia-Morales, Luis J; Cao, Yanna; Ko, Tien C; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Al-Jabbari, Odeaa; Bunge, Raquel R; Youker, Keith; Bruckner, Brian A; Hamid, Rizwan; Davies, Jonathan; Sinha, Neeraj; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry

    2016-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease of unknown etiology. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is considered the single most significant predictor of mortality in patients with chronic lung diseases. The processes that govern the progression and development of fibroproliferative and vascular lesions in IPF are not fully understood. Using human lung explant samples from patients with IPF with or without a diagnosis of PH as well as normal control tissue, we report reduced BMPR2 expression in patients with IPF or IPF+PH. These changes were consistent with dampened P-SMAD 1/5/8 and elevated P-SMAD 2/3, demonstrating reduced BMPR2 signaling and elevated TGF-β activity in IPF. In the bleomycin (BLM) model of lung fibrosis and PH, we also report decreased BMPR2 expression compared with control animals that correlated with vascular remodeling and PH. We show that genetic abrogation or pharmacological inhibition of interleukin-6 leads to diminished markers of fibrosis and PH consistent with elevated levels of BMPR2 and reduced levels of a collection of microRNAs (miRs) that are able to degrade BMPR2. We also demonstrate that isolated bone marrow-derived macrophages from BLM-exposed mice show reduced BMPR2 levels upon exposure with IL6 or the IL6+IL6R complex that are consistent with immunohistochemistry showing reduced BMPR2 in CD206 expressing macrophages from lung sections from IPF and IPF+PH patients. In conclusion, our data suggest that depletion of BMPR2 mediated by a collection of miRs induced by IL6 and subsequent STAT3 phosphorylation as a novel mechanism participating to fibroproliferative and vascular injuries in IPF. PMID:27317687

  11. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J.; Pellegata, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  12. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2015-11-17

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  13. Combination of Controllably Released Platelet Rich Plasma Alginate Beads and Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Gabriela; Wang, Changdong; Yuan, Xue; Liu, Zunpeng; Dziak, Rosemary; Yang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet rich plasma (PRP) consists of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) that increase cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas, bone morphogenic Protein-2 (BMP2) promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. However, the high degradation rate of fibrin leads to the dissociation of cytokines even before the process of bone regeneration has begun. Hence, for the first time, we studied the combined effect of sustained released PRP from alginate beads on BMP2 modified MSCs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and of sustained PRP alone on a fracture defect model ex vivo as well as its effect on the calvarial suture closure. Methods After optimizing the concentration of alginate for the microspheres, the osteogenic and mineralization effect of PRP and BMP2 in combinations on MSCs was studied. A self-setting alginate hydrogel carrying PRP was tested on a femur defect model ex-vivo. The effect of PRP was studied on the closure of the embryonic (E15) mouse calvaria sutures ex vivo. Results Increase of PRP concentration promoted cellular proliferation of MSCs. 2.5%–10% of PRP displayed gradually increased ALP activity on the cells in a dose dependent manner. Sustained release PRP and BMP2 demonstrated a significantly higher ALP and mineralization activity (p<0.05). The radiographs of alginate hydrogel with PRP treated bone demonstrated a nearly complete healing of the fracture and the histological sections of the embryonic calvaria revealed that PRP leads to suture fusion. Conclusions Sustained release of PRP along with BMP2 gene modified MSCs can significantly promote bone regeneration. PMID:26745613

  14. Granulin epithelin precursor: a bone morphogenic protein 2-inducible growth factor that activates Erk1/2 signaling and JunB transcription factor in chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jian Q.; Guo, Feng-Jin; Jiang, Bai-Chun; Zhang, Yan; Frenkel, Sally; Wang, Da-Wei; Tang, Wei; Xie, Yixia; Liu, Chuan-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Granulin epithelin precursor (GEP) has been implicated in development, tissue regeneration, tumorigenesis, and inflammation. Herein we report that GEP stimulates chondrocyte differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and endochondral ossification ex vivo, and GEP-knockdown mice display skeleton defects. Similar to bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 2, application of the recombinant GEP accelerates rabbit cartilage repair in vivo. GEP is a key downstream molecule of BMP2, and it is required for BMP2-mediated chondrocyte differentiation. We also show that GEP activates chondrocyte differentiation through Erk1/2 signaling and that JunB transcription factor is one of key downstream molecules of GEP in chondrocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel critical role of GEP growth factor in chondrocyte differentiation and the molecular events both in vivo and in vitro.—Feng, J. Q., Guo, F.-J., Jiang, B.-C., Zhang, Y., Frenkel, S., Wang, D.-W., Tang, W., Xie, Y., Liu, C.-J. Granulin epithelin precursor: a bone morphogenic protein 2-inducible growth factor that activates Erk1/2 signaling and JunB transcription factor in chondrogenesis. PMID:20124436

  15. Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) Signaling Up-regulates Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 to Suppress Chondrocyte Maturation via the Akt Protein Signaling Pathway as a Negative Feedback Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Kakoi, Hironori; Maeda, Shingo; Shinohara, Naohiro; Matsuyama, Kanehiro; Imamura, Katsuyuki; Kawamura, Ichiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Takao; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Komiya, Setsuro

    2014-01-01

    Although bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling promotes chondrogenesis, it is not clear whether BMP-induced chondrocyte maturation is cell-autonomously terminated. Loss of function of Smpd3 in mice results in an increase in mature hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we report that in chondrocytes the Runx2-dependent expression of Smpd3 was increased by BMP-2 stimulation. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), encoded by the Smpd3 gene, was detected both in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of mouse embryo bone cartilage. An siRNA for Smpd3, as well as the nSMase inhibitor GW4869, significantly enhanced BMP-2-induced differentiation and maturation of chondrocytes. Conversely, overexpression of Smpd3 or C2-ceramide, which mimics the function of nSMase2, inhibited chondrogenesis. Upon induction of Smpd3 siRNA or GW4869, phosphorylation of both Akt and S6 proteins was increased. The accelerated chondrogenesis induced by Smpd3 silencing was negated by application of the Akt inhibitor MK2206 or the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin. Importantly, in mouse bone culture, GW4869 treatment significantly promoted BMP-2-induced hypertrophic maturation and calcification of chondrocytes, which subsequently was eliminated by C2-ceramide. Smpd3 knockdown decreased the apoptosis of terminally matured ATDC5 chondrocytes, probably as a result of decreased ceramide production. In addition, we found that expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) was elevated by a loss of Smpd3, which was restored by MK2206. Indeed, expression of Has2 protein decreased in nSMase2-positive hypertrophic chondrocytes in the bones of mouse embryos. Our data suggest that the Smpd3/nSMase2-ceramide-Akt signaling axis negatively regulates BMP-induced chondrocyte maturation and Has2 expression to control the rate of endochondral ossification as a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:24505141

  16. The effect of immobilization of heparin and bone morphogenic protein-2 to bovine bone substitute on osteoblast-like cell's function

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Kim, Sung-Eun; Song, Se-Kyung; Yun, Mi-Jung; Shim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Yol

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to investigate the ability of recombinant human-bone morphogenic protein-2 immobilized on a heparin-grafted bone substrate to enhance the osteoblastic functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Bio-Oss®, not coated with any material, was used as a control group. In rhBMP-2-Bio-Oss® group, rhBMP-2 was coated with Bio-Oss® using only deep and dry methods (50 ng/mL, 24 h). In heparinized rhBMP-2-Bio-Oss® group, dopamine was anchored to the surface of Bio-Oss®, and coated with heparin. rhBMP-2 was immobilized onto the heparinized- Bio-Oss® surface. The release kinetics of the rhBMP-2-Bio-Oss® and heparinized rhBMP-2-Bio-Oss® were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological activities of the MG63 cells on the three groups were investigated via cytotoxicity assay, cell proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) measurement, and calcium deposition determination. Statistical comparisons were carried out by one-way ANOVA test. Differences were considered statistically significant at *P<.05 and **P<.001. RESULTS The heparinized rhBMP-2-Bio-Oss® showed more sustained release compared to the rhBMP-2-Bio-Oss® over an extended time. In the measurement of the ALP activity, the heparinized group showed a significantly higher ALP activity when compared with the non-heparinized groups (P<.05). The MG63 cells cultivated in the group with rhBMP-2 showed increased calcium deposition, and the MG63 cells from the heparinized group increased more than those that were cultivated in the non-heparinized groups. CONCLUSION Heparin increased the rhBMP-2 release amount and made sustained release possible, and heparinized Bio-Oss® with rhBMP-2 successfully improved the osteoblastic functions. PMID:22053246

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 2 inhibits up-regulation of bone morphogenic proteins and their receptors during osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Biver, Emmanuel; Soubrier, Anne-Sophie; Thouverey, Cyril; Cortet, Bernard; Broux, Odile; Caverzasio, Joseph; Hardouin, Pierre

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF modulates BMPs pathway in HMSCs by down-regulating BMP/BMPR expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated by ERK and JNK MAPKs pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosstalk between FGF and BMPs must be taken into account in skeletal bioengineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It must also be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in orthopedic and spine surgeries. -- Abstract: Understanding the interactions between growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) signaling remains a crucial issue to optimize the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) and BMPs in therapeutic perspectives and bone tissue engineering. BMPs are potent inducers of osteoblastic differentiation. They exert their actions via BMP receptors (BMPR), including BMPR1A, BMPR1B and BMPR2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed by cells of the osteoblastic lineage, increases their proliferation and is secreted during the healing process of fractures or in surgery bone sites. We hypothesized that FGF2 might influence HMSC osteoblastic differentiation by modulating expressions of BMPs and their receptors. BMP2, BMP4, BMPR1A and mainly BMPR1B expressions were up-regulated during this differentiation. FGF2 inhibited HMSCs osteoblastic differentiation and the up-regulation of BMPs and BMPR. This effect was prevented by inhibiting the ERK or JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases which are known to be activated by FGF2. These data provide a mechanism explaining the inhibitory effect of FGF2 on osteoblastic differentiation of HMSCs. These crosstalks between growth and osteogenic factors should be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in therapeutic purpose of fracture repair or skeletal bioengineering.

  18. Sustained dual release of placental growth factor-2 and bone morphogenic protein-2 from heparin-based nanocomplexes for direct osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Deng, Li-Zhi; Sun, Hai-Peng; Xu, Jia-Yun; Li, Yi-Ming; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Deng, Fei-Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the direct osteogenic effect between placental growth factor-2 (PlGF-2) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Methods Three groups of PlGF-2/BMP-2-loaded heparin–N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) nanocomplexes were prepared: those with 0.5 μg PlGF-2; with 1.0 μg BMP-2; and with 0.5 μg PlGF-2 combined with 1.0 μg BMP-2. The loading efficiencies and release profiles of these growth factors (GFs) in this nanocomplex system were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, their biological activities were evaluated using cell counting kit-8, cell morphology, and cell number counting assays, and their osteogenic activities were quantified using alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays. Results The loading efficiencies were more than 99% for the nanocomplexes loaded with just PlGF-2 and for those loaded with both PlGF-2 and BMP-2. For the nanocomplex loaded with just BMP-2, the loading efficiency was more than 97%. About 83%–84% of PlGF-2 and 89%–91% of BMP-2 were stably retained on the nanocomplexes for at least 21 days. In in vitro biological assays, PlGF-2 exhibited osteogenic effects comparable to those of BMP-2 despite its dose in the experiments being lower than that of BMP-2. Moreover, the results implied that heparin-based nanocomplexes encapsulating two GFs have enhanced potential in the enhancement of osteoblast function. Conclusion PlGF-2-loaded heparin–HTCC nanocomplexes may constitute a promising system for bone regeneration. Moreover, the dual delivery of PlGF-2 and BMP-2 appears to have greater potential in bone tissue regeneration than the delivery of either GFs alone. PMID:27042064

  19. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress induces monocyte adhesion by stimulating reactive oxygen species production from a nox1-based NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sorescu, George P; Song, Hannah; Tressel, Sarah L; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Smith, Debra A; Boyd, Nolan L; Platt, Manu O; Lassègue, Bernard; Griendling, Kathy K; Jo, Hanjoong

    2004-10-15

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions including oscillatory shear stress (OS). OS exposure induces endothelial expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), which in turn may activate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion. OS is also known to induce monocyte adhesion by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, raising the possibility that BMP4 may stimulate the inflammatory response by ROS-dependent mechanisms. Here we show that ROS scavengers blocked ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion induced by BMP4 or OS in endothelial cells (ECs). Similar to OS, BMP4 stimulated H2O2 and O2- production in ECs. Next, we used ECs obtained from p47phox-/- mice (MAE-p47-/-), which do not produce ROS in response to OS, to determine the role of NADPH oxidases. Similar to OS, BMP4 failed to induce monocyte adhesion in MAE-p47-/-, but it was restored when the cells were transfected with p47phox plasmid. Moreover, OS-induced O2- production was blocked by noggin (a BMP antagonist), suggesting a role for BMP. Furthermore, OS increased gp91phox (nox2) and nox1 mRNA levels while decreasing nox4. In contrast, BMP4 induced nox1 mRNA expression, whereas nox2 and nox4 were decreased or not affected, respectively. Also, OS-induced monocyte adhesion was blocked by knocking down nox1 with the small interfering RNA (siRNA). Finally, BMP4 siRNA inhibited OS-induced ROS production and monocyte adhesion. Together, these results suggest that BMP4 produced in ECs by OS stimulates ROS release from the nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase leading to inflammation, a critical early atherogenic step. PMID:15388638

  20. Vasohibin-1 Expression Is Regulated by Transforming Growth Factor-β/Bone Morphogenic Protein Signaling Pathway Between Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seppänen, Hanna; Kauttu, Tuuli; Vainionpää, Sanna; Ye, Yingjiang; Mustonen, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 has been detected in endothelial cells as an intrinsic angiogenesis inhibitor. Both tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling have been reported to promote angiogenesis in cancer. However, whether vasohibin-1 expression is regulated by TGF-β/BMP signaling between TAMs and cancer cells remains unclear. The expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 in TAMs and the expression of vasohibin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and VEGF-C in two pancreatic cancer cell lines (a nonmetastatic cell line Panc-1 and a distant metastatic cell line HPAF-II) were measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The TGF-β receptor 1 and BMP receptor 1 were inhibited by the inhibitor SB-431542 and LDN193189, respectively. Thereafter, vasohibin-1, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR. We found that the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 was upregulated in TAMs cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells. Vasohibin-1, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C mRNA expression in pancreatic cancer cells was upregulated by TAMs. Vasohibin-1 expression in pancreatic cancer cells cocultured with TAMs was upregulated significantly when TGF-β receptors or BMP receptors were inhibited, but VEGF-C expression was downregulated. Therefore, Vasohibin-1 expression is regulated by the TGF-β/BMP signaling between TAMs and pancreatic cancer cells. These results might shed a new light on the antiangiogenesis therapy in the pancreatic cancer. PMID:23651239

  1. Enhanced response of granulosa and theca cells from sheep carriers of the FecB mutation in vitro to gonadotropins and bone morphogenic protein-2, -4, and -6.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B K; Souza, C J H; Skinner, A J; Webb, R; Baird, D T

    2006-04-01

    The FecB (Booroola) mutation, which leads to increased ovulation rates and multiple births in sheep, is now known to occur in the signaling domain of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-1B receptor. We examined the effect of the mutation on the responsiveness of granulosa (GC) and theca cells (TC) to BMPs and other local regulators using tissue from animals with (Fec(B/B)) and without (Fec(+/+)) the FecB mutation. Experiments examined the effect of BMP-2, -4, and -6 (0.005-50 ng/ml), and their interaction with IGF-I (0.1-10 ng/ml LR3 analog) and gonadotropins, on the proliferation and differentiation of GCs and TCs isolated from small (<2 mm) antral follicles and maintained in serum-free culture for up to 8 d. Dose-finding studies using ovaries from wild-type sheep obtained from the abbattoir showed no difference among the different BMPs in stimulating (P < 0.001) estradiol (E2) production by GCs cultured with FSH (10 ng/ml), but there was a clear interaction (P < 0.001) with IGF-I. BMPs had no effect on GC proliferation or the sensitivity of GCs to FSH. In contrast, higher doses of BMPs (5-50 ng/ml) inhibited LH-stimulated androstenedione production by TCs, whereas lower doses (0.005-0.05 ng/ml) stimulated TC proliferation (P < 0.01). Regardless of dose of IGF-I, at the end of culture (96-192 h) hormone production by GCs (E2, inhibin A) and TCs (androstenedione) was 4- to 5-fold greater (P < 0.001) by cells from Fec(B/B), compared with Fec(+/+) ewes exposed to the same dose of gonadotropin. In the presence of low concentrations of IGF-I (0.1 ng/ml), the maximum increase in the production of E2 and inhibin A by GCs from FF ewes in response to BMPs was observed at doses that were 3- to 10-fold lower (3-10 ng/ml) than ++ (30 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Low doses of BMPs stimulated proliferation of TCs from ++ (P < 0.01) but not FF ewes. Immunohistochemistry confirmed BMP-6 protein expression in the oocyte, granulosa, and thecal layers of antral follicles from both genotypes

  2. Genetic Variants in the Bone Morphogenic Protein Gene Family Modify the Association between Residential Exposure to Traffic and Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Neas, Lucas M; Blach, Colette; Haynes, Carol S; LaRocque-Abramson, Karen; Grass, Elizabeth; Dowdy, Elaine; Devlin, Robert B; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Cascio, Wayne E; Lynn Miranda, Marie; Gregory, Simon G; Shah, Svati H; Kraus, William E; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature indicating that genetic variants modify many of the associations between environmental exposures and clinical outcomes, potentially by increasing susceptibility to these exposures. However, genome-scale investigations of these interactions have been rarely performed particularly in the case of air pollution exposures. We performed race-stratified genome-wide gene-environment interaction association studies on European-American (EA, N = 1623) and African-American (AA, N = 554) cohorts to investigate the joint influence of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and residential exposure to traffic ("traffic exposure")-a recognized vascular disease risk factor-on peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Traffic exposure was estimated via the distance from the primary residence to the nearest major roadway, defined as the nearest limited access highways or major arterial. The rs755249-traffic exposure interaction was associated with PAD at a genome-wide significant level (P = 2.29x10-8) in European-Americans. Rs755249 is located in the 3' untranslated region of BMP8A, a member of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) gene family. Further investigation revealed several variants in BMP genes associated with PAD via an interaction with traffic exposure in both the EA and AA cohorts; this included interactions with non-synonymous variants in BMP2, which is regulated by air pollution exposure. The BMP family of genes is linked to vascular growth and calcification and is a novel gene family for the study of PAD pathophysiology. Further investigation of BMP8A using the Genotype Tissue Expression Database revealed multiple variants with nominally significant (P < 0.05) interaction P-values in our EA cohort were significant BMP8A eQTLs in tissue types highlight relevant for PAD such as rs755249 (tibial nerve, eQTL P = 3.6x10-6) and rs1180341 (tibial artery, eQTL P = 5.3x10-6). Together these results reveal a novel gene, and possibly gene family

  3. Genetic Variants in the Bone Morphogenic Protein Gene Family Modify the Association between Residential Exposure to Traffic and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Neas, Lucas M.; Blach, Colette; Haynes, Carol S.; LaRocque-Abramson, Karen; Grass, Elizabeth; Dowdy, Elaine; Devlin, Robert B.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Cascio, Wayne E.; Lynn Miranda, Marie; Gregory, Simon G.; Shah, Svati H.; Kraus, William E.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature indicating that genetic variants modify many of the associations between environmental exposures and clinical outcomes, potentially by increasing susceptibility to these exposures. However, genome-scale investigations of these interactions have been rarely performed particularly in the case of air pollution exposures. We performed race-stratified genome-wide gene-environment interaction association studies on European-American (EA, N = 1623) and African-American (AA, N = 554) cohorts to investigate the joint influence of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and residential exposure to traffic (“traffic exposure”)—a recognized vascular disease risk factor—on peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Traffic exposure was estimated via the distance from the primary residence to the nearest major roadway, defined as the nearest limited access highways or major arterial. The rs755249-traffic exposure interaction was associated with PAD at a genome-wide significant level (P = 2.29x10-8) in European-Americans. Rs755249 is located in the 3’ untranslated region of BMP8A, a member of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) gene family. Further investigation revealed several variants in BMP genes associated with PAD via an interaction with traffic exposure in both the EA and AA cohorts; this included interactions with non-synonymous variants in BMP2, which is regulated by air pollution exposure. The BMP family of genes is linked to vascular growth and calcification and is a novel gene family for the study of PAD pathophysiology. Further investigation of BMP8A using the Genotype Tissue Expression Database revealed multiple variants with nominally significant (P < 0.05) interaction P-values in our EA cohort were significant BMP8A eQTLs in tissue types highlight relevant for PAD such as rs755249 (tibial nerve, eQTL P = 3.6x10-6) and rs1180341 (tibial artery, eQTL P = 5.3x10-6). Together these results reveal a novel gene, and possibly gene

  4. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-7 signaling via upregulation of Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN): possible mechanism for the failure of BMP therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in bone formation. Consequently, it was expected that topical application of recombinant human (rh)BMP-2 and rhBMP-7 would improve the healing of complex fractures. However, up to 36% of fracture patients do not respond to this therapy. There are hints that a systemic increase in transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) interferes with beneficial BMP effects. Therefore, in the present work we investigated the influence of rhTGFβ1 on rhBMP signaling in primary human osteoblasts, with the aim of more specifically delineating the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Methods BMP signaling was detected by adenoviral Smad-binding-element-reporter assays. Gene expression was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed at the protein level by western blot. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity was determined using a test kit. Data sets were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Results Our findings showed that Smad1/5/8-mediated rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 signaling is completely blocked by rhTGFβ1. We then investigated expression levels of genes involved in BMP signaling and regulation (for example, Smad1/5/8, TGFβ receptors type I and II, noggin, sclerostin, BMP and activin receptor membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI), v-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Ski), Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN) and Smad ubiquitination regulatory factors (Smurfs)) and confirmed the expression of regulated genes at the protein level. Smad7 and SnoN were significantly induced by rhTGFβ1 treatment while expression of Smad1, Smad6, TGFβRII and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (Alk1) was reduced. Elevated SnoN expression was accompanied by increased HDAC activity. Addition of an HDAC inhibitor, namely valproic acid, fully abolished the inhibitory effect of rhTGFβ1 on rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 signaling. Conclusions rhTGFβ1 effectively blocks rhBMP signaling in osteoblasts. As possible mechanism, we

  5. The effect of a gelatin β-tricalcium phosphate sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on equine articular cartilage defect.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Seo, Jong-pil; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the curative efficacy of a gelatin β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by insertion into an experimentally induced osteochondral defect. A hole of 10 mm diameter and depth was drilled in the bilateral medial femoral condyles of 7 thoroughbred horses, and into each either a loaded sponge (treatment) or a saline-infused β-TCP sponge (control) was inserted. After 16 weeks, defects were examined by computed tomography, macroscopic analyses, and histological analyses. The median subchondral bone density and macroscopic subscores for joint healing were significantly higher in the treatment legs (P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in total histological scores between groups, hyaline cartilaginous tissue was observed across a wider area in the treatment group. Equine joint healing can be enhanced by inserting a BMP-2-, MSC-, and PRP-impregnated β-TCP sponge at the lesion site. PMID:24155448

  6. Biomaterial delivery of morphogens to mimic the natural healing cascade in bone

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Manav; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Duda, Georg N; Mooney, David J

    2012-01-01

    Complications in treatment of large bone defects using bone grafting still remain. Our understanding of the endogenous bone regeneration cascade has inspired the exploration of a wide variety of growth factors (GFs) in an effort to mimic the natural signaling that controls bone healing. Biomaterial-based delivery of single exogenous GFs has shown therapeutic efficacy, and this likely relates to its ability to recruit and promote replication of cells involved in tissue development and the healing process. However, as the natural bone healing cascade involves the action of multiple factors, each acting in a specific spatiotemporal pattern, strategies aiming to mimic the critical aspects of this process will likely benefit from the usage of multiple therapeutic agents. This article reviews the current status of approaches to deliver single GFs, as well as ongoing efforts to develop sophisticated delivery platforms to deliver multiple lineage-directing morphogens (multiple GFs) during bone healing. PMID:22626978

  7. Anamnestic risk factor questionnaire as reliable diagnostic instrument for osteoporosis (reduced bone morphogenic density)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide, and is included in the WHO list of the top 10 major diseases. However, it is often undiagnosed until the first fracture occurs, due to inadequate patient education and lack of insurance coverage for screening tests. Anamnestic risk factors like positive family anamnesis or early menopause are assumed to correlate with reduced BMD. Methods In our study of 78 patients with metaphyseal long bone fractures, we searched for a correlation between anamnestic risk factors, bone specific laboratory values, and the bone morphogenic density (BMD). Each indicator was examined as a possible diagnostic instrument for osteoporosis. The secondary aim of this study was to demonstrate the high prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with metaphyseal fractures. Results 76.9% of our fracture patients had decreased bone density and 43.6% showed manifest osteoporosis in DXA (densitometry) measurements. Our questionnaire, identifying anamnestic risk factors, correlated highly significantly (p = 0.01) with reduced BMD, whereas seven bone-specific laboratory values (p = 0.046) correlated significantly. Conclusions Anamnestic risk factors correlate with pathological BMD. The medical questionnaire used in this study would therefore function as a cost-effective primary diagnostic instrument for identification of osteoporosis patients. PMID:21849030

  8. Morphogenic Peptides in Regeneration of Load Bearing Tissues.

    PubMed

    Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenic proteins due to their short half-life require high doses of growth factors in regeneration of load bearing tissues which leads to undesirable side effects. These side effects include bone overgrowth, tumor formation and immune reaction. An alternative approach to reduce undesirable side effects of proteins in regenerative medicine is to use morphogenic peptides derived from the active domains of morphogenic proteins or soluble and insoluble components of the extracellular matrix of mineralized load bearing tissues to induce differentiation of progenitor cells, mineralization, maturation and bone formation. In that regard, many peptides with osteogenic activity have been discovered. These include peptides derived from bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), those based on interaction with integrin and heparin-binding receptors, collagen derived peptides, peptides derived from other soluble ECM proteins such as bone sialoprotein and enamel matrix proteins, and those peptides derived from vasculoinductive and neuro-inductive proteins. Although these peptides show significant osteogenic activity in vitro and increase mineralization and bone formation in animal models, they are not widely used in clinical orthopedic applications as an alternative to morphogenic proteins. This is partly due to the limited availability of data on structure and function of morphogenic peptides in physiological medium, particularly in tissue engineered scaffolds. Due to their amphiphilic nature, peptides spontaneously self-assemble and aggregate into micellar structures in physiological medium. Aggregation alters the sequence of amino acids in morphogenic peptides that interact with cell surface receptors thus affecting osteogenic activity of the peptide. Aggregation and micelle formation can dramatically reduce the active concentration of morphogenic peptides with many-fold increase in peptide concentration in physiological medium. Other factors that affect bioactivity are the non

  9. The Formation of the Bicoid Morphogen Gradient Requires Protein Movement from Anteriorly Localized mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kneeland, Thomas B.; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Bicoid morphogen gradient directs the patterning of cell fates along the anterior-posterior axis of the syncytial Drosophila embryo and serves as a paradigm of morphogen-mediated patterning. The simplest models of gradient formation rely on constant protein synthesis and diffusion from anteriorly localized source mRNA, coupled with uniform protein degradation. However, currently such models cannot account for all known gradient characteristics. Recent work has proposed that bicoid mRNA spatial distribution is sufficient to produce the observed protein gradient, minimizing the role of protein transport. Here, we adapt a novel method of fluorescent in situ hybridization to quantify the global spatio-temporal dynamics of bicoid mRNA particles. We determine that >90% of all bicoid mRNA is continuously present within the anterior 20% of the embryo. bicoid mRNA distribution along the body axis remains nearly unchanged despite dynamic mRNA translocation from the embryo core to the cortex. To evaluate the impact of mRNA distribution on protein gradient dynamics, we provide detailed quantitative measurements of nuclear Bicoid levels during the formation of the protein gradient. We find that gradient establishment begins 45 minutes after fertilization and that the gradient requires about 50 minutes to reach peak levels. In numerical simulations of gradient formation, we find that incorporating the actual bicoid mRNA distribution yields a closer prediction of the observed protein dynamics compared to modeling protein production from a point source at the anterior pole. We conclude that the spatial distribution of bicoid mRNA contributes to, but cannot account for, protein gradient formation, and therefore that protein movement, either active or passive, is required for gradient formation. PMID:21390295

  10. Morphogenic Protein RodZ Interacts with Sporulation Specific SpoIIE in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Muchová, Katarína; Chromiková, Zuzana; Bradshaw, Niels; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    The first landmark in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis is the formation of an asymmetric septum followed by selective activation of the transcription factor σF in the resulting smaller cell. How the morphological transformations that occur during sporulation are coupled to cell-specific activation of transcription is largely unknown. The membrane protein SpoIIE is a constituent of the asymmetric sporulation septum and is a crucial determinant of σF activation. Here we report that the morphogenic protein, RodZ, which is essential for cell shape determination, is additionally required for asymmetric septum formation and sporulation. In cells depleted of RodZ, formation of asymmetric septa is disturbed and σF activation is perturbed. During sporulation, we found that SpoIIE recruits RodZ to the asymmetric septum. Moreover, we detected a direct interaction between SpoIIE and RodZ in vitro and in vivo, indicating that SpoIIE-RodZ may form a complex to coordinate asymmetric septum formation and σF activation. We propose that RodZ could provide a link between the cell shape machinery and the coordinated morphological and developmental transitions required to form a resistant spore. PMID:27415800

  11. Cytonemes and the dispersion of morphogens

    PubMed Central

    Kornberg, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Filopodia are cellular protrusions that have been implicated in many types of mechanosensory activities. Morphogens are signaling proteins that regulate the patterned development of embryos and tissues. Both have long histories that date to the beginnings of cell and developmental biology in the early 20th century, but recent findings tie specialized filopodia called cytonemes to morphogen movement and morphogen signaling. This review explores the conceptual and experimental background for a model of paracrine signaling in which the exchange of morphogens between cells is directed to sites where cytonemes directly link cells that produce morphogens to cells that receive and respond to them. PMID:25186102

  12. S6K is a morphogenic protein with a mechanism involving Filamin-A phosphorylation and phosphatidic acid binding

    PubMed Central

    Henkels, Karen M.; Mallets, Elizabeth R.; Dennis, Patrick B.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Change of cell shape in vivo plays many roles that are central to life itself, such as embryonic development, inflammation, wound healing, and pathologic processes such as cancer metastasis. Nonetheless, the spatiotemporal mechanisms that control the concerted regulation of cell shape remain understudied. Here, we show that ribosomal S6K, which is normally considered a protein involved in protein translation, is a morphogenic protein. Its presence in cells alters the overall organization of the cell surface and cell circularity [(4π × area)/(perimeter)2] from 0.47 ± 0.06 units in mock-treated cells to 0.09 ± 0.03 units in S6K-overexpressing macrophages causing stellation and arborization of cell shape. This effect was partially reversed in cells expressing a kinase-inactive S6K mutant and was fully reversed in cells silenced with small interference RNA. Equally important is that S6K is itself regulated by phospholipids, specifically phosphatidic acid, whereby 300 nM 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA), but not the control 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), binds directly to S6K and causes an ∼2.9-fold increase in S6K catalytic activity. This was followed by an increase in Filamin A (FLNA) functionality as measured by phospho-FLNA (S2152) expression and by a subsequent elevation of actin nucleation. This reliance of S6K on phosphatidic acid (PA), a curvature-inducing phospholipid, explained the extra-large perimeter of cells that overexpressed S6K. Furthermore, the diversity of the response to S6K in several unrelated cell types (fibroblasts, leukocytes, and invasive cancer cells) that we report here indicates the existence of an underlying common mechanism in mammalian cells. This new signaling set, PA-S6K-FLNA-actin, sheds light for the first time into the morphogenic pathway of cytoskeletal structures that are crucial for adhesion and cell locomotion during inflammation and metastasis.—Henkels, K. M., Mallets, E. R., Dennis, P. B

  13. The history and histology of bone morphogenetic protein.

    PubMed

    Murray, Samuel S; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

    2016-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins are a group of structurally related proteins within the TGF-β superfamily of proteins with a diverse repertoire of functions in embryonic and adult organisms. As is apparent from the name, the members first characterized participate in bone growth, development, and remodeling. The "morphogenic" activity per se is defined as the induction of a recapitulation of endochondral bone formation by appropriate stem cells. The regenerative capacity of bone has been recognized since ancient times. The mechanism, applications, and conceptual basis of bone transplantation, bone implantation, ectopic bone formation, and exogenously induced bone formation have been studied by many investigators for more than a century. This review examines the efforts to characterize this activity in the European and American literature over approximately the last century. Because of the inherently complex nature of the process induced by these molecules (inflammation, stem cell proliferation, cartilage differentiation, replacement of cartilage with bone) it is important to evaluate previous investigations through a histological perspective. The cellular basis of the contemporary bioassay for BMP activity is illustrated and discussed from the histological point of view. PMID:26907674

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yongtao; Xiang Lixin; Shao Jianzhong

    2007-10-26

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. It has been demonstrated that BMPs had been involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. However, their hallmark ability is that play a pivotal role in inducing bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon formation at both heterotopic and orthotopic sites. In this review, we mainly concentrate on BMP structure, function, molecular signaling and potential medical application.

  15. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Takenobu; Watabe, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), originally identified as osteoinductive components in extracts derived from bone, are now known to play important roles in a wide array of processes during formation and maintenance of various organs including bone, cartilage, muscle, kidney, and blood vessels. BMPs and the related "growth and differentiation factors" (GDFs) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, and transduce their signals through type I and type II serine-threonine kinase receptors and their intracellular downstream effectors, including Smad proteins. Furthermore, BMP signals are finely tuned by various agonists and antagonists. Because deregulation of the BMP activity at multiple steps in signal transduction is linked to a wide variety of human diseases, therapeutic use of activators and inhibitors of BMP signaling will provide potential avenues for the treatment of the human disorders that are caused by hypo- and hyperactivation of BMP signals, respectively. PMID:27252362

  16. A Therapeutic Potential for Marine Skeletal Proteins in Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Padula, Matthew P.; Santos, Jerran; Chou, Joshua; Milthorpe, Bruce; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2013-01-01

    A vital ingredient for engineering bone tissue, in the culture dish, is the use of recombinant matrix and growth proteins to help accelerate the growth of cultivated tissues into clinically acceptable quantities. The skeletal organic matrices of calcifying marine invertebrates are an untouched potential source of such growth inducing proteins. They have the advantage of being ready-made and retain the native state of the original protein. Striking evidence shows that skeleton building bone morphogenic protein-2/4 (BMP) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) exist within various marine invertebrates such as, corals. Best practice mariculture and the latest innovations in long-term marine invertebrate cell cultivation can be implemented to ensure that these proteins are produced sustainably and supplied continuously. This also guarantees that coral reef habitats are not damaged during the collection of specimens. Potential proteins for bone repair, either extracted from the skeleton or derived from cultivated tissues, can be identified, evaluated and retrieved using chromatography, cell assays and proteomic methods. Due to the current evidence for bone matrix protein analogues in marine invertebrates, together with the methods established for their production and retrieval there is a genuine prospect that they can be used to regenerate living bone for potential clinical use. PMID:23574983

  17. Interaction of morphogens with geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.

    2005-09-01

    Morphogen patterns are viewed as being affected by epithelial sheet geometry in early development. As the total area of the (closed) sheet changes, the changing geometry acts back in turn to change the morphogen pattern. A number of constraints are given on the functional form of the Gauss and Mean curvatures, considered as functions of the morphogen concentrations and their derivatives. It is shown that the constraints are sufficient to motivate a convincing dependence of the two curvatures on the morphogen concentrations.

  18. SoxB1-driven transcriptional network underlies neural-specific interpretation of morphogen signals.

    PubMed

    Oosterveen, Tony; Kurdija, Sanja; Ensterö, Mats; Uhde, Christopher W; Bergsland, Maria; Sandberg, Magnus; Sandberg, Rickard; Muhr, Jonas; Ericson, Johan

    2013-04-30

    The reiterative deployment of a small cadre of morphogen signals underlies patterning and growth of most tissues during embyogenesis, but how such inductive events result in tissue-specific responses remains poorly understood. By characterizing cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) associated with genes regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh), retinoids, or bone morphogenetic proteins in the CNS, we provide evidence that the neural-specific interpretation of morphogen signaling reflects a direct integration of these pathways with SoxB1 proteins at the CRM level. Moreover, expression of SoxB1 proteins in the limb bud confers on mesodermal cells the potential to activate neural-specific target genes upon Shh, retinoid, or bone morphogenetic protein signaling, and the collocation of binding sites for SoxB1 and morphogen-mediatory transcription factors in CRMs faithfully predicts neural-specific gene activity. Thus, an unexpectedly simple transcriptional paradigm appears to conceptually explain the neural-specific interpretation of pleiotropic signaling during vertebrate development. Importantly, genes induced in a SoxB1-dependent manner appear to constitute repressive gene regulatory networks that are directly interlinked at the CRM level to constrain the regional expression of patterning genes. Accordingly, not only does the topology of SoxB1-driven gene regulatory networks provide a tissue-specific mode of gene activation, but it also determines the spatial expression pattern of target genes within the developing neural tube. PMID:23589857

  19. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  20. Special Morphological Features at the Interface of the Renal Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche Force to Reinvestigate Transport of Morphogens During Nephron Induction.

    PubMed

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Formation of a nephron depends on reciprocal signaling of different morphogens between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Previously, it has been surmised that a close proximity exists between both involved cell types and that morphogens are transported between them by diffusion. However, actual morphological data illustrate that mesenchymal and epithelial stem/progenitor cell bodies are separated by a striking interface. Special fixation of specimens by glutaraldehyde (GA) solution including cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red, or tannic acid for electron microscopy depicts that the interface is not void but filled in extended areas by textured extracellular matrix. Surprisingly, projections of mesenchymal cells cross the interface to contact epithelial cells. At those sites the plasma membranes of a mesenchymal and an epithelial cell are connected via tunneling nanotubes. Regarding detected morphological features in combination with involved morphogens, their transport cannot longer be explained solely by diffusion. Instead, it has to be sorted according to biophysical properties of morphogens and to detected environment. Thus, the new working hypothesis is that morphogens with good solubility such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are transported by diffusion. Morphogens with minor solubility such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted and stored for delivery on demand in illustrated extracellular matrix. In contrast, morphogens with poor solubility such as Wnts are transported in mesenchymal cell projections along the plasma membrane or via illustrated tunneling nanotubes. However, the presence of an intercellular route between mesenchymal and epithelial stem/progenitor cells by tunneling nanotubes also makes it possible that all morphogens are transported this way. PMID:26862472

  1. Special Morphological Features at the Interface of the Renal Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche Force to Reinvestigate Transport of Morphogens During Nephron Induction

    PubMed Central

    Minuth, Will W.; Denk, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Formation of a nephron depends on reciprocal signaling of different morphogens between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Previously, it has been surmised that a close proximity exists between both involved cell types and that morphogens are transported between them by diffusion. However, actual morphological data illustrate that mesenchymal and epithelial stem/progenitor cell bodies are separated by a striking interface. Special fixation of specimens by glutaraldehyde (GA) solution including cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red, or tannic acid for electron microscopy depicts that the interface is not void but filled in extended areas by textured extracellular matrix. Surprisingly, projections of mesenchymal cells cross the interface to contact epithelial cells. At those sites the plasma membranes of a mesenchymal and an epithelial cell are connected via tunneling nanotubes. Regarding detected morphological features in combination with involved morphogens, their transport cannot longer be explained solely by diffusion. Instead, it has to be sorted according to biophysical properties of morphogens and to detected environment. Thus, the new working hypothesis is that morphogens with good solubility such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are transported by diffusion. Morphogens with minor solubility such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted and stored for delivery on demand in illustrated extracellular matrix. In contrast, morphogens with poor solubility such as Wnts are transported in mesenchymal cell projections along the plasma membrane or via illustrated tunneling nanotubes. However, the presence of an intercellular route between mesenchymal and epithelial stem/progenitor cells by tunneling nanotubes also makes it possible that all morphogens are transported this way. PMID:26862472

  2. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning.

    PubMed

    Bier, Ethan; De Robertis, Edward M

    2015-06-26

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act in dose-dependent fashion to regulate cell fate choices in a myriad of developmental contexts. In early vertebrate and invertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists establish epidermal versus central nervous system domains. In this highly conserved system, BMP antagonists mediate the neural-inductive activities proposed by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold nearly a century ago. BMPs distributed in gradients subsequently function as morphogens to subdivide the three germ layers into distinct territories and act to organize body axes, regulate growth, maintain stem cell niches, or signal inductively across germ layers. In this Review, we summarize the variety of mechanisms that contribute to generating reliable developmental responses to BMP gradients and other morphogen systems. PMID:26113727

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in vertebrate motor neurons and neuromuscular communication

    PubMed Central

    Osses, Nelson; Henríquez, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    An accurate communication between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers is required for the proper assembly, growth and maintenance of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Several signaling and extracellular matrix molecules play stimulatory and inhibitory roles on the assembly of functional synapses. Studies in Drosophila have revealed crucial functions for early morphogens, such as members of the Wnt and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) signaling pathways, during the assembly and maturation of the NMJ. Here, we bring together recent findings that led us to propose that BMPs also work in vertebrate organisms as diffusible cues to communicate motor neurons and skeletal muscles. PMID:25674047

  4. Embryonic pattern scaling achieved by oppositely directed morphogen gradients.

    PubMed

    McHale, Peter; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2006-06-01

    Morphogens are proteins, often produced in a localized region, whose concentrations spatially demarcate regions of differing gene expression in developing embryos. The boundaries of gene expression are typically sharp and the genes can be viewed as abruptly switching from on to off or vice versa upon crossing the boundary. To ensure the viability of the organism these boundaries must be set at certain fractional positions within the corresponding developing field. Remarkably this can be done with high precision despite the fact that the size of the developing field itself can vary widely from embryo to embryo. How this scaling is accomplished is unknown but it is clear that a single morphogen gradient is insufficient. Here we show how a pair of morphogens A and B, produced at opposite ends of a one-dimensional developing field, can solve the pattern-scaling problem. In the most promising scenario the morphogens interact via an effective annihilation reaction A + B --> slashed circle and the switch occurs according to the absolute concentration of A or B. We define a scaling criterion and show that morphogens coupled in this way can set embryonic markers across the entire developing field in proportion to the field size. This scaling occurs at developing-field sizes of a few times the morphogen decay length. The scaling criterion is not met if instead the gradients couple combinatorially such that downstream genes are regulated by the ratio A/B of the morphogen concentrations. PMID:16829697

  5. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    PubMed

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  6. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, E A; Rosen, V; D'Alessandro, J S; Bauduy, M; Cordes, P; Harada, T; Israel, D I; Hewick, R M; Kerns, K M; LaPan, P

    1990-01-01

    We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 micrograms of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans. Images PMID:2315314

  7. Soft Tissue Swelling Associated with the Use of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Long Bone Non-unions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrew; Mirarchi, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This report describes two cases of long bone non-union associated with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and is the first of its kind. The first case describes a 25-year-old male who sustained a left diaphyseal femoral shaft fracture initially treated with operative fixation using an intramedullary nail, which subsequently loosened distally and was treated with exchange nailing and rhBMP-2 application. This patient developed acute local soft tissue inflammation post-operatively. The second case describes a 61-year-old female who sustained a right diaphyseal humeral shaft fracture that was initially treated with intramedullary nail fixation with subsequent distal interlock screw loosening. She underwent nail removal, and compression plating with rhBMP-2 placement, and postoperatively developed severe acute local tissue swelling centered over the rhBMP-2 sponge. Surgeons should be aware that rhBMP-2 may cause local acute tissue swelling and recombinant bone morphogenic proteins such as rhBMP-2 may have a role in the management for atrophic fracture non-unions. The authors recommend careful consideration prior to rhBMP-2 use in long bone non-unions. PMID:27299059

  8. The Sclerostin-Bone Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan-Ketha, Hemamalini; Craig, Theodore A.; Madden, Benjamin J.; Bergen, H. Robert; Kumar, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein, sclerostin alters bone formation. To gain insights into the mechanism of action of sclerostin, we examined the interactions of sclerostin with bone proteins using a sclerostin affinity capture technique. Proteins from decalcified rat bone were captured on sclerostin-maltose binding protein (MBP) amylose column, or on a MBP amylose column. The columns were extensively washed with low ionic strength buffer, and bound proteins were eluted with buffer containing 1M sodium chloride. Eluted proteins were separated by denaturing sodium-dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and were identified by mass spectrometry. Several previously unidentified full-length sclerostin-interacting proteins such as alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, gremlin-1, fetuin A, midkine, annexin A1 and A2, and collagen α1, which have established roles in bone formation or resorption processes, were bound to the sclerostin-MBP amylose resin but not to the MBP amylose resin. Other full-length sclerostin-interacting proteins such as casein kinase II and secreted frizzled related protein 4 that modulate Wnt signaling were identified. Several peptides derived from proteins such as PHEX, asporin and follistatin protein that regulate bone metabolism also bound sclerostin. Sclerostin interacts with multiple proteins that alter bone formation and resorption and is likely to function by altering several biologically relevant pathways in bone. PMID:22206666

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1: function and regulation in bone and related tissues.

    PubMed

    Broome, David T; Datta, Nabanita S

    2016-05-01

    In this review, we have highlighted work that has clearly demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a negative regulator of MAPKs, is an important signaling mediator in bone, muscle, and fat tissue homeostasis and differentiation. Further, we examined recent studies with particular focus on MKP-1 overexpression or deletion and its impact on tissues connected to bone. We also summarized regulation of MKP-1 by known skeletal regulators like parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) and bone morphogenic proteins. MKP-1's integration into the pathophysiological state of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, and muscular dystrophy are examined to emphasize possible involvement of MKP-1 both at the molecular level and in disease complications such as sarcopenia- or diabetes-related osteoporosis. We predict that understanding the mechanism of MKP-1-mediated signaling in bone-muscle-fat crosstalk will be a key in coordinating their activities and developing therapeutics to improve clinical outcomes for diseases associated with advanced age. PMID:27031422

  10. A BMP-FGF morphogen toggle switch drives the ultrasensitive expression of multiple genes in the developing forebrain.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shyam; Hu, Jia Sheng; Currle, D Spencer; Fung, Ernest S; Hayes, Wayne B; Lander, Arthur D; Monuki, Edwin S

    2014-02-01

    Borders are important as they demarcate developing tissue into distinct functional units. A key challenge is the discovery of mechanisms that can convert morphogen gradients into tissue borders. While mechanisms that produce ultrasensitive cellular responses provide a solution, how extracellular morphogens drive such mechanisms remains poorly understood. Here, we show how Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) pathways interact to generate ultrasensitivity and borders in the dorsal telencephalon. BMP and FGF signaling manipulations in explants produced border defects suggestive of cross inhibition within single cells, which was confirmed in dissociated cultures. Using mathematical modeling, we designed experiments that ruled out alternative cross inhibition mechanisms and identified a cross-inhibitory positive feedback (CIPF) mechanism, or "toggle switch", which acts upstream of transcriptional targets in dorsal telencephalic cells. CIPF explained several cellular phenomena important for border formation such as threshold tuning, ultrasensitivity, and hysteresis. CIPF explicitly links graded morphogen signaling in the telencephalon to switch-like cellular responses and has the ability to form multiple borders and scale pattern to size. These benefits may apply to other developmental systems. PMID:24550718

  11. A BMP-FGF Morphogen Toggle Switch Drives the Ultrasensitive Expression of Multiple Genes in the Developing Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Currle, D. Spencer; Fung, Ernest S.; Hayes, Wayne B.; Lander, Arthur D.; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2014-01-01

    Borders are important as they demarcate developing tissue into distinct functional units. A key challenge is the discovery of mechanisms that can convert morphogen gradients into tissue borders. While mechanisms that produce ultrasensitive cellular responses provide a solution, how extracellular morphogens drive such mechanisms remains poorly understood. Here, we show how Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) pathways interact to generate ultrasensitivity and borders in the dorsal telencephalon. BMP and FGF signaling manipulations in explants produced border defects suggestive of cross inhibition within single cells, which was confirmed in dissociated cultures. Using mathematical modeling, we designed experiments that ruled out alternative cross inhibition mechanisms and identified a cross-inhibitory positive feedback (CIPF) mechanism, or “toggle switch”, which acts upstream of transcriptional targets in dorsal telencephalic cells. CIPF explained several cellular phenomena important for border formation such as threshold tuning, ultrasensitivity, and hysteresis. CIPF explicitly links graded morphogen signaling in the telencephalon to switch-like cellular responses and has the ability to form multiple borders and scale pattern to size. These benefits may apply to other developmental systems. PMID:24550718

  12. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Development and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Chantiri, Mansour; Bassit, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including cell migration, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein?2 (rhBMP?2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase. Due to its role in many cellular pathways, the influence of this protein on carcinogenesis in different organs has been intensively studied over the past decade. BMPs also have been detected to have a role in the development and progression of many tumors, particularly disease-specific bone metastasis. In oral squamous cell carcinoma - the tumor type accounting for more than 90% of head and neck malignancies- aberrations of both BMP expression and associated signaling pathways have a certain relation with the development and progression of the disease by regulating a range of biological functions in the altered cells. In the current review, we discuss the influence of BMPs -especially rhBMP-2- in the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27039814

  13. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein CIZ reduces adult bone mass by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Morinobu, Mikihiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Hino, Kazunori; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Nifuji, Akira; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Hirai, Hisamaru; Noda, Masaki

    2005-03-21

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem; however, the mechanisms regulating adult bone mass are poorly understood. Cas-interacting zinc finger protein (CIZ) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that localizes at cell adhesion plaques that form where osteoblasts attach to substrate. To investigate the potential role of CIZ in regulating adult bone mass, we examined the bones in CIZ-deficient mice. Bone volume was increased and the rates of bone formation were increased in CIZ-deficient mice, whereas bone resorption was not altered. CIZ deficiency enhanced the levels of mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to osteoblastic phenotypes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as osterix mRNA expression in whole long bones. Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. CIZ deficiency increased newly formed bone mass after femoral bone marrow ablation in vivo. Finally, BMP-2-induced bone formation on adult mouse calvariae in vivo was enhanced by CIZ deficiency. These results establish that CIZ suppresses the levels of adult bone mass through inhibition of BMP-induced activation of osteoblasts. PMID:15781586

  14. CALCUIM AND PROTEIN IN BONE HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary protein has several opposing effects on calcium balance and its net effect on bone is not well established. It has long been recognized that increasing protein intake increased unrinary calcium excretion. More recently, it has been observed that increasing dietary protein raises the circul...

  15. Ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium: bone morphogenic protein 4-induced odontogenic differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Ying-Feng; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Jin, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells possess the ability of self-renewal and can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report a new method to efficiently induce differentiation of mouse iPS cells into the odontogenic lineage. Using ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), we successfully generated ameloblast-like cells from mouse iPS cells. Importantly, culturing mouse iPS cells in ASF-CM supplemented with BMP4 (ASF-BMP4) promoted odontogenic differentiation, which was evident by the upregulation of ameloblast-specific as well as odontoblast-specific genes. On the other hand, culturing mouse iPS cells in ASF-CM supplemented with noggin (ASF-noggin), an inhibitor of BMP4, abrogated this effect. These results suggest that mouse iPS cells can be induced by ASF-BMP4 to differentiate into ameloblast-like and odontoblast-like cells. The results of our study raise the possibility of using patient-specific iPS cells for tooth regeneration in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23606575

  16. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748

  17. Extracellular interactions and ligand degradation shape the nodal morphogen gradient

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Xi; Wohland, Thorsten; Sampath, Karuna

    2016-01-01

    The correct distribution and activity of secreted signaling proteins called morphogens is required for many developmental processes. Nodal morphogens play critical roles in embryonic axis formation in many organisms. Models proposed to generate the Nodal gradient include diffusivity, ligand processing, and a temporal activation window. But how the Nodal morphogen gradient forms in vivo remains unclear. Here, we have measured in vivo for the first time, the binding affinity of Nodal ligands to their major cell surface receptor, Acvr2b, and to the Nodal inhibitor, Lefty, by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. We examined the diffusion coefficient of Nodal ligands and Lefty inhibitors in live zebrafish embryos by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We also investigated the contribution of ligand degradation to the Nodal gradient. We show that ligand clearance via degradation shapes the Nodal gradient and correlates with its signaling range. By computational simulations of gradient formation, we demonstrate that diffusivity, extra-cellular interactions, and selective ligand destruction collectively shape the Nodal morphogen gradient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13879.001 PMID:27101364

  18. Microspectroscopic Evidence of Cretaceous Bone Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Johan; Uvdal, Per; Engdahl, Anders; Lee, Andrew H.; Alwmark, Carl; Bergquist, Karl-Erik; Nilsson, Einar; Ekström, Peter; Rasmussen, Magnus; Douglas, Desirée A.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Jacobs, Louis L.

    2011-01-01

    Low concentrations of the structural protein collagen have recently been reported in dinosaur fossils based primarily on mass spectrometric analyses of whole bone extracts. However, direct spectroscopic characterization of isolated fibrous bone tissues, a crucial test of hypotheses of biomolecular preservation over deep time, has not been performed. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous proteinaceous molecules are retained in a humerus from a Late Cretaceous mosasaur (an extinct giant marine lizard). In situ immunofluorescence of demineralized bone extracts shows reactivity to antibodies raised against type I collagen, and amino acid analyses of soluble proteins extracted from the bone exhibit a composition indicative of structural proteins or their breakdown products. These data are corroborated by synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopic studies demonstrating that amino acid containing matter is located in bone matrix fibrils that express imprints of the characteristic 67 nm D-periodicity typical of collagen. Moreover, the fibrils differ significantly in spectral signature from those of potential modern bacterial contaminants, such as biofilms and collagen-like proteins. Thus, the preservation of primary soft tissues and biomolecules is not limited to large-sized bones buried in fluvial sandstone environments, but also occurs in relatively small-sized skeletal elements deposited in marine sediments. PMID:21559386

  19. Chordin forms a self-organizing morphogen gradient in the extracellular space between ectoderm and mesoderm in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Plouhinec, Jean-Louis; Zakin, Lise; Moriyama, Yuki; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate body plan follows stereotypical dorsal–ventral (D-V) tissue differentiation controlled by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and secreted BMP antagonists, such as Chordin. The three germ layers—ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm—are affected coordinately by the Chordin–BMP morphogen system. However, extracellular morphogen gradients of endogenous proteins have not been directly visualized in vertebrate embryos to date. In this study, we improved immunolocalization methods in Xenopus embryos and analyzed the distribution of endogenous Chordin using a specific antibody. Chordin protein secreted by the dorsal Spemann organizer was found to diffuse along a narrow region that separates the ectoderm from the anterior endoderm and mesoderm. This Fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix is called “Brachet’s cleft” in the Xenopus gastrula and is present in all vertebrate embryos. Chordin protein formed a smooth gradient that encircled the embryo, reaching the ventral-most Brachet cleft. Depletion with morpholino oligos showed that this extracellular gradient was regulated by the Chordin protease Tolloid and its inhibitor Sizzled. The Chordin gradient, as well as the BMP signaling gradient, was self-regulating and, importantly, was able to rescale in dorsal half-embryos. Transplantation of Spemann organizer tissue showed that Chordin diffused over long distances along this signaling highway between the ectoderm and mesoderm. Chordin protein must reach very high concentrations in this narrow region. We suggest that as ectoderm and mesoderm undergo morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, cells in both germ layers read their positional information coordinately from a single morphogen gradient located in Brachet’s cleft. PMID:24284174

  20. Role of regulator of G protein signaling proteins in bone

    PubMed Central

    Keinan, David; Yang, Shuying; Cohen, Robert E.; Yuan, Xue; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a family with more than 30 proteins that all contain an RGS domain. In the past decade, increasing evidence has indicated that RGS proteins play crucial roles in the regulation of G protein coupling receptors (GPCR), G proteins, and calcium signaling during cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in a variety of tissues. In bone, those proteins modulate bone development and remodeling by influencing various signaling pathways such as GPCR-G protein signaling, Wnt, calcium oscillations and PTH. This review summarizes the recent advances in the understanding of the regulation of RGS genes expression, as well as the functions and mechanisms of RGS proteins, especially in regulating GPCR-G protein signaling, Wnt signaling, calcium oscillations signaling and PTH signaling during bone development and remodeling. This review also highlights the regulation of different RGS proteins in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and osteoclasts. The knowledge from the recent advances of RGS study summarized in the review would provide the insights into new therapies for bone diseases. PMID:24389209

  1. Comparative analysis of zebrafish bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4 and 16: molecular and evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marques, Cátia L; Fernández, Ignacio; Viegas, Michael N; Cox, Cymon J; Martel, Paulo; Rosa, Joana; Cancela, M Leonor; Laizé, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    BMP2, BMP4 and BMP16 form a subfamily of bone morphogenetic proteins acting as pleiotropic growth factors during development and as bone inducers during osteogenesis. BMP16 is the most recent member of this subfamily and basic data regarding protein structure and function, and spatio-temporal gene expression is still scarce. In this work, insights on BMP16 were provided through the comparative analysis of structural and functional data for zebrafish BMP2a, BMP2b, BMP4 and BMP16 genes and proteins, determined from three-dimensional models, patterns of gene expression during development and in adult tissues, regulation by retinoic acid and capacity to activate BMP-signaling pathway. Structures of Bmp2a, Bmp2b, Bmp4 and Bmp16 were found to be remarkably similar; with residues involved in receptor binding being highly conserved. All proteins could activate the BMP-signaling pathway, suggesting that they share a common function. On the contrary, stage- and tissue-specific expression of bmp2, bmp4 and bmp16 suggested the genes might be differentially regulated (e.g. different transcription factors, enhancers and/or regulatory modules) but also that they are involved in distinct physiological processes, although with the same function. Retinoic acid, a morphogen known to interact with BMP-signaling during bone formation, was shown to down-regulate the expression of bmp2, bmp4 and bmp16, although to different extents. Taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that bmp16 diverged before bmp2 and bmp4, is not restricted to teleost fish lineage as previously reported, and that it probably arose from a whole genomic duplication event that occurred early in vertebrate evolution and disappeared in various tetrapod lineages through independent events. PMID:26341094

  2. Noggin regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2/7 heterodimer activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Kim, Jaehon; Cheng, Christina; Rawlins, Bernard A.; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Crystal, Ronald G.; Hidaka, Chisa

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors important for skeletal development and bone growth. Noggin, one of the soluble BMP antagonists, regulates the action of BMPs on mesenchymal precursor cells, partially through a feedback type of inhibition. In this study, we constructed a novel BMP2/7 ‘fusion gene’ that encodes both BMP2 and BMP7 genes in tandem by a linker. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting showed that the BMP2/7 fusion gene construct led to the production of BMP2/7 heterodimers in A549 ‘producer’ cells. When applied to C2C12 myoblastic cells, BMP2/7 heterodimers increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) expression (markers of osteoblastic differentiation) more effectively than either BMP2 or BMP7 homodimers. Moreover, this heterodimer induced significantly lower levels of Noggin expression in C2C12 cells than respective homodimers at similar doses. The addition of Noggin did not affect the heterodimer’s activities in increasing osteoblastic differentiation in C2C12 cells. In contrast, BMP2 and BMP7 homodimers were largely inhibited by Noggin. Our finding suggests that the ‘fusion gene’ construct led to the production of bioactive BMP2/7 heterodimers, which were not antagonized by Noggin as effectively as it to BMP homodimers. The weaker Noggin antagonism on BMP heterodimers compared to homodimers may contribute to increased osteogenic potency of heterodimers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16488673

  3. Negative feedback in the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) synexpression group governs its dynamic signaling range and canalizes development

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Malte; Legewie, Stefan; Eils, Roland; Karaulanov, Emil; Niehrs, Christof

    2011-01-01

    What makes embryogenesis a robust and canalized process is an important question in developmental biology. A bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) morphogen gradient plays a key role in embryonic development, and we are beginning to understand how the self-regulating properties of its signaling circuitry ensure robust embryonic patterning. An unexplored question is why the BMP signaling circuit is organized as a modular synexpression group, with a prevalence of feedback inhibitors. Here, we provide evidence from direct experimentation and mathematical modeling that the synexpressed feedback inhibitors BAMBI, SMAD6, and SMAD7 (i) expand the dynamic BMP signaling range essential for proper embryonic patterning and (ii) reduce interindividual phenotypic and molecular variability in Xenopus embryos. Thereby, negative feedback linearizes signaling responses and confers robust patterning, thus promoting canalized development. The presence of negative feedback inhibitors in other growth factor synexpression groups suggests that these properties may constitute a general principle. PMID:21633009

  4. [Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP): clinical application for reconstruction of bone defects].

    PubMed

    Sierra-García, Gerardo Daniel; Castro-Ríos, Rocío; Gónzalez-Horta, Azucena; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chávez-Montes, Abelardo

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of bone morphogenetic proteins, their use has become an invaluable ally for the treatment of bone defects. These proteins are potent growth factors, related to angiogenic and osteogenic activity. The osteoinductive capacity of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) in the formation of bone and cartilage has been confirmed in in vitro studies and evaluated in clinical trials. To obtain a therapeutic effect, administration is systemic, by injection over the physiological dose. Among the disadvantages, ectopic bone formation or high morbidity in cases of spinal fusion is observed. In this review, the roles of bone morphogenetic proteins in bone repair and clinical applications are analyzed. These findings represent advances in the study of bone regeneration and application of growth factors for more predictable results. PMID:27335195

  5. Role of morphogens in neural crest cell determination.

    PubMed

    Jones, Natalie C; Trainor, Paul A

    2005-09-15

    The neural crest is a transient, migratory cell population found in all vertebrate embryos that generate a diverse range of cell and tissue derivatives including, but not limited, to the neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, smooth muscle, connective tissue, melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage, and bone. Over the past few years, many studies have provided tremendous insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating the induction and migration of neural crest cell development. This review highlights the surprising and perhaps unexpected roles for morphogens in these distinct processes. A comparison of studies performed in several different vertebrates emphasizes the requirement for coordination between multiple signaling pathways in the induction and migration of neural crest cells in the developing embryo. PMID:16041760

  6. Bone protein extraction without demineralization utilizing principles from hydroxyapatite chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Historically, extraction of bone proteins has relied on the use of demineralization to better retrieve proteins from the extracellular matrix; however, demineralization can be a slow process that restricts subsequent analysis of the samples. Here, we developed a novel protein extraction method that does not use demineralization, but utilizes a methodology from hydroxyapatite chromatography where high concentrations of ammonium phosphate and ammonium bicarbonate are used to extract bone proteins. We report that this method has a higher yield than previously published small-scale extant bone extractions, with and without demineralization. Furthermore, after digestion with trypsin and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we were able to detect several extracellular matrix and vascular proteins in addition to collagen I and osteocalcin. Our new method has the potential to isolate proteins in a short period (4 hrs) and provide information about bone proteins that may be lost during demineralization or with the use of denaturing agents. PMID:25535955

  7. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials. PMID:26851341

  8. Transcriptional regulation of vascular bone morphogenetic protein by endothelin receptors in early autoimmune diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nett, Philipp C; Ortmann, Jana; Celeiro, Jennifer; Haas, Elvira; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Tornillo, Luigi; Terraciano, Luigi M; Barton, Matthias

    2006-04-01

    Endothelin (ET) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) have been implicated in the development of micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus due to atherosclerosis. This study investigated vascular BMP-expression during early development of experimental autoimmune diabetes mellitus and whether ET(A) receptors are involved in its regulation, using the selective ET(A) receptor antagonist BSF461314. Specificity of BSF461314 was confirmed through ET-mediated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation experiments. For animal studies, non-obese diabetic (NOD) and control mice at 16 weeks of age were treated with BSF461314 for 6 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured before and after treatment and vascular gene expression of BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-type II receptor was determined in the aorta by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. At the beginning of the study in all animals, plasma glucose levels were within the normal range. After 6 weeks gene expression of vascular BMP-2, BMP-7 and BMP-type II receptor was almost doubled in NOD mice compared with non-diabetic controls (p < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with BSF461314 significantly reduced expression of all BMPs and lowered plasma glucose levels in NOD mice close to controls (all p < 0.05 versus untreated). In conclusion, vascular BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-type II receptor expression is upregulated in early stages of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. The data further indicate that ET(A) receptors inhibit diabetes-associated activation of vascular BMPs and regulate plasma glucose levels suggesting that ET(A) receptors might provide a new therapeutic target to interfere with the early development of atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16300798

  9. Studies of morphogens: keep calm and carry on

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, Angelike; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Morphogens are signaling factors that direct cell fate and tissue development at a distance from their source, and various modes of transport and interpretation have been suggested for morphogens. The recent EMBO Workshop on ‘Morphogen gradients’, which took place in Oxford, UK in June 2013, centered on the formation and interpretation of such morphogen gradients during development. This meeting allowed an exchange of views in light of recent results. Here, we provide a brief overview of the talks, organized in relation to several major themes of discussion at the meeting: (1) morphogen gradient formation; (2) morphogen gradient interpretation; (3) signaling networks and feedback in morphogenesis; (4) emergence of patterns; (5) scaling of patterns; (6) the control of growth; and (7) new techniques in the field. PMID:24086076

  10. The CCN Family Proteins: Modulators of Bone Development and Novel Targets in Bone-Associated Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Chun; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The CCN family of proteins is composed of six extracellular matrix-associated proteins that play crucial roles in skeletal development, wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer. Members of the CCN family share four conserved cysteine-rich modular domains that trigger signal transduction in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival through direct binding to specific integrin receptors and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In the present review, we discuss the roles of the CCN family proteins in regulating resident cells of the bone microenvironment. In vertebrate development, the CCN family plays a critical role in osteo/chondrogenesis and vasculo/angiogenesis. These effects are regulated through signaling via integrins, bone morphogenetic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, Wnt, and Notch via direct binding to CCN family proteins. Due to the important roles of CCN family proteins in skeletal development, abnormal expression of CCN proteins is related to the tumorigenesis of primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. Additionally, emerging studies have suggested that CCN proteins may affect progression of secondary metastatic bone tumors by moderating the bone microenvironment. CCN proteins could therefore serve as potential therapeutic targets for drug development against primary and metastatic bone tumors. PMID:24551846

  11. Role of Regulators of G Protein Signaling Proteins in Bone Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jules, Joel; Yang, Shuying; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins enhance the intrinsic GTPase activity of α subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein complex of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and thereby inactivate signal transduction initiated by GPCRs. The RGS family consists of nearly 37 members with a conserved RGS homology domain which is critical for their GTPase accelerating activity. RGS proteins are expressed in most tissues, including heart, lung, brain, kidney, and bone and play essential roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In skeletal development and bone homeostasis as well as in many bone disorders, RGS proteins control the functions of various GPCRs, including the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 and calcium-sensing receptor and also regulate various critical signaling pathways, such as Wnt and calcium oscillations. This chapter will discuss the current findings on the roles of RGS proteins in regulating signaling of key GPCRs in skeletal development and bone homeostasis. We also will examine the current updates of RGS proteins’ regulation of calcium oscillations in bone physiology and highlight the roles of RGS proteins in selected bone pathological disorders. Despite the recent advances in bone and mineral research, RGS proteins remain understudied in the skeletal system. Further understanding of the roles of RGS proteins in bone should not only provide great insights into the molecular basis of various bone diseases but also generate great therapeutic drug targets for many bone diseases. PMID:26123302

  12. Hepatoregenerative role of bone morphogenetic protein-9

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Ivan; Cvijanovic, Olga; Celic, Tanja; Cuculic, Drazen; Crncevic-Orlic, Zeljka; Vukelic, Lucian; Cvek, Sanja Zoricic; Dudaric, Luka; Bosnar, Alan; Bobinac, Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines, which regulate cell growth and differentiation during embryogenesis. Apart of that, the hypoglycemic potential of BMP-9 is of great interest. It has been confirmed that BMP-9, like insulin, improves glycemia in diabetic mice and regulates directional glucose metabolism in hepatocytes; therefore it is proposed to be a candidate hepatic insulin-sensitizing substance (HISS). In liver fibrosis, due to the portocaval shunt, insulin bypasses the organ and the liver undergoes atrophy. Parenteral administration of insulin reverses atrophy by stimulating mitogenic activity of the hepatocytes. Because BMP-9 has a signaling pathway similar to other BMPs and insulin, it is to be expected that BMP-9 has a certain regenerative role in the liver, supporting the above-mentioned is evidence of BMP-9 expression in Dissè’s spaces and BMP-7’s mitogenic activity in mucosal cells. However, further studies are needed to confirm the possible regenerative role of BMP-9. PMID:22129908

  13. The Structure and Function of Non-Collagenous Bone Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Magnus; McQuillan, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The research done under the cooperative research agreement for the project titled 'The structure and function of non-collagenous bone proteins' represented the first phase of an ongoing program to define the structural and functional relationships of the principal noncollagenous proteins in bone. An ultimate goal of this research is to enable design and execution of useful pharmacological compounds that will have a beneficial effect in treatment of osteoporosis, both land-based and induced by long-duration space travel. The goals of the now complete first phase were as follows: 1. Establish and/or develop powerful recombinant protein expression systems; 2. Develop and refine isolation and purification of recombinant proteins; 3. Express wild-type non-collagenous bone proteins; 4. Express site-specific mutant proteins and domains of wild-type proteins to enhance likelihood of crystal formation for subsequent solution of structure.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to native noncollagenous bone-specific proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, D D; Romberg, R W; Tracy, R P; Katzmann, J A; Riggs, B L; Mann, K G

    1984-01-01

    Hybridoma technology was used for preparation of murine monoclonal antibodies of high titer against bone-Gla protein and osteonectin. A procedure of immunization and hybridization similar to that already described [Katzmann, J.A., Nesheim, M.E., Hibbard, L.S. & Mann, K.G. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 162-166; and Foster, W.B., Katzmann, J.A., Miller, R.S., Nesheim, M.E. & Mann, K.G. (1982) Thromb. Res. 28, 649-661] was used. However, in contrast to earlier studies, mice were immunized with an unfractionated protein mixture that had been extracted from bone under nondenaturing conditions. The extract was labeled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. After fusion and initial hybrid growth, screening was accomplished by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay with total 125I-labeled bovine bone protein extract as the tracer. The identities of antibody-bound 125I-labeled proteins were assessed by dissolution of the solid-phase immune complex in NaDodSO4 and subsequent electrophoresis and autoradiography. Clones producing specific antibody to a single protein were selected by limiting dilution. The identity of the proteins against which the specific antibodies were produced was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, and autoradiography. From two fusions, 30 positive hybrids to bone-Gla protein were identified; 7 of these were subcloned and 1 has been expanded as an ascites tumor. One hybrid population was positive for osteonectin, a Mr 15,000 peptide, and for bone-Gla protein. By limiting dilution, the osteonectin clone was selected and subsequently expanded as an ascites tumor. Titration curves made using the respective 125I-labeled purified proteins show the ascites tumors to be producing antibody of high titer (I50 = 10(-6) for anti-bone-Gla protein and (I50 = 10(-5) for antiosteonectin. Both of the antibovine antibodies are cross-reactive with the corresponding human protein. Immobilized specific anti-bone-Gla protein has been used to isolate human bone

  15. Thymidine kinase-mediated shut down of bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression allows regulated bone production.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Barbara; Rocco, Teresa; Esposito, Maria T; Cantilena, Bruno; Gargiulo, Sara; Greco, Adelaide; Montanaro, Donatella; Brunetti, Arturo; Pastore, Lucio

    2013-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are growth factors also involved in ossification and chondrogenesis that have generated interest for their efficiency in inducing bone neo-synthesis. BMPs expression in engineered cells has been successful in stimulating osteoblastic differentiation and ectopic and orthotopic bone formation in vivo. We have previously shown that an adenoviral vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein type-4 (BMP-4) is able to efficiently drive bone formation in a rabbit model of discontinuous bone lesions. However, unregulated secretion of BMPs has also been implicated in bone overproduction and exostosis. We have constructed a replication-defective first generation adenoviral (FG-Ad) vector containing a cassette for the expression of BMP-4 associated with the Herpes Simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene (FG-B4TK) in order to shut down BMP-4 expression and, therefore, regulate bone production. TK expression does not interfere with BMP-4 ability to induce ectopic bone formation in athymic nude mice. Administration of ganciclovir blocks ectopic bone production in quadriceps muscle transduced with the FG-B4TK with no effect on the contralateral muscle transduced with a vector expressing only BMP-4. Histological findings confirmed the pro-apoptotic activity of TK and the reduction of mineralized areas in the quadriceps transduced with FG-B4TK in mice treated with ganciclovir. We have generated a system to block BMP-4 secretion by inducing apoptosis in transduced cells therefore blocking unwanted bone formation. This system is an additional tool to generate regulated amount of bone in discontinuous bone lesions and can be easily coupled with biomaterials capable of recruiting cells and generating a local bioreactor. PMID:23317056

  16. Multi-lineage MSC Differentiation via Engineered Morphogen Fields

    PubMed Central

    Arany, P.R.; Huang, G.X.; Gadish, O.; Feliz, J.; Weaver, J.C.; Kim, J.; Yuen, W.W.; Mooney, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue loss due to oral diseases requires the healing and regeneration of tissues of multiple lineages. While stem cells are native to oral tissues, a current major limitation to regeneration is the ability to direct their lineage-specific differentiation. This work utilizes polymeric scaffold systems with spatiotemporally controlled morphogen cues to develop precise morphogen fields to direct mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. First, a simple three-layer scaffold design was developed that presented two spatially segregated, lineage-specific cues (Dentinogenic TGF-β1 and Osteogenic BMP4). However, this system resulted in diffuse morphogen fields, as assessed by the in vitro imaging of cell-signaling pathways triggered by the morphogens. Mathematical modeling was then exploited, in combination with incorporation of specific inhibitors (neutralizing antibodies or a small molecule kinase inhibitor) into each morphogen in an opposing spatial pattern as the respective morphogen, to design a five-layer scaffold that was predicted to yield distinct, spatially segregated zones of morphogen signaling. To validate this system, undifferentiated MSCs were uniformly seeded in these scaffold systems, and distinct mineralized tissue differentiation were noted within these morphogen zones. Finally, to demonstrate temporal control over morphogen signaling, latent TGF-β1 was incorporated into one region of a concentric scaffold design, and laser treatment was used to activate the morphogen on-demand and to induce dentin differentiation solely within that specific spatial zone. This study demonstrates a significant advance in scaffold design to generate precise morphogen fields that can be used to develop in situ models to explore tissue differentiation and may ultimately be useful in engineering multi-lineage tissues in clinical dentistry. PMID:25143513

  17. Studies of Bone Morphogenetic Protein based Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kevin W.-H.; Ulery, Bret D.; Ashe, Keshia M.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) have been the most extensively studied and widely used osteoinductive agents for clinical bone repair. Since rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certain clinical uses, millions of patients worldwide have been treated with rhBMPs for various musculoskeletal disorders. Current clinical applications include treatment of long bone fracture non-unions, spinal surgeries, and oral maxillofacial surgeries. Considering the growing number of recent publications related to clincal research of rhBMPs, there exists enormous promise for these proteins to be used in bone regenerative medicine. The authors take this opportunity to review the rhBMP literature paying specific attention to the current applications of rhBMPs in bone repair and spine surgery. The prospective future of rhBMPs delivered in combination with tissue engineered scaffolds is also reviewed. PMID:22512928

  18. A System of Repressor Gradients Spatially Organizes the Boundaries of “Morphogen-dependent” Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongtao; Xu, Zhe; Mei, Constance; Yu, Danyang; Small, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The homeodomain (HD) protein Bicoid (Bcd) is thought to function as a gradient morphogen that positions boundaries of target genes via threshold-dependent activation mechanisms. Here we analyze 66 Bcd-dependent regulatory elements, and show that their boundaries are positioned primarily by repressive gradients that antagonize Bcd-mediated activation. A major repressor is the pair-rule protein Runt, which is expressed in an opposing gradient, and is necessary and sufficient for limiting Bcd-dependent activation. Evidence is presented that Runt functions with the maternal repressor Capicua and the gap protein Kruppel as the principal components of a repression system that correctly orders boundaries throughout the anterior half of the embryo. These results put conceptual limits on the Bcd morphogen hypothesis, and demonstrate how the Bcd gradient functions within the gene network that patterns the embryo. PMID:22541432

  19. Hydrogel Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Expressing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Enhances Bone Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hui-Yi; Yang, Shu-Rui; Brey, Eric M.; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of bone tissue engineering for repairing bone defects has gradually shown some satisfactory progress. One of the concerns raising scientific attention is the poor supply of growth factors. A number of growth factor delivery approaches have been developed for promoting bone formation. However, there is no systematic comparison of those approaches on efficiency of neobone formation. In this study, the approaches using periosteum, direct supply of growth factors, or gene transfection of growth factors were evaluated to determine the osteogenic capacity on the repair of bone defect. Methods: In total, 42 male 21-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 to 400 g were used as the bone defect model to evaluate the bone repair efficiency. Various tissue engineered constructs of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactic acid) (PEG-PLLA) copolymer hydrogel with periosteum, with external supply of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), or with BMP2-transfected bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were filled in a 7-mm bone defect region. Animals were euthanized at 3 months, and the hydrogel constructs were harvested. The evaluation with histological staining and radiography analysis were performed for the volume of new bone formation. Results: The PEG-PLLA scaffold with BMMSCs promotes bone regeneration with the addition of periosteum. The group with BMP2-transfected BMMSCs demonstrated the largest volume of new bone among all the testing groups. Conclusions: Altogether, the results of this study provide the evidence that the combination of PEG-PLLA hydrogels with BMMSCs and sustained delivery of BMP2 resulted in the maximal bone regeneration. PMID:27622106

  20. Mechanical testing of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 regenerated bone in sheep mandibles.

    PubMed

    Kontaxis, A; Abu-Serriah, M; Ayoub, A F; Barbenel, J C

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed in this study for testing excised sheep mandibles as a cantilever. The method was used to determine the strength and stiffness of sheep hemi-mandibles including a 35 mm defect bridged by regenerated bone. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) in a bovine collagen type-I carrier was used for the bone regeneration. Initial tests on ten intact sheep mandibles confirmed that the strength, stiffness and area beneath the load-deformation curves of the right and left hemi-mandibles were not significantly different, confirming the validity of using the contra-lateral hemi-mandible as a control side. Complete bone regeneration occurred in six hemi-mandibles treated with rhBMP, but the quality and mechanical properties of the bone were very variable. The new bone in three samples contained fibrous tissue and was weaker and less stiff than the contra-lateral side (strength, 10-20 per cent; stiffness, 6-15 per cent). The other half had better-quality bone and was significantly stiffer and stronger (p < 0.05), with strength 45-63 per cent and stiffness 35-46 per cent of the contra-lateral side. Hemi-mandibles treated with collagen alone had no regenerated bone bridge suggesting that 35 mm is a critical-size bone defect. PMID:15648662

  1. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression...

  2. Genetic Variants in the Bone Morphogenic Protein Gene Family Modify the Association between Residential Exposure to Traffic and Peripheral Arterial Disease cardiovascular disease cohort.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing literature indicating that genetic variants modify many of the associations between environmental exposures and clinical outcomes, potentially by increasing susceptibility to these exposures. However, genome-scale investigations of these interactions have been ...

  3. Preservation of the bone protein osteocalcin in dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyzer, Gerard; Sandberg, Philip; Knapen, Marjo H. J.; Vermeer, Cees; Collins, Matthew; Westbroek, Peter

    1992-10-01

    Two different immunological assays were used to identify the remains of a bone matrix protein, osteocalcin (OC), in the bones of dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates. Antibodies raised against OC from modern vertebrates showed strong immunological cross-reactivity with modern and relatively young fossil samples and significant reactions with some of the dinosaur bone extracts. The presence of OC was confirmed by the detection of a peptide-bound, uniquely vertebrate amino acid, γcarboxyglutamic acid (Gla). Preservation of OC in fossil bones appears to be strongly dependent on the burial history and not simply on age. These results extend the range of protein preservation in the geologic record and provide a first step toward a molecular phylogeny of the dinosaurs.

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments. PMID:25158862

  5. Patterning the cerebral cortex: traveling with morphogens.

    PubMed

    Borello, Ugo; Pierani, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    The neocortex represents the brain structure that has been subjected to a major expansion in its relative size during the course of mammalian evolution. An exquisite coordination of appropriate growth of competent territories along multiple axes and their spatial patterning is required for regionalization of the cortical primordium and the formation of functional areas. The achievement of such a highly complex architecture relies on a precise orchestration of the proliferation of progenitors, onset of neurogenesis, spatio-temporal generation of distinct cell types and control of their migration. We will review recent work on alternative molecular mechanisms that, via the migration of signaling cells/structures, participate in coordinating growth and spatial patterning in the developing cerebral cortex. By integrating temporal and spatial parameters as well as absolute levels of signaling this novel strategy might represent a general mechanism for long-range patterning in large structures, in addition to the passive diffusion of morphogens. PMID:20542680

  6. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Different Mechanisms for Interpreting Morphogen Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David M.; Saunders, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    During development, multicellular organisms must accurately control both temporal and spatial aspects of tissue patterning. This is often achieved using morphogens, signaling molecules that form spatially varying concentrations and so encode positional information. Typical analysis of morphogens assumes that spatial information is decoded in steady state by measuring the value of the morphogen concentration. However, recent experimental work suggests that both pre-steady-state readout and measurement of spatial and temporal derivatives of the morphogen concentration can play important roles in defining boundaries. Here, we undertake a detailed theoretical and numerical study of the accuracy of patterning—both in space and time—in models where readout is provided not by the morphogen concentration but by its spatial and temporal derivatives. In both cases we find that accurate patterning can be achieved, with sometimes even smaller errors than directly reading the morphogen concentration. We further demonstrate that such models provide other potential benefits to the system, such as the ability to switch on and off gene response with a high degree of spatiotemporal accuracy. Finally, we discuss how such derivatives might be calculated biologically and examine these models in relation to Sonic Hedgehog signaling in the vertebrate central nervous system. We show that, when coupled to a downstream transcriptional network, pre-steady-state measurement of the temporal change in the Shh morphogen is a plausible mechanism for determining precise gene boundaries in both space and time. PMID:25902445

  7. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-12-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss. PMID:25909889

  8. The synergistic induction of bone formation by the osteogenic proteins of the TGF-β supergene family.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Parak, Ruqayya; Klar, Roland M; Dickens, Caroline; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel

    2016-10-01

    haematopoietic bone marrow that forms by day 15 in heterotopic rectus abdominis sites. Synergistic binary applications also induce the morphogenesis of rudimentary embryonic growth plates indicating that the "memory" of developmental events in embryo can be redeployed postnatally by the application of morphogen combinations. Synergistic binary applications or single relatively high doses of hTGF-β3 have shown that hTGF-β3 induces bone by expressing a variety of inductive morphogenetic proteins that result in the rapid induction of bone formation. Tissue induction thus invocated singly by hTGF-β3 recapitulates the synergistic induction of bone formation by binary applications of hTGF-β1 and -β3 isoforms with hOP-1. Both synergistic strategies result in the rapid induction and expansion of the transformed mesenchymal tissue into large corticalized heterotopic ossicles with osteoblast-like cell differentiation at the periphery of the implanted reconstituted specimens with "tissue transfiguration" in vivo. Molecularly, the rapid induction of bone formation by binary applications of hOP-1 and hTGF-β3 or by hTGF-β3 applied singly resides in the up-regulation of selected genes involved in tissue induction and morphogenesis, Osteocalcin, RUNX-2, OP-1, TGF-β1 and -β3 with however the noted lack of TGF-β2 up-regulation. PMID:27474964

  9. Salicylic Acid-Based Polymers for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sangeeta; Mitchell, Ashley; Yu, Weiling; Snyder, Sabrina; Uhrich, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is used clinically to promote spinal fusion, treat complex tibia fractures, and to promote bone formation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Excessive bone formation at sites where BMP-2 has been applied is an established complication and one that could be corrected by guided tissue regeneration methods. In this study, anti-inflammatory polymers containing salicylic acid [salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester), SAPAE] were electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create thin flexible matrices for use as guided bone regeneration membranes. SAPAE polymers hydrolyze to release salicylic acid, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PCL was used to enhance the mechanical integrity of the matrices. Two different SAPAE-containing membranes were produced and compared: fast-degrading (FD-SAPAE) and slow-degrading (SD-SAPAE) membranes that release salicylic acid at a faster and slower rate, respectively. Rat femur defects were treated with BMP-2 and wrapped with FD-SAPAE, SD-SAPAE, or PCL membrane or were left unwrapped. The effects of different membranes on bone formation within and outside of the femur defects were measured by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone formation within the defect was not affected by membrane wrapping at BMP-2 doses of 12 μg or more. In contrast, the FD-SAPAE membrane significantly reduced bone formation outside the defect compared with all other treatments. The rapid release of salicylic acid from the FD-SAPAE membrane suggests that localized salicylic acid treatment during the first few days of BMP-2 treatment can limit ectopic bone formation. The data support development of SAPAE polymer membranes for guided bone regeneration applications as well as barriers to excessive bone formation. PMID:25813520

  10. Emerging Multifunctional Roles of Claudin Tight Junction Proteins in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Alshbool, Fatima. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance between bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling has been documented to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests a significant role for the tight junction proteins, Claudins (Cldns), in the regulation of bone remodeling processes. In terms of function, whereas Cldns act “canonically” as key determinants of paracellular permeability, there is considerable recent evidence to suggest that Cldns also participate in cell signaling, ie, a “noncanonical function”. To this end, Cldns have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in a variety of cell types. The present review will discuss Cldns' structure, their expression profile, regulation of expression, and their canonical and non- canonical functions in general with special emphasis on bone cells. In order to shed light on the noncanonical functions of Cldns in bone, we will highlight the role of Cldn-18 in regulating bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, we hope to provide a framework for guiding future research on understanding how Cldns modulate osteoblast and osteoclast function and overall bone homeostasis. Such studies should provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and may highlight Cldns as novel targets for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of osteoporosis. PMID:24758302

  11. The role of human bone morphogenetic proteins in spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, D A; Vaccaro, A R; Salamon, M L; Albert, T J

    2000-01-01

    The attainment of a stable arthrodesis is critical to the successful management of some types of spinal disorders. Autologous iliac-crest bone graft has been the most commonly utilized substance associated with predictable healing in spinal fusion applications. Although alternative graft substances exist, these have not been shown to be as uniformly effective in achieving spinal fusion. Because of the morbidity associated with bone autograft harvest, there is increasing interest in alternative graft substances and especially in the osteoinductive abilities of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Several animal models have demonstrated that BMP-containing allograft or synthetic carrier medium is as effective as or superior to autograft bone in promoting spinal fusion. Furthermore, the limited number of human trials utilizing BMPs to treat nonunions in the appendicular skeleton indicate that the results found in animal models will be reproducible in the clinical setting. PMID:10666648

  12. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-06-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants

  13. The Role of Feedback in the Formation of Morphogen Territories

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Adeela; Theisen, Heidi; Lukacsovich, Tamas; Naghibi, Mehrangiz; Marsh, Lawrence J.; Wan, Fred; Nie, Qing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a mathematical model for the formation of spatial morphogen territories of two key morphogens: Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (DPP), involved in leg development of Drosophila. We define a gene regulatory network (GRN) that utilizes auto-activation and cross inhibition (modeled by Hill equations) to establish and maintain stable boundaries of gene expression. By computational analysis we find that in the presence of a general activator, neither auto-activation, nor cross inhibition alone are sufficient to maintain stable sharp boundaries of morphogen production in the leg disc. The minimal requirements for a self-organizing system are a coupled system of two morphogens in-which the auto-activation and cross-inhibition have Hill coefficients strictly greater than one. In addition, the GRN modeled here describes the regenerative responses to genetic manipulations of positional identity in the leg disc. PMID:18613734

  14. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Enhance Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Dependent-Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hoon Joo; Kim, Ri Youn; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2015-10-01

    The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for the purpose of promoting bone regeneration is emerging; however, the high dose of rhBMP-2 required in humans is accompanied by several limitations, including bone resorption and swelling. To reduce the dose of rhBMP-2 required, the applicability of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) was evaluated using a rat calvarial defect model. After creating an 8-mm-diameter calvarial bone defect, a collagen sponge soaked in different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μg) of rhBMP-2 was implanted at the defect area. One week after surgery, PEMF was applied for 8 h/day over 5 days in an experimental group of animals (n = 28) using a width of 12 μs, a pulse frequency of 60 Hz, and a magnetic intensity of 10 G. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after surgery and assessed by microcomputed tomography and histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the absence of application of PEMF, bone volume, bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and trabecular separation, all showed statistically significant differences, depending on the concentration of rhBMP-2 utilized (p < 0.001). PEMF accelerated bone regeneration in the groups that received 0, 2.5, and 5 μg rhBMP-2 (p < 0.05). In contrast, administration of 10 μg rhBMP-2 resulted in no additive effect on bone regeneration in combination with PEMF. Groups receiving no rhBMP-2 showed distinct bone regeneration in the central zone of the bone defect when treated with PEMF, whereas they failed to bridge the defect space without PEMF. Among the groups without PEMF, soft tissue infiltrations from the outer surface on the skin side were common. Among groups with PEMF, the groups receiving 5 and 10 μg rhBMP-2 displayed denser bone with significantly reduced dead spaces. The application of PEMF did not result in an accelerated effect on bone regeneration in groups treated with 10 μg rhBMP-2. Therefore, our data

  15. Evaluation of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2-loaded tricalcium phosphate implants in rabbits' bone defects.

    PubMed

    Laffargue, P; Hildebrand, H F; Rtaimate, M; Frayssinet, P; Amoureux, J P; Marchandise, X

    1999-08-01

    Porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (betaTCP) has osteoconductive properties. The adsorption of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) onto TCP could realize an osteoinductive bone substitute. We evaluated it on an animal model using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. BetaTCP cylinders loaded with rhBMP-2 were implanted into rabbits' femoral condyle bone defects, and betaTCP alone as control into the contralateral femur. We studied two different doses of rhBMP-2 (10 and 40 microg) on two groups of four animals. Evaluation consisted in radiography, histology, and histomorphometry, DEXA, and NMR spectroscopy using an original method of quantification. With both doses of rhBMP-2, we observed on radiographs an increase of trabecular bone around implants. Histology showed resorption of the ceramic, trabecular bone with osteoblasts and osteoid substance around the implants, and colonization inside the porous betaTCP by new bone formed. Histomorphometry showed that the osteoid surface (OS/BS) was greatest with the high dose of rhBMP-2. The difference was slight between the low dose of rhBMP-2 and control. DEXA showed a dose-dependent increase of bone mineral density of rhBMP-2-loaded betaTCP vs. control. NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the amount of new bone formed in betaTCP was greater when betaTCP carried rhBMP-2, and increased with the dose of rhBMP-2 used. We showed that betaTCP was a good matrix for rhBMP-2, which gave it osteoinductive properties in an orthotopic site, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, such composite biomaterial seems to be of great interest in reconstructive bone surgery. Further studies are needed in clinical practice to determine optimal doses. PMID:10458276

  16. Read-Out of Dynamic Morphogen Gradients on Growing Domains

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Patrick; Iber, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data from the Drosophila wing imaginal disc reveals that the amplitude of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen gradient increases continuously. It is an open question how cells can determine their relative position within a domain based on a continuously increasing gradient. Here we show that pre-steady state diffusion-based dispersal of morphogens results in a zone within the growing domain where the concentration remains constant over the patterning period. The position of the zone that is predicted based on quantitative data for the Dpp morphogen corresponds to where the Dpp-dependent gene expression boundaries of spalt (sal) and daughters against dpp (dad) emerge. The model also suggests that genes that are scaling and are expressed at lateral positions are either under the control of a different read-out mechanism or under the control of a different morphogen. The patterning mechanism explains the extraordinary robustness that is observed for variations in Dpp production, and offers an explanation for the dual role of Dpp in controlling patterning and growth. Pre-steady-state dynamics are pervasive in morphogen-controlled systems, thus making this a probable general mechanism for the scaled read-out of morphogen gradients in growing developmental systems. PMID:26599604

  17. Physical distribution and characteristics of meat & bone meal protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) is a high-protein commodity produced by the rendering of fat from unmarketable animal tissue. Concerns related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy have progressively restricted MBM’s conventional use as a feed ingredient. Consequently, significant attention has focused on th...

  18. Tracheal cartilage regeneration and new bone formation by slow release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2.

    PubMed

    Igai, Hitoshi; Chang, Sung Soo; Gotoh, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yasumichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 released slowly from gelatin sponge for tracheal cartilage regeneration. A 1-cm gap was made in the mid-ventral portion of each of 10 consecutive tracheal cartilages. In the control group (n = 4), the resulting gap was left untreated. In the gelatin group (n = 4), plain gelatin was implanted in the gap. In the BMP-2 group (n = 4), gelatin containing 100 microg BMP-2 was implanted. We euthanatized all dogs in each group at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation, respectively, and then examined the implant site macro- and microscopically. In the BMP-2 group, regenerated fibrous cartilage and newly formed bone were observed at 1 and 12 months. Regenerated cartilage was observed at the ends of the host cartilage stumps, with newly formed bone in the middle portion. The gaps were filled with regenerated cartilage and newly formed bone. At 3 and 6 months, regenerated cartilage, but not newly formed bone, was evident. The regenerated cartilage was covered with perichondrium and showed continuity with the host cartilage. We succeeded in inducing cartilage regeneration and new bone formation in canine trachea by slow release of 100 microg BMP-2 from gelatin. PMID:18204324

  19. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates endochondral ossification by regulating periosteal cell fate during bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan Yiu; Lieu, Shirley; Lu, Chuanyong; Colnot, Céline

    2010-01-01

    Bone repair depends on the coordinated action of numerous growth factors and cytokines to stimulate new skeletal tissue formation. Among all the growth factors involved in bone repair, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are the only molecules now used therapeutically to enhance healing. Although BMPs are known as strong bone inducers, their role in initiating skeletal repair is not entirely elucidated. The aim of this study was to define the role of BMP2 during the early stages of bone regeneration and more specifically in regulating the fate of skeletal progenitors. During healing of non-stabilized fractures via endochondral ossification, exogenous BMP2 increased the deposition and resorption of cartilage and bone, which was correlated with a stimulation of osteoclastogenesis but not angiogenesis in the early phase of repair. During healing of stabilized fractures, which normally occurs via intramembranous ossification, exogenous BMP2 induced cartilage formation suggesting a role in regulating cell fate decisions. Specifically, the periosteum was found to be a target of exogenous BMP2 as shown by activation of the BMP pathway in this tissue. Using cell lineage analyses, we further show that BMP2 can direct cell differentiation towards the chondrogenic lineage within the periosteum but not the endosteum, indicating that skeletal progenitors within periosteum and endosteum respond differently to BMP signals. In conclusion, BMP2 plays an important role in the early stages of repair by recruiting local sources of skeletal progenitors within periosteum and endosteum and by determining their differentiation towards the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. PMID:20348041

  20. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in stromal cells from human bone marrow long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Snjezana; Mazic, Sanja; Kisic, Veronika; Basic, Nikolina; Jakic-Razumovic, Jasminka; Borovecki, Fran; Batinic, Drago; Simic, Petra; Grgurevic, Lovorka; Labar, Boris; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2004-09-01

    Highly purified primitive hemopoietic stem cells express BMP receptors but do not synthesize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, exogenously added BMPs regulate their proliferation, differentiation, and survival. To further explore the mechanism by which BMPs might be involved in hemopoietic differentiation, we tested whether stromal cells from long-term culture (LTC) of normal human bone marrow produce BMPs, BMP receptors, and SMAD signaling molecules. Stromal cells were immunohistochemically characterized by the presence of lyzozyme, CD 31, factor VIII, CD 68, S100, alkaline phosphatase, and vimentin. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and the presence of BMP protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The supportive role of the stromal cell layer in hemopoiesis in vitro was confirmed by a colony assay of clonogenic progenitors. Bone marrow stromal cells express mRNA and protein for BMP-3, -4, and -7 but not for BMP-2, -5, and -6 from the first to the eighth week of culture. Furthermore, stromal cells express the BMP type I receptors, activin-like kinase-3 (ALK-3), ALK-6, and the downstream transducers SMAD-1, -4, and -5. Thus, human bone marrow stromal cells synthesize BMPs, which might exert their effects on hemopoietic stem cells in a paracrine manner through specific BMP receptors. PMID:15314083

  1. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  2. Rank Protein Immunolabeling during Bone-Implant Interface Healing Process

    PubMed Central

    Ávila Souza, Francisley; Pereira Queiroz, Thallita; Rodrigues Luvizuto, Eloá; Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; Garcia-JR, Idelmo Rangel; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the expression of RANK protein during bone-healing process around machined surface implants. Twenty male Wistar rats, 90 days old, after having had a 2 mm diameter and 6 mm long implant inserted in their right tibias, were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days after healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were subjected to RANK immunostaining reaction. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Results. Immunolabeling analysis showed expressions of RANK in osteoclast and osteoblast lineage cells. The statistical analysis showed an increase in the expression of RANK in osteoblasts at 7 postoperative days and a gradual decrease during the chronology of the healing process demonstrated by mild cellular activity in the final stage (P < .05). Conclusion. RANK immunolabeling was observed especially in osteoclast and osteoblast cells in primary bone during the initial periods of bone-healing/implant interface. PMID:20706673

  3. The biological function of type I receptors of bone morphogenetic protein in bone

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Feng, Jian Q; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have multiple roles in skeletal development, homeostasis and regeneration. BMPs signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (BMPRI and BMPRII). In recent decades, genetic studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that perturbations in BMP signaling via BMPRI resulted in various diseases in bone, cartilage, and muscles. In this review, we focus on all three types of BMPRI, which consist of activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2, also called type IA activin receptor), activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3, also called BMPRIA), and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6, also called BMPRIB). The research areas covered include the current progress regarding the roles of these receptors during myogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Understanding the physiological and pathological functions of these receptors at the cellular and molecular levels will advance drug development and tissue regeneration for treating musculoskeletal diseases and bone defects in the future. PMID:27088043

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Kola, B; Bataveljic, A; Arnett, T R; Viollet, B; Saxon, L; Korbonits, M; Chenu, C

    2010-08-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of energy homeostasis, has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many hormones and antidiabetic drugs metformin and glitazones. The objective of this study was to determine if AMPK can be activated in osteoblasts by known AMPK modulators and if AMPK activity is involved in osteoblast function in vitro and regulation of bone mass in vivo. ROS 17/2.8 rat osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the presence of AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin), AMPK inhibitor (compound C), the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin and the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. AMPK activity was measured in cell lysates by a functional kinase assay and AMPK protein phosphorylation was studied by Western Blotting using an antibody recognizing AMPK Thr-172 residue. We demonstrated that treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with AICAR and metformin stimulates Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK and dose-dependently increases its activity. In contrast, treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with compound C inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Ghrelin and propranolol dose-dependently increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected by metformin treatment while AICAR significantly inhibited ROS 17/2.8 cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity at high concentrations. To study the effect of AMPK activation on bone formation in vitro, primary osteoblasts obtained from rat calvaria were cultured for 14-17days in the presence of AICAR, metformin and compound C. Formation of 'trabecular-shaped' bone nodules was evaluated following alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that both AICAR and metformin dose-dependently increase trabecular bone nodule formation, while compound C inhibits bone formation. When primary osteoblasts were co-treated with AICAR and compound C, compound C suppressed the stimulatory effect of AICAR on bone nodule formation

  5. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio . E-mail: harzate@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-06

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation.

  6. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP-7) Influences Tendon-Bone Integration In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Schwarting, Tim; Lechler, Philipp; Struewer, Johannes; Ambrock, Marius; Frangen, Thomas Manfred; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Ziring, Ewgeni; Frink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Successful graft ingrowth following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is governed by complex biological processes at the tendon-bone interface. The aim of this study was to investigate in an in vitro study the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) on tendon-bone integration. Materials and Methods To study the biological effects of BMP-7 on the process of tendon-bone-integration, two independent in vitro models were used. The first model involved the mono- and coculture of bovine tendon specimens and primary bovine osteoblasts with and without BMP-7 exposure. The second model comprised the mono- and coculture of primary bovine osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate and osteocalcin (OCN) were analyzed by ELISA. Histological analysis and electron microscopy of the tendon specimens were performed. Results In both models, positive effects of BMP-7 on ALP enzyme activity were observed (p<0.001). Additionally, similar results were noted for LDH activity and lactate concentration. BMP-7 stimulation led to a significant increase in OCN expression. Whereas the effects of BMP-7 on tendon monoculture peaked during an early phase of the experiment (p<0.001), the cocultures showed a maximal increase during the later stages (p<0.001). The histological analysis showed a stimulating effect of BMP-7 on extracellular matrix formation. Organized ossification zones and calcium carbonate-like structures were only observed in the BMP-stimulated cell cultures. Discussion This study showed the positive effects of BMP-7 on the biological process of tendon-bone integration in vitro. Histological signs of improved mineralization were paralleled by increased rates of osteoblast-specific protein levels in primary bovine osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Conclusion Our findings indicated a role for BMP-7 as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of ligamentous injuries, and they emphasized the

  7. Sustained release emphasizing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Hollinger; Uludag; Winn

    1998-05-01

    Bone homeostasis is a dynamic process involving a myriad of cells and substrates modulated by regulatory signals such as hormones, growth and differentiating factors. When this environment is damaged, the regenerative sequalae follows a programmed pattern, and the capacity for successful recovery is often dependent on the extent of the injury. Many bony deficits that are excessively traumatic will not result in complete recovery and require therapeutic intervention(s) such as autografting or grafting from banked bone. However, for numerous reasons, an unacceptably high rate of failure is associated with these conventional therapies. Thus, alternative approaches are under investigation. A class of osteogenic regulatory molecules, the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been isolated, cloned and characterized as potent supplements to augment bone regeneration. Optimizing a therapeutic application for BMPs may be dependent upon localized sustained release which in kind relies on a safe and well characterized carrier system. This review will discuss the current status of BMPs in bone regeneration and specifically will present the potential for a clinical therapeutic role of recombinant human BMP-2 sustained release carrier systems. PMID:10837631

  8. Multi-protein Delivery by Nanodiamonds Promotes Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L.; Gatica, M.; Kim, H.; Osawa, E.; Ho, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE® for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

  9. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

  10. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling in development and human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Richard N.; Green, Jordan; Wang, Zhongliang; Deng, Youlin; Qiao, Min; Peabody, Michael; Zhang, Qian; Ye, Jixing; Yan, Zhengjian; Denduluri, Sahitya; Idowu, Olumuyiwa; Li, Melissa; Shen, Christine; Hu, Alan; Haydon, Rex C.; Kang, Richard; Mok, James; Lee, Michael J.; Luu, Hue L.; Shi, Lewis L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling molecules that belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. Initially discovered for their ability to induce bone formation, BMPs are now known to play crucial roles in all organ systems. BMPs are important in embryogenesis and development, and also in maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. Mouse knockout models of various components of the BMP signaling pathway result in embryonic lethality or marked defects, highlighting the essential functions of BMPs. In this review, we first outline the basic aspects of BMP signaling and then focus on genetically manipulated mouse knockout models that have helped elucidate the role of BMPs in development. A significant portion of this review is devoted to the prominent human pathologies associated with dysregulated BMP signaling. PMID:25401122

  11. Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won; Hibino, Ayaka; Asai, Midori; Hojo, Hironori; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Chung, Ung-Il; Yagasaki, Kazumi; and others

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Harmine promotes the activity and mRNA expression of ALP. {yields} Harmine enhances the expressions of osteocalcin mRNA and protein. {yields} Harmine induces osteoblastic mineralization. {yields} Harmine upregulates the mRNA expressions of BMPs, Runx2 and Osterix. {yields} BMP signaling pathways are involved in the actions of harmine. -- Abstract: Bone mass is regulated by osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We previously reported that harmine, a {beta}-carboline alkaloid, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. Harmine promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells without affecting their proliferation. Harmine also increased the mRNA expressions of the osteoblast marker genes ALP and Osteocalcin. Furthermore, the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was enhanced by treatment with harmine. Harmine also induced osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 cells. Structure-activity relationship studies using harmine-related {beta}-carboline alkaloids revealed that the C3-C4 double bond and 7-hydroxy or 7-methoxy group of harmine were important for its osteogenic activity. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist noggin and its receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 attenuated harmine-promoted ALP activity. In addition, harmine increased the mRNA expressions of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Bmp-6, Bmp-7 and its target gene Id1. Harmine also enhanced the mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, which are key transcription factors in osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, BMP-responsive and Runx2-responsive reporters were activated by harmine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that harmine enhances osteoblast differentiation probably by inducing the expressions of

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 accelerates fracture healing in osteoporotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Diwan, Ashish D; Leong, Anthony; Appleyard, Richard; Bhargav, Divya; Fang, Zhi Ming; Wei, Aiqun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass, bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fracture. Fracture healing in osteoporosis is delayed and rates of implant failure are high with few biological treatment options available. This study aimed to determine whether a single dose of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in a collagen/carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) composite enhanced fracture healing in an osteoporotic rat model. Materials and Methods: An open femoral midshaft osteotomy was performed in female rats 3 months post-ovarectomy. Rats were randomized to receive either BMP-7 composite (n = 30) or composite alone (n = 30) at the fracture site during surgery. Thereafter calluses were collected on days 12, 20 and 31. Callus cross-sectional area, bone mineral density, biomechanical stiffness and maximum torque, radiographic bony union and histological callus maturity were evaluated at each time point. Results: There were statistically significant increases in bone mineral density and callus cross-section area at all time points in the BMP-7 group as compared to controls and biomechanical readings showed stronger bones at day 31 in the BMP-7 group. Histological and radiographic evaluation indicated significant acceleration of bony union in the BMP-7 group as compared to controls. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that BMP-7 accelerates fracture healing in an oestrogen-deficient environment in a rat femoral fracture healing model to scientific relevance level I. The use of BMP-7 composite could offer orthopedic surgeons an advantage over oestrogen therapy, enhancing osteoporotic fracture healing with a single, locally applied dose at the time of surgery, potentially overcoming delays in healing caused by the osteoporotic state. PMID:24379457

  13. The Structure and Function of Non-Collagenous Bone Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    The long-term goal for this program is to determine the structural and functional relationships of bone proteins and proteins that interact with bone. This information will used to design useful pharmacological compounds that will have a beneficial effect in osteoporotic patients and in the osteoporotic-like effects experienced on long duration space missions. The first phase of this program, funded under a cooperative research agreement with NASA through the Texas Medical Center, aimed to develop powerful recombinant expression systems and purification methods for production of large amounts of target proteins. Proteins expressed in sufficient'amount and purity would be characterized by a variety of structural methods, and made available for crystallization studies. In order to increase the likelihood of crystallization and subsequent high resolution solution of structures, we undertook to develop expression of normal and mutant forms of proteins by bacterial and mammalian cells. In addition to the main goals of this program, we would also be able to provide reagents for other related studies, including development of anti-fibrotic and anti-metastatic therapeutics.

  14. Resveratrol improves bone repair by modulation of bone morphogenetic proteins and osteopontin gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Casarin, R C; Casati, M Z; Pimentel, S P; Cirano, F R; Algayer, M; Pires, P R; Ghiraldini, B; Duarte, P M; Ribeiro, F V

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on bone healing and its influence on the gene expression of osteogenic markers. Two calvarial defects were created and one screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in the tibia of rats that were assigned to daily administration of placebo (control group, n=15) or 10mg/kg of resveratrol (RESV group, n=15) for 30 days. The animals were then sacrificed. One of the calvarial defects was processed for histomorphometric analysis and the tissue relative to the other was collected for mRNA quantification of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-7, osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteoprotegrin (OPG), and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Implants were removed by applying a counter-torque force. Histomorphometric analysis revealed higher remaining defect in the calvarial defects of the control group than the RESV group (P=0.026). Resveratrol increased the counter-torque values of implant removal when compared to control therapy (P=0.031). Gene expression analysis showed a higher expression of BMP-2 (P=0.011), BMP-7 (P=0.049), and OPN (P=0.002) genes in the RESV group than in the control group. In conclusion, resveratrol improved the repair of critical-sized bone defects and the biomechanical retention of implants. Indeed, this natural agent may up-regulate the gene expression of important osteogenic markers. PMID:24530035

  15. Stimulation of bone healing by sustained bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) delivery.

    PubMed

    Faßbender, Mirja; Minkwitz, Susann; Strobel, Catrin; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Wildemann, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP-2) incorporated in a polymeric implant coating on bone healing. In vitro analysis revealed a sustained, but incomplete BMP-2 release until Day 42. For the in vivo study, the rat tibia osteotomy was stabilized either with control or BMP-2 coated wires, and the healing progress was followed by micro computed tomography (µCT), biomechanical testing and histology at Days 10, 28, 42 and 84. MicroCT showed an accelerated formation of mineralized callus, as well as remodeling and an increase of mineralized/total callus volume (p=0.021) at Day 42 in the BMP-2 group compared to the control. Histology revealed an increased callus mineralization at Days 42 and 84 (p=0.006) with reduced cartilage at Day 84 (p=0.004) in the BMP-2 group. Biomechanical stiffness was significantly higher in the BMP-2 group (p=0.045) at Day 42. In summary, bone healing was enhanced after sustained BMP-2 application compared to the control. Using the same drug delivery system, but a burst release of BMP-2, a previous published study showed a similar positive effect on bone healing. Distinct differences in the healing outcome might be explained due to the different BMP release kinetics and dosages. However, further studies are necessary to adapt the optimal release profiles to physiological mechanisms. PMID:24830556

  16. Stimulation of Bone Healing by Sustained Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Faßbender, Mirja; Minkwitz, Susann; Strobel, Catrin; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Wildemann, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP-2) incorporated in a polymeric implant coating on bone healing. In vitro analysis revealed a sustained, but incomplete BMP-2 release until Day 42. For the in vivo study, the rat tibia osteotomy was stabilized either with control or BMP-2 coated wires, and the healing progress was followed by micro computed tomography (μCT), biomechanical testing and histology at Days 10, 28, 42 and 84. MicroCT showed an accelerated formation of mineralized callus, as well as remodeling and an increase of mineralized/total callus volume (p = 0.021) at Day 42 in the BMP-2 group compared to the control. Histology revealed an increased callus mineralization at Days 42 and 84 (p = 0.006) with reduced cartilage at Day 84 (p = 0.004) in the BMP-2 group. Biomechanical stiffness was significantly higher in the BMP-2 group (p = 0.045) at Day 42. In summary, bone healing was enhanced after sustained BMP-2 application compared to the control. Using the same drug delivery system, but a burst release of BMP-2, a previous published study showed a similar positive effect on bone healing. Distinct differences in the healing outcome might be explained due to the different BMP release kinetics and dosages. However, further studies are necessary to adapt the optimal release profiles to physiological mechanisms. PMID:24830556

  17. Imaging symptomatic bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced heterotopic bone formation within the spinal canal: case report.

    PubMed

    Chryssikos, Timothy; Crandall, Kenneth M; Sansur, Charles A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotopic bone formation within the spinal canal is a known complication of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and presents a clinical and surgical challenge. Imaging modalities are routinely used for operative planning in this setting. Here, the authors present the case of a 59-year-old woman with cauda equina syndrome following intraoperative BMP-2 administration. Plain film myelographic studies showed a region of severe stenosis that was underappreciated on CT myelography due to a heterotopic bony lesion mimicking the dorsal aspect of a circumferentially patent thecal sac. When evaluating spinal stenosis under these circumstances, it is important to carefully consider plain myelographic images in addition to postmyelography CT images as the latter may underestimate the true degree of stenosis due to the potentially similar radiographic appearances of evolving BMP-2-induced heterotopic bone and intrathecal contrast. Alternatively, comparison of sequentially acquired noncontrast CT scans with CT myelographic images may also assist in distinguishing BMP-2-induced heterotopic bony lesions from the thecal sac. Further studies are needed to elucidate the roles of the available imaging techniques in this setting and to characterize the connection between the radiographic and histological appearances of BMP-2-induced heterotopic bone. PMID:26824586

  18. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in mesenchymal stem cell stimulation of cartilage and bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Scarfì, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix-associated bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) govern a plethora of biological processes. The BMPs are members of the transforming growth factor-β protein superfamily, and they actively participate to kidney development, digit and limb formation, angiogenesis, tissue fibrosis and tumor development. Since their discovery, they have attracted attention for their fascinating perspectives in the regenerative medicine and tissue engineering fields. BMPs have been employed in many preclinical and clinical studies exploring their chondrogenic or osteoinductive potential in several animal model defects and in human diseases. During years of research in particular two BMPs, BMP2 and BMP7 have gained the podium for their use in the treatment of various cartilage and bone defects. In particular they have been recently approved for employment in non-union fractures as adjunct therapies. On the other hand, thanks to their potentialities in biomedical applications, there is a growing interest in studying the biology of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), the rules underneath their differentiation abilities, and to test their true abilities in tissue engineering. In fact, the specific differentiation of MSCs into targeted cell-type lineages for transplantation is a primary goal of the regenerative medicine. This review provides an overview on the current knowledge of BMP roles and signaling in MSC biology and differentiation capacities. In particular the article focuses on the potential clinical use of BMPs and MSCs concomitantly, in cartilage and bone tissue repair. PMID:26839636

  19. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Perez-Aso, Miguel; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Promoting bone regeneration and repair of bone defects is a need that has not been well met to date. We have previously found that adenosine, acting via A2A receptors (A2AR) promotes wound healing and inhibits inflammatory osteolysis and hypothesized that A2AR might be a novel target to promote bone regeneration. Therefore, we determined whether direct A2AR stimulation or increasing endogenous adenosine concentrations via purine transport blockade with dipyridamole regulates bone formation. We determined whether coverage of a 3 mm trephine defect in a mouse skull with a collagen scaffold soaked in saline, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2; 200 ng), 1 μM CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, EC50 = 160 nM), or 1 μM dipyridamole (EC50 = 32 nM) promoted bone regeneration. Microcomputed tomography examination demonstrated that CGS21680 and dipyridamole markedly enhanced bone regeneration as well as BMP-2 8 wk after surgery (60 ± 2%, 79 ± 2%, and 75 ± 1% bone regeneration, respectively, vs. 32 ± 2% in control, P < 0.001). Blockade by a selective A2AR antagonist (ZM241385, 1 μM) or deletion of A2AR abrogated the effect of CGS21680 and dipyridamole on bone regeneration. Both CGS21680 and dipyridamole treatment increased alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and diminished tartrate resistance acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in the defects. In vivo imaging with a fluorescent dye for new bone formation revealed a strong fluorescent signal in treated animals that was equivalent to BMP-2. In conclusion, stimulation of A2AR by specific agonists or by increasing endogenous adenosine levels stimulates new bone formation as well as BMP-2 and represents a novel approach to stimulating bone regeneration.—Mediero, A., Wilder, T., Perez-Aso, M., Cronstein, B. N. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2. PMID:25573752

  20. Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds Combined with Bone Morphogenetic Proteins or Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Han; Yang, Hui-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the current status of calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds combined with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Date Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Medline in publications from 1979 to 2014, with highly regarded older publications also included. The terms BTE, CaP, BMPs, and MSC were used for the literature search. Study Selection: Reviews focused on relevant aspects and original articles reporting in vitro and/or in vivo results concerning the efficiency of CaP/BMPs or CaP/MSCs composites were retrieved, reviewed, analyzed, and summarized. Results: An ideal BTE product contains three elements: Scaffold, growth factors, and stem cells. CaP-based scaffolds are popular because of their outstanding biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductivity. However, they lack stiffness and osteoinductivity. To solve this problem, composite scaffolds of CaP with BMPs have been developed. New bone formation by CaP/BMP composites can reach levels similar to those of autografts. CaP scaffolds are compatible with MSCs and CaP/MSC composites exhibit excellent osteogenesis and stiffness. In addition, a CaP/MSC/BMP scaffold can repair bone defects more effectively than an autograft. Conclusions: Novel BTE products possess remarkable osteoconduction and osteoinduction capacities, and exhibit balanced degradation with osteogenesis. Further work should yield safe, viable, and efficient materials for the repair of bone lesions. PMID:25881610

  1. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  2. The Wingless morphogen gradient is established by the cooperative action of Frizzled and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan receptors.

    PubMed

    Baeg, Gyeong-Hun; Selva, Erica M; Goodman, Robyn M; Dasgupta, Ramanuj; Perrimon, Norbert

    2004-12-01

    We have examined the respective contribution of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) and Frizzled (Fz) proteins in the establishment of the Wingless (Wg) morphogen gradient. From the analysis of mutant clones of sulfateless/N-deacetylase-sulphotransferase in the wing imaginal disc, we find that lack of Heparan Sulfate (HS) causes a dramatic reduction of both extracellular and intracellular Wg in receiving cells. Our studies, together with others [Kirkpatrick, C.A., Dimitroff, B.D., Rawson, J.M., Selleck, S.B., 2004. Spatial regulation of Wingless morphogen distribution and signalling by Dally-like protein. Dev. Cell (in press)], reveals that the Glypican molecule Dally-like Protein (Dlp) is associated with both negative and positive roles in Wg short- and long-range signaling, respectively. In addition, analyses of the two Fz proteins indicate that the Fz and DFz2 receptors, in addition to transducing the signal, modulate the slope of the Wg gradient by regulating the amount of extracellular Wg. Taken together, our analysis illustrates how the coordinated activities of HSPGs and Fz/DFz2 shape the Wg morphogen gradient. PMID:15531366

  3. Development of morphogen gradient: The role of dimension and discreteness

    SciTech Connect

    Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2014-02-28

    The fundamental processes of biological development are governed by multiple signaling molecules that create non-uniform concentration profiles known as morphogen gradients. It is widely believed that the establishment of morphogen gradients is a result of complex processes that involve diffusion and degradation of locally produced signaling molecules. We developed a multi-dimensional discrete-state stochastic approach for investigating the corresponding reaction-diffusion models. It provided a full analytical description for stationary profiles and for important dynamic properties such as local accumulation times, variances, and mean first-passage times. The role of discreteness in developing of morphogen gradients is analyzed by comparing with available continuum descriptions. It is found that the continuum models prediction about multiple time scales near the source region in two-dimensional and three-dimensional systems is not supported in our analysis. Using ideas that view the degradation process as an effective potential, the effect of dimensionality on establishment of morphogen gradients is also discussed. In addition, we investigated how these reaction-diffusion processes are modified with changing the size of the source region.

  4. Morphogengineering roots: comparing mechanisms of morphogen gradient formation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developmental biology, there has been a recent focus on the robustness of morphogen gradients as possible providers of positional information. It was shown that functional morphogen gradients present strong biophysical constraints and lack of robustness to noise. Here we explore how the details of the mechanism which underlies the generation of a morphogen gradient can influence those properties. Results We contrast three gradient-generating mechanisms, (i) a source-decay mechanism; and (ii) a unidirectional transport mechanism; and (iii) a so-called reflux-loop mechanism. Focusing on the dynamics of the phytohormone auxin in the root, we show that only the reflux-loop mechanism can generate a gradient that would be adequate to supply functional positional information for the Arabidopsis root, for biophysically reasonable kinetic parameters. Conclusions We argue that traits that differ in spatial and temporal time-scales can impose complex selective pressures on the mechanism of morphogen gradient formation used for the development of the particular organism. PMID:22583698

  5. Inkjet-Based Biopatterning of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 to Spatially Control Calvarial Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric D.; DeCesare, Gary E.; Usas, Arvydas; Lensie, Emily L.; Bykowski, Michael R.; Huard, Johnny; Weiss, Lee E.; Losee, Joseph E.; Campbell, Phil G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate spatial control of osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo using inkjet bioprinting technology and to create three-dimensional persistent bio-ink patterns of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and its modifiers immobilized within microporous scaffolds. Semicircular patterns of BMP-2 were printed within circular DermaMatrix™ human allograft scaffold constructs. The contralateral halves of the constructs were unprinted or printed with BMP-2 modifiers, including the BMP-2 inhibitor, noggin. Printed bio-ink pattern retention was validated using fluorescent or 125I-labeled bio-inks. Mouse C2C12 progenitor cells cultured on patterned constructs differentiated in a dose-dependent fashion toward an osteoblastic fate in register to BMP-2 patterns. The fidelity of spatial restriction of osteoblastic differentiation at the boundary between neighboring BMP-2 and noggin patterns improved in comparison with patterns without noggin. Acellular DermaMatrix constructs similarly patterned with BMP-2 and noggin were then implanted into a mouse calvarial defect model. Patterns of bone formation in vivo were comparable with patterned responses of osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. These results demonstrate that three-dimensional biopatterning of a growth factor and growth factor modifier within a construct can direct cell differentiation in vitro and tissue formation in vivo in register to printed patterns. PMID:20028232

  6. An Improved Immunostaining and Imaging Methodology to Determine Cell and Protein Distributions within the Bone Environment.

    PubMed

    Akkiraju, Hemanth; Bonor, Jeremy; Nohe, Anja

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes multiple changes throughout its lifetime. Its maintenance requires a tight regulation between the cells embedded within the bone matrix, and an imbalance among these cells may lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Identifying cell populations and their proteins within bone is necessary for understanding bone biology. Immunolabeling is one approach used to visualize proteins in tissues. Efficient immunolabeling of bone samples often requires decalcification, which may lead to changes in the structural morphology of the bone. Recently, methyl-methacrylate embedding of non-decalcified tissue followed by heat-induced antigen retrieval has been used to process bone sections for immunolabeling. However, this technique is applicable for bone slices below 50-µm thickness while fixed on slides. Additionally, enhancing epitope exposure for immunolabeling is still a challenge. Moreover, imaging bone cells within the bone environment using standard confocal microscopy is difficult. Here we demonstrate for the first time an improved methodology for immunolabeling non-decalcified bone using a testicular hyaluronidase enzyme-based antigen retrieval technique followed by two-photon fluorescence laser microscopy (TPLM) imaging. This procedure allowed us to image key intracellular proteins in bone cells while preserving the structural morphology of the cells and the bone. PMID:26718242

  7. Bone graft substitutes and bone morphogenetic proteins for osteoporotic fractures: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Alt, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in implants and surgical techniques, osteoporotic fractures remain challenging to treat. Among other major risk factors, decreased expression of morphogenetic proteins has been identified for impaired fracture healing in osteoporosis. Bone grafts or bone graft substitutes are often used for stabilizing the implant and for providing a scaffold for ingrowth of new bone. Both synthetic and naturally occurring biomaterials are available. Products generally contain hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium phosphate cement, calcium sulfate (plaster of Paris), or combinations of the above. Products have been used for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus, distal radius, vertebra, hip, and tibia plateau. Although there is generally consensus that screw augmentation increased the biomechanical properties and implant stability, the results of using these products for void filling are not unequivocal. In osteoporotic patients, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) have the potential impact to improve fracture healing by augmenting the impaired molecular and cellular mechanisms. However, the clinical evidence on the use of BMPs in patients with osteoporotic fractures is poor as there are no published clinical trials, case series or case studies. Even pre-clinical literature on in vitro and in vivo data is weak as most articles focus on the beneficial role for BMPs for restoration of the underlying pathophysiological factors of osteoporosis but do not look at the specific effects on osteoporotic fracture healing. Limited data on animal experiments suggest stimulation of fracture healing in ovariectomized rats by the use of BMPs. In conclusion, there is only limited data on the clinical relevance and optimal indications for the use of bone graft substitute materials and BMPs on the treatment of osteoporotic fractures despite the clinical benefits of these materials in other clinical indications. Given the

  8. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  9. Bone response to 3D periodic hydroxyapatite scaffolds with and without tailored microporosity to deliver bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Jennifer G; Eurell, Jo Ann C; Stewart, Matthew; Jamison, Russell D

    2006-02-01

    Three types of model hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were implanted in the metacarpal and metatarsal bones of goats. Scaffolds, consisting of a latticed pattern of rods, were fabricated with a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique. All scaffolds contained macropores; some were also fabricated with micropores (5.2 +/- 2.0 microm). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was added to some microporous scaffolds. rhBMP-2 caused increased percent filled with bone tissue compared to microporous scaffolds without rhBMP-2. Lamellar bone in the scaffolds was aligned perpendicular to the long axis of the bone near the junctions of the rods that make up the scaffold but was more random away from the junctions of rods. Microporous scaffolds stained beneath areas of contact with new bone. This staining might indicate either extracellular matrix (ECM) in the rods, byproducts of ECM production, or reaction of cellular products with the scaffold. PMID:16270335

  10. High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zara, Janette N.; Siu, Ronald K.; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M.; Ting, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The major Food and Drug Association–approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  11. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  12. N-methyl pyrrolidone as a potent bone morphogenetic protein enhancer for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Blanca San; Ghayor, Chafik; Ehrbar, Martin; Jung, Ronald E; Zwahlen, Roger A; Hortschansky, Peter; Schmoekel, Hugo G; Weber, Franz E

    2009-10-01

    In medicine, N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) has a long track record as a constituent in medical devices approved by the Food and Drug Administration and thus can be considered as a safe and biologically inactive small chemical. In the present study, we report on the newly discovered pharmaceutical property of NMP in enhancing bone regeneration in a rabbit calvarial defect model in vivo. At the cellular level, the pharmaceutical effect of NMP was confirmed, in particular, in combination with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, because NMP increased early and late markers for maturation of preosteoblasts and human bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. When we used the multipotent cell line C2C12 without autologous BMP expression, NMP alone had no effect on alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteogenic transdifferentiation. Nevertheless, in combination with low BMP-2 doses, alkaline phosphatase activity was more than eight times as great. Thus, the pharmaceutical NMP mode of action is that of an enhancer of BMP activity. The dependency of the effects of NMP on BMP was confirmed in preosteoblasts because noggin, an extracellular BMP inhibitor, suppressed NMP-induced increases in early markers for osteoblast maturation in vitro. At the molecular level, NMP was shown to have no effect on the binding of BMP-2 to the ectodomain of the high-affinity BMP receptor IA. However, NMP further increased the phosphorylation of p38 and Smad1,5,8 induced by BMP-2. Thus, the small chemical NMP enhances BMP activity by increasing the kinase activity of the BMP receptor complex for Smad1,5,8 and p38 and could be employed as a potent drug for bone tissue regeneration and engineering. PMID:19320543

  13. The effect of whey acidic protein fractions on bone loss in the ovariectomised rat.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; Plimmer, Gabrielle G; Schollum, Linda M; Haggarty, Neill; Ram, Satyendra; Palmano, Kate

    2005-08-01

    Bovine milk has been shown to contain bioactive components with bone-protective properties. Earlier studies on bovine milk whey protein showed that it suppressed bone resorption in the female ovariectomised rat. A new osteotropic component was subsequently identified in the whey basic protein fraction, but bone bioactivity may also be associated with other whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated whether acidic protein fractions isolated from bovine milk whey could prevent bone loss in mature ovariectomised female rats. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) or left intact (sham). The OVX rats were randomised into four groups. One group remained the control (OVX), whereas three groups were fed various whey acidic protein fractions from milk whey as 3 g/kg diet for 4 months. Outcomes were bone mineral density, bone biomechanics and markers of bone turnover. Bone mineral density of the femurs indicated that one of the whey AF over time caused a recovery of bone lost from OVX. Plasma C-telopeptide of type I collagen decreased significantly in all groups except OVX control over time, indicating an anti-resorptive effect of whey acidic protein. Biomechanical data showed that the AF may affect bone architecture as elasticity was increased by one of the whey AF. The femurs of AF-supplemented rats all showed an increase in organic matter. This is the first report of an acidic whey protein fraction isolated from milk whey that may support the recovery of bone loss in vivo. PMID:16115359

  14. Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Oxon Inhibit Axonal Growth by Interfering with the Morphogenic Activity of Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongren; Howard, Angela; Bruun, Donald; Ajua-Alemanj, Mispa; Pickart, Cecile; Lein, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    A primary role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission by hydrolysis of synaptic acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system, however, AChE also functions as a morphogenic factor to promote axonal growth. This raises the question of whether organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that are known to selectively bind to and inactivate the enzymatic function of AChE also interfere with its morphogenic function to perturb axonogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of sensory neurons derived from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to chlorpyrifos (CPF) or its oxon metabolite (CPFO). Both OPs significantly decreased axonal length at concentrations that had no effect on cell viability, protein synthesis or the enzymatic activity of AChE. Comparative analyses of the effects of CPF and CPFO on axonal growth in DRG neurons cultured from AChE nullizygous (AChE−/−) versus wildtype (AChE+/+) mice indicated that while these OPs inhibited axonal growth in AChE+/+ DRG neurons, they had no effect on axonal growth in AChE−/− DRG neurons. However, transfection of AChE−/− DRG neurons with cDNA encoding full-length AChE restored the wildtype response to the axon inhibitory effects of OPs. These data indicate that inhibition of axonal growth by OPs requires AChE, but the mechanism involves inhibition of the morphogenic rather than enzymatic activity of AChE. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for explaining not only the functional deficits observed in children and animals following developmental exposure to OPs, but also the increased vulnerability of the developing nervous system to OPs. PMID:18076960

  15. Chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon inhibit axonal growth by interfering with the morphogenic activity of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Dongren; Howard, Angela; Bruun, Donald; Ajua-Alemanj, Mispa; Pickart, Cecile; Lein, Pamela J.

    2008-04-01

    A primary role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission by hydrolysis of synaptic acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system, however, AChE also functions as a morphogenic factor to promote axonal growth. This raises the question of whether organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that are known to selectively bind to and inactivate the enzymatic function of AChE also interfere with its morphogenic function to perturb axonogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of sensory neurons derived from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to chlorpyrifos (CPF) or its oxon metabolite (CPFO). Both OPs significantly decreased axonal length at concentrations that had no effect on cell viability, protein synthesis or the enzymatic activity of AChE. Comparative analyses of the effects of CPF and CPFO on axonal growth in DRG neurons cultured from AChE nullizygous (AChE{sup -/-}) versus wild type (AChE{sup +/+}) mice indicated that while these OPs inhibited axonal growth in AChE{sup +/+} DRG neurons, they had no effect on axonal growth in AChE{sup -/-} DRG neurons. However, transfection of AChE{sup -/-} DRG neurons with cDNA encoding full-length AChE restored the wild type response to the axon inhibitory effects of OPs. These data indicate that inhibition of axonal growth by OPs requires AChE, but the mechanism involves inhibition of the morphogenic rather than enzymatic activity of AChE. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for explaining not only the functional deficits observed in children and animals following developmental exposure to OPs, but also the increased vulnerability of the developing nervous system to OPs.

  16. Gene gun transferring-bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene enhanced bone fracture healing in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenju; Wei, Haifeng; Xia, Chunmei; Zhu, Xiaomeng; Hou, Guozhu; Xu, Feng; Song, Xinghua; Zhan, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transferring the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) genes into the tissues or cells can improve the bone healing of the fracture has been widely accepted. We evaluated the efficiency of using gene gun to transfer the BMP-2 gene thereby affected the healing of a fractured bone. Methods: The vector coding for BMP-2 was constructed by a non-replicating encephalo-myocarditis virus (ECMV)-based vector. The segmental bone defect (1.5 cm) model was created by a wire-saw at the middle part of the radius bone of the New Zealand white rabbits. Then either BMP-2 gene or control vector without BMP-2 gene was injected into the tissues around the fracture site. Healing of the defects was monitored radiographically for 9 weeks, bone consolidation was determined by the Lane-Sandhu score pre- and post-operatively, which can evaluated bone formation, bone connect and bone plasticity. Results: The radiographic score and bone consolidation rates were significantly higher in animals injected with BMP-2 gene group as compared with control vector-injected animals (P<0.05). The control group still showed no radiological signs of stable healing. Western-blot and RT-PCR showed BMP-2 expression was significant increase in the tissues around the site of osseous lesions in comparison with the control vector-injected animals (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggested that BMP-2 gene transferred by gene gun could increase the expression of BMP-2 protein and improved the bone callus formation therefore shortened the time of bone defect healing. PMID:26884910

  17. Expression of proteoglycan core proteins in human bone marrow stroma.

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, K P; Gallagher, J T; David, G

    1999-01-01

    Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on the surface of bone marrow stromal cells and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) have important roles in the control of adhesion and growth of haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The two main groups of proteoglycans which contain heparan sulphate chains are members of the syndecan and glypican families. In this study we have identified the main surface membrane and matrix-associated HSPGs present in normal human bone marrow stroma formed in long-term culture. Proteoglycans were extracted from the adherent stromal layers and treated with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC. The core proteins were detected by Western blotting using antibodies directed against syndecans-1-4, glypican-1 and the ECM HSPG, perlecan. Stromal cell expression at the RNA level was detected by Northern blotting and by reverse transcription PCR. Glypican-1, syndecan-3 and syndecan-4 were the major cell-membrane HSPG species and perlecan was the major ECM proteoglycan. There was no evidence for expression of syndecan-1 protein. Syndecan-3 was expressed mainly as a variant or processed 50-55 kDa core protein and in lower amounts as the characteristic 125 kDa core protein. These results suggest that syndecan-3, syndecan-4 and glypican-1 present on the surface of marrow stromal cells, together with perlecan in the ECM, may be responsible for creating the correct stromal 'niche' for the maintenance and development of haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The detection of a variant form of syndecan-3 as a major stromal HSPG suggests a specific role for this syndecan in haemopoiesis. PMID:10527946

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein-2: a potential regulator in scleral remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianmin; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shaowei; Hu, Shoulong; Li, Chuanxu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a member of the main subgroup of bone morphogenetic proteins within the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. BMP-2 is involved in numerous cellular functions including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix synthesis. We examined BMP-2 expression in human scleral fibroblasts (HSF) and assessed the effects of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on HSF proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). Methods We used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) to study BMP-2 distribution in HSF cells and frozen human scleral sections. The influence of rhBMP-2 on cell proliferation at different concentrations (0 ng/ml, 1 ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, and 100 ng/ml) was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of rhBMP-2 on the cell cycle were investigated with flow cytometric analysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to examine MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNAs and secreted proteins in HSF that were incubated with rhBMP-2. Results BMP-2 protein expression from human sclera was confirmed by CFM. Cell proliferation was significantly increased with 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 in a time-dependent manner (p<0.05). The HSF cell cycle moved to the S and S+G2M phases after rhBMP-2 stimulation at 100 ng/ml compared to normal cells (p<0.05). TIMP-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in HSF incubated for 24 h with 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 (p<0.01). A 48 h incubation with 10 ng/ml or 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 resulted in significantly increased TIMP-2 mRNA and protein expression and significantly decreased MMP-2 mRNA expression (p<0.01) while MMP-2 protein expression significantly decreased at 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 (p<0.01). Conclusions Human sclera fibroblasts expressed BMP-2, which promoted cell proliferation, and elicited changes in MMP-2 and TIMP-2

  19. Morphogenic role for acetylcholinesterase in axonal outgrowth during neural development.

    PubMed Central

    Bigbee, J W; Sharma, K V; Gupta, J J; Dupree, J L

    1999-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions. However, results from our laboratory and others indicate that AChE has an extrasynaptic, noncholinergic role during neural development. This article is a review of our findings demonstrating the morphogenic role of AChE, using a neuronal cell culture model. We also discuss how these data suggest that AChE has a cell adhesive function during neural development. These results could have additional significance as AChE is the target enzyme of agricultural organophosphate and carbamate pesticides as well as the commonly used household organophosphate chlorpyrifos (Dursban). Prenatal exposure to these agents could have adverse effects on neural development by interfering with the morphogenic function of AChE. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10229710

  20. Quantitative multivariate analysis of dynamic multicellular morphogenic trajectories.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas E; Sylvester, Jonathan B; Levario, Thomas J; Lu, Hang; Streelman, J Todd; McDevitt, Todd C; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Interrogating fundamental cell biology principles that govern tissue morphogenesis is critical to better understanding of developmental biology and engineering novel multicellular systems. Recently, functional micro-tissues derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates have provided novel platforms for experimental investigation; however elucidating the factors directing emergent spatial phenotypic patterns remains a significant challenge. Computational modelling techniques offer a unique complementary approach to probe mechanisms regulating morphogenic processes and provide a wealth of spatio-temporal data, but quantitative analysis of simulations and comparison to experimental data is extremely difficult. Quantitative descriptions of spatial phenomena across multiple systems and scales would enable unprecedented comparisons of computational simulations with experimental systems, thereby leveraging the inherent power of computational methods to interrogate the mechanisms governing emergent properties of multicellular biology. To address these challenges, we developed a portable pattern recognition pipeline consisting of: the conversion of cellular images into networks, extraction of novel features via network analysis, and generation of morphogenic trajectories. This novel methodology enabled the quantitative description of morphogenic pattern trajectories that could be compared across diverse systems: computational modelling of multicellular structures, differentiation of stem cell aggregates, and gastrulation of cichlid fish. Moreover, this method identified novel spatio-temporal features associated with different stages of embryo gastrulation, and elucidated a complex paracrine mechanism capable of explaining spatiotemporal pattern kinetic differences in ESC aggregates of different sizes. PMID:26095427

  1. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-06-10

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  2. Hemojuvelin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Core, Amanda B; Canali, Susanna; Babitt, Jodie L

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in hemojuvelin (HJV) are the most common cause of the juvenile-onset form of the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. The discovery that HJV functions as a co-receptor for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of signaling molecules helped to identify this signaling pathway as a central regulator of the key iron hormone hepcidin in the control of systemic iron homeostasis. This review highlights recent work uncovering the mechanism of action of HJV and the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway in regulating hepcidin expression in the liver, as well as additional studies investigating possible extra-hepatic functions of HJV. This review also explores the interaction between HJV, the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway and other regulators of hepcidin expression in systemic iron balance. PMID:24860505

  3. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  4. Tissue-Engineered Autologous Grafts for Facial Bone Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Bernhard, Jonathan C.; Alfi, David M.; Yeager, Keith; Eton, Ryan E.; Bova, Jonathan; Shah, Forum; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lopez, Mandi J.; Eisig, Sidney B.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Facial deformities require precise reconstruction of the appearance and function of the original tissue. The current standard of care—the use of bone harvested from another region in the body—has major limitations, including pain and comorbidities associated with surgery. We have engineered one of the most geometrically complex facial bones by using autologous stromal/stem cells, without bone morphogenic proteins, using native bovine bone matrix and a perfusion bioreactor for the growth and transport of living grafts. The ramus-condyle unit (RCU), the most eminent load-bearing bone in the skull, was reconstructed using an image-guided personalized approach in skeletally mature Yucatan minipigs (human-scale preclinical model). We used clinically approved decellularized bovine trabecular bone as a scaffolding material, and crafted it into an anatomically correct shape using image-guided micromilling, to fit the defect. Autologous adipose-derived stromal/stem cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in perfusion for 3 weeks in a specialized bioreactor to form immature bone tissue. Six months after implantation, the engineered grafts maintained their anatomical structure, integrated with native tissues, and generated greater volume of new bone and greater vascular infiltration than either non-seeded anatomical scaffolds or untreated defects. This translational study demonstrates feasibility of facial bone reconstruction using autologous, anatomically shaped, living grafts formed in vitro, and presents a platform for personalized bone tissue engineering. PMID:27306665

  5. Enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced ectopic and orthotopic bone formation by intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34) administration.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Diederik H R; Lu, Lichun; Hefferan, Theresa E; Creemers, Laura B; Heijink, Andras; Maran, Avudaiappan; Dhert, Wouter J A; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a central role in local bone regeneration strategies, whereas the anabolic features of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are particularly appealing for the systemic treatment of generalized bone loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether local BMP-2-induced bone regeneration could be enhanced by systemic administration of PTH (1-34). Empty or BMP-2-loaded poly(lactic-co glycolic acid)/poly(propylene fumarate)/gelatin composites were implanted subcutaneously and in femoral defects in rats (n = 9). For the orthotopic site, empty defects were also tested. Each of the conditions was investigated in combination with daily administered subcutaneous PTH (1-34) injections in the neck. After 8 weeks of implantation, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume were analyzed using microcomputed tomography and histology. Ectopic bone formation and almost complete healing of the femoral defect were only seen in rats that received BMP-2-loaded composites. Additional treatment of the rats with PTH (1-34) resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced BMD and bone volume in the BMP-2 composites at both implantation sites. Despite its effect on BMD in the humerus and vertebra, PTH (1-34) treatment had no significant effect on BMD and bone volume in the empty femoral defects and the ectopically or orthotopically implanted empty composites. Histological analysis showed that the newly formed bone had a normal woven and trabecular appearance. Overall, this study suggests that intermittent administration of a low PTH dose alone has limited potential to enhance local bone regeneration in a critical-sized defect in rats. However, when combined with local BMP-2-releasing scaffolds, PTH administration significantly enhanced osteogenesis in both ectopic and orthotopic sites. PMID:20666615

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Bone Destruction and Bone Loss in Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Widaa, Amro; Claro, Tania; Foster, Timothy J.; O’Brien, Fergal J.; Kerrigan, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent causative organism of osteomyelitis. It is characterised by widespread bone loss and bone destruction. Previously we demonstrated that S. aureus protein A (SpA) is capable of binding to tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 expressed on pre-osteoblastic cells, which results in signal generation that leads to cell apoptosis resulting in bone loss. In the current report we demonstrate that upon S. aureus binding to osteoblasts it also inhibits de novo bone formation by preventing expression of key markers of osteoblast growth and division such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteocalcin. In addition, S. aureus induces secretion of soluble RANKL from osteoblasts which in turn recruits and activates the bone resorbing cells, osteoclasts. A strain of S. aureus defective in SpA failed to affect osteoblast growth or proliferation and most importantly failed to recruit or activate osteoclasts. These results suggest that S. aureus SpA binding to osteoblasts provides multiple coordinated signals that accounts for bone loss and bone destruction seen in osteomyelitis cases. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which S. aureus leads to bone infection may improve treatment or lead to the development of better therapeutic agents to treat this notoriously difficult disease. PMID:22792377

  7. The Role of Regulated mRNA Stability in Establishing Bicoid Morphogen Gradient in Drosophila Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2011-01-01

    The Bicoid morphogen is amongst the earliest triggers of differential spatial pattern of gene expression and subsequent cell fate determination in the embryonic development of Drosophila. This maternally deposited morphogen is thought to diffuse in the embryo, establishing a concentration gradient which is sensed by downstream genes. In most model based analyses of this process, the translation of the bicoid mRNA is thought to take place at a fixed rate from the anterior pole of the embryo and a supply of the resulting protein at a constant rate is assumed. Is this process of morphogen generation a passive one as assumed in the modelling literature so far, or would available data support an alternate hypothesis that the stability of the mRNA is regulated by active processes? We introduce a model in which the stability of the maternal mRNA is regulated by being held constant for a length of time, followed by rapid degradation. With this more realistic model of the source, we have analysed three computational models of spatial morphogen propagation along the anterior-posterior axis: (a) passive diffusion modelled as a deterministic differential equation, (b) diffusion enhanced by a cytoplasmic flow term; and (c) diffusion modelled by stochastic simulation of the corresponding chemical reactions. Parameter estimation on these models by matching to publicly available data on spatio-temporal Bicoid profiles suggests strong support for regulated stability over either a constant supply rate or one where the maternal mRNA is permitted to degrade in a passive manner. PMID:21949782

  8. Discontinuous release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded within interconnected pores of honeycomb-like polycaprolactone scaffold promotes bone healing in a large bone defect of rabbit ulna.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Hak-Jun; Lim, Hong-Chul; Park, Jung-Ho; Liu, Yuchun; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2011-10-01

    The choice of an appropriate carrier and its microarchitectural design is integral in directing bone ingrowth into the defect site and determining its subsequent rate of bone formation and remodeling. We have selected a three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure to provide a conduit for vasculature ingrowth as well as an osteoconductive pathway to guide recruited cells responding to a unique triphasic release of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) from these PCL scaffolds. We hypothesize that the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2)-PCL constructs promotes rapid union and bone regeneration of a large defect. Results of our pilot study on a unilateral 15 mm mid-diaphyseal segmental rabbit ulna defect demonstrated enhanced bone healing with greater amount of bone formation and bridging under plain radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging when compared with an empty PCL and untreated group after 8 weeks postimplantation. Quantitative measurements showed significantly higher bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, with lower trabecular separation in the rhBMP2-treated groups. Histology evaluation also revealed greater mature bone formation spanning across the entire scaffold region compared with other groups, which showed no bone regeneration within the central defect zone. We highlight that it is the uniqueness of the scaffold having a highly porous network of channels that promoted vascular integration and allowed for cellular infiltration, leading to a discontinuous triphasic BMP2 release profile that mimicked the release profile during natural repair mechanisms in vivo. This study serves as preclinical evidence demonstrating the potential of combining osteoinductive rhBMP2 with our PCL constructs for the repair of large defects in a large animal model. PMID:21682591

  9. Dexamethasone Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow- and Muscle-Derived Stromal Cells and Augments Ectopic Bone Formation Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Masato; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Takashi; Masaoka, Tomokazu; Xuetao, Wei; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Horie, Masaki; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Uemura, Toshimasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sotome, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether dexamethasone augments the osteogenic capability of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) and muscle tissue-derived stromal cells (MuSCs), both of which are thought to contribute to ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and determined the underlying mechanisms. Rat BMSCs and MuSCs were cultured in growth media with or without 10-7 M dexamethasone and then differentiated under osteogenic conditions with dexamethasone and BMP-2. The effects of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and also on ectopic bone formation induced by BMP-2, were analyzed. Dexamethasone affected not only the proliferation rate but also the subpopulation composition of BMSCs and MuSCs, and subsequently augmented their osteogenic capacity during osteogenic differentiation. During osteogenic induction by BMP-2, dexamethasone also markedly affected cell proliferation in both BMSCs and MuSCs. In an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, bone formation in muscle-implanted scaffolds containing dexamethasone and BMP-2 was more than two fold higher than that in scaffolds containing BMP-2 alone. Our results suggest that dexamethasone potently enhances the osteogenic capability of BMP-2 and may thus decrease the quantity of BMP-2 required for clinical application, thereby reducing the complications caused by excessive doses of BMP-2. Highlights: 1. Dexamethasone induced selective proliferation of bone marrow- and muscle-derived cells with higher differentiation potential. 2. Dexamethasone enhanced the osteogenic capability of bone marrow- and muscle-derived cells by altering the subpopulation composition. 3. Dexamethasone augmented ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2. PMID:25659106

  10. Expression of bone matrix proteins in urolithiasis model rats.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Fujita, K; Sasaki, S; Sato, M; Sugimoto, M; Hirota, S; Kitamura, Y; Nomura, S; Kohri, K

    1999-08-01

    Urinary calcium stones are a pathological substance, and they show similarities to physiological mineralization and other pathological mineralizations. The expression of messenger (m) RNAs of osteopontin (OPN), matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteonectin (ON) and osteocalcin (OC) in bones and teeth has been described. We previously identified OPN as an important stone matrix protein. In addition, the spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking MGP was recently reported, a finding which indicates that MGP has a function as an inhibitor of mineralization. Here, we examined the mRNA expressions of OPN, MGP, ON, and OC in the kidneys of stone-forming model rats administered an oxalate precursor, ethylene glycol (EG) for up to 28 days. The Northern blotting showed that the mRNA expressions of OPN and MGP were markedly increased with the administration of EG, but their expression patterns differed. The OPN mRNA expression reached the maximal level at day 7 after the initiation of the EG treatment and showed no significant difference after 14 and 28 days, whereas the MGP mRNA expression rose gradually to day 28. The in situ hybridization demonstrated that the cell type expressing OPN mRNA was different from that expressing MGP. We suggest that OPN acts on calcification and MGP acts on suppression. PMID:10460895

  11. Role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in renal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui Xi; Yiu, Wai Han; Tang, Sydney C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is final common pathway of end stage renal disease. Irrespective of the primary cause, renal fibrogenesis is a dynamic process which involves a large network of cellular and molecular interaction, including pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, matrix-producing cell accumulation and activation, and secretion of profibrogenic factors that modulate extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and cell-cell interaction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 is a protein of the TGF-β super family and increasingly regarded as a counteracting molecule against TGF-β. A large variety of evidence shows an anti-fibrotic role of BMP-7 in chronic kidney disease, and this effect is largely mediated via counterbalancing the profibrotic effect of TGF-β. Besides, BMP-7 reduced ECM formation by inactivating matrix-producing cells and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). BMP-7 also increased ECM degradation. Despite these observations, the anti-fibrotic effect of BMP-7 is still controversial such that fine regulation of BMP-7 expression in vivo might be a great challenge for its ultimate clinical application. PMID:25954203

  12. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  13. Bone Tissue Engineering Using High Permeability Poly-epsilon-caprolactone Scaffolds Conjugated with Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsak, Anna Guyer

    Bone is the second most commonly transplanted tissue in the United States. Limitations of current bone defect treatment options include morbidity at the autograft harvest site, mechanical failure, and poorly controlled growth factor delivery. Combining synthetic scaffolds with biologics may address these issues and reduce dependency on autografts. The ideal scaffolding system should promote tissue in-growth and nutrient diffusion, control delivery of biologics and maintain mechanical integrity during bone formation. This dissertation evaluates how scaffold permeability, conjugated bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and differentiation medium affect osteogenesis in vitro and bone growth in vivo.. "High" and "low" permeability polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with regular architectures were manufactured using solid free form fabrication. Bone growth in vivo was evaluated in an ectopic mouse model. High permeability scaffolds promoted better 8 week bone growth, supported tissue penetration into the scaffold core, and demonstrated increased mechanical properties due to newly formed bone. Next, the effects of differentiation medium and conjugated BMP-2 on osteogenesis were compared. Conjugation may improve BMP-2 loading efficiency, help localize bone growth and control release. High permeability scaffolds were conjugated with BMP-2 using the crosslinker, sulfo-SMCC. When adipose-derived and bone marrow stromal cells were seeded onto constructs (with or without BMP-2), BMSC expressed more differentiation markers, and differentiation medium affected differentiation more than BMP-2. In vivo, scaffolds with ADSC pre-differentiated in osteogenic medium (with and without BMP-2) and scaffolds with only BMP-2 grew the most bone. Bone volume did not differ among these groups, but constructs with ADSC had evenly distributed, scaffold-guided bone growth. Analysis of two additional BMP-2 attachment methods (heparin and adsorption) showed highest conjugation efficiency for the

  14. [Comparison between gene therapy and gradual release carrier for bone morphogenetic protein-2 in repairing bone defects].

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Bai, Lunhao; Cui, Shaoqian; Wang, Huan; Xu, Xinxiang

    2007-06-01

    To compare the effects between gene therapy and gradual release carrier for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in repairing bone defects, bone defects for 15 mm were created.on the bilateral radius in rabbits and treated with four kinds of implantations, ie, composite of transgeneic MSCs and PLA/PCL (Group A), composite of MSCs and gradual release carrier for BMP-2 (Group B), composite of MSCs and PLA/PCL (Group C), and PLA/PCL alone (Group D). After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of the operations, X-ray, histological examination, biomechanics analysis, and bone density measurement were conducted. Results showed that both osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells displayed strongly positive expression of BMP-2 in Group A after 4 weeks of the operation, the speed and quality of bone formation in Group A were much better than those in Group B. After 12 weeks of the operations, bone defects were completely repaired in Group A. BMP-2 gene therapy is really a good method to repair segmental bone defects. PMID:17713285

  15. Molecular Design of Bisphosphonate-Modified Proteins for Efficient Bone Targeting In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sano, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Makiya; Hanzawa, Keiko; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    To establish a rational molecular design for bisphosphonate (BP)-modified proteins for efficient bone targeting, a pharmacokinetic study was performed using a series of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing BP, modified proteins with various molecular weights and varying degrees of modification. Four proteins with different molecular weight—yeast glutathione reductase (GR; MW: 112,000 Da), bovine serum albumin (BSA; MW: 67,000 Da), recombinant human superoxide dismutase (SOD; MW: 32,000 Da), and chicken egg white lysozyme (LZM; MW: 14,000 Da)—were modified with ALN to obtain ALN-modified proteins. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the tissue distribution of the ALN-modified and unmodified proteins was performed after radiolabeling them with indium-111 (111In) by using a bifunctional chelating agent. Calculation of tissue uptake clearances revealed that the bone uptake clearances of 111In-ALN-modified proteins were proportional to the degree of ALN modification. 111In-GR-ALN and BSA-ALN, the two high-molecular-weight proteins, efficiently accumulated in bones, regardless of the degree of ALN modification. Approximately 36 and 34% of the dose, respectively, was calculated to be delivered to the bones. In contrast, the maximum amounts taken up by bone were 18 and 13% of the dose for 111In-SOD-ALN(32) and LZM-ALN(9), respectively, because of their high renal clearance. 111In-SOD modified with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ALN (111In-PEG-SOD-ALN) was efficiently delivered to the bone. Approximately 36% of the dose was estimated to be delivered to the bones. In an experimental bone metastasis mouse model, treatment with PEG-SOD-ALN significantly reduced the number of tumor cells in the bone of the mice. These results indicate that the combination of PEG and ALN modification is a promising approach for efficient bone targeting of proteins with a high total-body clearance. PMID:26287482

  16. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (p<0.05) in CON. Isocaloric high protein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: p<0.001). Bone formation markers were unaffected by high protein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  17. Differential expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Dhore, C R; Cleutjens, J P; Lutgens, E; Cleutjens, K B; Geusens, P P; Kitslaar, P J; Tordoir, J H; Spronk, H M; Vermeer, C; Daemen, M J

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the expression of regulators of bone formation and osteoclastogenesis in human atherosclerosis because accumulating evidence suggests that atherosclerotic calcification shares features with bone calcification. The most striking finding of this study was the constitutive immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein in nondiseased aortas and the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, osteopontin, and osteonectin in nondiseased aortas and early atherosclerotic lesions. When atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated calcification or bone formation, BMP-2, BMP-4, osteopontin, and osteonectin were upregulated. Interestingly, this upregulation was associated with a sustained immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. The 2 modulators of osteoclastogenesis (osteoprotegerin [OPG] and its ligand, OPGL) were present in the nondiseased vessel wall and in early atherosclerotic lesions. In advanced calcified lesions, OPG was present in bone structures, whereas OPGL was only present in the extracellular matrix surrounding calcium deposits. The observed expression patterns suggest a tight regulation of the expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins during human atherogenesis. The expression pattern of both OPG and OPGL during atherogenesis might suggest a regulatory role of these proteins not only in osteoclastogenesis but also in atherosclerotic calcification. PMID:11742876

  18. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  19. Isolation of bovine corneal keratan sulfate and its growth factor and morphogen binding.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Amanda; Yang, Bo; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yee, Vienna; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is an important glycosaminoglycan that is found in cartilage, reproductive tissues, and neural tissues. Corneal KS glycosaminoglycan is found N-linked to lumican, keratocan and mimecan proteoglycans, and has been widely studied by investigators interested in corneal development and diseases. Recently, the availability of corneal KS has become severely limited, owing to restrictions on the shipment of bovine central nervous system byproducts across international borders in an effort to prevent additional cases of mad cow disease. We report a simple method for the purification of multi-milligram quantities of bovine corneal KS, and characterize its structural properties. We also examined its protein-binding properties, and discovered that corneal KS bound with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor-2 and sonic hedgehog, a growth factor and a morphogen involved in corneal development and healing. PMID:23402351

  20. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone quality have been reported. The effects of other dietary protein sources such as whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on bone growth has been less well examined. The current study compared effects of feeding soy protein i...

  1. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates human embryonic germ cell derivation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; Gearhart, John D; Kerr, Candace L

    2011-02-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency. PMID:20486775

  2. Heparan sulfate is required for bone morphogenetic protein-7 signaling.

    PubMed

    Irie, Atsushi; Habuchi, Hiroko; Kimata, Koji; Sanai, Yutaka

    2003-09-01

    Although genetic studies have suggested that heparan sulfate (HS) is involved in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated embryonic morphogenesis, it is unclear whether HS is directly involved in BMP-mediated signaling. Here, we investigate the involvement of HS in BMP-7 signaling. We show that HS and heparin chains specifically bind to BMP-7. Digestion of cell-surface HS with heparitinase interferes with BMP-7-mediated Smad phosphorylation in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. Inhibiting sulfation of cell-surface HS with chlorate also causes interruption of Smad phosphorylation. Addition of exogenous heparin to ROS 17/2.8 cells prevents BMP-7-mediated Smad phosphorylation rather than enhances the BMP-7 signal, suggesting that HS should be anchored on the plasma membrane for BMP signaling. Moreover, BMP-7 binding to ROS 17/2.8 cells is inhibited by chlorate treatment and exogenous application of heparin. These results demonstrate that BMP-7 specifically binds to cell-surface HS and the BMP-7-HS interaction is required for BMP-7 signaling. PMID:12927798

  3. Disuse osteopenia is accompanied by downregulation of gene expression for bone proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Wakley, G K; Portwood, J S; Turner, R T

    1992-12-01

    Unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) resulted in cortical osteopenia in tibiae from the sciatic nerve-sectioned limb of growing rats. The bone deficit resulted from decreased periosteal addition; there were no changes in the indexes of bone resorption. The periosteal bone formation rate was reduced in the nerve-sectioned limb within 7 days of sciatic neurectomy, and this decrease persisted for at least 56 days. Steady-state mRNA levels for bone proteins were determined in periosteum isolated from tibiae and femurs 7 and 14 days after sciatic nerve section. Nerve section resulted in decreased levels of mRNA for osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and possibly the prepro-alpha (I)-subunit of type I collagen (collagen). The effects were more pronounced in tibiae than femurs, corresponding to the greater degree of immobility induced by USN in the former bone. The results demonstrate that decreased bone formation precedes establishment of disuse cortical osteopenia in growing rats with no evidence for a change in bone resorption. Furthermore, the decreased bone formation is associated with, and may be due to, reduced mRNA levels for matrix proteins and other important bone proteins. PMID:1476173

  4. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro . E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  5. Relationship of Circulating Total Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein to Trabecular Bone in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184)....

  6. Altered Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Accessory Proteins in Murine and Human Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Noelle; Gaynor, Katherine U; Rowan, Simon C; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurelie; Boylan, John; Keane, Michael P; McLoughlin, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive fibrotic disease with a poor prognosis. The balance between transforming growth factor β1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays an important role in tissue homeostasis, and alterations can result in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that multiple BMP accessory proteins may be responsible for maintaining this balance in the lung. Using the bleomycin mouse model for fibrosis, we examined an array of BMP accessory proteins for changes in mRNA expression. We report significant increases in mRNA expression of gremlin 1, noggin, follistatin, and follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), and significant decreases in mRNA expression of chordin, kielin/chordin-like protein, nephroblastoma overexpressed gene, and BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI). Protein expression studies demonstrated increased levels of noggin, BAMBI, and FSTL1 in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor β stimulation resulted in increased expression of noggin, BAMBI, and FSTL1 in human small airway epithelial cells. These results provide the first evidence that multiple BMP accessory proteins are altered in fibrosis and may play a role in promoting fibrotic injury. PMID:26765958

  7. Fundamental origins and limits for scaling a maternal morphogen gradient

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Wei, Chuanxian; Wu, Honggang; Cheung, David; Jiao, Renjie; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Tissue expansion and patterning are integral to development, but it is unknown quantitatively how a mother accumulates molecular resources to invest in the future of instructing robust embryonic patterning. Here we develop a model, Tissue Expansion-Modulated Maternal Morphogen Scaling (TEM3S), to study scaled anterior-posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Using both ovaries and embryos, we measure a core quantity of the model, the scaling power of the Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient’s amplitude nA. We also evaluate directly model-derived predictions about Bcd gradient and patterning properties. Our results show that scaling of the Bcd gradient in the embryo originates from, and is constrained fundamentally by, a dynamic relationship between maternal tissue expansion and bcd gene copy number expansion in the ovary. This delicate connection between the two transitioning stages of a life cycle, stemming from a finite value of nA ~ 3, underscores a key feature of developmental systems depicted by TEM3S. PMID:25809405

  8. Platelet-rich plasma for long bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Lenza, Mário; Ferraz, Silvia de Barros; Viola, Dan Carai Maia; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Ferretti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the use of platelet-rich plasma as coadjuvant for union of long bones. Methods: The search strategy included the Cochrane Library (via Central) and MEDLINE (via PubMed). There were no limits as to language or publication media. The latest search strategy was conducted in December 2011. It included randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of platelet-rich plasma as coadjuvant medication to accelerate union of long bones (acute fractures, pseudoarthrosis and bone defects). The outcomes of interest for this review include bone regeneration, adverse events, costs, pain, and quality of life. The authors selected eligible studies, evaluated the methodological quality, and extracted the data. It was not possible to perform quantitative analysis of the grouped studies (meta-analyses). Results: Two randomized prospective clinical trials were included, with a total of 148 participants. One of them compared recombinant human morphogenic bone protein-7 versus platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of pseudoarthrosis; the other evaluated the effects of three coadjuvant treatments for union of valgising tibial osteotomies (platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich plasma plus bone marrow stromal cells, and no coadjuvant treatment). Both had low statistical power and moderate to high risk of bias. Conclusion: There was no conclusive evidence that sustained the use of platelet-rich plasma as a coadjuvant to aid bone regeneration of fractures, pseudoarthrosis, or bone defects. PMID:23579757

  9. Uncovering Molecular Bases Underlying Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Inhibitor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Alsamarah, Abdelaziz; LaCuran, Alecander E.; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Hao, Jijun; Luo, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal alteration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is implicated in many types of diseases including cancer and heterotopic ossifications. Hence, small molecules targeting BMP type I receptors (BMPRI) to interrupt BMP signaling are believed to be an effective approach to treat these diseases. However, lack of understanding of the molecular determinants responsible for the binding selectivity of current BMP inhibitors has been a big hindrance to the development of BMP inhibitors for clinical use. To address this issue, we carried out in silico experiments to test whether computational methods can reproduce and explain the high selectivity of a small molecule BMP inhibitor DMH1 on BMPRI kinase ALK2 vs. the closely related TGF-β type I receptor kinase ALK5 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase. We found that, while the rigid docking method used here gave nearly identical binding affinity scores among the three kinases; free energy perturbation coupled with Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (FEP/H-REMD) simulations reproduced the absolute binding free energies in excellent agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the binding poses identified by FEP/H-REMD led to a quantitative analysis of physical/chemical determinants governing DMH1 selectivity. The current work illustrates that small changes in the binding site residue type (e.g. pre-hinge region in ALK2 vs. ALK5) or side chain orientation (e.g. Tyr219 in caALK2 vs. wtALK2), as well as a subtle structural modification on the ligand (e.g. DMH1 vs. LDN193189) will cause distinct binding profiles and selectivity among BMP inhibitors. Therefore, the current computational approach represents a new way of investigating BMP inhibitors. Our results provide critical information for designing exclusively selective BMP inhibitors for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for diseases caused by aberrant BMP signaling. PMID:26133550

  10. A glass polyalkenoate cement carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Alhalawani, Adel M F; Rodriguez, Omar; Curran, Declan J; Co, Russell; Kieran, Sean; Arshad, Saad; Keenan, Timothy J; Wren, Anthony W; Crasto, Gazelle; Peel, Sean A F; Towler, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    This work considers a glass polyalkenoate cement (GPC)-based carrier for the effective delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) at an implantation site. A 0.12 CaO-0.04 SrO-0.36 ZnO-0.48 SiO2 based glass and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, Mw 213,000) were employed for the fabrication of the GPC. The media used for the water source in the GPC reaction was altered to produce a series of GPCs. The GPC liquid media was either 100 % distilled water with additions of albumin at 0, 2, 5 and 8 wt% of the glass content, 100 % formulation buffer (IFB), and 100 % BMP (150 µg rhBMP-2/ml IFB). Rheological properties, compressive strength, ion release profiles and BMP release were evaluated. Working times (Tw) of the formulated GPCs significantly increased with the addition of 2 % albumin and remained constant with further increases in albumin content or IFB solutions. Setting time (Ts) experienced an increase with 2 and 5 % albumin content, but a decrease with 8 % albumin. Changing the liquid source to IFB containing 5 % albumin had no significant effect on Ts compared to the 8 % albumin-containing BT101. Replacing the albumin with IFB/BMP-2 did not significantly affect Tw. However, Ts increased for the BT101_BMP-2 containing GPCs, compared to all other samples. The compressive strength evaluated 1 day post cement mixing was not affected significantly by the incorporation of BMPs, but the ion release did increase from the cements, particularly for Zn and Sr. The GPCs released BMP after the first day, which decreased in content during the following 6 days. This study has proven that BMPs can be immobilized into GPCs and may result in novel materials for clinical applications. PMID:25773232

  11. Promotion of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by Tetraspanins and Glycosphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Lindsey C.; Aydin, Taner; Yun, Sijung; Constas, Katharine; Schaeffer, Arielle; Ranjan, Sinthu; Kubba, Saad; Alam, Emad; McMahon, Devin E.; He, Jingpeng; Shwartz, Neta; Tian, Chenxi; Plavskin, Yevgeniy; Lindy, Amanda; Dad, Nimra Amir; Sheth, Sunny; Amin, Nirav M.; Zimmerman, Stephanie; Liu, Dennis; Schwarz, Erich M.; Smith, Harold; Krause, Michael W.; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like “Sma/Mab” signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development. PMID:25978409

  12. Effects of Bone Matrix Proteins on Fracture and Fragility in Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sroga, Grażyna E.

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density alone cannot reliably predict fracture risk in humans and laboratory animals. Therefore, other factors including the quality of organic bone matrix components and their interactions may be of crucial importance to understanding of fragility fractures. Emerging research evidence shows, that in addition to collagen, certain noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) play a significant role in the structural organization of bone and influence its mechanical properties. However, their contribution to bone strength still remains largely undefined. Collagen and NCPs undergo different post-translational modifications, which alter the quality of the extracellular matrix and the response of bone to mechanical load. The primary focus of this overview is on NCPs that, together with collagen, contribute to structural and mechanical properties of bone. Current information on several mechanisms through which some NCPs influence bone’s resistance to fracture, including the role of nonenzymatic glycation, is also presented. PMID:22535528

  13. Promotion of bone growth by dietary soy protein isolate: Comparision with dietary casein, whey hydrolysate and rice protein isolate in growing female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different dietary protein sources(casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI)) on bone were studied in intact growing female rats and in ovarectomized (OVX) rats showing sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss. In addition, S...

  14. The reaction of the dura to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in repair of skull defects.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, K; Urist, M R

    1982-01-01

    Trephine defects in the adult rat skull 0.8 cm in diameter, which do not spontaneously heal, were filled with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) fraction. The defects healed not only by bony ingrowth from the trephine rim, but also by proliferation of pervascular mesenchymal-type cells (pericytes) of the dura mater. Under the influence of BMP, dural pericytes differentiated into chondroid and woven bone. Between three and four weeks postimplantation, sinusoids formed and the woven bone remodelled into lamellar bone. Concurrently, blood-borne bone marrow cells colonized the bone deposits, and the diploe were restored. Demonstrating that it is soluble in interstitial fluid, and diffusible across a nucleopore membrane (which isolated the bony margins of the skull), BMP induced new bone formation in the underlying dura and complete repair of the defect. The response of the dura to the BMP fraction produced more new bone than the response to allogeneic bone matrix. The BMP-induced repair was dose dependent; the quantity of new bone was proportional to the dose of the implanted BMP. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7092346

  15. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 suspended in fibrin glue enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Rui; Hu, Jing; Song, Donghui; Jiang, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has high potential for bone formation, but its in vivo effects are unpredictable due to the short life time. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 suspended in fibrin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) in rabbits. Material and methods The in vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unilateral tibial lengthening for 10 mm was achieved in 48 rabbits. At the completion of osteodistraction, vehicle, fibrin, rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin (rhBMP-2 + fibrin) was injected into the center of the lengthened gap, with 12 animals in each group. Eight weeks later, the distracted callus was examined by histology, micro-CT and biomechanical testing. Radiographs of the distracted tibiae were taken at both 4 and 8 weeks after drug treatment. Results It was found that fibrin prolonged the life span of rhBMP-2 in vitro with sustained release during 17 days. The rhBMP-2 + fibrin treated animals showed the best results in bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, cortical bone thickness by micro-CT evaluation and mechanical properties by the three-point bending test when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In histological images, rhBMP-2 + fibrin treatment showed increased callus formation and better gap bridging compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that fibrin holds promise to be a good carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin showed a stronger promoting effect on bone formation during DO in rabbits. PMID:27279839

  16. A silk hydrogel-based delivery system of bone morphogenetic protein for the treatment of large bone defects.

    PubMed

    Diab, Tamim; Pritchard, Eleanor M; Uhrig, Brent A; Boerckel, Joel D; Kaplan, David L; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    The use of tissue grafting for the repair of large bone defects has numerous limitations including donor site morbidity and the risk of disease transmission. These limitations have prompted research efforts to investigate the effects of combining biomaterial scaffolds with biochemical cues to augment bone repair. The goal of this study was to use a critically-sized rat femoral segmental defect model to investigate the efficacy of a delivery system consisting of an electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mesh tube with a silk fibroin hydrogel for local recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) delivery. Bilateral 8 mm segmental femoral defects were formed in 13-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. Perforated electrospun PCL nanofiber mesh tubes were fitted into the adjacent native bone such that the lumen of the tubes contained the defect (Kolambkar et al., 2011b). Silk hydrogels with or without BMP-2 were injected into the defect. Bone regeneration was longitudinally assessed using 2D X-ray radiography and 3D microcomputed topography (μCT). Following sacrifice at 12 weeks after surgery, the extracted femurs were either subjected to biomechanical testing or assigned for histology. The results demonstrated that silk was an effective carrier for BMP-2. Compared to the delivery system without BMP-2, the delivery system that contained BMP-2 resulted in more bone formation (p<0.05) at 4, 8, 12 weeks after surgery. Biomechanical properties were also significantly improved in the presence of BMP-2 (p<0.05) and were comparable to age-matched intact femurs. Histological evaluation of the defect region indicated that the silk hydrogel has been completely degraded by the end of the study. Based on these results, we conclude that a BMP-2 delivery system consisting of an electrospun PCL nanofiber mesh tube with a silk hydrogel presents an effective strategy for functional repair of large bone defects. PMID:22658161

  17. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein, Its Regulation of Cartilage and Bone Development, and Role in Treating Bone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Martin, T John

    2016-07-01

    Although parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was discovered as a cancer-derived hormone, it has been revealed as an important paracrine/autocrine regulator in many tissues, where its effects are context dependent. Thus its location and action in the vasculature explained decades-long observations that injection of PTH into animals rapidly lowered blood pressure by producing vasodilatation. Its roles have been specified in development and maturity in cartilage and bone as a crucial regulator of endochondral bone formation and bone remodeling, respectively. Although it shares actions with parathyroid hormone (PTH) through the use of their common receptor, PTHR1, PTHrP has other actions mediated by regions within the molecule beyond the amino-terminal sequence that resembles PTH, including the ability to promote placental transfer of calcium from mother to fetus. A striking feature of the physiology of PTHrP is that it possesses structural features that equip it to be transported in and out of the nucleus, and makes use of a specific nuclear import mechanism to do so. Evidence from mouse genetic experiments shows that PTHrP generated locally in bone is essential for normal bone remodeling. Whereas the main physiological function of PTH is the hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism, locally generated PTHrP is the important physiological mediator of bone remodeling postnatally. Thus the use of intermittent injection of PTH as an anabolic therapy for bone appears to be a pharmacological application of the physiological function of PTHrP. There is much current interest in the possibility of developing PTHrP analogs that might enhance the therapeutic anabolic effects. PMID:27142453

  18. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Nicole M; Sinning, Wayne E

    2005-01-01

    Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1) would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y) at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction), and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind) to either a high protein (HP) or training control (TC) group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction). No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP) × time (baseline, week 8, week 12) interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1) Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to enhance bone

  19. Enhanced Control of In Vivo Bone Formation with Surface Functionalized Alginate Microbeads Incorporating Heparin and Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this “naive carriers” into “mini-reservoirs” for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C2C12 cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to

  20. Enhanced control of in vivo bone formation with surface functionalized alginate microbeads incorporating heparin and human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Liu, Jing; Goh, James Cho Hong; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a surface functionalization delivery platform incorporating heparin onto strontium alginate microbeads surfaces would convert this "naive carriers" into "mini-reservoirs" for localized in vivo delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) that will induce functional bone regeneration. In vitro evaluation confirmed that (1) heparin incorporation could immobilize and prolong rhBMP-2 release for approximately 3 weeks; (2) a significant decrease (p<0.01) in rhBMP-2 burst release is attainable depending on initial protein load; and (3) rhBMP-2 released from surface functionalized microbeads retained bioactivity and stimulated higher alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured C(2)C(12) cells when compared with daily administration of fresh bolus rhBMP-2. Subsequently, surface functionalized microbeads were used for in vivo delivery of rhBMP-2 at local sites of posterolateral spinal fusion surgery in rats. The microbeads were loaded into the pores of medical-grade polyepsilone caprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds before implantation. Results revealed robust bone formation and a biomechanically solid fusion after 6 weeks. When compared with a control group consisting of an equivalent amount of rhBMP-2 that was directly adsorbed onto bare-surfaced microbeads with no heparin, a 5.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and a 2.6-fold increase in bending stiffness (flexion/extension) were observed. When compared with collagen sponge carriers of rhBMP-2, a 1.5-fold and a 1.3-fold increase in bone volume fraction and bending stiffness were observed, respectively. More importantly, 3D micro-computed tomography images enabled the visualization of a well-contained newly formed bone at ipsilateral implant sites with surface functionalized rhBMP-2 delivery. This was absent with collagen sponge carriers where newly formed bone tissue was poorly contained and crossed over the posterior midline to contralateral

  1. Theoretical analysis of degradation mechanisms in the formation of morphogen gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgui, Behnaz; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental biological processes of development of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms are governed by various signaling molecules, which are called morphogens. It is known that spatial and temporal variations in the concentration profiles of signaling molecules, which are frequently referred as morphogen gradients, lead to a cell differentiation via activating specific genes in a concentration-dependent manner. It is widely accepted that the establishment of the morphogen gradients involves multiple biochemical reactions and diffusion processes. One of the critical elements in the formation of morphogen gradients is a degradation of signaling molecules. We develop a new theoretical approach that provides a comprehensive description of the degradation mechanisms. It is based on the idea that the degradation works as an effective potential that drives the signaling molecules away from the source region. Utilizing the method of first-passage processes, the dynamics of the formation of morphogen gradients for various degradation mechanisms is explicitly evaluated. It is found that linear degradation processes lead to a dynamic behavior specified by times to form the morphogen gradients that depend linearly on the distance from the source. This is because the effective potential due to the degradation is quite strong. At the same time, nonlinear degradation mechanisms yield a quadratic scaling in the morphogen gradients formation times since the effective potentials are much weaker. Physical-chemical explanations of these phenomena are presented.

  2. Modulating Hydrogel Crosslink Density and Degradation to Control Bone Morphogenetic Protein Delivery and In Vivo Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Julianne L.; Ma, Henry; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) show promise in therapies for improving bone formation after injury; however, the high supraphysiological concentrations required for desired osteoinductive effects, off-target concerns, costs, and patient variability have limited the use of BMP-based therapeutics. To better understand the role of biomaterial design in BMP delivery, a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel was used for BMP-2 delivery to evaluate the influence of hydrogel degradation rate on bone repair in vivo. Specifically, maleimide-modified HA (MaHA) macromers were crosslinked with difunctional MMP-sensitive peptides to permit protease-mediated hydrogel degradation and growth factor release. The compressive, rheological, and degradation properties of MaHA hydrogels were characterized as a function of crosslink density, which was varied through either MaHA concentration (1–5 wt%) or maleimide functionalization (10–40 %f). Generally, the compressive moduli increased, the time to gelation decreased, and the degradation rate decreased with increasing crosslink density. Furthermore, BMP-2 release increased with either a decrease in the initial crosslink density or an increase in collagenase concentration (non-specific MMP degradation). Lastly, two hydrogel formulations with distinct BMP-2 release profiles were evaluated in a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats. After six weeks, minimal evidence of bone repair was observed within defects left empty or filled with hydrogels alone. For hydrogels that contained BMP-2, similar volumes of new bone tissue were formed; however, the faster degrading hydrogel exhibited improved cellular invasion, bone volume to total volume ratio, and overall defect filling. These results illustrate the importance of coordinating hydrogel degradation with the rate of new tissue formation. PMID:24905414

  3. Morphogen-based simulation model of ray growth and joint patterning during fin development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Paquette, Mathieu; Tweedle, Valerie; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée

    2012-03-01

    The fact that some organisms are able to regenerate organs of the correct shape and size following amputation is particularly fascinating, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) caudal fin has emerged as a model system for the study of bone development and regeneration. The fin comprises 16 to 18 bony rays, each containing multiple joints along its proximodistal axis that give rise to segments. Experimental observations on fin ray growth, regeneration and joint formation have been described, but no unified theory has yet been put forward to explain how growth and joint patterns are controlled. We present a model for the control of fin ray growth during development and regeneration, integrated with a model for joint pattern formation, which is in agreement with published, as well as new, experimental data. We propose that fin ray growth and joint patterning are coordinated through the interaction of three morphogens. When the model is extended to incorporate multiple rays across the fin, it also accounts for how the caudal fin acquires its shape during development, and regains its correct size and shape following amputation. PMID:22318227

  4. The effect of bovine whey protein on ectopic bone formation in young growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Owen; Cusack, Siobhan; Cashman, Kevin D

    2003-09-01

    The beneficial effect of bovine whey protein (WP) on bone metabolism has been shown in adult human subjects and ovariectomised rats. However, its effect on bone formation in earlier life, particularly during periods of bone mineral accrual, has not been investigated. Twenty-one male rats (4 weeks old, Wistar strain) were randomised by weight into three groups of seven rats each and fed ad libitum on a semi-purified low-Ca diet (3.0 g Ca/kg diet) containing 0 (control), 10 (diet WP1) or 20 (diet WP2) g bovine WP/kg for 47 d. On day 34 of the dietary intervention, all rats had two gelatine capsules containing demineralised bone powder implanted subcutaneously in the thorax region (a well-established in vivo model of ectopic bone formation). At 14 d after implantation, alkaline phosphatase activity (reflective of bone formation) in the bone implants from animals fed WP1 and -2 diets was almost 2-fold (P<0.01) that of control animals. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I mRNA levels were about 3-fold (P<0.05) higher in implants from animals fed the WP diets compared with those from control animals. Serum- and urine-based biomarkers of bone metabolism and bone mineral composition in intact femora were unaffected by WP supplementation. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that bovine WP can enhance the rate of ectopic bone formation in young growing rats fed a Ca-restricted diet. This effect may be mediated by an increased synthesis of IGF-I in growing bone. The effect of WP on bone formation warrants further investigation. PMID:13129461

  5. Design of an Osteoinductive Extracellular Fibronectin Matrix Protein for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sujin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Choi, Ilsan; Pham, Le B. Hang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions play an important role in osteogenesis. Here, we constructed a novel osteoinductive fibronectin matrix protein (oFN) for bone tissue engineering, designed to combine the integrin-binding modules from fibronectin (iFN) and a strong osteoinductive growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2. Compared with iFN, the purified oFN matrix protein caused a significant increase in cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells (p < 0.05). PMID:25853265

  6. Acid diet (high meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review: Update recent advancements regarding the effect of high animal protein on calcium utilization and bone health. Recent findings: Increased potential renal acid load resulting from a high protein (meat) intake has been closely associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. How...

  7. Systems control of BMP morphogen flow in vertebrate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Plouhinec, Jean-Louis; Zakin, Lise; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic morphogenetic programs coordinate cell behavior to ensure robust pattern formation. Having identified components of those programs by molecular genetics, developmental biology is now borrowing concepts and tools from systems biology to decode their regulatory logic. Dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning of the frog gastrula by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) is one of the best studied examples of a self-regulating embryonic patterning system. Embryological analyses and mathematical modeling are revealing that the BMP activity gradient is maintained by a directed flow of BMP ligands towards the ventral side. Pattern robustness is ensured through feedback control of the levels of extracellular BMP pathway modulators that adjust the flow to the dimensions of the embryonic field. PMID:21937218

  8. Effect of protein intake on bone and muscle mass in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Genaro, Patrícia de Souza; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is frequently characterized by an involuntary loss of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis) mass. Both chronic diseases are associated with decreased metabolic rate, increased risk of falls/fracture, and, as a result, increased morbidity and loss of independence in the elderly. The quality and quantity of protein intake affects bone and muscle mass in several ways and there is evidence that increased essential amino acid or protein availability can enhance muscle protein synthesis and anabolism, as well as improve bone homeostasis in older subjects. A thorough evaluation of renal function is important, since renal function decreases with age. Finally, protein and calcium intake should be considered in the prevention or treatment of the chronic diseases osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:20883419

  9. Cilia/Ift protein and motor-related bone diseases and mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential cellular organelles projecting from the cell surface to sense and transduce developmental signaling. They are tiny but have complicated structures containing microtubule (MT)-based internal structures (the axoneme) and mother centriole formed basal body. Intraflagellar transport (Ift) operated by Ift proteins and motors are indispensable for cilia formation and function. Mutations in Ift proteins or Ift motors cause various human diseases, some of which have severe bone defects. Over the last few decades, major advances have occurred in understanding the roles of these proteins and cilia in bone development and remodeling by examining cilia/Ift protein-related human diseases and establishing mouse transgenic models. In this review, we describe current advances in the understanding of the cilia/Ift structure and function. We further summarize cilia/Ift-related human diseases and current mouse models with an emphasis on bone-related phenotypes, cilia morphology, and signaling pathways. PMID:25553465

  10. Bone induction at physiological doses of BMP through localization by clay nanoparticle gels.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, D M R; Black, C R M; Hulsart-Billstrom, G; Shi, P; Scarpa, E; Oreffo, R O C; Dawson, J I

    2016-08-01

    Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP2) can induce ectopic bone. This ability, which first motivated the widespread application of BMP2 in fracture healing and spinal arthrodesis has, more recently, been indicated as one of several serious adverse effects associated with the supra-physiological doses of BMP2 relied upon for clinical efficacy. Key to harnessing BMPs and other agents safely and effectively will be the ability to localize activity at a target site at substantially reduced doses. Clay (Laponite) nanoparticles can self assemble into gels under physiological conditions and bind growth factors for enhanced and localized efficacy. Here we show the ability to localize and enhance the activity of BMP2 to achieve ectopic bone formation at doses within the sub-microgram per ml range of concentrations sufficient to induce differentiation of responsive cell populations in vitro and at approximately 3000 fold lower than those employed in clinical practice. PMID:27209259

  11. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM and ABB according to a stepwise dry and dip lyophilizing protocol. Histological and microcomputed tomography (µCT) analyses were performed to measure the amount of bone formation and bone volume after 2- and 8-week healing intervals. Results Upon histological observation at two weeks, the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups showed osteoconductive bone formation, while the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone formation. New bone formation was higher in DDM/rhBMP-2, DDM and ABB decreasing order. The amounts of bone formation were very similar at two weeks; however, at eight weeks, the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed a two-fold greater amount of bone formation compared to the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups. The µCT analysis showed markedly increased bone volume in the DDM/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks compared with that of the DDM group. Notably, there was a slight decrease in bone volume in the ABB/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks. There were no significant differences among the DDM, ABB/rhBMP-2, and DDM/rhBMP-2 groups at two or eight weeks. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, DDM appears to be a suitable carrier for rhBMP-2 in orthotopic sites. PMID:27162749

  12. Protein intake and lumbar bone density: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian; Rianon, Nahid J; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Hyder, Joseph A; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Criqui, Michael H; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2014-10-28

    Dietary protein has been shown to increase urinary Ca excretion in randomised controlled trials, and diets high in protein may have detrimental effects on bone health; however, studies examining the relationship between dietary protein and bone health have conflicting results. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary protein (total, animal and vegetable protein) and lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) among participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n 1658). Protein intake was assessed using a FFQ obtained at baseline examination (2000-2). Lumbar spine vBMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography (2002-5), on average 3 years later. Multivariable linear and robust regression techniques were used to examine the associations between dietary protein and vBMD. Sex and race/ethnicity jointly modified the association of dietary protein with vBMD (P for interaction = 0·03). Among white women, higher vegetable protein intake was associated with higher vBMD (P for trend = 0·03), after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current smoking, educational level, hormone therapy use, menopause and additional dietary factors. There were no consistently significant associations for total and animal protein intakes among white women or other sex and racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, data from the present large, multi-ethnic, population-based study suggest that a higher level of protein intake, when substituted for fat, is not associated with poor bone health. Differences in the relationship between protein source and race/ethnicity of study populations may in part explain the inconsistent findings reported previously. PMID:25192416

  13. Bone Healing Properties of Autoclaved Autogenous Bone Grafts Incorporating Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Comparison of Two Delivery Systems in a Segmental Rabbit Radius Defect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Joo; Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to validate the effect of autoclaved autogenous bone (AAB), incorporating Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2), on critical-sized, segmental radius defects in rabbits. Delivery systems using absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) and fibrin glue (FG) were also evaluated. Methods: Radius defects were made in 12 New Zealand white rabbits. After autoclaving, the resected bone was reinserted and fixed. The animals were classified into three groups: only AAB reinserted (group 1, control), and AAB and ErhBMP-2 inserted using an ACS (group 2) or FG (group 3) as a carrier. Animals were sacrificed six or 12 weeks after surgery. Specimens were evaluated using radiology and histology. Results: Micro-computed tomography images showed the best bony union in group 2 at six and 12 weeks after operation. Quantitative analysis showed all indices except trabecular thickness were the highest in group 2 and the lowest in group 1 at twelve weeks. Histologic results showed the greatest bony union between AAB and radial bone at twelve weeks, indicating the highest degree of engraftment. Conclusion: ErhBMP-2 increases bony healing when applied on AAB graft sites. In addition, the ACS was reconfirmed as a useful delivery system for ErhBMP-2. PMID:27489818

  14. Transcriptional regulation of gilthead seabream bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 gene by bone- and cartilage-related transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Marques, Cátia L; Cancela, M Leonor; Laizé, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of cytokines and growth factors. While it plays important roles in embryo morphogenesis and organogenesis, BMP2 is also critical to bone and cartilage formation. Protein structure and function have been remarkably conserved throughout evolution and BMP2 transcription has been proposed to be tightly regulated, although few data is available. In this work we report the cloning and functional analysis of gilthead seabream BMP2 promoter. As in other vertebrates, seabream BMP2 gene has a 5′ non-coding exon, a feature already present in DPP gene, the fruit fly ortholog of vertebrate BMP2 gene, and maintained throughout evolution. In silico analysis of seabream BMP2 promoter revealed several binding sites for bone and cartilage related transcription factors (TFs) and their functionality was evaluated using promoter-luciferase constructions and TF-expressing vectors. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) was shown to negatively regulate BMP2 transcription and combination with the core binding factor β (CBFβ) further reduced transcriptional activity of the promoter. Although to a lesser extent, myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) had also a negative effect on the regulation of BMP2 gene transcription, when associated with SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9b). Finally, v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1) was able to slightly enhance BMP2 transcription. Data reported here provides new insights toward the better understanding of the transcriptional regulation of BMP2 gene in a bone and cartilage context. PMID:26456102

  15. Response to Nodal morphogen gradient is determined by the kinetics of target gene induction

    PubMed Central

    Dubrulle, Julien; Jordan, Benjamin M; Akhmetova, Laila; Farrell, Jeffrey A; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    Morphogen gradients expose cells to different signal concentrations and induce target genes with different ranges of expression. To determine how the Nodal morphogen gradient induces distinct gene expression patterns during zebrafish embryogenesis, we measured the activation dynamics of the signal transducer Smad2 and the expression kinetics of long- and short-range target genes. We found that threshold models based on ligand concentration are insufficient to predict the response of target genes. Instead, morphogen interpretation is shaped by the kinetics of target gene induction: the higher the rate of transcription and the earlier the onset of induction, the greater the spatial range of expression. Thus, the timing and magnitude of target gene expression can be used to modulate the range of expression and diversify the response to morphogen gradients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05042.001 PMID:25869585

  16. [MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OSSEOINTEGRATION AFTERAPPLICATION OF TITANIUM IMPLANTS WITH BIOACTIVE COATING AND RECOMBINANT BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN].

    PubMed

    Gaifullin, N M; Karyagina, A S; Gromov, A V; Terpilovskiy, A A; Malanin, D A; Demeshchenko, M V; Novochadov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on 22 albino male Wistar rats to study the morphological peculiarities of osseointegration of titanium grafts with bioactive surface stimulated additionally with bone plastic material "Gamalant-paste-FORTE Plus" containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In 9 rats the implants were placed into femoral bones after local treatment of bone canal with rhBMP-2-containing material. Another 9 animals were implanted but received no treatment, 4 rats formed the group of intact control. Zone of osseointegration was studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after graft placement using histological and morphometric methods as well as immune histochemistry to demonstrate osteonectin, CD68, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. The study showed that preliminary treatment of bone canal with rhBMP-2-containing material preceding implant placement was accompanied by an additional osteoinductive effect. More intense and outrunning bone formation in the area of osseointegration was observed, together with remodeling and compaction of the contiguous cancellous bone, thus providing the necessary balance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with a high level of each factor expression. PMID:27487669

  17. Evaluation of rhBMP-2 and bone marrow derived stromal cell mediated bone regeneration using transgenic fluorescent protein reporter mice

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Shalini V.; Adams, Douglas J.; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David W.; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is use of transgenic fluorescent protein reporter mouse models to understand the cellular processes in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) mediated bone formation. Bilateral parietal calvarial bone defects in Col3.6Topaz transgenic fluorescent osteoblast reporter mouse were used to understand the bone formation in the presence and absence of rhBMP2 and/or Col3.6Cyan bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs), using collagen-hydroxyapatite matrix (Healos) as a biomaterial. The bone regeneration was not confined to the site of BMP-2 implantation and significant bone formation was observed in the neighboring defect site. Osteogenic cellular activity with overlying alizarin complexone staining was observed in both the defects indicating host cell induced mineralization. However, implantation of BMSCs along with rhBMP-2 demonstrated a donor cell derived bone formation. The presence of rhBMP-2 did not support host cell recruitment in the presence of donor cells. This study demonstrates the potential of multiple fluorescent reporters to understand the cellular processes involved in the bone regeneration process using biomaterials, growth factors, and/or stem cells. PMID:24677665

  18. Mechanical microenvironments and protein expression associated with formation of different skeletal tissues during bone healing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory J; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Morgan, Elise F

    2015-11-01

    Uncovering the mechanisms of the sensitivity of bone healing to mechanical factors is critical for understanding the basic biology and mechanobiology of the skeleton, as well as for enhancing clinical treatment of bone injuries. This study refined an experimental method of measuring the strain microenvironment at the site of a bone injury during bone healing. This method used a rat model in which a well-controlled bending motion was applied to an osteotomy to induce the formation of pseudarthrosis that is composed of a range of skeletal tissues, including woven bone, cartilage, fibrocartilage, fibrous tissue, and clot tissue. The goal of this study was to identify both the features of the strain microenvironment associated with formation of these different tissues and the expression of proteins frequently implicated in sensing and transducing mechanical cues. By pairing the strain measurements with histological analyses that identified the regions in which each tissue type formed, we found that formation of the different tissue types occurs in distinct strain microenvironments and that the type of tissue formed is correlated most strongly to the local magnitudes of extensional and shear strains. Weaker correlations were found for dilatation. Immunohistochemical analyses of focal adhesion kinase and rho family proteins RhoA and CDC42 revealed differences within the cartilaginous tissues in the calluses from the pseudarthrosis model as compared to fracture calluses undergoing normal endochondral bone repair. These findings suggest the involvement of these proteins in the way by which mechanical stimuli modulate the process of cartilage formation during bone healing. PMID:25822264

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in lyophilized or frozen demineralized human bone

    PubMed Central

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; da Silva, André Ferreira; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to study the effects of application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electrons) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, on lyophilized or frozen demineralized bone tissue for use in transplants. Methods Five human femoral diaphyses from different donors of musculoskeletal tissue were demineralized and preserved as lyophilized or frozen at −80 °C. The samples were divided into two groups: non-irradiated (control) and irradiated by means of gamma rays or an electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein and BMP 2 and 7. Results Decreases in total protein and BMP 2 and 7 concentrations were observed. The decreases in total protein concentrations, in comparison with the respective control groups, were significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples that were irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy of gamma radiation and electron beam, with reductions of more than 30%. Significant decreases in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed at higher doses and especially through use of the electron beam. Conclusion The reductions in the concentrations of total proteins and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7) were related to the radiation dose, i.e. they increased with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of bone preservation. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in the bones irradiated by means of an electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. However, this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practices for sterilization of bone tissue. PMID:27069893

  20. Role of morphogenetic proteins in skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reddi, A H

    1998-03-01

    Morphogenesis is the developmental cascade of pattern formation and body plan establishment, culminating in the adult form. It has formed the basis for the emerging discipline of tissue engineering, which uses principles of molecular developmental biology and morphogenesis gleaned through studies on inductive signals, responding stem cells, and the extracellular matrix to design and construct spare parts that restore function to the human body. Among the many organs in the body, bone has considerable powers for regeneration and is a prototype model for tissue engineering. Implantation of demineralized bone matrix into subcutaneous sites results in local bone induction. This model mimics sequential limb morphogenesis and has permitted the isolation of bone morphogens, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), from demineralized adult bone matrix. BMPs initiate, promote, and maintain chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, but are also involved in the morphogenesis of organs other than bone. The symbiosis of the mechanisms underlying bone induction and differentiation is critical for tissue engineering and is governed by both biomechanics (physical forces) and context (microenvironment/extracellular matrix), which can be duplicated by biomimetic biomaterials such as collagens, hydroxyapatite, proteoglycans, and cell adhesion glycoproteins, including fibronectins and laminin. Rules of tissue architecture elucidated in bone morphogenesis may provide insights into tissue engineering and be universally applicable for all organs/tissues, including bones and joints. PMID:9528003

  1. Protein associated with SMAD1 (PAWS1/FAM83G) is a substrate for type I bone morphogenetic protein receptors and modulates bone morphogenetic protein signalling

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Janis; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Herhaus, Lina; Gourlay, Robert; Macartney, Thomas; Campbell, David; Smith, James C.; Sapkota, Gopal P.

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control multiple cellular processes in embryos and adult tissues. BMPs signal through the activation of type I BMP receptor kinases, which then phosphorylate SMADs 1/5/8. In the canonical pathway, this triggers the association of these SMADs with SMAD4 and their translocation to the nucleus, where they regulate gene expression. BMPs can also signal independently of SMAD4, but this pathway is poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of PAWS1/FAM83G as a novel SMAD1 interactor. PAWS1 forms a complex with SMAD1 in a SMAD4-independent manner, and BMP signalling induces the phosphorylation of PAWS1 through BMPR1A. The phosphorylation of PAWS1 in response to BMP is essential for activation of the SMAD4-independent BMP target genes NEDD9 and ASNS. Our findings identify PAWS1 as the first non-SMAD substrate for type I BMP receptor kinases and as a novel player in the BMP pathway. We also demonstrate that PAWS1 regulates the expression of several non-BMP target genes, suggesting roles for PAWS1 beyond the BMP pathway. PMID:24554596

  2. Modeling and Validation of Multilayer Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Scaffolds for In Vitro Directed Differentiation of Juxtaposed Cartilage and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George X.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric scaffolds, which release growth factors in a temporally controlled manner, have successfully directed the differentiation of stem cells into monolithic tissues of a single lineage. However, engineering precise boundaries in multilineage functional tissues, such as the juxtaposed cartilaginous and osseous tissue present in articulated joints, often remains a challenge. This work demonstrates a precise materials system for in vitro reconstruction of the three-dimensional architecture of these types of human tissues. Multilayer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds were used to produce spatiotemporal gradients to direct the differentiation of an initially uniform population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into juxtaposed cartilage and bone. Specifically, growth factors (chondrogenic transforming growth factor-β3 and osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein-4) and their neutralizing antibodies were incorporated within distinct layers of the PLG scaffolds to create spatially segregated morphogen fields within the scaffold volume. The multilayer PLG scaffold designs were optimized by mathematical modeling, and generation of spatially segregated morphogen gradients was validated by assessing activity of luciferase reporter cell lines responsive to each growth factor. Scaffolds seeded with MSCs demonstrated production of juxtaposed cartilage and bone, as evaluated by biochemical staining and western blotting for tissue-specific matrix proteins. This work demonstrates a significant advance for the engineering of implantable constructs comprising tissues of multiple lineages, with potential applications in orthopedic regenerative medicine. PMID:25923238

  3. [Ectopic osteogenesis in vivo using bone morphogenetic protein-2 derived peptide loaded biodegradable hydrogel].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Fang, Zhenhua; Huang, Ruokun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Jing; Xie, Ming; Kan, Wusheng

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the development of an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate)(PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 )loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 for ectopic bone formation in vivo and evaluated its release kinetics in vitro. Then we evaluated P24 peptide release kinetics from different concentration of PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel in vitro using bicinchoninic acid (BCA)assay. P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was implanted into each rat's erector muscle of spine and ectopic bone formation of the implanted gel in vivo was detected by hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel with concentration more than 20 percent showed sustained slow release for one month after the initial burst release. Bone trabeculae surround the P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was shown at the end of six weeks by hematoxylin and eosin stain. These results indicated that encapsulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 remained viable in vivo, thus suggesting the potential of PTMC11-F127-PT- MC11 composite hydrogels as part of a novel strategy for localized delivery of bioactive molecules. PMID:25508424

  4. [Ectopic osteogenesis in vivo using bone morphogenetic protein-2 derived peptide loaded biodegradable hydrogel].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Fang, Zhenhua; Huang, Ruokun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Jing; Xie, Ming; Kan, Wusheng

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the development of an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate)(PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 )loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 for ectopic bone formation in vivo and evaluated its release kinetics in vitro. Then we evaluated P24 peptide release kinetics from different concentration of PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel in vitro using bicinchoninic acid (BCA)assay. P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was implanted into each rat's erector muscle of spine and ectopic bone formation of the implanted gel in vivo was detected by hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel with concentration more than 20 percent showed sustained slow release for one month after the initial burst release. Bone trabeculae surround the P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was shown at the end of six weeks by hematoxylin and eosin stain. These results indicated that encapsulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 remained viable in vivo, thus suggesting the potential of PTMC11-F127-PT- MC11 composite hydrogels as part of a novel strategy for localized delivery of bioactive molecules. PMID:25464793

  5. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  6. TGF-β and BMP signaling in osteoblast, skeletal development, and bone formation, homeostasis and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Guiqian; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis. Both the Smad and p38 MAPK signaling pathways converge at transcription factors, for example, Runx2 to promote osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte differentiation from mesenchymal precursor cells. TGF-β and BMP signaling is controlled by multiple factors, including the ubiquitin–proteasome system, epigenetic factors, and microRNA. Dysregulated TGF-β and BMP signaling result in a number of bone disorders in humans. Knockout or mutation of TGF-β and BMP signaling-related genes in mice leads to bone abnormalities of varying severity, which enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. There is also crosstalk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and several critical cytokines’ signaling pathways (for example, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, PTHrP, and FGF) to coordinate osteogenesis, skeletal development, and bone homeostasis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte differentiation, skeletal development, cartilage formation, bone formation, bone homeostasis, and related human bone diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling. PMID:27563484

  7. TGF-β and BMP signaling in osteoblast, skeletal development, and bone formation, homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Guiqian; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis. Both the Smad and p38 MAPK signaling pathways converge at transcription factors, for example, Runx2 to promote osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte differentiation from mesenchymal precursor cells. TGF-β and BMP signaling is controlled by multiple factors, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system, epigenetic factors, and microRNA. Dysregulated TGF-β and BMP signaling result in a number of bone disorders in humans. Knockout or mutation of TGF-β and BMP signaling-related genes in mice leads to bone abnormalities of varying severity, which enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. There is also crosstalk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and several critical cytokines' signaling pathways (for example, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, PTHrP, and FGF) to coordinate osteogenesis, skeletal development, and bone homeostasis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte differentiation, skeletal development, cartilage formation, bone formation, bone homeostasis, and related human bone diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling. PMID:27563484

  8. Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei Xin; Li, Chun Lei; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Franz E.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF) in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles. PMID:24783213

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and decorin expression in old fracture fragments and surrounding tissues.

    PubMed

    Han, X G; Wang, D K; Gao, F; Liu, R H; Bi, Z G

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can promote fracture healing. Although the complex role BMP-2 in bone formation is increasingly understood, the role of endogenous BMP-2 in nonunion remains unclear. Decorin (DCN) can promote the formation of bone matrix and calcium deposition to control bone morphogenesis. In this study, tissue composition and expression of BMP-2 and DCN were detected in different parts of old fracture zones to explore inherent anti-fibrotic ability and osteogenesis. Twenty-three patients were selected, including eight cases of delayed union and 15 cases of nonunion. Average duration of delayed union or nonunion was 15 months. Fracture fragments and surrounding tissues, including bone grafts, marrow cavity contents, and sticking scars, were categorically sampled during surgery. Through observation and histological testing, component comparisons were made between fracture fragments and surrounding tissue. The expression levels of DCN and BMP-2 in different tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of DCN and BMP- 2 in different parts of the nonunion area showed that, compared with bone graft and marrow cavity contents, sticking scars had the highest expression of BMP-2. Compared with the marrow cavity contents and sticking scars, bone grafts had the highest expression of DCN. The low antifibrotic and osteogenic activity of the nonunion area was associated with non-co-expression of BMP-2 and DCN. Therefore, the co-injection of osteogenic factor BMP and DCN into the nonunion area can improve the induction of bone formation and enhance the conversion of the old scar, thereby achieving better nonunion treatment. PMID:26400336

  10. An adhesive bone marrow scaffold and bone morphogenetic-2 protein carrier for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Simson, Jacob A; Strehin, Iossif A; Lu, Qiaozhi; Uy, Manuel O; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2013-03-11

    A chondroitin sulfate-bone marrow (CS-BM) adhesive hydrogel was used to localize rhBMP-2 to enhance articular cartilage tissue formation. Chondrocyte pellet culture revealed that 0.1 and 1 μg/mL of rhBMP-2 enhanced sulfated-GAG content. rhBMP-2 localization within the hydrogels was investigated, and it was found that BM, CS-NHS, and rhBMP-2 levels and time affected rhBMP-2 retention. Retention was modulated from 82 to 99% over a 3-week period for the material formulations investigated. To evaluate carrier efficacy, rhBMP-2 and bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated within CS-BM, and biochemical evaluation revealed significant increases in total collagen production with rhBMP-2. Histological analysis revealed more robust tissue formation and greater type-II collagen production with encapsulated rhBMP-2. Subsequently, a subcutaneous culture of hydrogels revealed increased total collagen, type-II to type-I collagen ratio, and sulfated GAG in samples carrying rhBMP-2. These findings indicate the development of a multifunctional system capable of localizing rhBMP-2 to enhance repair tissue quality. PMID:23320412

  11. The bone matrix protein secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24): bone metabolism regulator and starting material for biotherapeutic materials.

    PubMed

    Murray, Samuel S; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Tian, Haijun; Francis, Timothy; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) is a bone matrix protein that appears to be derived primarily from the liver and delivered to other tissues in a protective complex. A significant role in bone growth and turnover is suggested by genetic studies that associate the gene locus (SPP2) with bone mineral density and bone quality. The function of this protein in the normal bone environment is unknown but clues are given by the fact that Spp24, or proteolytic products of Spp24, bind cytokines of the TGF-β superfamily and also activate intracellular signaling pathways. Several potential biotherapeutics have been engineered from this protein including materials that enhance BMP-induced bone healing and, on the other hand, materials that inhibit BMPs in clinical situations where this is called for such as reducing BMP-induced inflammation and inhibiting tumors dependent on BMP autocrine systems. As understanding of the structure and function of this protein increases, more opportunities for rationally developed therapeutics will become apparent. PMID:25339413

  12. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Baculovirus-Engineered Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Enhance Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) genetically modified with baculoviral bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bac-BMP-2) vectors could achieve successful fusion in a femur defect model or in a spinal fusion model. In this study, BMDMSCs expressing BMP-7 (Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs) were generated. We hypothesized that Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs could secrete more BMP-7 than untransduced BMDMSCs in vitro and achieve spinal posterolateral fusion in a rabbit model. Eighteen rabbits underwent posterolateral fusion at L4-5. Group I (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-hydroxyapatite (HA), Group II (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-TCP-HA plus BMDMSCs, and Group III (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-TCP-HA plus Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs. In vitro production of BMP-7 was quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Spinal fusion was examined using computed tomography (CT), manual palpation, and histological analysis. ELISA demonstrated that Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs produced four-fold to five-fold more BMP-7 than did BMDMSCs. In the CT results, 6 fused segments were observed in Group I (50%, 6/12), 8 in Group II (67%, 8/12), and 12 in Group III (100%, 12/12). The fusion rate, determined by manual palpation, was 0% (0/6) in Group I, 0% (0/6) in Group II, and 83% (5/6) in Group III. Histology showed that Group III had more new bone and matured marrow formation. In conclusion, BMDMSCs genetically transduced with the Bac-BMP-7 vector could express more BMP-7 than untransduced BMDMSCs. These Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs on collagen-β-TCP-HA scaffolds were able to induce successful spinal fusion in rabbits. PMID:27399674

  13. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Baculovirus-Engineered Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Enhance Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) genetically modified with baculoviral bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bac-BMP-2) vectors could achieve successful fusion in a femur defect model or in a spinal fusion model. In this study, BMDMSCs expressing BMP-7 (Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs) were generated. We hypothesized that Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs could secrete more BMP-7 than untransduced BMDMSCs in vitro and achieve spinal posterolateral fusion in a rabbit model. Eighteen rabbits underwent posterolateral fusion at L4-5. Group I (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-hydroxyapatite (HA), Group II (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-TCP-HA plus BMDMSCs, and Group III (n = 6) was implanted with collagen-β-TCP-HA plus Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs. In vitro production of BMP-7 was quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Spinal fusion was examined using computed tomography (CT), manual palpation, and histological analysis. ELISA demonstrated that Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs produced four-fold to five-fold more BMP-7 than did BMDMSCs. In the CT results, 6 fused segments were observed in Group I (50%, 6/12), 8 in Group II (67%, 8/12), and 12 in Group III (100%, 12/12). The fusion rate, determined by manual palpation, was 0% (0/6) in Group I, 0% (0/6) in Group II, and 83% (5/6) in Group III. Histology showed that Group III had more new bone and matured marrow formation. In conclusion, BMDMSCs genetically transduced with the Bac-BMP-7 vector could express more BMP-7 than untransduced BMDMSCs. These Bac-BMP-7-BMDMSCs on collagen-β-TCP-HA scaffolds were able to induce successful spinal fusion in rabbits. PMID:27399674

  14. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  15. Nanointerfacial strength between non-collagenous protein and collagen fibrils in antler bone

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Fei; Gupta, Himadri S.; Barber, Asa H.

    2014-01-01

    Antler bone displays considerable toughness through the use of a complex nanofibrous structure of mineralized collagen fibrils (MCFs) bound together by non-collagenous proteins (NCPs). While the NCP regions represent a small volume fraction relative to the MCFs, significant surface area is evolved upon failure of the nanointerfaces formed at NCP–collagen fibril boundaries. The mechanical properties of nanointerfaces between the MCFs are investigated directly in this work using an in situ atomic force microscopy technique to pull out individual fibrils from the NCP. Results show that the NCP–fibril interfaces in antler bone are weak, which highlights the propensity for interface failure at the nanoscale in antler bone and extensive fibril pullout observed at antler fracture surfaces. The adhesion between fibrils and NCP is additionally suggested as being rate dependent, with increasing interfacial strength and fracture energy observed when pullout velocity decreases. PMID:24352676

  16. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Craniofacial Surgery: Current Techniques, Clinical Experiences, and the Future of Personalized Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chenard, Kristofer E.; Teven, Chad M.; He, Tong-Chuan; Reid, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    Critical-size osseous defects cannot heal without surgical intervention and can pose a significant challenge to craniofacial reconstruction. Autologous bone grafting is the gold standard for repair but is limited by a donor site morbidity and a potentially inadequate supply of autologous bone. Alternatives to autologous bone grafting include the use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, mesenchymal stem cells, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are essential mediators of bone formation involved in the regulation of differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Here we focus on the use of BMPs in experimental models of craniofacial surgery and clinical applications of BMPs in the reconstruction of the cranial vault, palate, and mandible and suggest a model for the use of BMPs in personalized stem cell therapies. PMID:23226941

  17. Is Heparin Effective for the Controlled Delivery of High-Dose Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ri Youn; Lee, Beomseok; Park, Si-Nae; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Kim, In Sook; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2016-05-01

    Sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 by heparin-contained biomaterials is advantageous for bone tissue regeneration using low-dose BMP-2. However, its effect with high-dose BMP-2 is still unclear and should be clarified considering the clinical use of a high dose of BMP-2 in spine and oral surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a heparin-conjugated collagen sponge (HCS) with high-dose BMP-2 delivery by investigating in vivo initial osteogenic regulation and bone healing over 12 weeks in comparison with that of an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS). The in vitro BMP-2 release profile in the HCS exhibited a lower burst followed by a sustained release of BMP-2, whereas that of the ACS showed an initial burst phase only. As a result of a lower burst, the HCS-BMP group showed higher expression of bone-forming/resorbing markers and enhanced activation of osteoclasts than the ACS-BMP group within the scaffold of defect after 7 days, which is presumed to be because of retention of relatively higher amounts of BMP-2. However, the surrounding calvariae were less resorbed in the HCS-BMP group, compared with the aggressive resorptive response in the ACS-BMP group. Microcomputed tomography and histology revealed that HCS-BMP guided more effective bone regeneration of central defect over time inducing minor ossification at the defect exterior, whereas ACS-BMP exhibited excessive ossification at the defect exterior. These results showed that HCS-mediated BMP-2 delivery at a high dose has advantages over ACS, including less early resorption of surrounding bone tissue and higher efficacy in compact bone regeneration over a longer period, highlighting a clinical feasibility of this technology. PMID:27098389

  18. Activation of Protein Kinase A in Mature Osteoblasts Promotes a Major Bone Anabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Tascau, Liana; Gardner, Thomas; Anan, Hussein; Yongpravat, Charlie; Cardozo, Christopher P; Bauman, William A; Lee, Francis Y; Oh, Daniel S; Tawfeek, Hesham A

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) regulates osteoblast cell function in vitro and is activated by important bone mass modulating agents. We determined whether PKA activation in osteoblasts is sufficient to mediate a bone anabolic response. Thus, a mouse model conditionally expressing a constitutively active PKA (CA-PKA) in osteoblasts (CA-PKA-OB mouse) was developed by crossing a 2.3-kb α1 (I)-collagen promoter-Cre mouse with a floxed-CA-PKA mouse. Primary osteoblasts from the CA-PKA-OB mice exhibited higher basal PKA activity than those from control mice. Microcomputed tomographic analysis revealed that CA-PKA-OB female mice had an 8.6-fold increase in femoral but only 1.16-fold increase in lumbar 5 vertebral bone volume/total volume. Femur cortical thickness and volume were also higher in the CA-PKA-OB mice. In contrast, alterations in many femoral microcomputed tomographic parameters in male CA-PKA-OB mice were modest. Interestingly, the 3-dimensional structure model index was substantially lower both in femur and lumbar 5 of male and female CA-PKA-OB mice, reflecting an increase in the plate to rod-like structure ratio. In agreement, femurs from female CA-PKA-OB mice had greater load to failure and were stiffer compared with those of control mice. Furthermore, the CA-PKA-OB mice had higher levels of serum bone turnover markers and increased osteoblast and osteoclast numbers per total tissue area compared with control animals. In summary, constitutive activation of PKA in osteoblasts is sufficient to increase bone mass and favorably modify bone architecture and improve mechanical properties. PKA activation in mature osteoblasts is, therefore, an important target for designing anabolic drugs for treating diseases with bone loss. PMID:26488807

  19. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (pthrp) is a gravisensor for lung and bone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torday, J.

    Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) and its receptor represent a stretch- sensitive paracrine signaling mechanism (Torday, 1999) that may sense gravity. PTHrP has been shown to be essential for the development and homeostatic regulation of lung (Rubin et al, 2000) and bone (Kronenberg et al, 1994). Since both lung and bone structure and function are affected by microgravity, we hypothesized that microgravity down-regulates PTHrP signaling. To test this hypothesis, we suspended lung and bone cells in the microgravity environment of a rotating wall vessel apparatus, which simulates microgravity, for up to 72 hours. During the first 6-8 hours, PTHrP expression fell precipitously, decreasing by 80-90%; during the subsequent 64-66 hours, PTHrP expression remained at this newly established level. PTHrP production decreased from 5 pmol/ml/3hours to undetectable levels in culture medium from microgravity-exposed cells. The cells were then put back in culture at unit gravity for 24hours, and PTHrP expression and production returned to normal levels. Based on these findings, we have obtained bones from rats flown in space for 2 weeks (mission SLS-2, provided courtesy of the Biospecimen Facility, Ames Research Center, NASA, as a result of a peer-reviewed proposal). Analysis of PTHrP expression by femurs and tibias from these animals (n=5) revealed that PTHrP expression was 60% lower than in bones from ground-based rats. Interestingly, there were no differences in PTHrP exp ression by parietal bones, indicating that the effect of weightlessness on PTHrP expression is due to the unweighting of weight-bearing bones. This finding is consistent with other studies of microgravity-induced osteoporosis. The loss of the PTHrP signaling mechanism may be corrected using chemical agents that up-regulate this pathway.

  20. A Mechanochemical Model for Embryonic Pattern Formation: Coupling Tissue Mechanics and Morphogen Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mercker, Moritz; Hartmann, Dirk; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental findings, we propose a novel mechanism of embryonic pattern formation based on coupling of tissue curvature with diffusive signaling by a chemical factor. We derive a new mathematical model using energy minimization approach and show that the model generates a variety of morphogen and curvature patterns agreeing with experimentally observed structures. The mechanism proposed transcends the classical Turing concept which requires interactions between two morphogens with a significantly different diffusivity. Our studies show how biomechanical forces may replace the elusive long-range inhibitor and lead to formation of stable spatially heterogeneous structures without existence of chemical prepatterns. We propose new experimental approaches to decisively test our central hypothesis that tissue curvature and morphogen expression are coupled in a positive feedback loop. PMID:24376555

  1. Temporal control of self-organized pattern formation without morphogen gradients in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Stephen; Li, Bochong; Cao, Yangxiaolu; Schaeffer, David; Ryser, Marc D; You, Lingchong

    2013-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to explain biological pattern formation. Regardless of their specific molecular interactions, the majority of these mechanisms require morphogen gradients as the spatial cue, which are either predefined or generated as a part of the patterning process. However, using Escherichia coli programmed by a synthetic gene circuit, we demonstrate here the generation of robust, self-organized ring patterns of gene expression in the absence of an apparent morphogen gradient. Instead of being a spatial cue, the morphogen serves as a timing cue to trigger the formation and maintenance of the ring patterns. The timing mechanism enables the system to sense the domain size of the environment and generate patterns that scale accordingly. Our work defines a novel mechanism of pattern formation that has implications for understanding natural developmental processes. PMID:24104480

  2. Estrogen modulates the mRNA levels for cancellous bone protein of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Salih, M A; Liu, C C; Arjmandi, B H; Kalu, D N

    1993-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on the gene expression of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin and the protooncogen, c-myc, in cancellous bone. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 95 days, were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was sham operated and Groups 2-4 were ovariectomized. Groups 3 and 4 received daily injections of 160 ng and 1600 ng E2/kg body weight, respectively. Groups 1 and 2 received the solvent vehicle. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The femurs were dissected out and cancellous bone scraped from the distal metaphysis. RNA was isolated from the cancellous bone, immobilized on filters or size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis and adsorbed on filters which were then hybridized with specific cDNA probes. Ovariectomy resulted in a significant increase in the mRNAs of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin and c-myc. The increase was suppressed in animals that received 17 beta-estradiol injections. In addition, ovariectomy caused the expected decrease in cancellous bone in the proximal tibia and increased osteoclast and osteoblast numbers. The ovariectomy-induced changes were prevented by 17 beta-estradiol administration. These findings suggest that the lack of ovarian hormones shortly after ovariectomy up-regulates and estrogen administration down-regulates the expression of important cancellous bone matrix proteins as well as the protooncogen, c-myc. PMID:8148671

  3. [Prevention of osteoporosis by foods and dietary supplements. Milk basic protein (MBP) induces alveolar bone formation in rat experimental periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Seto, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshihiko

    2006-10-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by infection of periodontopathic bacteriae, which induced alveolar bone resorpotion. Milk basic protein (MBP) has been reported to be useful as a supplement because of increasing bone formation in animal and human studies. We examined the effect of MBP for alveolar bone formation in rat experimental periodontitis. After alveolar bone resorption was induced by ligature technique, the diets containing low and high dose of MBP were given to rats for 90 days. Micro-focus computed tomography and histological observation revealed a recovery of alveolar bone in high-dose MBP group compared to the control group. Osteoid thickness of alveolar bone crest significantly increased in low and high-dose MBP groups. These findings indicate that MBP may be effective for the recovery of alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis. PMID:17012815

  4. Healing patterns of critical size bony defects in rats after grafting with bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: histological and histometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, N; Naaman, N; Nohra, J; Badawi, N

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the healing of critical size defects in calvarial bone. Defects were created in 24 Sprague Dawley rats. The rhBMP-2 was diluted to obtain a final concentration of 0.2mg/ml. Rats were divided into four groups and treated as follows: in the first group the defect was filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) and rhBMP-2, the second group was treated with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and rhBMP-2, and the third group was treated with autogenous bone (AUTO). In the control group the defects were left untreated. Animals were killed after 8weeks and calcified histological sections prepared. Histometric measurements showed that mean (SD) bone formation was 4.00 (1.69)mm(2) in the ABBM group, 2.56 (1.06)mm(2) in the FDBA group, and 2.30 (0.34)mm(2) in the AUTO group. The difference between the ABBM group and the other 3 groups was significant (p<0.0001) with a mean bone formation of 0.82 (0.25)mm(2) in the control group. There was no significant difference between the FDBA and the AUTO groups (p=0.96). Within the limits of this study we concluded that the addition of rhBMP-2 to bone substitutes was efficacious in regenerating bone in critical size bone defects in calveria in rats. PMID:22939894

  5. Mesenchyme-specific overexpression of nucleolar protein 66 in mice inhibits skeletal growth and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Zhang, Liping; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Krahe, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that nucleolar protein 66 (NO66), the Jumonji C-domain-containing histone demethylase for methylated histone H3K4 and H3K36 (H3K36me), negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro by inhibiting the activity of transcription factor osterix (Osx). However, whether NO66 affects mammalian skeletogenesis in vivo is not yet known. Here, we generated transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing a flag-tagged NO66 transgene driven by the Prx1 (paired related homeobox 1) promoter. We found that NO66 overexpression in Prx1-expressing mesenchymal cells inhibited skeletal growth and bone formation. The inhibitory phenotype was associated with >50% decreases in chondrocyte/osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, we found that in bones of NO66-TG mice, expression of Igf1, Igf1 receptor (Igf1r), runt-related transcription factor 2, and Osx was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). Consistent with these results, we observed >50% reduction in levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and H3K36me3 in bones of NO66-TG mice, suggesting an inverse correlation between NO66 histone demethylase and the activity of IGF1R/Akt signaling. This correlation was further confirmed by in vitro assays of C2C12 cells with NO66 overexpression. We propose that the decrease in the IGF1R/Akt signaling pathway in mice with mesenchymal overexpression of NO66 may contribute in part to the inhibition of skeletal growth and bone formation.—Chen, Q., Zhang, L., de Crombrugghe, B., Krahe, R. Mesenchyme-specific overexpression of nucleolar protein 66 in mice inhibits skeletal growth and bone formation. PMID:25746793

  6. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 promote and stabilize hard and soft tissue healing for large mandibular new bone reconstruction defects.

    PubMed

    Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott; Cicciù, Dominico; Scott, Alan; Cicciù, Domenico; Tandon, Rahul; Maiorana, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Numerous autogenous bone-grafting procedures are available for the recovering of large continuity defects of the mandible. However, these surgical techniques present several limitations involving postoperative morbidity and pain. The development of new bone technique reconstruction not involving autogenous bone graft would offer new opportunities for facial bone reconstruction. This report highlights the possibility of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (rhBMP-2) application without concomitant bone grafting material in the restoration of continuity critical-sized defects after tumor resection in the mandible. The presented case shows a large mandibular reconstruction after tumor removal in a 31-year-old white man affected by ameloblastoma. In this case, the rhBMP-2 application with a carrier consisted on absorbable collagen sponge gives excellent newly formed bone at 18 months of control clinical and radiologic follow-up. The results indicated that the use of rhBMP-2 without concomitant autogenous bone grafting materials in large critical-sized mandibular defects secondary to large mandibular tumor produced excellent regeneration of the treated area. PMID:24820713

  7. Binding of integrin α1 to bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA suggests a novel role of integrin α1β1 in bone morphogenetic protein 2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yan; Liang, Xudong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Shuai; Yang, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Here, we observed that integrin α1β1 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) IA formed a complex and co-localised in several cell types. However, the molecular interaction between these two molecules was not studied in detail to date and the role of the interaction in BMPR signalling remains unknown; thus, these were investigated here. In a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation, the observed development of the rupture force related to the displacement between the A-domain of integrin α1 and the extracellular domain of BMPR IA indicated a strong molecular interaction within the integrin-BMPR complex. Analysis of the intermolecular forces revealed that hydrogen bonds, rather than salt bridges, are the major contributors to these intermolecular interactions. By using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments with site-directed mutants, we found that residues 85-89 in BMPR IA play the most important role for BMPR IA binding to integrin α1β1. These residues are the same as those responsible for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)/BMPR IA binding. In our experiments, we also found that the interference of integrin α1β1 up regulated the level of phosphorylated Smad1, 5, 8, which is the downstream of BMP/BMPR signalling. Therefore, our results suggest that integrin α1β1/BMPR IA may block BMP-2/BMPR IA complex information and interfere with the BMP-2 signalling pathway in cells. PMID:26475222

  8. Protein Expression Profiling of Giant Cell Tumors of Bone Treated with Denosumab

    PubMed Central

    Mukaihara, Kenta; Suehara, Yoshiyuki; Kohsaka, Shinji; Akaike, Keisuke; Tanabe, Yu; Kubota, Daisuke; Ishii, Midori; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kazuno, Saiko; Okubo, Taketo; Takagi, Tatsuya; Yao, Takashi; Kaneko, Kazuo; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) are locally aggressive osteolytic bone tumors. Recently, some clinical trials have shown that denosumab is a novel and effective therapeutic option for aggressive and recurrent GCTB. This study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of denosumab. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed using GCTB samples which were taken before and after denosumab treatment. Each expression profile was analyzed using the software program to further understand the affected biological network. One of identified proteins was further evaluated by gelatin zymography and an immunohistochemical analysis. We identified 13 consistently upregulated proteins and 19 consistently downregulated proteins in the pre- and post-denosumab samples. Using these profiles, the software program identified molecular interactions between the differentially expressed proteins that were indirectly involved in the RANK/RANKL pathway and in several non-canonical subpathways including the Matrix metalloproteinase pathway. The data analysis also suggested that the identified proteins play a critical functional role in the osteolytic process of GCTB. Among the most downregulated proteins, the activity of MMP-9 was significantly decreased in the denosumab-treated samples, although the residual stromal cells were found to express MMP-9 by an immunohistochemical analysis. The expression level of MMP-9 in the primary GCTB samples was not correlated with any clinicopathological factors, including patient outcomes. Although the replacement of tumors by fibro-osseous tissue or the diminishment of osteoclast-like giant cells have been shown as therapeutic effects of denosumab, the residual tumor after denosumab treatment, which is composed of only stromal cells, might be capable of causing bone destruction; thus the therapeutic application of denosumab would be still necessary for these lesions. We believe that the protein expression

  9. The controversy surrounding bone morphogenetic proteins in the spine: a review of current research.

    PubMed

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Blizzard, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins have been in use in spinal surgery since 2002. These proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily and guide mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts to form bone in targeted tissues. Since the first commercial BMP became available in 2002, a host of research has supported BMPs and they have been rapidly incorporated in spinal surgeries in the United States. However, recent controversy has arisen surrounding the ethical conduct of the research supporting the use of BMPs. Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) recently teamed up with Medtronic to offer a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of BMPs in spinal surgery. This review focuses on the history of BMPs and examines the YODA research to guide spine surgeons in their use of BMP in spinal surgery. PMID:25506287

  10. Synthesis and characterization of self-curing hydrophilic bone cements for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Franco-Marquès, E; Parra, J; Pèlach, M A; Méndez, J A

    2015-07-01

    New formulations of acrylic bone cements for bone defect reparation, based on self-hardening methyl methacrylate (MMA)/methacrylic acid (MAA), with a high capacity for protein delivery, have been developed. The self-curing formulations were prepared by partial substitution of solid phase PMMA microparticles by newly obtained PMAA microspheres. The PMAA microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization of their monomer and were cross-linked with N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) (10-15 wt %) to produce stable systems in contact with aqueous media. PMAA microspheres were loaded with hydrolyzed collagen (HC) as a model protein to simulate bone morphogenetic protein delivery useful for hard tissue reconstruction. Solid phase PMMA microparticles in the formulation were partially substituted by new PMAA-HC microspheres and were characterized to determine viability as an acrylic bone cement in minimally invasive surgery. The incorporation of PMAA-HC microspheres decreased peak temperature by 20°C, which minimized thermal necrotic risk after implantation. Mechanical compression tests revealed a behavior, under dry conditions, close to ISO 5833 standard requirements. However, a drastic drop in mechanical strength, ∼64%, was obtained after 15 days of immersion in simulated physiological conditions (37°C and pH 7.4) and was attributed to water absorption and a subsequent plasticizing effect. The increase in water uptake and retention enhanced the capability for controlled protein delivery. Finally, the biocompatibility of the cements was determined; some toxicity of the material during the first hours of culture incubation was observed. Later, toxicity was observed to decrease due to nonreacted monomer leaching, which ensured the low toxicity of the already polymerized phase. PMID:25209322

  11. Endogenous parathyroid hormone-related protein compensates for the absence of parathyroid hormone in promoting bone accrual in vivo in a model of bone marrow ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Zhou, Xichao; Zhu, Min; Wang, Qian; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Miao, Dengshun

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effect of hypoparathyroidism on osteogenesis and bone turnover in vivo, bone marrow ablation (BMXs) were performed in tibias of 8-week-old wild-type and parathyroid hormone-null (PTH(-/-)) mice and newly formed bone tissue was analyzed from 5 days to 3 weeks after BMX. At 1 week after BMX, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, alkaline phosphatase-positive areas, type I collagen-positive areas, PTH receptor-positive areas, calcium sensing receptor-positive areas, and expression of bone formation-related genes were all decreased significantly in the diaphyseal regions of bones of PTH(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, by 2 weeks after BMX, all parameters related to osteoblastic bone accrual were increased significantly in PTH(-/-) mice. At 5 days after BMX, active tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts had appeared in wild-type mice but were undetectable in PTH(-/-) mice, Both the ratio of mRNA levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and TRAP-positive osteoclast surface were still reduced in PTH(-/-) mice at 1 week but were increased by 2 weeks after BMX. The expression levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) at both mRNA and protein levels were upregulated significantly at 1 week and more dramatically at 2 weeks after BMX in PTH(-/-) mice. To determine whether the increased newly formed bones in PTH(-/-) mice at 2 weeks after BMX resulted from the compensatory action of PTHrP, PTH(-/-) PTHrP(+/-) mice were generated and newly formed bone tissue was compared in these mice with PTH(-/-) and wild-type mice at 2 weeks after BMX. All parameters related to osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption were reduced significantly in PTH(-/-) PTHrP(+/-) mice compared to PTH(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that PTH deficiency itself impairs osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and osteoclastic bone resorption, whereas subsequent upregulation of PTHr

  12. A fucoidan from Nemacystus decipiens disrupts angiogenesis through targeting bone morphogenetic protein 4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wucheng; Chen, Huanjun; Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yi; Cong, Qifei; Wang, Peipei; Ding, Kan

    2016-06-25

    A sulfated and acetylated fucoidan, named NDH01, was extracted from seaweed Nemacystus decipiens. NDH01 was composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, fucose, sulfate group and acetyl group in the molar ratio of 3.0: 14.4: 82.6: 34.3: 13.9. The backbone of NDH01 was fucose-free core, composed of α-d-1,2-Manp and β-d-1,4-GlcpA disaccharide repeat unit. The branches were attached at the C3, C4 and C6 of α-d-1,2-Manp. The sidechain was composed of α-l-1,3,4-Fucp, α-l-1,4-Fucp, α-l-1,3-Fucp and α-l-1,4-GlcpA. The sulfate group was linked to C4 of α-l-1,3,4-Fucp, whereas, acetyl group was branched on C2 of α-l-1,2,3-Fucp. NDH01 could disrupt tube formation and inhibit the migration as well as cell growth of human microvascular endothelial cells. Besides, phosphorylation of Smad/1/5/8, Erk and FAK was significantly inhibited by NDH01. Further studies uncovered that NDH01 blocked Smad1/5/8 signaling via interacting with bone morphogenetic protein 4 and downregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 expression. The results suggested that NDH01 might be an angiogenesis inhibitor through targeting bone morphogenetic protein 4. PMID:27083822

  13. Synergy between IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2/absorbable collagen sponge-induced bone regeneration via regulation of BMPRIA distribution and degradation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Lin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wenjin; Herller, Tanja; Xie, Yun; Gu, Bin; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2/absorbable collagen sponge (BMP-2/ACS) implants have been approved for clinical use to induce bone regeneration. We previously showed that exaggerated inflammation characterized by elevated level of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 has been shown to inhibit BMP-2/ACS-induced bone regeneration. Furthermore, unlike the negative effects of TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6 seemed not to affect BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). We hypothesized that there may be a regulatory loop between IL-6 and BMP-2 singling to affect BMP-2/ACS-induced bone regeneration. Here, we established a BMP-2/ACS-induced ectopic bone formation model in rats and fund that IL-6 injection significantly increased BMP-2/ACS-induced bone mass. Consistent with this animal model, an in vitro study demonstrated that synergy between IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6/sIL-6R) promotes BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of human BMSCs through amplification of BMP/Smad signaling. Strikingly, IL-6 injection did not activate osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the ectopic bone formation model, and IL-6/sIL-6R treatment did not affect receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastic differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Furthermore, IL-6/sIL-6R treatment did not affect expression of BMP receptors, but enhanced the cell surface translocation of BMP receptor IA (BMPRIA) and inhibited the degradation of BMPRIA. Collectively, these findings indicate that synergy between IL-6 and sIL-6R promotes the cell surface translocation of BMPRIA and maintains the stability of BMPRIA expression, leading to enhanced BMP-2/ACS-induced bone regeneration. PMID:26232880

  14. Spaceflight has compartment- and gene-specific effects on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins in rat femur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, G. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that the abnormal bone matrix produced during spaceflight may be associated with reduced expression of bone matrix protein genes. To test this possibility, we investigated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight (SLS-2 experiment) on steady-state mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), osteocalcin, osteonectin, and prepro-alpha(1) subunit of type I collagen in the major bone compartments of rat femur. There were pronounced site-specific differences in the steady-state levels of expression of the mRNAs for the three bone matrix proteins and GAPDH in normal weight-bearing rats, and these relationships were altered after spaceflight. Specifically, spaceflight resulted in decreases in mRNA levels for GAPDH (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteocalcin (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteonectin (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis), and collagen (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis) compared with ground controls. There were no changes in mRNA levels for matrix proteins or GAPDH in the shaft and distal epiphysis. These results demonstrate that spaceflight leads to site- and gene-specific decreases in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that spaceflight-induced decreases in bone formation are caused by concomitant decreases in expression of genes for bone matrix proteins.

  15. Loss of Gi G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Osteoblasts Accelerates Bone Fracture Healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Hsiao, Edward C; Lieu, Shirley; Scott, Mark; O'Carroll, Dylan; Urrutia, Ashley; Conklin, Bruce R; Colnot, Celine; Nissenson, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of skeletal homeostasis and are likely important in fracture healing. Because GPCRs can activate multiple signaling pathways simultaneously, we used targeted disruption of G(i) -GPCR or activation of G(s) -GPCR pathways to test how each pathway functions in the skeleton. We previously demonstrated that blockade of G(i) signaling by pertussis toxin (PTX) transgene expression in maturing osteoblastic cells enhanced cortical and trabecular bone formation and prevented age-related bone loss in female mice. In addition, activation of G(s) signaling by expressing the G(s) -coupled engineered receptor Rs1 in maturing osteoblastic cells induced massive trabecular bone formation but cortical bone loss. Here, we test our hypothesis that the G(i) and G(s) pathways also have distinct functions in fracture repair. We applied closed, nonstabilized tibial fractures to mice in which endogenous G(i) signaling was inhibited by PTX, or to mice with activated G(s) signaling mediated by Rs1. Blockade of endogenous G(i) resulted in a smaller callus but increased bone formation in both young and old mice. PTX treatment decreased expression of Dkk1 and increased Lef1 mRNAs during fracture healing, suggesting a role for endogenous G(i) signaling in maintaining Dkk1 expression and suppressing Wnt signaling. In contrast, adult mice with activated Gs signaling showed a slight increase in the initial callus size with increased callus bone formation. These results show that G(i) blockade and G(s) activation of the same osteoblastic lineage cell can induce different biological responses during fracture healing. Our findings also show that manipulating the GPCR/cAMP signaling pathway by selective timing of G(s) and G(i) -GPCR activation may be important for optimizing fracture repair. PMID:25917236

  16. Alternate protein kinase A activity identifies a unique population of stromal cells in adult bone.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kit Man; Starost, Matthew F; Nesterova, Maria; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Watkins, Tonya; Almeida, Madson Q; Harran, Michelle; Li, Andrew; Collins, Michael T; Cheadle, Christopher; Mertz, Edward L; Leikin, Sergey; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Robey, Pamela; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-05-11

    A population of stromal cells that retains osteogenic capacity in adult bone (adult bone stromal cells or aBSCs) exists and is under intense investigation. Mice heterozygous for a null allele of prkar1a (Prkar1a(+/-)), the primary receptor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and regulator of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, developed bone lesions that were derived from cAMP-responsive osteogenic cells and resembled fibrous dysplasia (FD). Prkar1a(+/-) mice were crossed with mice that were heterozygous for catalytic subunit Calpha (Prkaca(+/-)), the main PKA activity-mediating molecule, to generate a mouse model with double heterozygosity for prkar1a and prkaca (Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-)). Unexpectedly, Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-) mice developed a greater number of osseous lesions starting at 3 months of age that varied from the rare chondromas in the long bones and the ubiquitous osteochondrodysplasia of vertebral bodies to the occasional sarcoma in older animals. Cells from these lesions originated from an area proximal to the growth plate, expressed osteogenic cell markers, and showed higher PKA activity that was mostly type II (PKA-II) mediated by an alternate pattern of catalytic subunit expression. Gene expression profiling confirmed a preosteoblastic nature for these cells but also showed a signature that was indicative of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and increased Wnt signaling. These studies show that a specific subpopulation of aBSCs can be stimulated in adult bone by alternate PKA and catalytic subunit activity; abnormal proliferation of these cells leads to skeletal lesions that have similarities to human FD and bone tumors. PMID:20421483

  17. Systemic injection of CK2.3, a novel peptide acting downstream of Bone Morphogenetic Protein receptor BMPRIa, leads to increased trabecular bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Akkiraju, Hemanth; Bonor, Jeremy; Olli, Kristine; Bowen, Chris; Bragdon, Beth; Coombs, Harold; Donahue, Leah Rae; Duncan, Randall; Nohe, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) regulates bone integrity by driving both osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. However, BMP2 as a therapeutic has significant drawbacks. We have designed a novel peptide CK2.3 that blocks the interaction of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) with Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor type Ia (BMPRIa), thereby activating BMP signaling pathways in the absence of ligand. Here, we show that CK2.3 induced mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures isolated from calvaria and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of 8 week old mice. Further, systemic tail vein injections of CK2.3 in 8 week old mice resulted in increased bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral apposition rate (MAR). In situ immunohistochemistry of the femur found that CK2.3 injection induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), but not Smad in osteocytes and osteoblasts, suggesting that CK2.3 signaling occurred through Smad independent pathway. Finally mice injected with CK2.3 exhibited decreased osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast activity. These data indicate that the novel mimetic peptide CK2.3 activated BMPRIa downstream signaling to enhance bone formation without the increase in osteoclast activity that accompanies BMP 2 stimulation. PMID:25331517

  18. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein-2 bone marrow combined modification of the mesenchymal stem cells to repair the avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Da-Ping; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used to repair avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which can maintain the osteogenic phenotype of seed cells, and effectively secrete VEGF and BMP-2, and effectively promote blood vessel regeneration and contribute to formation and revascularization of tissue engineered bone tissues. To observe the therapeutic effect on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) modified by VEGF-165 and BMP-2 in vitro. The models were avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbits on right leg. There groups were single core decompression group, core decompression + BMSCs group, core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group. Necrotic bone was cleared out under arthroscope. Arthroscopic observation demonstrated that necrotic bone was cleared out in each group, and fresh blood flowed out. Histomorphology determination showed that blood vessel number and new bone area in the repair region were significantly greater at various time points following transplantation in the core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group compared with single core decompression group and core decompression + BMSCs group (P < 0.05). These suggested that VEGF-165/BMP-2 gene transfection strengthened osteogenic effects of BMSCs, elevated number and quality of new bones and accelerated the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26629044

  20. Diosgenin stimulates osteogenic activity by increasing bone matrix protein synthesis and bone-specific transcription factor Runx2 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Ethel H; Shin, Mee-Young; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Park, Youn-Moon; Kim, Taewan; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Hyung-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Kwun, In-Sook

    2011-11-01

    Diosgenin, a steroid saponin extracted from the root of wild yam (Dioscorea villossa) is claimed to have osteogenic property. However, detailed studies providing evidence to this claim have not been fully undertaken. In this study, we investigated the effect of diosgenin on the osteogenesis of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Cells were cultured with varying levels of diosgenin (0-10 μM) within 25 days of bone formation period. Diosgenin was found to stimulate proliferation within the range of 0.01-5 μM using MTT assay. The medium and cellular levels of Type 1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), both of which are major bone matrix proteins, increased within the low range of diosgenin concentration (>0-3 μM), and this pattern was further confirmed by collagen and ALP staining of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The cellular protein expression of ALP and collagen Type 1 was also increased at 0.1-1 μM diosgenin treatment as analyzed by Western blot. Calcium deposition within the ECM also showed the same pattern as assessed by Alizarin Red S and Von Kossa staining. Bone-specific transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Runx2-regulated osteopontin protein expressions were induced at low concentration (0.1-1 μM) and again decreased with high diosgenin concentrations. Based on our findings, our study suggests that diosgenin can enhance bone formation by stimulating the synthesis and secretion of Type 1 collagen and ALP and bone marker proteins Runx2 and osteopontin expression. The increased levels of these marker proteins, in turn, can increase the formation of calcium deposits within the ECM thereby increasing bone formation. PMID:21292464

  1. Glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-6.

    PubMed

    Boden, S D; Hair, G; Titus, L; Racine, M; McCuaig, K; Wozney, J M; Nanes, M S

    1997-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) at physiological concentrations promote osteoblast differentiation from fetal calvarial cells, calvarial organ cultures, and bone marrow stromal cells; however, the cellular pathways involved are not known. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are recognized as important mediators of osteoblast differentiation. Specific roles for individual BMPs during postembryonic membranous bone formation have yet to be determined. We recently reported that GC potentiated the osteoblast differentiation effects of BMP-2 and BMP-4, but not of BMP-6, which, by itself, was the most potent of the three. In the present study, we used fetal rat secondary calvarial cultures to study the role of BMP-6 during early osteoblast differentiation. Treatment with the GC triamcinolone (10(-9) M) resulted in a 5- to 8-fold increase in BMP-6 steady-state messenger RNA levels, peaking at 12 h. In contrast, BMPs -2, -4, -5, -7, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 messenger RNA levels increased by less than 2-fold, after GC treatment, compared with untreated control cultures at 24 h. BMP-6 protein secretion increased 6- to 7-fold by 12 h and 12-fold (from 7.5 to 90 ng/ml) by 24 h, as measured by quantitative Western analysis. Treatment of cells with oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to BMP-6 diminished secretion of BMP-6 protein and significantly inhibited the GC-induced differentiation, as determined by a 10-fold decrease in the number of mineralized bone nodules, compared with controls that were treated with sense oligonucleotides or no oligonucleotides (ANOVA, P < 0.05). The antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of differentiation was rescued by treatment with exogenous recombinant human BMP-6. We conclude that GC-induced differentiation of osteoblasts from the pluripotent precursors is mediated, in part, by BMP-6. These results suggest that BMP-6 has an important and unique role during early osteoblast differentiation. PMID:9202223

  2. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Singhal, Rohit; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Liu, Xiaoli; Hogue, William R; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2008-11-01

    Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone quality have been reported. The effects of other dietary protein sources such as whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on bone growth have been less well examined. The current study compared effects of feeding soy protein isolate (SPI), WPH and RPI for 14 d on tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rapidly growing female rats relative to animals fed casein (CAS). The effects of estrogenic status on responses to SPI were also explored. Tibial peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) showed all three protein sources had positive effects on either BMD or BMC relative to CAS (P < 0.05), but SPI had greater effects in both intact and OVX female rats. SPI and E2 had positive effects on BMD and BMC in OVX rats (P < 0.05). However, trabecular BMD was lower in a SPI + E2 group compared to a CAS + E2 group. In OVX rats, SPI increased serum bone formation markers, and serum from SPI-fed rats stimulated osteoblastogenesis in ex vivo. SPI also suppressed the bone resorption marker RatLaps (P < 0.05). Both SPI and E2 increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression in bone, but only SPI decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and estrogen receptor gene expression (P < 0.05). These data suggest beneficial bone effects of a soy diet in rapidly growing animals and the potential for early soy consumption to increase peak bone mass. PMID:18703746

  3. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  4. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  5. A new biocompatible delivery scaffold containing heparin and bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Thanyaphoo, Suphannee; Kaewsrichan, Jasadee

    2016-09-01

    Silicon-substituted calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) was developed in our laboratory as a biomaterial for delivery in bone tissue engineering. It was fabricated as a 3D-construct of scaffolds using chitosan-trisodium polyphosphate (TPP) cross-linked networks. In this study, heparin was covalently bonded to the residual -NH2 groups of chitosan on the scaffold applying carbodiimide chemistry. Bonded heparin was not leached away from scaffold surfaces upon vigorous washing or extended storage. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) was bound to conjugated scaffolds by ionic interactions between the negatively charged SO42- clusters of heparin and positively charged amino acids of rhBMP-2. The resulting scaffolds were inspected for bone regenerative capacity by subcutaneous implanting in rats. Histological observation and mineralization assay were performed after 4 weeks of implantation. Results from both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest the potential of the developed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications in the future. PMID:27383886

  6. Experimental study of osteoinduction using a new material as a carrier for bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Noriaki; Okubo, Yasunori; Nakao, Kazumasa; Osawa, Kenji; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of artificial collagen as a new carrier for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) by comparing it with that of atelopeptide collagen, which is derived from porcine skin, and which we have previously shown to be useful for the induction of bone. rhBMP-2 5μg with either atelopeptide collagen 3mg or artificial collagen 3mg was implanted into the calf muscle of 10-week-old Wistar rats (n=3 in each group). Three rats were given artificial collagen alone and acted as controls (n=3). Radiographic evaluation, histological analysis, and biochemical examinations were made on day 21 after implantation. Soft radiographs (wavelength 10-0.10nm) showed opaque shadows in both groups. Histological analysis showed that new bone had formed in both experimental groups. Endochondral ossification was found at the outermost edge of the implanted collagen in the atelopeptide group. However, there was less ossification in the implanted collagen in the artificial collagen group. On biochemical examination, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium concentrations in both experimental groups were higher than in the control group, and were higher in the atelopeptide group than in the artificial collagen group. Our results suggest that artificial collagen is useful as a carrier for rhBMP-2 designed to promote the formation of new bone. PMID:20554359

  7. Inhibitory effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the proliferation of giant cell tumor of bone stromal cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HE, BAOHUA; HE, GUANPING; ZHENG, XIAOFEI; LI, LIHUA; LI, MEI; XIA, HONG

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on the proliferation of giant cell tumor of bone stromal cells (GCTSCs) has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) in the growth of GCTSCs. The effects of exposure to different concentrations of rhBMP-2 (0, 10, 100 and 300 ng/ml) for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days on GCTSC proliferation were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, the effect of treatment with rhBMP-2 (0 or 10 ng/ml) for 48 h on the cell cycle pattern of GCTSCs was examined by flow cytometry. The apoptosis-inducing effect of rhBMP-2 (0 or 10 ng/ml) in GCTSCs was also determined by flow cytometry after 48 and 72 h. In addition, western blot assays were conducted to determine whether rhBMP-2 acts on non-Smad mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, namely extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. The proliferation of GCTSCs treated with rhBMP-2 (10, 100 or 300 ng/ml) for 5 or 7 days was significantly inhibited in a non dose-dependent and non-time-dependent manner (P<0.05). The treatment of GCTSCs with rhBMP-2 (10 ng/ml) for 48 h had no effect on cell cycle distribution. The apoptosis of GCTSCs induced by exposure to rhBMP-2 (10 ng/ml) for 48 or 72 h was significant (P<0.05). Expression levels of phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK increased significantly when GCTSCs were treated with rhBMP-2 (10 ng/ml) for 72 h (P<0.05). The results indicate that rhBMP-2 has no stimulatory effect on GCTSC growth. However, it may lead to the apoptosis of GCTSCs by non-Smad MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26889259

  8. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla A; Diekwisch, Thomas Gh; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Matrix molecules such as the enamel-related calcium-binding phosphoprotein ameloblastin (AMBN) are expressed in multiple tissues, including teeth, bones, and cartilage. Here we have asked whether AMBN is of functional importance for timely long bone development and, if so, how it exerts its function related to osteogenesis. Adolescent AMBN-deficient mice (AMBN(Δ5-6) ) suffered from a 33% to 38% reduction in femur length and an 8.4% shorter trunk spinal column when compared with WT controls, whereas there was no difference between adult animals. On a cellular level, AMBN truncation resulted in a shortened growth plate and a 41% to 49% reduction in the number of proliferating tibia chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from AMBN mutant mice displayed defects in proliferation and differentiation potential as well as cytoskeleton organization. Osteogenesis-related growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and BMP7, were also significantly (46% to 73%) reduced in AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Addition of exogenous AMBN restored cytoskeleton structures in AMBN mutant BMSCs and resulted in a dramatic 400% to 600% increase in BMP2, BMP7, and Col1A expression. Block of RhoA diminished the effect of AMBN on osteogenic growth factor and matrix protein gene expression. Addition of exogenous BMP7 and IGF1 rescued the proliferation and differentiation potential of AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Confirming the effects of AMBN on long bone growth, back-crossing of mutant mice with full-length AMBN overexpressors resulted in a complete rescue of AMBN(Δ5-6) bone defects. Together, these data indicate that AMBN affects extracellular matrix production and cell adhesion properties in the long bone growth plate, resulting in altered cytoskeletal dynamics, increased osteogenesis-related gene expression, as well as osteoblast and chondrocyte proliferation. We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the

  9. Cells change their sensitivity to an EGF morphogen gradient to control EGF-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Jeroen Sebastiaan; Kienle, Simone; Huelsz-Prince, Guizela; Barkoulas, Michalis; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    How cells in developing organisms interpret the quantitative information contained in morphogen gradients is an open question. Here we address this question using a novel integrative approach that combines quantitative measurements of morphogen-induced gene expression at single-mRNA resolution with mathematical modelling of the induction process. We focus on the induction of Notch ligands by the LIN-3/EGF morphogen gradient during vulva induction in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that LIN-3/EGF-induced Notch ligand expression is highly dynamic, exhibiting an abrupt transition from low to high expression. Similar transitions in Notch ligand expression are observed in two highly divergent wild C. elegans isolates. Mathematical modelling and experiments show that this transition is driven by a dynamic increase in the sensitivity of the induced cells to external LIN-3/EGF. Furthermore, this increase in sensitivity is independent of the presence of LIN-3/EGF. Our integrative approach might be useful to study induction by morphogen gradients in other systems. PMID:25958991

  10. Osteoblast-specific factor 2: cloning of a putative bone adhesion protein with homology with the insect protein fasciclin I.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, S; Kikuno, R; Tezuka, K; Amann, E

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA library prepared from the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was screened for the presence of specifically expressed genes by employing a combined subtraction hybridization/differential screening approach. A cDNA was identified and sequenced which encodes a protein designated osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) comprising 811 amino acids. OSF-2 has a typical signal sequence, followed by a cysteine-rich domain, a fourfold repeated domain and a C-terminal domain. The protein lacks a typical transmembrane region. The fourfold repeated domain of OSF-2 shows homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. RNA analyses revealed that OSF-2 is expressed in bone and to a lesser extent in lung, but not in other tissues. Mouse OSF-2 cDNA was subsequently used as a probe to clone the human counterpart. Mouse and human OSF-2 show a high amino acid sequence conservation except for the signal sequence and two regions in the C-terminal domain in which 'in-frame' insertions or deletions are observed, implying alternative splicing events. On the basis of the amino acid sequence homology with fasciclin I, we suggest that OSF-2 functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule in bone formation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8363580

  11. Genetics of Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...

  12. Osteoinductivity of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate sponges loaded with different concentrations of mesenchymal stem cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an equine bone defect model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Fracture is one of the most life-threatening injuries in horses. Fracture repair is often associated with unsatisfactory outcomes and is associated with a high incidence of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic effects of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (GT) sponges loaded with different concentrations/ratios of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in an equine bone defect model. Seven thoroughbred horses were used in this study. Eight bone defects were created in the third metatarsal bones of each horse. Then, eight treatments, namely control, GT, GT/M-5, GT/M-6, GT/M-5/B-1, GT/M-5/B-3, GT/M-6/B-1, and GT/M-6/B-3 were applied to the eight different sites in a randomized manner (M-5: 2 × 10(5) MSCs; M-6: 2 × 10(6) MSCs; B-1: 1 μg of BMP-2; B-3: 3 μg of BMP-2). Repair of bone defects was assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and histopathological evaluation. Radiographic scores and CT values were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups, while they were significantly higher in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The amount of mature compact bone filling the defects was greater in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The present study demonstrated that the GT sponge loaded with MSCs and BMP-2 promoted bone regeneration in an equine bone defect model. The GT/MSC/BMP-2 described here may be useful for treating horses with bone injuries. PMID:24442646

  13. Maxillary sinus augmentation using recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2/acellular collagen sponge in combination with a mineralized bone replacement graft: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Dennis P; Wallace, Stephen S; Testori, Tiziano; Froum, Stuart J; Motroni, Alessandro; Prasad, Hari S

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the following case reports was to assess whether mineralized bone replacement grafts (eg, xenografts and allografts) could be added to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) in an effective manner that would: (1) reduce the graft shrinkage observed when using rhBMP-2/ACS alone, (2) reduce the volume and dose of rhBMP-2 required, and (3) preserve the osteoinductivity that rhBMP-2/ACS has shown when used alone. The primary outcome measures were histomorphometric analysis of vital bone production and analysis of serial computed tomographic scans to determine changes in bone graft density and stability. Over the 6-month course of this investigation, bone graft densities tended to increase (moreso with the xenograft than the allograft). The increased density in allograft cases was likely the result of both compression of the mineralized bone replacement graft and vital bone formation, seen histologically. Loss of volume was greater with the four-sponge dose than the two-sponge dose because of compression and resorption of the sponges. Vital bone formation in the allograft cases ranged from 36% to 53% but, because of the small sample size, it was not possible to determine any significant difference between the 5.6 mL (four-sponge) dose and the 2.8 mL (two-sponge) dose. Histology revealed robust new woven bone formation with only minimal traces of residual allograft, which appeared to have undergone accelerated remodeling or rhBMP-2-mediated resorption. PMID:20228973

  14. Demineralized Bone Matrix Combined Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-β3 Gene Promoted Pig Cartilage Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yanlin; Han, Rui; He, Chuan; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Jianwei; Zheng, Jiali; Pei, Mei; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a combination of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) infected with adenovirus-mediated- bone morphogenetic protein (Ad-BMP-2) and transforming growth factor-β3 (Ad-TGF-β3) promotes the repair of the full-thickness cartilage lesions in pig model. Methods BMSCs isolated from pig were cultured and infected with Ad-BMP-2(B group), Ad-TGF-β3 (T group), Ad-BMP-2 + Ad-TGF-β3(BT group), cells infected with empty Ad served as a negative group(N group), the expression of the BMP-2 and TGF-β3 were confirmed by immunofluorescence, PCR, and ELISA, the expression of SOX-9, type II collagen(COL-2A), aggrecan (ACAN) in each group were evaluated by real-time PCR at 1w, 2w, 3w, respectively. The chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was evaluated by type II collagen at 21d with immunohistochemical staining. The third-passage BMSCs infected with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 were suspended and cultured with DBM for 6 days to construct a new type of tissue engineering scaffold to repair full-thickness cartilage lesions in the femur condyles of pig knee, the regenerated tissue was evaluated at 1,2 and 3 months after surgery by gross appearance, H&E, safranin O staining and O'driscoll score. Results Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 (BT group) infected cells acquired strong type II collagen staining compared with Ad-BMP-2 (B group) and Ad-TGF-β3 (T group) along. The Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 infected BMSCs adhered and propagated well in DBM and the new type of tissue engineering scaffold produced hyaline cartilage morphology containing a stronger type II collagen and safranin O staining, the O'driscoll score was higher than other groups. Conclusions The DBM compound with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 infected BMSCs scaffold has a good biocompatibility and could well induce cartilage regeneration to repair the defects of joint cartilage. This technology may be efficiently employed for cartilage lesions repair in vivo. PMID

  15. Nanoscale control of silica particle formation via silk-silica fusion proteins for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mieszawska, Aneta J; Nadkarni, Lauren D; Perry, Carole C; Kaplan, David L

    2010-10-26

    The biomimetic design of silk/silica fusion proteins was carried out, combining the self assembling domains of spider dragline silk (Nephila clavipes) and silaffin derived R5 peptide of Cylindrotheca fusiformis that is responsible for silica mineralization. Genetic engineering was used to generate the protein-based biomaterials incorporating the physical properties of both components. With genetic control over the nanodomain sizes and chemistry, as well as modification of synthetic conditions for silica formation, controlled mineralized silk films with different silica morphologies and distributions were successfully generated; generating 3D porous networks, clustered silica nanoparticles (SNPs), or single SNPs. Silk serves as the organic scaffolding to control the material stability and multiprocessing makes silk/silica biomaterials suitable for different tissue regenerative applications. The influence of these new silk-silica composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards osteogenic lineages on the silk/silica films. The presence of the silica in the silk films influenced osteogenic gene expression, with the upregulation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col 1) markers. Evidence for early bone formation as calcium deposits was observed on silk films with silica. These results indicate the potential utility of these new silk/silica systems towards bone regeneration. PMID:20976116

  16. Effects of Osseointegration by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Titanium Implants In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yin-Lai; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This study designed a biomimetic implant for reducing healing time and achieving early osseointegration to create an active surface. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a strong regulator protein in osteogenic pathways. Due to hardly maintaining BMP-2 biological function and specificity, BMP-2 efficient delivery on implant surfaces is the main challenge for the clinic application. In this study, a novel method for synthesizing functionalized silane film for superior modification with BMP-2 on titanium surfaces is proposed. Three groups were compared with and without BMP-2 on modified titanium surfaces in vitro and in vivo: mechanical grinding; electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH); and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). Cell tests indicated that the ECH and SMART groups with BMP-2 markedly promoted D1 cell activity and differentiation compared with the groups without BMP-2. Moreover, the SMART group with a BMP-2 surface markedly promoted early alkaline phosphatase expression in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. Compared with these groups in vivo, SMART silaning with BMP-2 showed superior bone quality and created contact areas between implant and surrounding bones. The SMART group with BMP-2 could promote cell mineralization in vitro and osseointegration in vivo, indicating potential clinical use. PMID:26977141

  17. Effects of Osseointegration by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Titanium Implants In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yin-Lai; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This study designed a biomimetic implant for reducing healing time and achieving early osseointegration to create an active surface. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a strong regulator protein in osteogenic pathways. Due to hardly maintaining BMP-2 biological function and specificity, BMP-2 efficient delivery on implant surfaces is the main challenge for the clinic application. In this study, a novel method for synthesizing functionalized silane film for superior modification with BMP-2 on titanium surfaces is proposed. Three groups were compared with and without BMP-2 on modified titanium surfaces in vitro and in vivo: mechanical grinding; electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH); and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). Cell tests indicated that the ECH and SMART groups with BMP-2 markedly promoted D1 cell activity and differentiation compared with the groups without BMP-2. Moreover, the SMART group with a BMP-2 surface markedly promoted early alkaline phosphatase expression in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. Compared with these groups in vivo, SMART silaning with BMP-2 showed superior bone quality and created contact areas between implant and surrounding bones. The SMART group with BMP-2 could promote cell mineralization in vitro and osseointegration in vivo, indicating potential clinical use. PMID:26977141

  18. Differential effects and glucocorticoid potentiation of bone morphogenetic protein action during rat osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boden, S D; McCuaig, K; Hair, G; Racine, M; Titus, L; Wozney, J M; Nanes, M S

    1996-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce cartilage and bone differentiation in vivo and promote osteoblast differentiation from calvarial and marrow stromal cell preparations. Functional differences between BMP-2, -4, and -6 are not well understood. Recent investigations find that these three closely related osteoinductive proteins may exert different effects in primary rat calvarial cell cultures, suggesting the possibility of unique functions in vivo. In this study, we use a fetal rat secondary calvarial cell culture system to examine the differential effects of BMP-2, -4, and -6 on early osteoblast differentiation. These cells do not spontaneously differentiate into osteoblasts, as do cells in primary calvarial cultures, but rather require exposure to a differentiation initiator such as glucocorticoid or BMP. We determined that BMP-6 is a 2- to 2.5-fold more potent inducer of osteoblast differentiation than BMP-2 or -4. BMP-6 induced the formation of more and larger bone nodules as well as increased osteocalcin secretion. The effects of all three of these BMPs were potentiated up to 10-fold by cotreatment or pretreatment with the glucocorticoid triamcinolone (Trm). The Trm effects were synergistic with those of BMP-2 or -4, suggesting that this glucocorticoid may increase the cell responsiveness to these BMPs. Finally, BMP-6 did not require either cotreatment or pretreatment with Trm to achieve greater amounts of osteoblast differentiation than seen with BMP-2 or BMP-4 treatment, suggesting that BMP-6 may act at an earlier stage of cell differentiation. PMID:8754767

  19. Inorganic polymers: morphogenic inorganic biopolymers for rapid prototyping chain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the development of customized scaffold materials, in particular for bone tissue engineering and repair, by the introduction of rapid prototyping or solid freeform fabrication techniques. These new fabrication techniques allow to overcome many problems associated with conventional bone implants, such as inadequate external morphology and internal architecture, porosity and interconnectivity, and low reproducibility. However, the applicability of these new techniques is still hampered by the fact that high processing temperature or a postsintering is often required to increase the mechanical stability of the generated scaffold, as well as a post-processing, i.e., surface modification/functionalization to enhance the biocompatibility of the scaffold or to bind some bioactive component. A solution might be provided by the introduction of novel inorganic biopolymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, which resist harsh conditions applied in the RP chain and are morphogenetically active and do not need supplementation by growth factors/cytokines to stimulate the growth and the differentiation of bone-forming cells. PMID:24420716

  20. Histologic and Histomorphometric Comparison of Bone Regeneration Between Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB in Experimental Groups.

    PubMed

    Guven, Gokhan; Gultekin, B Alper; Guven, Gamze Senol; Guzel, Elif; Furat, Selenay; Ersanli, Selim

    2016-05-01

    Efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) delivered via absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) on bone formation was evaluated in guinea pig tibias. Three-millimeter-circular bone tibia defects were created in 24 guinea pigs assigned randomly to 4 groups according to the following defect filling materials: ACS only, rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, or empty. New bone formation was evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically at 15 (early healing) and 45 days (late healing). Mean new bone per total defect area ratio was 0.73, 0.57, 0.43, and 0.42 in rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, ACS only, and empty groups at early healing, respectively. During early healing, significantly more new bone formation was observed in rhBMP-2+ACS and rhPDGF-BB+ACS groups than in the control groups. New bone formation was significantly higher with rhBMP-2+ACS than with rhPDGF-BB+ACS. Mean new bone per total defect area ratio was 0.81, 0.86, 0.74, and 0.75 in the rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, ACS only, and empty groups at late healing, respectively. During late healing, new bone formation was significantly higher in the rhPDGF-BB+ACS group relative to both control groups, but the results did not differ significantly from those in the rhBMP-2+ACS group. New bone formation in the rhBMP-2+ACS group did not change significantly between the healing periods. In the rhPDGF-BB+ACS group, however, new bone formation was significantly higher in the late healing period. Both growth factors accelerated new bone formation in the early healing period. Although rhBMP-2 was more effective in the early healing period, the effects of rhPDGF-BB were longer lasting. PMID:27092911

  1. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolina, J. M.; Evans, G. L.; Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Westerlind, K. C.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    A 14-day orbital spaceflight was performed using ovariectomized Fisher 344 rats to determine the combined effects of estrogen deficiency and near weightlessness on tibia radial bone growth and cancellous bone turnover. Twelve ovariectomized rats with established cancellous osteopenia were flown aboard the space shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Thirty ovariectomized rats were housed on earth as ground controls: 12 in animal enclosure modules, 12 in vivarium cages, and 6 killed the day of launch for baseline measurements. An additional 18 ovary-intact rats were housed in vivarium cages as ground controls: 8 rats were killed as baseline controls and the remaining 10 rats were killed 14 days later. Ovariectomy increased periosteal bone formation at the tibia-fibula synostosis; cancellous bone resorption and formation in the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis; and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the prepro-alpha2(1) subunit of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-beta, and insulin-like growth factor I in the contralateral proximal tibial metaphysis and for the collagen subunit in periosteum pooled from tibiae and femora and decreased cancellous bone area. Compared to ovariectomized weight-bearing rats, the flight group experienced decreases in periosteal bone formation, collagen subunit mRNA levels, and cancellous bone area. The flight rats had a small decrease in the cancellous mineral apposition rate, but no change in the calculated bone formation rate. Also, spaceflight had no effect on cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast perimeters or on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and signaling peptides. On the other hand, spaceflight resulted in an increase in bone resorption, as ascertained from the diminished retention of a preflight fluorochrome label. This latter finding suggests that osteoclast activity was increased. In a follow-up ground-based experiment, unilateral sciatic neurotomy of ovariectomized rats resulted in cancellous

  2. Adenovirus-mediated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-a potentiates bone morphogenetic protein9-induced osteogenic differentiation and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Pi, Chang-Jun; Liang, Kai-Lu; Ke, Zhen-Yong; Chen, Fu; Cheng, Yun; Yin, Liang-Jun; Deng, Zhong-Liang; He, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Liang

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are suitable seed cells for bone tissue engineering because they can self-renew and undergo differentiation into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, or myogenic lineages. Vascular endothelial growth factor-a (VEGF-a), an angiogenic factor, is also involved in osteogenesis and bone repair. However, the effects of VEGF-a on osteogenic MSCs differentiation remain unknown. It was previously reported that bone morphogenetic protein9 (BMP9) is one of the most important osteogenic BMPs. Here, we investigated the effects of VEGF-a on BMP9-induced osteogenesis with mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We found that endogenous VEGF-a expression was undetectable in MSCs. Adenovirus-mediated expression of VEGF-a in MEFs potentiated BMP9-induced early and late osteogenic markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN). In stem cell implantation assays, VEGF-a augmented BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation. VEGF-a in combination with BMP9 effectively increased the bone volume and osteogenic activity. However, the synergistic effect was efficiently abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT inhibitor LY294002. These results demonstrated that BMP9 may crosstalk with VEGF-a through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to induce osteogenic differentiation in MEFs. Thus, our findings demonstrate the effects of VEGF-a on BMP9-induced bone formation and provide a new potential strategy for treating nonunion fractures, large segmental bony defects, and/or osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27003241

  3. A controlled trial of the effect of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Seiichiro; Koyama, Takao; Toba, Yasuhiro; Itabashi, Akira; Takada, Yukihiro

    2005-12-01

    Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health than other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction (milk basic protein, MBP), contains several components capable of promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. The object of this study was to examine the effect of MBP on the bone metabolism of healthy menopausal women. Thirty-two healthy menopausal women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for 6 months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 of each subject was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 0 and 6 months of treatment. Serum and urine indices of bone metabolism were measured at 0, 3 and 6 months. Twenty-seven subjects who completed the study in accordance with the protocol were included in the analysis. The mean rate of gain of lumbar BMD in the MBP group (1.21%) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (-0.66%, P=0.046). When compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type-I collagen (NTx) were significantly decreased in the MBP group at 6 months, but no significant difference in serum osteocalcin was observed between the two groups. The urinary NTx excretion was found to be related to serum osteocalcin in the MBP group at 3 and 6 months, indicating that MBP maintained the balance of bone remodeling. These results suggested that MBP supplementation was effective in preventing bone loss in menopausal women and that this improvement in BMD may be primarily mediated through the inhibition of bone resorption while maintaining the balance of bone remodeling by MBP supplementation. PMID:16133638

  4. Role of Polymer Architecture on the Activity of Polymer-Protein Conjugates for the Treatment of Accelerated Bone Loss Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Bryan S; Stewart, Jon D; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Holliday, L Shannon; Figg, C Adrian; Messer, Jonathan G; Sumerlin, Brent S

    2015-08-10

    Polymers of similar molecular weights and chemical constitution but varying in their macromolecular architectures were conjugated to osteoprotegerin (OPG) to determine the effect of polymer topology on protein activity in vitro and in vivo. OPG is a protein that inhibits bone resorption by preventing the formation of mature osteoclasts from the osteoclast precursor cell. Accelerated bone loss disorders, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and metastatic bone disease, occur as a result of increased osteoclastogenesis, leading to the severe weakening of the bone. OPG has shown promise as a treatment in bone disorders; however, it is rapidly cleared from circulation through rapid liver uptake, and frequent, high doses of the protein are necessary to achieve a therapeutic benefit. We aimed to improve the effectiveness of OPG by creating OPG-polymer bioconjugates, employing reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization to create well-defined polymers with branching densities varying from linear, loosely branched to densely branched. Polymers with each of these architectures were conjugated to OPG using a "grafting-to" approach, and the bioconjugates were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The OPG-polymer bioconjugates showed retention of activity in vitro against osteoclasts, and each bioconjugate was shown to be nontoxic. Preliminary in vivo studies further supported the nontoxic characteristics of the bioconjugates, and measurement of the bone mineral density in rats 7 days post-treatment via peripheral quantitative computed tomography suggested a slight increase in bone mineral density after administration of the loosely branched OPG-polymer bioconjugate. PMID:26151628

  5. Repair of rat cranial bone defect by using bone morphogenetic protein-2-related peptide combined with microspheres composed of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfeng; Jin, Lin; Wang, Mingbo; Zhu, Shaobo; Xu, Shuyun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of the transplanted bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) -related peptide P24 and rhBMP2 combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan (CS) microspheres were investigated in promoting the repair of rat cranial bone defect. Forty white rats were selected and equally divided into four groups (group A: 1 μg of rhBMP2/PLGA/CS composite; group B: 3 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group C: 0.5 μg of rhBMP2 + 1.5 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group D: blank PLGA/CS material), and rat cranial bone defect models with a diameter of 5 mm were established. The materials were transplanted to the cranial bone defects. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 6 and 12 post-operation. Radiographic examinations (x-ray imaging and 3D CT scanning) and histological evaluations were performed. The repaired areas of cranial bone defects were measured, and the osteogenetic abilities of various materials were compared. Cranial histology, imaging, and repaired area measurements showed that the osteogenetic effects at two time points (weeks 6 and 12) in group C were better than those in groups A and B. The effects in groups A and B were similar. Group D achieved the worst repair effect of cranial bone defects, where a large number of fibrous connective tissues were observed. The PLGA/CS composite microspheres loaded with rhBMP2 and P24 had optimal concrescence and could mutually increase their osteogenesis capability. rhBMP2 + P24/PLGA/CS composite is a novel material for bone defect repair with stable activity to induce bone formation. PMID:26154695

  6. Peripheral serotonin-mediated system suppresses bone development and regeneration via serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin is important in brain functions and involved in neurological diseases. It is also drawn considerable attention in bone disease since it mainly produced by the gut. Serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor (5-HT6R) is clinical targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, 5-HT6R as a therapeutic target in bone has not been reported. Herein, we found that 5-HT6R showed higher expression in bone, and its expression was increased during bone remodeling and osteoblast differentiation. The activation of 5-HT6R by ST1936 caused the inhibition of ALP activity and mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures, which was antagonized by SB258585, an antagonist and by the knockdown of 5-HT6R. Further investigation indicated that 5-HT6R inhibited osteoblast differentiation via Jab1 in BMP2 signaling but not PKA and ERK1/2. In vivo studies showed that the activation of 5-HT6R inhibited bone regeneration in the calvarial defect mice and also delayed bone development in newborn mice; this response was antagonized by SB258585. Therefore, our findings indicate a key role of 5-HT6R in bone formation through serotonin originating in the peripheral system, and suggest that it is a novel therapeutic target for drug development in the bone repair and bone diseases. PMID:27581523

  7. Peripheral serotonin-mediated system suppresses bone development and regeneration via serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin is important in brain functions and involved in neurological diseases. It is also drawn considerable attention in bone disease since it mainly produced by the gut. Serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor (5-HT6R) is clinical targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, 5-HT6R as a therapeutic target in bone has not been reported. Herein, we found that 5-HT6R showed higher expression in bone, and its expression was increased during bone remodeling and osteoblast differentiation. The activation of 5-HT6R by ST1936 caused the inhibition of ALP activity and mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures, which was antagonized by SB258585, an antagonist and by the knockdown of 5-HT6R. Further investigation indicated that 5-HT6R inhibited osteoblast differentiation via Jab1 in BMP2 signaling but not PKA and ERK1/2. In vivo studies showed that the activation of 5-HT6R inhibited bone regeneration in the calvarial defect mice and also delayed bone development in newborn mice; this response was antagonized by SB258585. Therefore, our findings indicate a key role of 5-HT6R in bone formation through serotonin originating in the peripheral system, and suggest that it is a novel therapeutic target for drug development in the bone repair and bone diseases. PMID:27581523

  8. Coordinated regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation on microstructured titanium surfaces by endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon L; Haithcock, David A; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2015-04-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoblasts on microstructured titanium (Ti) surfaces without addition of medium supplements, suggesting that surface-dependent endogenous mechanisms are involved. They produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which regulate MSC differentiation and bone formation via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms that are modulated by changes in BMP mRNA and protein, receptors, and inhibitors (Noggin, Cerberus, Gremlin 1, and Chordin). We examined expression of BMPs, their receptors and their inhibitors over time and used BMP2-silenced cells to determine how modulating endogenous BMP signaling can affect the process. MSCs were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene or Ti [PT (Ra<0.4 μm); sandblasted/acid-etched Ti (SLA, Ra=3.2 μm); or hydrophilic-SLA (modSLA)]. BMP mRNAs and proteins increased by day 4 of culture. Exogenous BMP2 increased differentiation whereas differentiation was decreased in BMP2-silenced cells. Noggin was regulated by day 2 whereas Gremlin 1 and Cerberus were regulated after 6days. Osteoblastic differentiation increased in cells cultured with blocking antibodies against Noggin, Gremlin 1, and Cerberus. Endogenous BMPs enhance an osteogenic microenvironment whereas exogenous BMPs are inhibitory. Antibody blocking of the BMP2 inhibitor Cerberus resulted in IL-6 and IL-8 levels that were similar to those observed when treating cells with exogenous BMP2, while antibodies targeting the inhibitors Gremlin or Noggin did not. These results suggest that microstructured titanium implants supporting therapeutic stem cells may be treated with appropriately selected agents antagonistic to extracellular BMP inhibitors in order to enhance BMP2 mediated bone repair while avoiding undesirable inflammatory side effects observed with exogenous BMP2 treatment. PMID:25554602

  9. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-9 potently induces osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fuchigami, Sawako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Furue, Kirara; Sena, Kotaro; Shinohara, Yukiya; Noguchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    To accomplish effective periodontal regeneration for periodontal defects, several regenerative methods using growth and differentiation factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been developed. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 exhibits the most potent osteogenic activity of this growth factor family. However, it is unclear whether exogenous BMP-9 can induce osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Here, we examined the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-9 on osteoblastic differentiation in human PDL fibroblasts in vitro, compared with rhBMP-2. Recombinant human BMP-9 potently induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and increased expression of runt-related transcription factor-2/core binding factor alpha 1 (RUNX2/CBFA1), osterix, inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation-1 (ID1), osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein genes, compared with rhBMP-2. The levels of rhBMP-9-induced osterix and ALP mRNA were significantly reduced in activin receptor-like kinase-1 and -2 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfected human PDL fibroblasts. Recombinant human BMP-9-induced ALP activity was not inhibited by noggin, in contrast to rhBMP-2 induced ALP activity, which was. Phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in human PDL fibroblasts was induced by addition of rhBMP-9. Recombinant human BMP-9-induced ALP activity was suppressed by SB203580, SP600125, and U0126, which are inhibitors of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), respectively. Our data suggest that rhBMP-9 is a potent inducer of the differentiation of human PDL fibroblasts into osteoblast-like cells and that this may be mediated by the SMAD and mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38, ERK1/2, and JNK) pathways. PMID:26879145

  10. Coordinated Regulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation on Microstructured Titanium Surfaces by Endogenous Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Haithcock, David A.; Cundiff, Caitlin A.; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2015-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoblasts on microstructured titanium (Ti) surfaces without addition of medium supplements, suggesting that surface-dependent endogenous mechanisms are involved. They produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which regulate MSC differentiation and bone formation via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms that are modulated by changes in BMP mRNA and protein, receptors, and inhibitors (Noggin, Cerberus, Gremlin 1, and Chordin). We examined expression of BMPs, their receptors and their inhibitors over time and used BMP2-silenced cells to determine how modulating endogenous BMP signaling can affect the process. MSCs were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene or Ti [PT (Ra<0.4μm); sandblasted/acid-etched Ti (SLA, Ra=3.2μm); or hydrophilic-SLA (modSLA)]. BMP mRNAs and proteins increased by day 4 of culture. Exogenous BMP2 increased differentiation whereas differentiation was decreased in BMP2-silenced cells. Noggin was regulated by day 2 whereas Gremlin 1 and Cerberus were regulated after 6 days. Osteoblastic differentiation increased in cells cultured with blocking antibodies against Noggin, Gremlin 1, and Cerberus. Endogenous BMPs enhance an osteogenic microenvironment whereas exogenous BMPs are inhibitory. Antibody blocking of the BMP2 inhibitor Cerberus resulted in IL-6 and IL-8 levels that were similar to those observed when treating cells with exogenous BMP2, while antibodies targeting the inhibitors Gremlin or Noggin did not. These results suggest that microstructured titanium implants supporting therapeutic stem cells may be treated with appropriately selected agents antagonistic to extracellular BMP inhibitors in order to enhance BMP2 mediated bone repair while avoiding undesirable inflammatory side effects observed with exogenous BMP2 treatment. PMID:25554602

  11. Heat shock protein 60 protects skeletal tissue against glucocorticoid-induced bone mass loss by regulating osteoblast survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Sheng; Wu, Re-Wen; Ko, Jih-Yang; Tai, Ming-Hong; Ke, Huei-Ching; Yeh, Da-Wei; Wu, Shin-Long; Chen, Ming-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Excessive glucocorticoid administration accelerates osteoblast apoptosis and skeletal deterioration. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) regulate metabolic activities in osteoblastic cells. This study characterized the biological significance of HSP60 in glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Rats were treated with glucocorticoid, HSP60 antisense oligonucleotides, or adenovirus-mediated HSP60 gene transfer. Bone mineral density, metaphyseal trabecular micro-architecture, and fragility were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, and material testing, respectively. Differential proteomic profiles of bone tissue extracts were detected by bi-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Survival and proapoptotic signal transduction were quantified by immunoblotting. Glucocorticoid-treated rats had low bone mineral density and metaphyseal trabecular microstructure in association with downregulation of collagen 1α1 and HSP60 expressions in bone tissue. Gain of HSP60 function by adenovirus-mediated HSP60 gene transfer abrogated the deleterious effects of glucocorticoid treatment on bone mass, trabecular microstructure, and mechanical strength. Enhancement of HSP60 signaling attenuated the glucocorticoid-induced loss of trabecular bone volume, mineral acquisition reactions and osteoblast surface. HSP60 gene transfer activated ERK and Akt and reduced Bax and cytochrome c release, as well as caspase-3 cleavage, which attenuated the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoid treatment on osteoblast survival. Loss of HSP60 function by HSP60 antisense oligonucleotides accelerated mitochondrial apoptotic programs and osteoblast apoptosis. Knockdown of HSP60 induced loss of bone mass, micro-architecture integrity, and mechanical property. Taken together, loss of HSP60 signaling contributes to the glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of pro-apoptotic reactions, thereby accelerating osteoblast apoptosis and bone mass loss. Enhancement of HSP60 function is beneficial for

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Signalling in Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells during Development and after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Alistair E.; Murray, Simon S.; Xiao, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying the extracellular signalling pathways that regulate neural stem and precursor cell biology in the central nervous system (CNS). The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), in particular BMP4, are key players regulating neuronal and glial cell development from neural precursor cells in the embryonic, postnatal, and injured CNS. Here we review recent studies on BMP4 signalling in the generation of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendroglial cells in the CNS. We also discuss putative mechanisms that BMP4 may utilise to influence glial cell development following CNS injury and highlight some questions for further research. PMID:27293450

  13. Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2 Protein of Swine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ning; Meng, Qiong; Wu, Yongguang; Wang, Zhongze; Zuo, Yewen; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Shen; Yu, Hai; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, En-Min; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-06-01

    The bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2) protein was identified as a novel virus restriction factor that potently restricts the replication and egress of enveloped viruses. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against porcine BST-2 encoding 34-112 aa of porcine BST-2, which was cloned and inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pCold-I to construct a recombinant plasmid pCold-pBST-2. The recombinant porcine BST-2 protein (rpBST-2 protein) was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Then, BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified rpBST-2 protein to prepare MAbs of BST-2. After subcloning, one strain of hybridoma cells named 1B2 secreting porcine BST-2 protein monoclonal antibody (MAb) was obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the MAb was specifically reacted with the overexpressed porcine BST-2 protein in Vero cells. The specific MAb of porcine BST-2 provides a valuable tool for further studies of BST-2 to restrict virus infection. PMID:27148642

  14. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of diet (AIN93G or high-fat), physical activity (sedentary or voluntary running) and protein source (casein or soy protein isolate) and their interactions on bone microstructural changes in distal femurs in male C57BL/6 mice by using micro-computed tomography. After 14 w...

  15. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B.; Abildgaard, Niels; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6), leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 37), and control individuals (n = 15), using ELISA (IGFs) and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs). MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5–3.8 fold) and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6–0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration. PMID:27111220

  16. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients.

    PubMed

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B; Abildgaard, Niels; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E; Conover, Cheryl A; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin; Overgaard, Michael T; Nyegaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6), leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 37), and control individuals (n = 15), using ELISA (IGFs) and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs). MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5-3.8 fold) and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6-0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration. PMID:27111220

  17. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil Lee, Zang Hee

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  18. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone resorption by targeting BET proteins and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun; Lim, Elisha; Lee, Min Joon; Park, Sung Ho; Giannopoulou, Eugenia; Yarilina, Anna; van der Meulen, Marjolein; Zhao, Baohong; Smithers, Nicholas; Witherington, Jason; Lee, Kevin; Tak, Paul P; Prinjha, Rab K; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that RANKL-induced changes in chromatin state are important for osteoclastogenesis, but these epigenetic mechanisms are not well understood and have not been therapeutically targeted. In this study, we find that the small molecule I-BET151 that targets bromo and extra-terminal (BET) proteins that 'read' chromatin states by binding to acetylated histones strongly suppresses osteoclastogenesis. I-BET151 suppresses pathologic bone loss in TNF-induced inflammatory osteolysis, inflammatory arthritis and post-ovariectomy models. Transcriptome analysis identifies a MYC-NFAT axis important for osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, I-BET151 inhibits expression of the master osteoclast regulator NFATC1 by suppressing expression and recruitment of its newly identified upstream regulator MYC. MYC is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis macrophages and its induction by RANKL is important for osteoclastogenesis and TNF-induced bone resorption. These findings highlight the importance of an I-BET151-inhibited MYC-NFAT axis in osteoclastogenesis, and suggest targeting epigenetic chromatin regulators holds promise for treatment of inflammatory and oestrogen deficiency-mediated pathologic bone resorption. PMID:25391636

  19. The retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor is important for appropriate osteoblast differentiation and bone development.

    PubMed

    Berman, Seth D; Yuan, Tina L; Miller, Emily S; Lee, Eunice Y; Caron, Alicia; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2008-09-01

    Mutation of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene is strongly linked to osteosarcoma formation. This observation and the documented interaction between the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and Runx2 suggests that pRb is important in bone development. To assess this hypothesis, we used a conditional knockout strategy to generate pRb-deficient embryos that survive to birth. Analysis of these embryos shows that Rb inactivation causes the abnormal development and impaired ossification of several bones, correlating with an impairment in osteoblast differentiation. We further show that Rb inactivation acts to promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro and, through conditional analysis, establish that this occurs in a cell-intrinsic manner. Although these in vivo and in vitro differentiation phenotypes seem paradoxical, we find that Rb-deficient osteoblasts have an impaired ability to exit the cell cycle both in vivo and in vitro that can explain the observed differentiation defects. Consistent with this observation, we show that the cell cycle and the bone defects in Rb-deficient embryos can be suppressed by deletion of E2f1, a known proliferation inducer that acts downstream of Rb. Thus, we conclude that pRb plays a key role in regulating osteoblast differentiation by mediating the inhibition of E2F and consequently promoting cell cycle exit. PMID:18819932

  20. The effects of dietary protein on bone mineral mass in young adults may be modulated by adolescent calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Whiting, Susan J

    2007-12-01

    The effect of dietary protein on bone mass measures at different life stages is controversial. We investigated the influence of protein intake on bone mass measures in young adults, considering the influence of calcium intake through adolescence. Subjects were 133 young adults (59 males, 74 females) who were participating in the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-1997, 2003-2006). At adulthood, their mean age was 23 y. We assessed dietary intake via serial 24-h recalls carried out at least once yearly. Total body (TB) bone mineral content (BMC) and TB bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed annually using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We determined TB-BMC net gain from the age of peak height velocity (PHV) to early adulthood. We analyzed data from all subjects and subsets based on sex and calcium intake using multiple regression. TB-BMC significantly increased from age at PHV to early adulthood by 41% in males and 37% in females. Height, weight, physical activity, and sex were significant predictors of TB-BMC, TB-BMC net gain, and TB-BMD among all subjects. Protein intake predicted TB-BMC net gain in all subjects (beta = 0.11; P = 0.015). In females at peri-adolescence or early adulthood with adequate calcium intake (>1000 mg/d), protein intake positively predicted TB-BMC, TB-BMC net gain, and TB-BMD (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that when calcium intake is adequate, protein intake has a beneficial effect on the bone mass of young adult females. Protein, in the absence of sufficient calcium, does not confer as much benefit to bone. PMID:18029482

  1. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres: a novel bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Yonxing; Bal, B. Sonny

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is a common and significant clinical problem. Limitations associated with existing treatments such as autologous bone grafts and allografts have increased the need for synthetic bone graft substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of novel hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres to serve as a carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic-2 (BMP2) in bone regeneration. Hollow HA microspheres (106–150 μm) with a high surface area (>100 m2/g) and a mesoporous shell wall (pore size 10–20 nm) were created using a glass conversion technique. The release of BMP2 from the microspheres into a medium composed of diluted fetal bovine serum in vitro was slow, but it occurred continuously for over 2 weeks. When implanted in rat calvarial defects for 3 or 6 weeks, the microspheres loaded with BMP2 (1 μg/defect) showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone than those without BMP2. The amount of new bone in the defects implanted with the BMP2-loaded microspheres was 40% and 43%, respectively, at 3 and 6 weeks, compared to 13% and 17%, respectively, for the microspheres without BMP2. Coating the BMP2-loaded microspheres with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), reduced the amount of BMP2 released in vitro and, above a certain coating thickness, significantly reduced bone regeneration in vivo. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres could provide a bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for growth factors in bone regeneration. PMID:23747325

  2. Bone formation of human mesenchymal stem cells harvested from reaming debris is stimulated by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein-7 application in vivo.

    PubMed

    Westhauser, Fabian; Höllig, Melanie; Reible, Bruno; Xiao, Kai; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash

    2016-12-01

    Stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) leads to superior bone formation in vitro. In this in vivo-study we evaluated the use of BMP-7 in combination with MSC isolated from reaming debris (RIA-MSC) and iliac crest bone marrow (BMSC) with micro-computed tomography (mCT)-analysis. β-Tricalciumphosphate scaffolds coated with BMSC and RIA-MSC were stimulated with three different BMP-7-concentrations and implanted ectopically in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Our results demonstrate that RIA-MSC show a higher osteogenic potential in vivo compared to BMSC. Ossification increased in direct correlation with the BMP-7-dose applied, however low-dose-stimulation by BMP-7 was more effective for RIA-MSC. PMID:27621556

  3. Controlled trial of the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Aoe, S; Toba, Y; Yamamura, J; Kawakami, H; Yahiro, M; Kumegawa, M; Itabashi, A; Takada, Y

    2001-04-01

    Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health compared to other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies showed that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction, contains several components capable of both promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. However, the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) on bone metabolism of humans are not known. The object of this study was to examine the effects of MBP on bone metabolism of healthy adult women. Thirty-three normal healthy women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for six months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the left calcaneus of each subject was measured at the beginning of the study and after six months of treatment, by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine indices of bone metabolism were measured at the base line, three-month intervals, and the end of the study. Daily intake of nutrients was monitored by a three-day food record made at three and six months. The mean (+/- SD) rate of left calcaneus BMD gain of women in the MBP group (3.42 +/- 2.05%) was significantly higher than that of women in the placebo group (2.01 +/- 1.75%, P = 0.042). As compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-teleopeptides of type-I collagen/creatinine and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were significantly decreased in the MBP group (p < 0.05), while no significant differences between the two groups were observed in serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentrations. A daily MBP supplementation of 40 mg in healthy adult women can significantly increase their BMD independent of dietary intake of minerals and vitamins. This increase in BMD might be primarily mediated through inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by the MBP supplementation. PMID:11388472

  4. Effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bisphosphonate-treated osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Kyun; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, In-Ryoung; Park, Bong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Cheong, In-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a side effect of bisphophonate therapy that has been reported in recent years. Osteoclastic inactivity by bisphosphonate is the known cause of BRONJ. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) plays an important role in the development of bone. Recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) is potentially useful as an activation factor for bone repair. We hypothesized that rhBMP-2 would enhance the osteoclast-osteoblast interaction related to bone remodeling. Materials and Methods Human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19) were treated with 100 µM alendronate, and 100 ng/mL rhBMP-2 was added. Cells were incubated for a further 48 hours, and cell viability was measured using an MTT assay. Expression of the three cytokines from osteoblasts, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Cell viability was decreased to 82.75%±1.00% by alendronate and then increased to 110.43%±1.35% after treatment with rhBMP-2 (P<0.05, respectively). OPG, RANKL, and M-CSF expression were all decreased by alendronate treatment. RANKL and M-CSF expression were increased, but OPG was not significantly affected by rhBMP-2. Conclusion rhBMP2 does not affect OPG gene expression in hFOB, but it may increase RANKL and M-CSF gene expression. PMID:25551094

  5. Modulation of Bone-Specific Tissue Regeneration by Incorporating Bone Morphogenetic Protein and Controlling the Shell Thickness of Silk Fibroin/Chitosan/Nanohydroxyapatite Core-Shell Nanofibrous Membranes.

    PubMed

    Shalumon, K T; Lai, Guo-Jyun; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2015-09-30

    The presence of both osteoconductive and osteoinductive factors is important in promoting stem cell differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage. In this study, we prepared silk fibroin/chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite/bone morphogenetic protein-2 (SF/CS/nHAP/BMP-2, SCHB2) nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) by incorporating BMP-2 in the core and SF/CS/nHAP as the shell layer of a nanofiber with two different shell thicknesses (SCHB2-thick and SCHB-thin). The physicochemical properties of SCHB2 membranes were characterized and compared with those of SF/CS and SF/CS/nHAP NFMs. When tested in release studies, the release rate of BMP-2 and the concentration of BMP-2 in the release medium were higher for SCHB2-thin NFMs because of reduced shell thickness. The BMP-2 released from the nanofiber retained its osteoinductive activity toward human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Compared with SF/CS and SF/CS/nHAP NFMs, the incorporation of BMP-2-promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and the SCHB-thin NFM is the best scaffold during in vitro cell culture. Gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detected the evolution of both early and late marker genes of bone formation. The relative mRNA expression is in accordance with the effect of BMP-2 incorporation and shell thickness, while the same was reconfirmed through the quantification of bone marker protein osteocalcin. In vivo experiments were carried out by subcutaneously implanting hMSC-seeded SCHB2-thin NFMs and acellular controls on the back sides of nude mice. Immunohistochemical and histological staining confirmed ectopic bone formation and osteogenesis of hMSCs in SCHB2-thin NFMs. In conclusion, the SCHB2-thin NFM could be suggested as a promising scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26355766

  6. USP15 targets ALK3/BMPR1A for deubiquitylation to enhance bone morphogenetic protein signalling

    PubMed Central

    Herhaus, Lina; Al-Salihi, Mazin A.; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Wasmus, Lize; Vogt, Janis; Ewan, Richard; Bruce, David; Macartney, Thomas; Weidlich, Simone; Smith, James C.; Sapkota, Gopal P.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase ALK3/BMPR1A mediates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling through phosphorylation and activation of SMADs 1/5/8. SMAD6, a transcriptional target of BMP, negatively regulates the BMP pathway by recruiting E3 ubiquitin ligases and targeting ALK3 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Here, we identify a deubiquitylating enzyme USP15 as an interactor of SMAD6 and ALK3. We show that USP15 enhances BMP-induced phosphorylation of SMAD1 by interacting with and deubiquitylating ALK3. RNAi-mediated depletion of USP15 increases ALK3 K48-linked polyubiquitylation, and reduces both BMP-induced SMAD1 phosphorylation and transcription of BMP target genes. We also show that loss of USP15 expression from mouse myoblast cells inhibits BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, USP15 modulates BMP-induced phosphorylation of SMAD1 and transcription during Xenopus embryogenesis. PMID:24850914

  7. Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Scheinecker, Clemens; Redlich, Kurt; Smolen, Josef; Schonthaler, Helia B; Kenner, Lukas; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2008-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) (Fos/Jun) is a transcriptional regulator composed of members of the Fos and Jun families of DNA binding proteins. The functions of AP-1 were initially studied in mouse development as well as in the whole organism through conventional transgenic approaches, but also by gene targeting using knockout strategies. The importance of AP-1 proteins in disease pathways including the inflammatory response became fully apparent through conditional mutagenesis in mice, in particular when employing gene inactivation in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. Besides the well-documented roles of Fos and Jun proteins in oncogenesis, where these genes can function both as tumor promoters or tumor suppressors, AP-1 proteins are being recognized as regulators of bone and immune cells, a research area termed osteoimmunology. In the present article, we review recent data regarding the functions of AP-1 as a regulator of cytokine expression and an important modulator in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. These new data provide a better molecular understanding of disease pathways and should pave the road for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications. PMID:18226189

  8. Long-Range Communication Network in the Type 1B Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Wilfredo; Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Gmyrek, Aleksandra; Lee, J Ching; Lee, John C

    2015-12-01

    Protein-protein interactions are recognized as a fundamental phenomenon that is intimately associated with biological functions and thus are ideal targets for developing modulators for regulating biological functions. A challenge is to identify a site that is situated away from but functionally connected to the protein-protein interface. We employed bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors as a model system to develop a strategy for identifying such a network of communication. Accordingly, using computational analyses with the COREX/BEST algorithm, we uncovered an overall pattern connecting various regions of BMPR-1B ectodomain, including the four conserved residues in the protein-protein interface. In preparation for testing the long-range effects of mutations of distal residues for future studies, we examined the extent of measurable perturbation of the four conserved residues by determination of the conformation and relative affinities of these BMPR-1B mutants for ligands BMP-2, -6, and -7 and GDF-5. Results suggest no significant structural changes in the receptor but do suggest that the four residues play different roles in defining ligand affinity and both intra- and intermolecular interactions play a role in defining ligand affinity. Thus, these results established two primary but necessary goals: (1) the baseline knowledge of perturbation of conserved interfacial residues for future reference and (2) the ability of the computational approach to identify the distal residues connecting to the interfacial residues. The data presented here provide the foundation for future experiments to identify the effects of distal residues that affect the specificity and affinity of BMP recognition. Protein-protein interactions are integral reactions in essentially all biological activities such as gene regulation and age-related development. Often, diseases are consequences of the alteration of these intermacromolecular interactions, which are thus recognized

  9. Makings of a brittle bone: Unexpected lessons from a low protein diet study of a mouse OI model.

    PubMed

    Mertz, E L; Makareeva, E; Mirigian, L S; Koon, K Y; Perosky, J E; Kozloff, K M; Leikin, S

    2016-01-01

    Glycine substitutions in type I collagen appear to cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by disrupting folding of the triple helix, the structure of which requires Gly in every third position. It is less clear, however, whether the resulting bone malformations and fragility are caused by effects of intracellular accumulation of misfolded collagen on differentiation and function of osteoblasts, effects of secreted misfolded collagen on the function of bone matrix, or both. Here we describe a study originally conceived for testing how reducing intracellular accumulation of misfolded collagen would affect mice with a Gly610 to Cys substitution in the triple helical region of the α2(I) chain. To stimulate degradation of misfolded collagen by autophagy, we utilized a low protein diet. The diet had beneficial effects on osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix mineralization, but also affected bone modeling and suppressed overall animal growth. Our more important observations, however, were not related to the diet. They revealed how altered osteoblast function and deficient bone formation by each cell caused by the G610C mutation combined with increased osteoblastogenesis might make the bone more brittle, all of which are common OI features. In G610C mice, increased bone formation surface compensated for reduced mineral apposition rate, resulting in normal cortical area and thickness at the cost of altering cortical modeling process, retaining woven bone, and reducing the ability of bone to absorb energy through plastic deformation. Reduced collagen and increased mineral density in extracellular matrix of lamellar bone compounded the problem, further reducing bone toughness. The latter observations might have particularly important implications for understanding OI pathophysiology and designing more effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:27039252

  10. Bone apposition to titanium implants biocoated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). A pilot study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Axel; Schwarz, Frank; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria; Rothamel, Daniel; Lekovic, Vojislav; Jennissen, Herbert Peter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate bone formation to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-biocoated and rhBMP-2-nonbiocoated titanium implants after implantation in dogs. Implantation of sand-blasted and acid-etched (C), chromosulfuric acid surface-enhanced (CSA), and rhBMP-2-biocoated CSA [BMP-A: noncovalently immobilized rhBMP-2 (596 ng/cm2), BMP-B: covalently immobilized rhBMP-2 (819 ng/cm2)] implants was performed in both the mandible and tibia of dogs. After 4 weeks of healing, the percentage of direct bone to implant contact (BIC) and the induced bone density (BD) at a distance of less than and greater than 1 mm adjacent to each implant was assessed. Histomorphometric analysis of implants inserted in the mandible and tibia revealed that BIC values appeared to be highest in the BMP-B group, followed by BMP-A, CSA, and C. BD as measured at a distance of <1 mm revealed obvious differences between groups: BMP-B>BMP-A>CSA>C. However, no differences between groups were observed at a distance of >1 mm. Within the limits of the present study, it may be concluded that rhBMP-2 immobilized by covalent and noncovalent methods on CSA-treated implant surfaces seemed to be stable and promoted direct bone apposition in a concentration-dependant manner. PMID:16683108

  11. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowers gastric adenocarcinoma TMK1 cell proliferation via bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Yu Le; Cho, C.H.

    2008-06-27

    Proteasome inhibitor is a novel class of cancer therapeutics, of which the mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is reported that proteasome inhibitor enhances bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in osteoblasts to stimulate bone formation. BMP signaling is also an important tumor-suppressing pathway in gastric carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine the anti-mitogenic effect of proteasome inhibition in relation to BMP signaling in gastric cancer cells. Results showed that proteasome inhibitor MG-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation and the colony-forming ability of gastric cancer TMK1 cells. In this connection, MG-132 activated BMP signaling, manifested as an increase in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and up-regulation of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of BMP receptor II by RNA interference abolished Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction, and the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by MG-132. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 up-regulated the expression of BMP1 and BMP4 and suppressed the expression of Smad6. Knockdown of Smad6 also mimicked the effect of MG-132 on BMP signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that inhibition of proteasome suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation via activation of BMP signaling. This discovery may open up a novel therapeutic avenue to proteasome inhibitors for the management of gastric cancer.

  12. The role of the bone morphogenetic proteins in leukaemic stem cell persistence.

    PubMed

    Toofan, Parto; Irvine, David; Hopcroft, Lisa; Copland, Mhairi; Wheadon, Helen

    2014-08-01

    CML (chronic myeloid leukaemia) is characterized by the presence of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase fusion protein BCR (breakpoint cluster region)-Abl, responsible for driving the disease. Current TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) therapies effectively inhibit BCR-Abl to control CML in the majority of patients, but do not eliminate the LSC (leukaemic stem cell) population, which becomes quiescent following treatment. Patients require long-term treatment to sustain remission; alternative strategies are therefore required, either alone or in combination with TKIs to eliminate the LSCs and provide a cure. The embryonic morphogenetic pathways play a key role in haemopoiesis with recent evidence suggesting LSCs are more dependent on these signals following chemotherapy than normal HSCs (haemopoietic stem cells). Recent evidence in the literature and from our group has revealed that the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) pathway is differentially expressed in CML patients compared with normal donors. In the present review, we explore the role that BMP signalling plays in oesteoblast differentiation, HSC maintenance and the implication of altered BMP signalling on LSC persistence in the BM (bone marrow) niche. Overall, we highlight the BMP pathway as a potential target for developing LSC-directed therapies in CML in the future. PMID:25109962

  13. Embryonic Morphogen Nodal Is Associated with Progression and Poor Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Dong; Xu, Ge-Liang; Ma, Jin-Liang; Ren, Yun; Chen, Hao; Sun, Si-Nan; Huang, Mei; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Nodal, a TGF-β-related embryonic morphogen, is involved in multiple biologic processes. However, the expression of Nodal in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and prognosis is unclear. Methods We used real-time PCR and Western blotting to investigate Nodal expression in 6 HCC cell lines and 1 normal liver cell line, 16 pairs of tumor and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine Nodal expression in HCC and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from 96 patients. CD34 and Vimentin were only examined in HCC tissues of patients mentioned above. Nodal gene was silenced by shRNA in MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cell lines, and cell migration and invasion were detected. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the prognostic value and associations of Nodal expression with clinical parameters. Results Nodal expression was detected in HCC cell lines with high metastatic potential alone. Nodal expression is up-regulated in HCC tissues compared with paracarcinomatous and normal liver tissues. Nodal protein was expressed in 70 of the 96 (72.9%) HCC tumors, and was associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.000), status of metastasis (P = 0.004), AFP (P = 0.049), ICGR15 (indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min) (P = 0.010) and tumor size (P = 0.000). High Nodal expression was positively correlated with high MVD (microvessal density) (P = 0.006), but not with Vimentin expression (P = 0.053). Significantly fewer migrated and invaded cells were seen in shRNA group compared with blank group and negative control group (P<0.05). High Nodal expression was found to be an independent factor for predicting overall survival of HCC. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Nodal expression is associated with aggressive characteristics of HCC. Its aberrant expression may be a predictive factor of unfavorable prognosis

  14. Cationized gelatin hydrogels mixed with plasmid DNA induce stronger and more sustained gene expression than atelocollagen at calvarial bone defects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, K; Shibata, T; Shimada, A; Ideno, H; Nakashima, K; Tabata, Y; Nifuji, A

    2016-01-01

    Gene transduction of exogenous factors at local sites in vivo is a promising approach to promote regeneration of tissue defects owing to its simplicity and capacity for expression of a variety of genes. Gene transduction by viral vectors is highly efficient; however, there are safety concerns associated with viruses. As a method for nonviral gene transduction, plasmid DNA delivery is safer and simpler, but requires an efficient carrier substance. Here, we aimed to develop a simple, efficient method for bone regeneration by gene transduction and to identify optimal conditions for plasmid DNA delivery at bone defect sites. We focused on carrier substances and compared the efficiencies of two collagen derivatives, atelocollagen, and gelatin hydrogel, as substrates for plasmid DNA delivery in vivo. To assess the efficiencies of these substrates, we examined exogenous expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) by fluorescence microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. GFP expression at the bone defect site was higher when gelatin hydrogel was used as a substrate to deliver plasmids than when atelocollagen was used. Moreover, the gelatin hydrogel was almost completely absorbed at the defect site, whereas some atelocollagen remained. When a plasmid harboring bone morphogenic protein 2 was delivered with the substrate to bony defect sites, more new bone formation was observed in the gelatin group than in the atelocollagen group. These results suggested that the gelatin hydrogel was more efficient than atelocollagen as a substrate for local gene delivery and may be a superior material for induction of bone regeneration. PMID:26848778

  15. Codon optimization for high level expression of human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Pramesti, H T; Santika, P Y; Valerius, O; Asjarie, S; Suciati, T

    2012-08-01

    Codons in the open reading frame (ORF) encoding for human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) were optimized to reach high level expression in Escherichia coli. The optimization was done by the computer programs DNA works and DNA Star according to Thermodynamically Balanced Inside Out (TBIO) approach. The ORF consisting of 342 base pairs (bp) was assembled using two-steps Polymerase Chain Reaction, cloned into a pGEM-T vector with a mutation rate of 6.38 bp per kb and transformed into E. coli JM109. After a DNA sequence confirmation, mutation-free ORF was subcloned into pET32b and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). The rhBMP-2 was produced as a thioredoxin-his-tag fusion protein at relatively high level, approximately 60% of total intracellular proteins as inclusion bodies (IB), with a yield of 1.39 g per liter culture. Solubilization of IB gave soluble monomer rhBMP-2 with a recovery of 13.6% and refolding of soluble rhBMP-2 produced dimeric forms with a yield of 8.7%. The size and identity of the purified rhBMP-2 was confirmed by nano-LC-MS/MS2 analysis. Our work demonstrates for the first time that by using TBIO approach, a codon-optimized ORF encoding for rhBMP-2 protein can be expressed at high level in E. coli expression system. PMID:22691543

  16. Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for the repair of tibial bone defects in goat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Yang, Zhouyuan; Xie, Xiaowei; Kang, Pengde; Tan, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone has good performances of porous network structures and mechanics with antigen extracted. To develop a bioactive scaffold for enhancing bone repair and evaluate its biological property, rhBMP-2 loaded with antigen-free bovine cancellous bone was used to treat tibial bone defect. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to establish goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with rhBMP-2/antigen-free bovine cancellous bone scaffolds (group A), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group B), porous tricalciumphosphate scaffolds (group C) and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The gray value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects, which revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group C at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively (p < 0.05), while the difference between groups A and B was without significance at each time (p > 0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections, and the results indicated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group C (p < 0.05) but was similar to that in group B (p > 0.05) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. In addition, the expression of collagen I and vascular endothelial growth factor by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group C (p = 0.034, p = 0.032, respectively), but no significant differences were found when compared with that in group B (p = 0.36, p = 0.54, respectively). At the same time, group C presented better results than group D on bone defects healing. Therefore, the composites of antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with rhBMP-2 have a good osteoinductive activity and capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. PMID:26801475

  17. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sasikumar, Karuppanan P.; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Gadagi, Jayaprakash S.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodontics. In the near term, these advances are likely to be applied to periodontal surgery; ultimately, they may facilitate approaches to regenerating whole lost periodontal structures. PMID:23066304

  18. Rapidly Polymerizing Injectable Click Hydrogel Therapy to Delay Bone Growth in a Murine Re-synostosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Christopher D.; Wilson, David S.; Lawrence, Kelsey A.; Ning, Xinghai; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Williams, Joseph K.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Murthy, Niren; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of cranial sutures, which can result in progressive cranial deformations, increased intracranial pressure, and restricted brain growth. Most cases of craniosynostosis require surgical reconstruction of the cranial vault with the goal of increasing the intracranial volume and correcting the craniofacial deformities. However, patients often experience rapid post-operative bone re-growth, known as re-synostosis, which necessitates additional surgical intervention. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitors have tremendous potential to treat re-synostosis, but the realization of a clinically viable inhibitor-based therapeutic requires the development of a delivery vehicle that can localize the release to the site of administration. Here, we present an in situ rapidly crosslinking injectable hydrogel that has the properties necessary to encapsulate co-administered proteins and demonstrate that the delivery of rmGremlin1 via our hydrogel system delays bone re-growth in a weanling mouse model of re-synostosis. Our hydrogel is composed of two mutually reactive poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecules, which when mixed crosslink via a bio-orthogonal Cu free click reaction. Hydrogels containing Gremlin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of bone regrowth. In addition to craniofacial applications, our injectable click hydrogel has the potential to provide customizable protein, small molecule, and cell delivery to any site accessible via needle or catheter. PMID:25176067

  19. [Experimental study on application recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2(rhBMP-2)/poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/fibrin sealant(FS) on repair of rabbit radial bone defect].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhongkai; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Mingchao; Lu, Wei; Tang, Lei; Yao, Qi; Lu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the repair of rabbit radial bone defect by the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/poly-lactideco-glycolic acid microsphere with fibrin sealant (rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS). The radial bone defect models were prepared using New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups, experiment group which were injected with eMP-2/PLGA/FS at bone defect location, control group which were injected with FS at bone defect location, and blank control group without treatment. The ability of repairing bone defect was evaluated with X-ray radiograph. Bone mineral density in the defect regions was analysed using the level of ossification. The osteogenetic ability of repairing bone defect, the degradation of the material, the morphologic change and the bone formation were assessed by HE staining and Masson staining. The result showed that rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS had overwhelming superiority in the osteogenetic ability and quality of bone defect over the control group, and it could promote the repair of bone defect and could especially repair the radial bone defect of rabbit well. It may be a promising and efficient synthetic bone graft. PMID:23198432

  20. Induction of bone formation in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and primary osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Strobel, L A; Rath, S N; Maier, A K; Beier, J P; Arkudas, A; Greil, P; Horch, R E; Kneser, U

    2014-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering strategies mainly depend on porous scaffold materials. In this study, novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) matrices were generated by 3D-printing. High porosity was achieved by starch consolidation. This study aimed to characterise the porous BCP-scaffold properties and interactions of osteogenic cells and growth factors under in vivo conditions. Five differently treated constructs were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic rats: plain BCP constructs (group A), constructs pre-treated with BMP-2 (group B; 1.6 µg BMP-2 per scaffold), seeded with primary osteoblasts (OB) (group C), seeded with OB and BMP-2 (group D) and constructs seeded with OB and pre-cultivated in a flow bioreactor for 6 weeks (group E). After 2, 4 and 6 weeks, specimens were explanted and subjected to histological and molecular biological analyses. Explanted scaffolds were invaded by fibrovascular tissue without significant foreign body reactions. Morphometric analysis demonstrated significantly increased bone formation in samples from group D (OB + BMP-2) compared to all other groups. Samples from groups B-E displayed significant mRNA expression of bone-specific genes after 6 weeks. Pre-cultivation in the flow bioreactor (group E) induced bone formation comparable with group B. In this study, differences in bone distribution between samples with BMP-2 or osteoblasts could be observed. In conclusion, combination of osteoblasts and BMP-2 synergistically enhanced bone formation in novel ceramic scaffolds. These results provide the basis for further experiments in orthotopic defect models with a focus on future applications in orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:22740314

  1. Beyond osteogenesis: an in vitro comparison of the potentials of six bone morphogenetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jessica C; Strohbach, Cassandra A; Wenke, Joseph C; Rathbone, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) other than the clinically available BMP-2 and BMP-7 may be useful for improving fracture healing through both increasing osteogenesis and creating a favorable healing environment by altering cytokine release by endogenous cells. Given the spectrum of potential applications for BMPs, the objective of this study was to evaluate various BMPs under a variety of conditions to provide further insight into their therapeutic capabilities. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of both C2C12 and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was measured after exposure of increasing doses of recombinant human BMP-2, -4, -5, -6, -7, or -9 for 3 and 7 days. BMPs-2, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -9 were compared in terms of their ability to affect the release of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) from human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin, SDF-1, VEGF, and b-FGF following shRNA-mediated knockdown of BMP-2 and BMP-6 in hBMSCs or human osteoblasts under osteogenic differentiation conditions was also evaluated. Collectively, BMPs-6 and -9 produced the greatest osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 and hASCs as determined by ALP. The hBMSC secretion of SDF-1 was most affected by BMP-5, VEGF by BMP-4, and b-FGF by BMP-2. The knockdown of BMP-2 in BMSCs had no effect on any of the genes measured whereas BMP-6 knockdown in hBMSCs caused a significant increase in VEGF gene expression. BMP-2 and BMP-6 knockdown in human osteoblasts caused significant increases in VEGF gene expression and trends toward decreases in osteocalcin expression. These findings support efforts to study other BMPs as potential bone graft supplements, and to consider combined BMP delivery for promotion of multiple aspects of fracture healing. PMID:24101902

  2. Meckel's cartilage chondrocytes in organ culture synthesize bone-type proteins accompanying osteocytic phenotype expression.

    PubMed

    Ishizeki, K; Takigawa, M; Harada, Y; Suzuki, F; Nawa, T

    1996-01-01

    We examined whether Meckel's cartilage of embryonic mice, 17 days in utero, undergo the cellular transformation into the osteocyte-like phenotype under organ culture conditions. Explants were grown by our original pithole method modified Trowell-type cultures for up to 4 weeks at 37 degrees C under 5% CO2 in air. Specimens were examined using histological procedures including immunostaining and electron microscopy. In addition, the effects of beta-glycerophosphate on matrix calcification were also examined in cultures with or without beta-glycerophosphate. Addition of beta-glycerophosphate induced calcification at a higher level, but calcium mineral deposition occurred regardless of the addition of beta-glycerophosphate to the culture medium. Light and electron microscopic analyses showed that freshly isolated chondrocytes prior to cell culture had typical hypertrophic morphology, but shortly after commencement of culture, they showed morphological modifications. The cells showing chondrocytic phenotypes became basophilic elliptical cells, and eventually transformed into flattened osteocyte-like cells. Bone-like features for cellular elements were characterized by spindle-shaped cells with elongated processes accompanying bone-specific thick-banded collagen fibrils. Immunostaining showed that at 2 weeks in culture, type I and type II collagens coexisted in the matrix, but subsequently type II collagen synthesis ceased and was replaced by type I collagen synthesis. Immunofluorescent labeling for osteocalcin was noted first in the peripheral cells by 1 week, but at 3 weeks this reaction spread to the central zone in explants. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase) was expressed on the cells in the central zone prior to calcium mineral deposition as shown by von Kossa's reaction at 3 weeks in culture. These results showed that Meckel's cartilage chondrocytes in organ culture synthesize bone-type proteins accompanying osteocytic phenotype expression. PMID:8838497

  3. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Radiographic Progression in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Seunghun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jong Heon; Min, Hye Joon; Rahman, Proton; Inman, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Object Nearly 25 genetic loci associated with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been identified by several large studies. However, there have been limited studies to identify the genes associated with radiographic severity of the disease. Thus we investigated which genes involved in bone formation pathways might be associated with radiographic severity in AS. Methods A total of 417 Korean AS patients were classified into two groups based on the radiographic severity as defined by the modified Stoke’ Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS) system. Severe AS was defined by the presence of syndesmophytes and/or fusion in the lumbar or cervical spine (n = 195). Mild AS was defined by the absence of any syndesmophyte or fusion (n = 170). A total of 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 52 genes related to bone formation were selected and genotyped. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were analysed by multivariate logistic regression controlling for age at onset of symptoms, sex, disease duration, and smoking status as covariates. Results We identified new loci of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) associated with radiographic severity in patients with AS that passed false discovery rate threshold. Two SNPs in BMP6 were significantly associated with radiologic severity [rs270378 (OR 1.97, p = 6.74×10−4) and rs1235192 [OR 1.92, p = 1.17×10−3]) adjusted by covariates. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate that BMP6 is associated with radiographic severity in AS, supporting the role wingless-type like/BMP pathway on radiographic progression in AS. PMID:25121767

  4. Molecular Actions of Ovarian Cancer G Protein-Coupled Receptor 1 Caused by Extracellular Acidification in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Jiang, Li-Bo; Wang, Hui-Ren; Cao, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Gang; Li, Xi-Lei; Dong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular acidification occurs under physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as exercise, ischemia, and inflammation. It has been shown that acidosis has various adverse effects on bone. In recent years there has been increasing evidence which indicates that ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) is a pH-sensing receptor and mediates a variety of extracellular acidification-induced actions on bone cells and other cell types. Recent studies have shown that OGR1 is involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation, survival, and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, OGR1 also regulates acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes in intervertebral discs. These observations demonstrate the importance of OGR1 in skeletal development and metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of OGR1 regulation ofosteoclasts, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes, and the molecular actions of OGR1 induced by extracellular acidification in the maintenance of bone health. PMID:25479080

  5. Extracellular Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Activity by the Microfibril Component Fibrillin-1*

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Alexander P.; Troilo, Helen; Collins, Richard F.; Baldock, Clair

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as pluripotent cytokines extractable from bone matrix, it has been speculated how targeting of BMPs to the extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates their bioavailability. Understanding these processes is crucial for elucidating pathomechanisms of connective tissue disorders characterized by ECM deficiency and growth factor dysregulation. Here, we provide evidence for a new BMP targeting and sequestration mechanism that is controlled by the ECM molecule fibrillin-1. We present the nanoscale structure of the BMP-7 prodomain-growth factor complex using electron microscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, showing that it assumes an open V-like structure when it is bioactive. However, upon binding to fibrillin-1, the BMP-7 complex is rendered into a closed ring shape, which also confers latency to the growth factor, as demonstrated by bioactivity measurements. BMP-7 prodomain variants were used to map the critical epitopes for prodomain-growth factor and prodomain-prodomain binding. Together, these data show that upon prodomain binding to fibrillin-1, the BMP-7 complex undergoes a conformational change, which denies access of BMP receptors to the growth factor. PMID:27059954

  6. Osteoinduction by combining bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with a bioactive novel nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Meyer, F.; Hyvonen, M.; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.; Rushton, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There is increasing application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) owing to their role in promoting fracture healing and bone fusion. However, an optimal delivery system has yet to be identified. The aims of this study were to synthesise bioactive BMP-2, combine it with a novel α-tricalcium phosphate/poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (α-TCP/PLGA) nanocomposite and study its release from the composite. Methods BMP-2 was synthesised using an Escherichia coli expression system and purified. In vitro bioactivity was confirmed using C2C12 cells and an alkaline phosphatase assay. The modified solution-evaporation method was used to fabricate α-TCP/PLGA nanocomposite and this was characterised using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Functionalisation of α-TCP/PLGA nanocomposite by adsorption of BMP-2 was performed and release of BMP-2 was characterised using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Alkaline phosphatase activity of C2C12 cells was increased by the presence of all BMP-2/nanocomposite discs compared with the presence of a blank disc (p = 0.0022), and increased with increasing incubation concentrations of BMP-2, showing successful adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2. A burst release profile was observed for BMP-2 from the nanocomposite. Conclusions Functionalisation of α-TCP/PLGA with BMP-2 produced osteoinduction and was dose-dependent. This material therefore has potential application as an osteoinductive agent in regenerative medicine. PMID:23610684

  7. Endogenous heparan sulfate and heparin modulate bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling and activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaukat A; Nelson, Matthew S; Pan, Chendong; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gupta, Pankaj

    2008-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their endogenous antagonists are important for brain and bone development and tumor initiation and progression. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPG) modulate the activities of BMPs and their antagonists. How glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) influence BMP activity in various malignancies and in inherited abnormalities of GAG metabolism, and the structural features of GAGs essential for modulation of BMP signaling, remain incompletely defined. We examined whether chemically modified soluble heparins, the endogenous HS in malignant cells and the HS accumulated in Hurler syndrome cells influence BMP-4 signaling and activity. We show that both exogenous (soluble) and endogenous GAGs modulate BMP-4 signaling and activity, and that this effect is dependent on specific sulfate residues of GAGs. Our studies suggest that endogenous sulfated GAGs promote the proliferation and impair differentiation of malignant human cells, providing the rationale for investigating whether pharmacological agents that inhibit GAG synthesis or function might reverse this effect. Our demonstration of impairment of BMP-4 signaling by GAGs in multipotent stem cells in human Hurler syndrome identifies a mechanism that might contribute to the progressive neurological and skeletal abnormalities in Hurler syndrome and related mucopolysaccharidoses. PMID:18385288

  8. Extracellular Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Activity by the Microfibril Component Fibrillin-1.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Alexander P; Troilo, Helen; Collins, Richard F; Baldock, Clair; Sengle, Gerhard

    2016-06-10

    Since the discovery of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as pluripotent cytokines extractable from bone matrix, it has been speculated how targeting of BMPs to the extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates their bioavailability. Understanding these processes is crucial for elucidating pathomechanisms of connective tissue disorders characterized by ECM deficiency and growth factor dysregulation. Here, we provide evidence for a new BMP targeting and sequestration mechanism that is controlled by the ECM molecule fibrillin-1. We present the nanoscale structure of the BMP-7 prodomain-growth factor complex using electron microscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, showing that it assumes an open V-like structure when it is bioactive. However, upon binding to fibrillin-1, the BMP-7 complex is rendered into a closed ring shape, which also confers latency to the growth factor, as demonstrated by bioactivity measurements. BMP-7 prodomain variants were used to map the critical epitopes for prodomain-growth factor and prodomain-prodomain binding. Together, these data show that upon prodomain binding to fibrillin-1, the BMP-7 complex undergoes a conformational change, which denies access of BMP receptors to the growth factor. PMID:27059954

  9. The content of bone morphogenetic proteins in platelets varies greatly between different platelet donors

    SciTech Connect

    Kalen, Anders; Wahlstroem, Ola; Linder, Cecilia Halling; Magnusson, Per

    2008-10-17

    Platelet derivates and platelet rich plasma have been used to stimulate bone formation and wound healing because of the rich content of potent growth factors. However, not all reports have been conclusive since some have not been able to demonstrate a positive effect. We investigated the interindividual variation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in platelets from healthy donors, and the pH-dependent effect on the release of BMPs in preparations of lysed platelets in buffer (LPB). Platelet concentrates from 31 healthy donors were prepared in pH 4.3 and pH 7.4 buffers and investigated with respect to BMP-2, -4, -6, and -7. BMP-2 and BMP-4 were significantly more common in acidic LPBs in comparison with neutral preparations. We also observed a considerable variation among platelet donors with respect to the release of BMPs at pH 4.3 and 7.4. In conclusion, a considerable variation was found among platelet donors, which may be of importance considering the ambiguous results previously reported on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

  10. Sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein 2 via coacervate improves the osteogenic potential of muscle-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongshuai; Johnson, Noah Ray; Usas, Arvydas; Lu, Aiping; Poddar, Minakshi; Wang, Yadong; Huard, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) isolated from mouse skeletal muscle by a modified preplate technique exhibit long-term proliferation, high self-renewal, and multipotent differentiation capabilities in vitro. MDSCs retrovirally transduced to express bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can differentiate into osteocytes and chondrocytes and enhance bone and articular cartilage repair in vivo, a feature that is not observed with nontransduced MDSCs. These results emphasize that MDSCs require prolonged exposure to BMPs to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. A sustained BMP protein delivery approach provides a viable and potentially more clinically translatable alternative to genetic manipulation of the cells. A unique growth factor delivery platform comprised of native heparin and a synthetic polycation, poly(ethylene argininylaspartate diglyceride) (PEAD), was used to bind, protect, and sustain the release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Prolonged exposure to BMP2 released by the PEAD:heparin delivery system promoted the differentiation of MDSCs to an osteogenic lineage in vitro and induced the formation of viable bone at an ectopic site in vivo. This new strategy represents an alternative approach for bone repair mediated by MDSCs while bypassing the need for gene therapy. PMID:23884640

  11. Protein serine/threonine phosphatase PPM1A dephosphorylates Smad1 in the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xueyan; Liang, Yao-Yun; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2006-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted polypeptides belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily that activates a broad range of biological responses in the metazoan organism. The BMP-initiated signaling pathway is under tight control by processes including regulation of the ligands, the receptors, and the key downstream intracellular effector Smads. A critical point of control in BMP signaling is the phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 in their C-terminal SXS motif. Although such phosphorylation, which is mediated by the type I BMP receptor kinases in response to BMP stimulation, is well characterized, biochemical mechanisms underlying Smad dephosphorylation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have found that PPM1A, a metal ion-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase, physically interacts with and dephosphorylates Smad1 both in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, overexpression of PPM1A abolishes BMP-induced transcriptional responses, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PPM1A enhances BMP signaling. Collectively, our study suggests that PPM1A plays an important role in controlling BMP signaling through catalyzing Smad dephosphorylation. PMID:16931515

  12. Three-Dimensional Upper Lip and Nostril Sill Changes After Cleft Alveolus Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone Grafting Versus Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2.

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Denadai, Rafael; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2016-06-01

    Cleft alveolus in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate has been alternatively reconstructed with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2. However, its effects on upper lip and nostril sill anatomy are not known. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to assess and compare upper lip and nostril sill changes after cleft alveolus reconstruction with autologous bone from the iliac crest region and rhBMP-2. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. In group 1, autologous bone from the iliac crest region was used to fill the cleft alveolus (n = 4), and in group 2, rhBMP-2 was used to fill the cleft alveolus (n = 8). Preoperatively and at one after the surgery, computerized tomography (CT) was performed. Reformatted CT imaging was used to perform cephalometric linear measurements of the upper lip and nostril sill regions. Inter- and intragroup data of the pre and postoperative reformatted CT measurements of the upper lip and nostril sill regions did not show differences (P >0.05) in cutaneous upper lip height and projection, nostril sill elevation, and subnasale projection. There were no significant upper lip and nostril sill anatomical changes after cleft alveolus reconstruction using autologous bone grafting and rhBMP-2. PMID:27244210

  13. Incorporation of glycine-2-C-14 in acid-insoluble proteins of rat bones and teeth during hypokinesia and administration of thyrocalcitonine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stekolnikov, L. I.; Uglova, N. N.; Potkin, V. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A forced limitation of the motor activity in rats (from 5 to 60 days) results in reduced incorporation of glycine 2-C14 in the total acid insoluble proteins of limb bones and its increase in the teeth and mandibular-maxillary bones. Daily administration of five micrograms of thyrocalcitonine together with polyvinylpyrrolidone normalizes the protein metabolism in the bone tissues during the 40 days of experimentation.

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Adsorption onto Poly-ɛ-caprolactone Better Preserves Bioactivity In Vitro and Produces More Bone In Vivo than Conjugation Under Clinically Relevant Loading Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Janki J.; Flanagan, Colleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One strategy to reconstruct large bone defects is to prefabricate a vascularized flap by implanting a biomaterial scaffold with associated biologics into the latissimus dorsi and then transplanting this construct to the defect site after a maturation period. This strategy, similar to all clinically and regulatory feasible biologic approaches to surgical reconstruction, requires the ability to quickly (<1 h within an operating room) and efficiently bind biologics to scaffolds. It also requires the ability to localize biologic delivery. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of binding bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) to poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) using adsorption and conjugation as a function of time. Methods: BMP2 was adsorbed (Ads) or conjugated (Conj) to PCL scaffolds with the same three-dimensional printed architecture while altering exposure time (0.5, 1, 5, and 16 h), temperature (4°C, 23°C), and BMP2 concentration (1.4, 5, 20, and 65 μg/mL). The in vitro release was quantified, and C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was used to confirm bioactivity. Scaffolds with either 65 or 20 μg/mL Ads or Conj BMP2 for 1 h at 23°C were implanted subcutaneously in mice to evaluate in vivo bone regeneration. Micro-computed tomography, compression testing, and histology were performed to characterize bone regeneration. Results: After 1 h exposure to 65 μg/mL BMP2 at 23°C, Conj and Ads resulted in 12.83±1.78 and 10.78±1.49 μg BMP2 attached, respectively. Adsorption resulted in a positive ALP response and had a small burst release; whereas conjugation provided a sustained release with negligible ALP production, indicating that the conjugated BMP2 may not be bioavailable. Adsorbed 65 μg/mL BMP2 solution resulted in the greatest regenerated bone volume (15.0±3.0 mm3), elastic modulus (20.1±3.0 MPa), and %bone ingrowth in the scaffold interior (17.2%±5.4%) when compared with conjugation. Conclusion: Adsorption

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haipei; Li, Hui; Yang, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Jingfa; Xu, Guotong; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a serious vision-threatening complication of retinal detachment (RD), is characterized by the formation of contractile fibrotic membranes, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major event. Recent studies suggest an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the suppression of fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of BMP4 in the pathological process of PVR, particularly in the EMT of RPE cells. We found that BMP4 and its receptors were co-labelled with cytokeratin and α-SMA positive cells within the PVR membrane. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 were decreased whereas BMP4 receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 were increased during TGF-β-induced EMT in primary RPE cells. Exogenous BMP4 inhibited TGF-β-induced epithelial marker down-regulation, as well as mesenchymal marker up-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels in RPE cells. In addition, BMP4 treatment attenuated the TGF-β-induced gel contraction, cell migration and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. However, knockdown of endogenous BMP4 stimulated changes in EMT markers. Our results confirm the hypothesis that BMP4 might inhibit TGF-β-mediated EMT in RPE cells via the Smad2/3 pathway and suppress contraction. This might represent a potential treatment for PVR. PMID:27586653

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haipei; Li, Hui; Yang, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Jingfa; Xu, Guotong; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a serious vision-threatening complication of retinal detachment (RD), is characterized by the formation of contractile fibrotic membranes, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major event. Recent studies suggest an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the suppression of fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of BMP4 in the pathological process of PVR, particularly in the EMT of RPE cells. We found that BMP4 and its receptors were co-labelled with cytokeratin and α-SMA positive cells within the PVR membrane. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 were decreased whereas BMP4 receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 were increased during TGF-β-induced EMT in primary RPE cells. Exogenous BMP4 inhibited TGF-β-induced epithelial marker down-regulation, as well as mesenchymal marker up-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels in RPE cells. In addition, BMP4 treatment attenuated the TGF-β-induced gel contraction, cell migration and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. However, knockdown of endogenous BMP4 stimulated changes in EMT markers. Our results confirm the hypothesis that BMP4 might inhibit TGF-β-mediated EMT in RPE cells via the Smad2/3 pathway and suppress contraction. This might represent a potential treatment for PVR. PMID:27586653

  17. Establishment of a cell line producing bone morphogenetic protein from a human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, K; Yoshikawa, H; Masuhara, K; Sugamoto, K; Tsuda, T; Aoki, Y; Ono, K; Sakamoto, Y

    1989-07-01

    A human osteosarcoma cell line was established from a biopsy specimen from a 13-year-old girl. The osteosarcoma tissue was maintained in athymic nude mice (Balb C nu/nu) by serial transplantation for three years. The tumor was excised from a host mouse and digested with collagenase. The isolated cells were cultured by 98 passages in 14 months, and clones of osteosarcoma cells were obtained by limiting dilution. A clone named human osteosarcoma cell 6 (H-OS-6) that showed the osteoblastic phenotypes of productions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and alkaline phosphatase and a response to human parathyroid hormone (h-PTH 1-34) was selected. The morphology of its chromosomes indicated its human origin. This human osteosarcoma cell line is unique in producing BMP under in vitro conditions. PMID:2545399

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  19. A Survey of Strategies to Modulate the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Pathway: Current and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute the largest subdivision of the TGF-β family of ligands and are unequivocally involved in regulating stem cell behavior. Appropriate regulation of canonical BMP signaling is critical for the development and homeostasis of numerous human organ systems, as aberrations in the BMP pathway or its regulation are increasingly associated with diverse human pathologies. In this review, we provide a wide-perspective on strategies that increase or decrease BMP signaling. We briefly outline the current FDA-approved approaches, highlight emerging next-generation technologies, and postulate prospective avenues for future investigation. We also detail how activating other pathways may indirectly modulate BMP signaling, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways. PMID:27433166

  20. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 (Rgs12) promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathologic bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium (Ca2+) signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling various cellular processes such as secretion, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and cell death through the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and entry from extracellular fluid. In bone, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)...

  1. Microdialysis Sampling from Wound Fluids Enables Quantitative Assessment of Cytokines, Proteins, and Metabolites Reveals Bone Defect-Specific Molecular Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wissenbach, Dirk K.; Pfeiffer, Susanne E. M.; Baumann, Sven; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; von Bergen, Martin; Kalkhof, Stefan; Rammelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bone healing involves a variety of different cell types and biological processes. Although certain key molecules have been identified, the molecular interactions of the healing progress are not completely understood. Moreover, a clinical routine for predicting the quality of bone healing after a fracture in an early phase is missing. This is mainly due to a lack of techniques to comprehensively screen for cytokines, growth factors and metabolites at their local site of action. Since all soluble molecules of interest are present in the fracture hematoma, its in-depth assessment could reveal potential markers for the monitoring of bone healing. Here, we describe an approach for sampling and quantification of cytokines and metabolites by using microdialysis, combined with solid phase extractions of proteins from wound fluids. By using a control group with an isolated soft tissue wound, we could reveal several bone defect-specific molecular features. In bone defect dialysates the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3 were quantified with either a higher or earlier response compared to dialysate from soft tissue wound. Moreover, by analyzing downstream adaptions of the cells on protein level and focusing on early immune response, several proteins involved in the immune cell migration and activity could be identified to be specific for the bone defect group, e.g. immune modulators, proteases and their corresponding inhibitors. Additionally, the metabolite screening revealed different profiles between the bone defect group and the control group. In summary, we identified potential biomarkers to indicate imbalanced healing progress on all levels of analysis. PMID:27441377

  2. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to high-protein diets during energy deficit in healthy young adults: a randomized control trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although consuming dietary protein above current recommendations during energy deficit enhances blood lipid profiles and preserves lean body mass, concerns have been raised regarding effects of high-protein diets on bone health. To determine whether calcium homeostasis and bone turnover are affected...

  3. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Posterolateral Spinal Fusion: What's the Right Dose?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clifford Barry; Sietsema, Debra Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Single center retrospective cohort analysis. Purpose The goal was to evaluate the influence of varying amount of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) per level on fusion rates and complications in posterolateral spinal fusions. Overview of Literature rhBMP-2 has been utilized for lumbar posterolateral fusions for many years. Initial rhBMP-2 recommendations were 20 mg/level of fusion. Dose and concentration per level in current studies vary from 4.2 to 40 mg and 1.5 to 2.0 mg/mL, respectively. Variable fusion and complication rates have been reported. Methods Patients (n=1,610) undergoing instrumented lumbar spinal fusion (2003–2009) with utilization of rhBMP-2 were retrospectively evaluated. Patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, number of levels, associated interbody fusion, and types of bone void filler were analyzed. Fusions rates and nonunions were subdivided into number of levels and amount of rhBMP-2 used per level. Results Patients (n=559) were evaluated with 58.5% females having an average age of 63 years, BMI of 31 kg/m2. Number of levels fused ranged from 1 to 8. rhBMP-2 averaged 7.3 mg/level (range, 1.5–24 mg/level) based upon length of collagen sponge in relation to length of fusion levels. Patients with non-union formation had lower rhBMP-2 dose per level (p=0.016). A significant difference in non-union rate was found between patients undergoing fusion with <6 mg/level compared to those with >6 mg/level (9.1% vs. 2.4%, χ2=0.012). No significant differences were noted between 6–11.9 mg/level and ≥12 mg/level. No threshold was found for seroma formation or bone overgrowth. Conclusions Previous recommendation of 20 mg/level of rhBMP-2 is more than what is required for predictable fusion rates of 98%. No dose related increase of infection, seroma formation, and bone overgrowth has been found. In order to provide variable dosing and cost reduction, industry generated rhBMP-2 kit size should be

  4. Vitamin D–Binding Protein Modifies the Vitamin D–Bone Mineral Density Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E; Ricciardi, Catherine; Berg, Anders H; Erdenesanaa, Delger; Collerone, Gina; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi; Bhan, Ishir

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between total circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded mixed results. Vitamin D–binding protein (DBP), the major carrier protein for 25(OH)D, may alter the biologic activity of circulating vitamin D. We hypothesized that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels, would be more strongly associated with BMD than levels of total 25(OH)D. We measured total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels in 49 healthy young adults enrolled in the Metabolic Abnormalities in College-Aged Students (MACS) study. Lumbar spine BMD was measured in all subjects using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical, diet, and laboratory information also was gathered at this time. We determined free and bioavailable (free + albumin-bound) 25(OH)D using previously validated formulas and examined their associations with BMD. BMD was not associated with total 25(OH)D levels (r = 0.172, p = .236). In contrast, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with BMD (r = 0.413, p = .003 for free, r = 0.441, p = .002 for bioavailable). Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels remained independently associated with BMD in multivariate regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and race (p = .03). It is concluded that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D are more strongly correlated with BMD than total 25(OH)D. These findings have important implications for vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D–deficient states. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship between free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and health outcomes. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21416506

  5. Blocking c-Met signaling enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Kitano, Sachie; Karasaki, Miki; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that blocking hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor/c-Met signaling inhibited arthritis and articular bone destruction in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of c-Met signaling in osteoblast differentiation using the C2C12 myoblast cell line derived from murine satellite cells and the MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cell line. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or osteoblast-inducer reagent in the presence or absence of either HGF antagonist (NK4) or c-Met inhibitor (SU11274). Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by Runx2 expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin production by the cells. Production of ALP, osteocalcin and HGF was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Runx2 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, AKT, and Smads was determined by Western blot analysis. Both NK4 and SU11274 enhanced Runx2 expression, and ALP and osteocalcin production but suppressed HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. SU11274 also enhanced ALP and osteocalcin production in osteoblast-inducer reagent-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells. SU11274 inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation in HGF-stimulated C2C12 cells. This result suggested that ERK and AKT were functional downstream of the c-Met signaling pathway. However, both mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor suppressed osteocalcin and HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. Furthermore, SU11274, MEK, and PI3K inhibitor suppressed Smad phosphorylation in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. These results indicate that although the c-Met-MEK-ERK-Smad and c-Met-PI3K-AKT-Smad signaling pathways positively regulate osteoblast differentiation, c-Met signaling negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation, independent of the MEK-ERK-Smad and PI3

  6. Blocking c-Met signaling enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Kitano, Sachie; Karasaki, Miki; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that blocking hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor/c-Met signaling inhibited arthritis and articular bone destruction in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of c-Met signaling in osteoblast differentiation using the C2C12 myoblast cell line derived from murine satellite cells and the MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cell line. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or osteoblast-inducer reagent in the presence or absence of either HGF antagonist (NK4) or c-Met inhibitor (SU11274). Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by Runx2 expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin production by the cells. Production of ALP, osteocalcin and HGF was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Runx2 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, AKT, and Smads was determined by Western blot analysis. Both NK4 and SU11274 enhanced Runx2 expression, and ALP and osteocalcin production but suppressed HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. SU11274 also enhanced ALP and osteocalcin production in osteoblast-inducer reagent-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells. SU11274 inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation in HGF-stimulated C2C12 cells. This result suggested that ERK and AKT were functional downstream of the c-Met signaling pathway. However, both mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor suppressed osteocalcin and HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. Furthermore, SU11274, MEK, and PI3K inhibitor suppressed Smad phosphorylation in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. These results indicate that although the c-Met-MEK-ERK-Smad and c-Met-PI3K-AKT-Smad signaling pathways positively regulate osteoblast differentiation, c-Met signaling negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation, independent of the MEK-ERK-Smad and PI3

  7. Effects of designed PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffold architectures on bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiji; Liao, Elly E.; Hu, Wei-Wen; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds have been investigated as an alternative approach to current metal, ceramic, and polymer bone graft substitutes for lost or damaged bone tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the effects of scaffold architecture on bone formation, many of these scaffolds were fabricated using conventional methods, such as salt leaching and phase separation, and were constructed without designed architecture. To study the effects of both designed architecture and material on bone formation, we designed and fabricated three types of porous scaffold architecture from two biodegradable materials, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and 50:50Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using image based design and indirect solid freeform fabrication techniques, seeded them with bone morphogenic protein-7 transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted them subcutaneously into mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography data confirmed that the fabricated porous scaffolds replicated the designed architectures. Histological analysis revealed that the 50:50PLGA scaffolds degraded and did not maintain their architecture after 4 weeks. The PLLA scaffolds maintained their architecture at both time points and showed improved bone ingrowth which followed the internal architecture of the scaffolds. Mechanical properties of both PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffolds decreased, but PLLA scaffolds maintained greater mechanical properties than 50:50PLGA after implantation. The increase of mineralized tissue helped to support mechanical properties of bone tissue and scaffold constructs from 4 to 8 weeks. The results indicated the importance of choice of scaffold materials and computationally designed scaffolds to control tissue formation and mechanical properties for desired bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22162220

  8. LIM mineralization protein-1 potentiates bone morphogenetic protein responsiveness via a novel interaction with Smurf1 resulting in decreased ubiquitination of Smads.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Boden, Scott D; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Liu, Yunshan; Titus, Louisa

    2006-06-23

    Development and repair of the skeletal system and other organs is highly dependent on precise regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), their receptors, and their intracellular signaling proteins known as Smads. The use of BMPs clinically to induce bone formation has been limited in part by the requirement of much higher doses of recombinant proteins in primates than were needed in cell culture or rodents. Therefore, control of cellular responsiveness to BMPs is now a critical area that is poorly understood. We determined that LMP-1, a LIM domain protein capable of inducing de novo bone formation, interacts with Smurf1 (Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1) and prevents ubiquitination of Smads. In the region of LMP responsible for bone formation, there is a motif that directly interacts with the Smurf1 WW2 domain and can effectively compete with Smad1 and Smad5 for binding. We have shown that small peptides containing this motif can mimic the ability to block Smurf1 from binding Smads. This novel interaction of LMP-1 with the WW2 domain of Smurf1 to block Smad binding results in increased cellular responsiveness to exogenous BMP and demonstrates a novel regulatory mechanism for the BMP signaling pathway. PMID:16611643

  9. A new heterologous fibrin sealant as scaffold to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and natural latex proteins for the repair of tibial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eduardo Gomes; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de; Santos, Geovane Ribeiro Dos; Galdeano, Ewerton Alexandre; Alves, Mariana Carla; Chacon, Erivelto Luis; Ferreira Junior, Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering has special interest in bone tissue aiming at future medical applications Studies have focused on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and natural latex proteins due to the osteogenic properties of rhBMP-2 and the angiogenic characteristic of fraction 1 protein (P-1) extracted from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Furthermore, heterologous fibrin sealant (FS) has been shown as a promising alternative in regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate these substances for the repair of bone defects in rats. A bone defect measuring 3mm in diameter was created in the proximal metaphysis of the left tibia of 60 rats and was implanted with rhBMP-2 or P-1 in combination with a new heterologous FS derived from snake venom. The animals were divided into six groups: control (unfilled bone defect), rhBMP-2 (defect filled with 5μg rhBMP-2), P-1 (defect filled with 5μg P-1), FS (defect filled with 8μg FS), FS/rhBMP-2 (defect filled with 8μg FS and 5μg rhBMP-2), FS/P-1 (defect filled with 8μg FS and 5μg P-1). The animals were sacrificed 2 and 6 weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone projected from the margins of the original bone and exhibited trabecular morphology and a disorganized arrangement of osteocyte lacunae. Immunohistochemical analysis showed intense expression of osteocalcin in all groups. Histometric analysis revealed a significant difference in all groups after 2 weeks (p<0.05), except for the rhBMP-2 and FS/rhBMP-2 groups (p>0.05). A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in all groups after 6 weeks in relation to the volume of newly formed bone in the surgical area. In conclusion, the new heterologous fibrin sealant was found to be biocompatible and the combination with rhBMP-2 showed the highest osteogenic and osteoconductive capacity for bone healing. These findings suggest a promising application of this combination in the regeneration surgery. PMID:25825118

  10. Heparin Microparticle Effects on Presentation and Bioactivity of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Hettiaratchi, Marian H.; Miller, Tobias; Temenoff, Johnna S.; Guldberg, Robert E.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials capable of providing localized and sustained presentation of bioactive proteins are critical for effective therapeutic growth factor delivery. However, current biomaterial delivery vehicles commonly suffer from limitations that can result in low retention of growth factors at the site of interest or adversely affect growth factor bioactivity. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an attractive growth factor delivery vehicle due to its ability to reversibly bind positively charged proteins, provide sustained delivery, and maintain protein bioactivity. This study describes the fabrication and characterization of heparin methacrylamide (HMAm) microparticles for recombinant growth factor delivery. HMAm microparticles were shown to efficiently bind several heparin-binding growth factors (e.g. bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)), including a wide range of BMP-2 concentrations that exceeds the maximum binding capacity of other common growth factor delivery vehicles, such as gelatin. BMP-2 bioactivity was assessed on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity induced in skeletal myoblasts (C2C12). Microparticles loaded with BMP-2 stimulated comparable C2C12 ALP activity to soluble BMP-2 treatment, indicating that BMP-2-loaded microparticles retain bioactivity and potently elicit a functional cell response. In summary, our results suggest that heparin microparticles stably retain large amounts of bioactive BMP-2 for prolonged periods of time, and that presentation of BMP-2 via heparin microparticles can elicit cell responses comparable to soluble BMP-2 treatment. Consequently, heparin microparticles present an effective method of delivering and spatially retaining growth factors that could be used in a variety of systems to enable directed induction of cell fates and tissue regeneration. PMID:24881028

  11. Identification of bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) as a novel profibrotic factor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Cuesta, Cristina; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Subileau, Mariela; López-Hernández, Francisco J; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Upregulated synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by myofibroblasts is a common phenomenon in the development of fibrosis. Although the role of TGF-β in fibrosis development has been extensively studied, the involvement of other members of this superfamily of cytokines, the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in organ fibrosis has given contradictory results. BMP9 is the main ligand for activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1) TGF-β1 type I receptor and its effect on fibrosis development is unknown. Our purpose was to study the effect of BMP9 in ECM protein synthesis in fibroblasts, as well as the involved receptors and signaling pathways. In cultured mice fibroblasts, BMP9 induces an increase in collagen, fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor expression, associated with Smad1/5/8, Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 activation. ALK5 inhibition with SB431542 or ALK1/2/3/6 with dorsomorphin-1, inhibition of Smad3 activation with SIS3, and inhibition of the MAPK/Erk1/2 with U0126, demonstrates the involvement of these pathways in BMP9-induced ECM synthesis in MEFs. Whereas BMP9 induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation through ALK1, it also induces Smad2/3 phosphorylation through ALK5 but only in the presence of ALK1. Summarizing, this is the first study that accurately identifies BMP9 as a profibrotic factor in fibroblasts that promotes ECM protein expression through ALK1 and ALK5 receptors. PMID:27208502

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 induces cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Torii, D; Tsutsui, T W; Watanabe, N; Konishi, K

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) is a multifunctional differentiation factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor superfamily. BMP-7 induces gene expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like, member A/cementum attachment protein (PTPLA/CAP) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1), both of which are markers of cementoblasts and cementocytes. In the previous study, we reported that BMP-7 treatment enhanced PTPLA/CAP and CEMP1 expression in both normal and immortal human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the gene expression of these molecules, in this study, we identified a functional transcription activator binding region in the promoter region of PTPLA/CAP and CEMP1 that is responsive to BMP signals. Here, we report that some short motifs termed GC-rich Smad-binding elements (GC-SBEs) that are located in the human PTPLA/CAP promoter and CEMP1 promoter are BMP-7 responsive as analyzed with luciferase promoter assays. On the other hand, we found that transcription of Sp7/Osterix and PTPLA/CAP was up-regulated after 1 week of BMP-7 treatment on purified normal human PDL cells as a result of gene expression microarray analysis. Furthermore, transcription of Sp7/Osterix, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was up-regulated after 2 weeks of BMP-7 treatment, whereas gene expression of osteo/odontogenic markers such as integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) was not up-regulated in purified normal or immortal human PDL cells as a result of qRT-PCR. The results suggest that BMP-7 mediates cementogenesis via GC-SBEs in human PDL cells and that its molecular mechanism is different from that for osteo/odontogenesis. PMID:25464857

  13. Identification of novel proteins synthesized in bone cells by antibody screening of a cDNA expression library.

    PubMed

    Nutt, E; Dunwiddie, C; Jacobs, J W; Simpson, E

    1988-02-29

    Novel proteins synthesize predominantly in bone have been identified by antibody screening of bone cell cDNA expression libraries. Two unique cDNAs were identified whose structures do not match any known nucleic acid or protein sequence in the NIH computer bank. The first cDNA clone, BP-I, encoded a mRNA of 2300 bases in size which was expressed at high levels in 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma cells, rat calvarial bone cells and placenta. A second clone, BP-II, encoded a mRNA of 1500 bases which was expressed at high levels in 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells and in salivary gland. Expression of both mRNAs in osteosarcoma cells was modulated by the calciotropic hormone, vitamin D. Southern blot analyses indicated that the two cDNAs represented distinct, single copy genes in the rat genome. These novel gene products may serve as potential new markers to study bone turnover in metabolic bone disease. PMID:3162363

  14. Analysis of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Bone and Cartilage of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Abatacept

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Katsuaki; Oh, Koei; Chiba, Junji; Inoue, Yasuo; Taguchi, Masashi; Yabuki, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the histological changes related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in bone and cartilage treated with abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 20 patients of bone and cartilage were assessed: 10 abatacept with methotrexate (MTX)-treated RA patients were compared with 10 MTX-treated RA patients (control). The histology of bone and cartilage was observed by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed immunohistochemically for the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, CD4 (T cell), CD68 (macrophage), receptor activator of nuclear kappa-B ligand, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, CD29 (β-1 integrin), phospho-p38 MAPK (Tyr180/Tyr182), phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/ERK2), and phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The expressions of CD29 known as mechanoreceptor and ERK known as mechanotransduction signal protein in MAP kinases in the bone and cartilage of patients treated with abatacept were significantly different from those of control. These findings suggest that increases in CD29 and ERK in MAP kinases may change the metabolism of bone and cartilage in RA patients treated with abatacept. PMID:27103846

  15. Ex-vivo transduced autologous skin fibroblasts expressing human Lim Mineralization Protein-3 efficiently form new bone in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzi, Wanda; Parrilla, Claudio; Fetoni, Annarita; Logroscino, Giandomenico; Straface, Giuseppe; Pecorini, Giovanni; Stigliano, Egidio; Tampieri, Anna; Bedini, Rossella; Pecci, Raffaella; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gambotto, Andrea; Robbins, Paul D.; Pola, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Local gene transfer of the human LIM Mineralization Protein (LMP), a novel intracellular positive regulator of the osteoblast differentiation program, can induce efficient bone formation in rodents. In order to develop a clinically relevant gene therapy approach to facilitate bone healing, we have used primary dermal fibroblasts transduced ex vivo with Ad.LMP3 and seeded on an hydroxyapatite/collagen matrix prior to autologous implantation. Here we demonstrate that genetically modified autologous dermal fibroblasts expressing Ad.LMP-3 are able to induce ectopic bone formation following implantation of the matrix into the mouse triceps and paravertebral muscles. Moreover, implantation of the Ad.LMP-3-modified dermal fibroblasts into a rat mandibular bone critical size defect model results in efficient healing as determined by X-ray, histology and three dimensional micro computed tomography (3DμCT). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the non-secreted intracellular osteogenic factor LMP-3, in inducing bone formation in vivo. Moreover, the utilization of autologous dermal fibroblasts implanted on a biomaterial represents a promising approach for possible future clinical applications aimed at inducing new bone formation. PMID:18633445

  16. Metformin revisited: Does this regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase secondarily affect bone metabolism and prevent diabetic osteopathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María; Sedlinsky, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can develop skeletal complications or “diabetic osteopathy”. These include osteopenia, osteoporosis and an increased incidence of low-stress fractures. In this context, it is important to evaluate whether current anti-diabetic treatments can secondarily affect bone metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates multiple metabolic pathways and acts as a sensor of the cellular energy status; recent evidence suggests a critical role for AMPK in bone homeostasis. In addition, AMPK activation is believed to mediate most clinical effects of the insulin-sensitizer metformin. Over the past decade, several research groups have investigated the effects of metformin on bone, providing a considerable body of pre-clinical (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) as well as clinical evidence for an anabolic action of metformin on bone. However, two caveats should be kept in mind when considering metformin treatment for a patient with type 2 DM at risk for diabetic osteopathy. In the first place, metformin should probably not be considered an anti-osteoporotic drug; it is an insulin sensitizer with proven macrovascular benefits that can secondarily improve bone metabolism in the context of DM. Secondly, we are still awaiting the results of randomized placebo-controlled studies in humans that evaluate the effects of metformin on bone metabolism as a primary endpoint. PMID:27022443

  17. Metformin revisited: Does this regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase secondarily affect bone metabolism and prevent diabetic osteopathy.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María; Sedlinsky, Claudia

    2016-03-25

    Patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can develop skeletal complications or "diabetic osteopathy". These include osteopenia, osteoporosis and an increased incidence of low-stress fractures. In this context, it is important to evaluate whether current anti-diabetic treatments can secondarily affect bone metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates multiple metabolic pathways and acts as a sensor of the cellular energy status; recent evidence suggests a critical role for AMPK in bone homeostasis. In addition, AMPK activation is believed to mediate most clinical effects of the insulin-sensitizer metformin. Over the past decade, several research groups have investigated the effects of metformin on bone, providing a considerable body of pre-clinical (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) as well as clinical evidence for an anabolic action of metformin on bone. However, two caveats should be kept in mind when considering metformin treatment for a patient with type 2 DM at risk for diabetic osteopathy. In the first place, metformin should probably not be considered an anti-osteoporotic drug; it is an insulin sensitizer with proven macrovascular benefits that can secondarily improve bone metabolism in the context of DM. Secondly, we are still awaiting the results of randomized placebo-controlled studies in humans that evaluate the effects of metformin on bone metabolism as a primary endpoint. PMID:27022443

  18. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, V.; Kaila, R.; Wilson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the safety and efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) compared with bone graft when used specifically for revision spinal fusion surgery secondary to pseudarthrosis. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched using defined search terms. The primary outcome measure was spinal fusion, assessed as success or failure in accordance with radiograph, MRI or CT scan review at 24-month follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was time to fusion. Results A total of six studies (three prospective and three retrospective) reporting on the use of BMP2 met the inclusion criteria (203 patients). Of these, four provided a comparison of BMP2 and bone graft whereas the other two solely investigated the use of BMP2. The primary outcome was seen in 92.3% (108/117) of patients following surgery with BMP2. Although none of the studies showed superiority of BMP2 to bone graft for fusion, its use was associated with a statistically quicker time to achieving fusion. BMP2 did not appear to increase the risk of complication. Conclusion The use of BMP2 is both safe and effective within the revision setting, ideally in cases where bone graft is unavailable or undesirable. Further research is required to define its optimum role. Cite this article: Mr P. Bodalia. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:145–152. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000418. PMID:27121215

  19. Regulators and effectors of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiang-Yun; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu

    2015-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in various tissues and organs, including the cardiovascular system. BMPs signal through both Smad-dependent and -independent cascades to exert a wide spectrum of biological activities. Cardiovascular disorders such as abnormal angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy have been linked to aberrant BMP signalling. To correct the dysregulated BMP signalling in cardiovascular pathogenesis, it is essential to get a better understanding of how the regulators and effectors of BMP signalling control cardiovascular function and how the dysregulated BMP signalling contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction. We hence highlight several key regulators of BMP signalling such as extracellular regulators of ligands, mechanical forces, microRNAs and small molecule drugs as well as typical BMP effectors like direct downstream target genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases, reactive oxygen species and microRNAs. The insights into these molecular processes will help target both the regulators and important effectors to reverse BMP-associated cardiovascular pathogenesis. PMID:25952563

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 polarizes THP-1 cells into M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Crystal; Singla, Reetu; Singal, Pawan K; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Singla, Dinender K

    2012-07-01

    It was hypothesized that monocyte treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) would significantly enhance monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages as well as increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In a cell culture system using monocytes (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1), we studied the effects of BMP7 on monocytes polarizing into M2 macrophages. The data demonstrate that THP-1 cells contain a BMP type II receptor (BMPR2), and that its activation is significantly (p < 0.05) increased following treatment with BMP7. Furthermore, there was an increase of M2 macrophages, BMPR2, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra compared with the respective controls. Moreover, treatment with BMP7 caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), compared with the controls. In conclusion, we suggest for the first time that BMP7 has a unique potential to polarize monocytes into M2 macrophages, required for tissue repair, which will have significant applications for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22720873

  1. Expression of mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor II worsens pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Linda J.; Moore, Christy S.; Blackwell, Thomas R.; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L.; Burman, Ankita; McClellan, Lucas J.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; McConaha, Melinda E.; Gleaves, Linda A.; Talati, Megha A.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; West, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary fibrosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH), and previous studies have shown a potential link between bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2) and PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. We exposed transgenic mice expressing mutant BMPR2 and control mice to repetitive intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin for 4 weeks. The duration of transgene activation was too short for mutant BMPR2 mice to develop spontaneous PH. Mutant BMPR2 mice had increased right ventricular systolic pressure compared to control mice, without differences in pulmonary fibrosis. We found increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1-α stabilization in lungs of mutant-BMPR2-expressing mice compared to controls following bleomycin treatment. In addition, expression of the hypoxia response element protein connective tissue growth factor was increased in transgenic mice as well as in a human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line expressing mutant BMPR2. In mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, mutant BMPR2 expression resulted in increased HIF1-α and reactive oxygen species production following exposure to hypoxia, both of which were attenuated with the antioxidant TEMPOL. These data suggest that expression of mutant BMPR2 worsens secondary PH through increased HIF activity in vascular endothelium. This pathway could be therapeutically targeted in patients with PH secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26697175

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dunworth, William P.; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi; Kim, Jun-Dae; Meadows, Stryder; Fischer, Johanna C.; Wang, Yeqi; Cleaver, Ondine; Qyang, Yibing; Ober, Elke A.; Jin, Suk-Won

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The emergence of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) seems to be highly regulated during development. Although several factors that promote the differentiation of LECs in embryonic development have been identified, those that negatively regulate this process are largely unknown. Objective Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. Methods and Results BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2 signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell–derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox protein 1 during development. Conclusions Our data identify BMP2 as a key negative regulator for the emergence of the lymphatic lineage during vertebrate development. PMID:24122719

  3. Repulsive Guidance Molecule is a structural bridge between Neogenin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Eleanor G.; Bishop, Benjamin; Elegheert, Jonathan; Bell, Christian H.; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Siebold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) control crucial processes spanning cell motility, adhesion, immune cell regulation and systemic iron metabolism. RGMs signal via two fundamental signaling cascades: the Neogenin (NEO1) and the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathways. Here, we report crystal structures of the N-terminal domains of all human RGM family members in complex with the BMP ligand BMP2, revealing a novel protein fold and a conserved BMP-binding mode. Our structural and functional data suggest a pH-linked mechanism for RGM-activated BMP signaling and offer a rationale for RGM mutations causing juvenile hemochromatosis. We also determined the ternary BMP2–RGM–NEO1 complex crystal structure, which combined with solution scattering and live-cell super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, indicates BMP-induced clustering of the RGM–NEO1 complex. Our results show how RGM acts as the central hub linking BMP and NEO1 and physically connecting these fundamental signaling pathways. PMID:25938661

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Regulate Enteric Gliogenesis by Modulating ErbB3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chalazonitis, Alcmène; D’Autréaux, Fabien; Pham, Tuan D.; Kessler, John A.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The neural crest-derived cell population that colonizes the bowel (ENCDC) contains proliferating neural/glial progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs 2 and 4), which are known to promote enteric neuronal differentiation at the expense of proliferation, function similarly in gliogenesis. Enteric gliogenesis was analyzed in mice that overexpress the BMP antagonist, noggin, or BMP4 in the primordial ENS. Noggin-induced loss-of-function decreased, while BMP4-induced gain-of-function increased the glial density and glia/neuron ratio. When added to immunoisolated ENCDC, BMPs provoked nuclear translocation of phosphorylated SMAD proteins and enhanced both glial differentiation and expression of the neuregulin receptor ErbB3. ErbB3 transcripts were detected in E12 rat gut, before glial markers are expressed; moreover, expression of the ErbB3 ligand, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) escalated rapidly after its first detection at E14. ErbB3-immunoreactive cells were located in the ENS of fetal and adult mice. GGF2 stimulated gliogenesis and proliferation and inhibited glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-promoted neurogenesis. Enhanced glial apoptosis occurred following GGF2 withdrawal; BMPs intensified this GGF2-dependence and reduced GGF2-stimulated proliferation. These observations support the hypotheses that BMPs are required for enteric gliogenesis and act by promoting responsiveness of ENCDC to ErbB3 ligands such as GGF2. PMID:21094638

  5. Construction and characterization of a recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Guoxian; Li, Chen; Liu, Danping

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and characterize a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The BMP2 gene in the plasmid pcDNA3-BMP2 was sequenced and the restriction enzyme recognition sites were analyzed. Following mutagenesis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the gene sequence after the translation termination codon was removed and new restriction sites were added. The mutated BMP2 gene (BMP2(+) gene) was cloned into an adenovirus shuttle vector to obtain pShuttle cytomegalovirus (CMV)-BMP2(+)-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-hrGFP-1. The adenovirus plasmid pAd CMV-BMP2(+)-IRES-hrGFP-1 was constructed by homologous recombination and was transfected into HEK293A cells, followed by adenovirus packaging. pAd CMV-BMP2 was used as the control. The two types of adenovirus were transfected into marrow stromal cells (MSCs). The expression of BMP2 and GFP, as well as the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of expressed BMP2 were detected. Following mutagenesis, the BMP2 gene sequence and recombinant adenovirus vector were as predicted. The novel adenovirus vector expressed both BMP2 and GFP, indicating that a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing BMP2 had been successfully constructed. PMID:24137184

  6. Induction of a dopaminergic phenotype in cultured striatal neurons by bone morphogenetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Stull, N D; Jung, J W; Iacovitti, L

    2001-09-23

    In the present study, we examined whether the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are important in the developmental specification of transmitter type in certain classes of neurons, might also play a role in signaling the differentiation of a dopaminergic (DA) phenotype. We found that BMP-2, -4 and -6 were each capable of inducing, in a dose and time dependent manner, moderate levels of the DA enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in cultured neurons from the mouse embryonic striatum. In contradistinction to other TH-inducing agents, BMPs initiated de novo TH expression without the required synergy of exogenous growth factors or co-activating substances and in neurons presumably aged (E16) beyond the critical period for induction. However, the appearance of TH in induced cells was short-lived (24 h) and could not be prolonged by repeated supplementation with the BMPs. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway, PD98059 and apigenin, did not prevent TH induction by BMP-4, as they did other TH inducing agents, indicating that the MAPK/ERK pathway does not mediate BMPs effects on TH expression. We conclude that BMP-2, -4 and -6 can be added to the expanding inventory of agents capable of inducing TH, making them potentially important in the specification of a DA phenotype in stem/precursor cells for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:11557097

  7. Regeneration of Articular Cartilage Surface: Morphogens, Cells, and Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ryosuke; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-10-01

    The articular cartilage is a well-organized tissue for smooth and friction-free joint movement for locomotion in animals and humans. Adult articular cartilage has a very low self-regeneration capacity due to its avascular nature. The regeneration of articular cartilage surface is critical to prevent the progression to osteoarthritis (OA). Although various joint resurfacing procedures in experimental articular cartilage defects have been developed, no standardized clinical protocol has yet been established. The three critical ingredients for tissue regeneration are morphogens and growth factors, cells, and scaffolds. The concepts based on the regeneration triad have been extensively investigated in animal models. However, these studies in animal models have demonstrated variable results and outcomes. An optimal animal model must precisely mimic and model the sequence of events in articular cartilage regeneration in human. In this article, the progress and remaining challenges in articular cartilage regeneration in animal models are reviewed. The role of individual morphogens and growth factors in cartilage regeneration has been investigated. In normal articular cartilage homeostasis, morphogens and growth factors function sequentially in tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cell-based repair of articular cartilage defects, performed with or without various growth factors and scaffolds, has been widely attempted in animal models. Stem cells, including embryonic and adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have also been reported as attractive cell sources for articular cartilage surface regeneration. Several studies with regard to scaffolds have been advanced, including recent investigations based on nanomaterials, functional mechanocompatible scaffolds, multilayered scaffolds, and extracellular matrix scaffolds for articular cartilage surface regeneration. Continuous refinement of animal models in chondral and osteochondral defects provide opportunities

  8. The use of demineralized bone matrix in the repair of segmental defects. Augmentation with extracted matrix proteins and a comparison with autologous grafts.

    PubMed

    Bolander, M E; Balian, G

    1986-10-01

    A soluble protein component of bone, bone morphogenetic protein, and decalcified bone matrix have been shown to induce the formation of bone in extraosseous tissue. Clinical and animal studies investigating the use of these materials as bone grafts have shown radiographic and histological evidence of formation of bone, but the clinical usefulness of these grafts remains unknown. This study compared the healing processes when plasma-coated demineralized bone matrix and autologous cancellous bone were used to graft segmental defects of bone. A standard procedure was used to make a two-centimeter defect bilaterally in the ulna of forty-eight skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits. In each rabbit, one ulnar defect was grafted with autologous citrated plasma-coated demineralized bone matrix while the other defect served as a control and was grafted with either autologous cancellous bone from the iliac crest, demineralized bone matrix, or demineralized bone matrix augmented with bone proteins that had been extracted with guanidinium hydrochloride. The ulnar defect was stabilized by the intact radius, and no supplemental device was necessary for fixation. To examine spontaneous healing in this model, one group of rabbits had a control defect that was not grafted. The grafts were periodically evaluated by radiographs, and twelve weeks after surgery the grafts were harvested and tested to failure in a standard torsion-test machine. The mechanical parameters were calculated, and histological examination of major fragments of the grafts was performed. The results of the radiographic and histological evaluation showed that all of the grafted ulnae healed, with fusion of the graft to the cut ends of the defect and reformation of approximately normal anatomy. No ungrafted ulnar defects healed. The results from the mechanical tests were evaluated by comparing the defect that was grafted with plasma-coated demineralized bone matrix with the control graft in each animal. These

  9. Depot injectable biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali Habiballah; Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Murshid, Zuahir A; Alhadlaq, Adel; Alyamani, Ahmed; Naguib, Ghada

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to utilize the biocompatibility characteristics of biodegradable polymers, viz, poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), to prepare sustained-release injectable nanoparticles (NPs) of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for the repair of alveolar bone defects in rabbits. The influence of formulation parameters on the functional characteristics of the prepared NPs was studied to develop a new noninvasive injectable recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) containing grafting material for the repair of alveolar bone clefts. Materials and methods BMP-2 NPs were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction method. The influence of molar ratio of PLGA to PCL on a suitable particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained drug release was studied. Critical size alveolar defects were created in the maxilla of 24 New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups, one of them treated with 5 μg/kg of rhBMP-2 NP formulations. Results The results found that NPs formula prepared using blend of PLGA and PCL in 4:2 (w/w) ratio showed the best sustained-release pattern with lower initial burst, and showed up to 62.7% yield, 64.5% encapsulation efficiency, 127 nm size, and more than 90% in vitro release. So, this formula was selected for scanning electron microscope examination and in vivo evaluation. Histomorphometric analysis showed 78% trabecular bone fill, mostly mature bone in the defects treated with rhBMP-2 in NPs within 6 weeks. Conclusion The prepared NPs prolonged the release and the residence time of rhBMP-2 in rabbits, which led to the formation of adequate bone in critical size alveolar bone defects in 6 weeks. This noninvasive method has application for the primary restoration of alveolar bone defects. PMID:26203226

  10. Mode of heparin attachment to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite affects its interaction with bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Goonasekera, Chandhi S; Jack, Kevin S; Bhakta, Gajadhar; Rai, Bina; Luong-Van, Emma; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M; Cooper-White, Justin J; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Heparin has a high affinity for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), which is a key growth factor in bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how the rate of release of BMP-2 was affected when adsorbed to nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles functionalized with heparin by different methods. Heparin was attached to the surface of HAP, either via adsorption or covalent coupling, via a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) layer. The chemical composition of the particles was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis, revealing that the heparin grafting densities achieved were dependent on the curing temperature used in the fabrication of APTES-modified HAP. Comparable amounts of heparin were attached via both covalent coupling and adsorption to the APTES-modified particles, but characterization of the particle surfaces by zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements indicated that the conformation of the heparin on the surface was dependent on the method of attachment, which in turn affected the stability of heparin on the surface. The release of BMP-2 from the particles after 7 days in phosphate-buffered saline found that 31% of the loaded BMP-2 was released from the APTES-modified particles with heparin covalently attached, compared to 16% from the APTES-modified particles with the heparin adsorbed. Moreover, when heparin was adsorbed onto pure HAP, it was found that the BMP-2 released after 7 days was 5% (similar to that from unmodified HAP). This illustrates that by altering the mode of attachment of heparin to HAP the release profile and total release of BMP-2 can be manipulated. Importantly, the BMP-2 released from all the heparin particle types was found by the SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation assay to be biologically active. PMID:26474791

  11. Characterization of human bone morphogenetic protein gene variants for possible roles in congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei Feng; Deng, Xia; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Peng; Zhao, Er Ying; Liu, Shu Lin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a complex illness with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In embryonic development, the heart is the first formed organ, which is strictly controlled by gene regulatory networks, including transcription factors, signaling pathways, epigenetic factors and microRNAs. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and -4 are essential in cardiogenesis as they can induce the expression of transcription factors, NKX2-5 and GATA binding protein 4, which are important in the development of the heart. The inhibition of BMP-2 and 4- inhibits the late expression of NKX2-5 and affects cardiac differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether BMP-2 and -4 variations may be associated with CHD in Chinese Han populations. The rs1049007, rs235768 and rs17563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are genetic variations located within the translated region of the BMP-2 and -4, were evaluated in 230 patients with CHD from the Chinese Han population and 160 non CHD control individuals. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2 test, implemented using SPSS software (version 13.0). The Hardy Weinberg equilibrium test was performed on the population using online Online Encyclopedia for Genetic Epidemiology studies software, and multiple-sequence alignments of the BMP proteins were performed using Vector NTI software. No statistically significant associations were identified between these genetic variations and the risk of CHD (rs1049007, P value=0.560; rs235768, P value=0.972; rs17563, P value=0.787). In addition, no correlation was found between the patients with CHD and the non-CHD control individuals. Therefore, the rs1049007, rs235768 and rs17563 genetic variations of BMP-2 were not associated with CHD in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27357418

  12. Characterization of human bone morphogenetic protein gene variants for possible roles in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Feng; Deng, Xia; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Peng; Zhao, Er-Ying; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a complex illness with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In embryonic development, the heart is the first formed organ, which is strictly controlled by gene regulatory networks, including transcription factors, signaling pathways, epigenetic factors and microRNAs. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and -4 are essential in cardiogenesis as they can induce the expression of transcription factors, NKX2‑5 and GATA binding protein 4, which are important in the development of the heart. The inhibition of BMP‑2 and ‑4 inhibits the late expression of NKX2-5 and affects cardiac differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether BMP-2 and ‑4 variations may be associated with CHD in Chinese Han populations. The rs1049007, rs235768 and rs17563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are genetic variations located within the translated region of the BMP-2 and -4, were evaluated in 230 patients with CHD from the Chinese Han population and 160 non-CHD control individuals. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2 test, implemented using SPSS software (version 13.0). The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was performed on the population using online Online Encyclopedia for Genetic Epidemiology studies software, and multiple-sequence alignments of the BMP proteins were performed using Vector NTI software. No statistically significant associations were identified between these genetic variations and the risk of CHD (rs1049007, P‑value=0.560; rs235768, P‑value=0.972; rs17563, P‑value=0.787). In addition, no correlation was found between the patients with CHD and the non‑CHD control individuals. Therefore, the rs1049007, rs235768 and rs17563 genetic variations of BMP-2 were not associated with CHD in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27357418

  13. MiR-503 inhibits adipogenesis by targeting bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1a

    PubMed Central

    Man, Xiao-Fei; Tan, Shu-Wen; Tang, Hao-Neng; Guo, Yue; Tang, Chen-Yi; Tang, Jun; Zhou, Ci-La; Zhou, Hou-De

    2016-01-01

    Adipogenesis plays a key role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and is critically related to obesity. To overcome obesity and its associated disorders, it is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in adipogenesis. An adipogenesis-related miRNA array analysis demonstrated that miR-503 was differentially expressed before and after adipocyte differentiation; however, the exact role of miR-503 in adipocyte differentiation is unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to further examine miR-503 in adipocyte differentiation. We found significantly decreased expression of miR-503 during adipocyte differentiation process. Using bioinformatic analysis, miR-503 was identified as a potential regulator of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1a (BMPR1a). We then validated BMPR1a as the target of miR-503 using a dual luciferase assay, and found decreased miR-503 and increased BMPR1a expression during adipogenesis. Overexpression of miR-503 in preadipocytes repressed expression of BMPR1a and adipogenic-related factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), and adipocyte protein 2 (AP2). In addition, miR-503 overexpression impaired the phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Inhibition of miR-503 had the opposite effect. Additionally, BMPR1a interference by siRNA attenuated adipocyte differentiation and the accumulation of lipid droplets via downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides the first evidence of the role miR-503 plays in adipocyte differentiation by regulating BMPR1a via the PI3K/Akt pathway, which may become a novel target for obesity therapy. PMID:27398155

  14. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  15. Biocomposite macroporous cryogels as potential carrier scaffolds for bone active agents augmenting bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-08-10

    Osteoinduction can be enhanced by combining scaffolds with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). However, BMP's are known to also cause bone resorption. This can be controlled using bisphosphonates like zoledronic acid (ZA). In this study, we produced two different scaffolds containing silk-fibroin, chitosan, agarose and hydroxyapatite (HA) with and without bioactive glass. The aims of the study were to fabricate, physico-chemically characterize and evaluate the carrier properties of the scaffolds for recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and ZA. Scaffolds were characterized using various methods to confirm their composition. During cell-material interactions, both scaffolds exhibited gradual but sustained proliferation of both C2C12 and MSCs for a period of 6weeks with augmentative effects on their phenotype indicated by elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) cuing towards osteogenic differentiation. In-vitro effects of rhBMP-2 and ZA contained within both the scaffolds was assessed on MC3T3 preosteoblast cells and the results show a significant increase in the ALP activity of the cells seeded on scaffolds with rhBMP-2. Further, the scaffold with both HA and bioactive glass was considered for the animal study. In-vitro, this scaffold released nearly 25% rhBMP-2 in 21-days and the addition of ZA did not affect the release. In the animal study, the scaffolds were combined with rhBMP-2 and ZA, rhBMP-2 or implanted alone in an ectopic muscle pouch model. Significantly higher bone formation was observed in the scaffold loaded with both rhBMP-2 and ZA as seen from micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:27252151

  16. Bioactive cell-derived matrices combined with polymer mesh scaffold for osteogenesis and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gul; Hwang, Mintai P; Du, Ping; Ko, Jaehoon; Ha, Chul-won; Do, Sun Hee; Park, Kwideok

    2015-05-01

    Successful bone tissue engineering generally requires an osteoconductive scaffold that consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic the natural environment. In this study, we developed a PLGA/PLA-based mesh scaffold coated with cell-derived extracellular matrix (CDM) for the delivery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), and assessed the capacity of this system to provide an osteogenic microenvironment. Decellularized ECM from human lung fibroblasts (hFDM) was coated onto the surface of the polymer mesh scaffolds, upon which heparin was then conjugated onto hFDM via EDC chemistry. BMP-2 was subsequently immobilized onto the mesh scaffolds via heparin, and released at a controlled rate. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) were cultured in such scaffolds and subjected to osteogenic differentiation for 28 days in vitro. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and osteogenic marker expression were significantly improved with hPMSCs cultured in the hFDM-coated mesh scaffolds compared to the control and fibronectin-coated ones. In addition, a mouse ectopic and rat calvarial bone defect model was used to examine the feasibility of current platform to induce osteogenesis as well as bone regeneration. All hFDM-coated mesh groups exhibited a significant increase of newly formed bone and in particular, hFDM-coated mesh scaffold loaded with a high dose of BMP-2 exhibited a nearly complete bone defect healing as confirmed via micro-CT and histological observation. This work proposes a great potency of using hFDM (biophysical) coupled with BMP-2 (biochemical) as a promising osteogenic microenvironment for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25736498

  17. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Nielsen, Forrest H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Cao, Jay

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity and soy protein isolate (SPI) augmentation have been reported to be beneficial for bone health. We hypothesized that combining voluntary running and SPI intake would alleviate detrimental changes in bone induced by a high-fat diet. A 2 × 2 × 2 experiment was designed with diets containing 16% or 45% of energy as corn oil and 20% SPI or casein fed to sedentary or running male C57BL/6 mice for 14 weeks. Distal femurs were assessed for microstructural changes. The high-fat diet significantly decreased trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Soy protein instead of casein, regardless of fat content, in the diet significantly increased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and decreased Tb.Sp. Voluntary running, regardless of fat content, significantly decreased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and increased Tb.Sp. The high-fat diet significantly decreased osteocalcin and increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) concentrations in plasma. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin were increased by both SPI and running. Running alleviated the increase in TRAP 5b induced by the high-fat diet. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet is deleterious, and SPI is beneficial to trabecular bone properties. The deleterious effect of voluntary running on trabecular structural characteristics indicates that there may be a maximal threshold of running beyond which beneficial effects cease and detrimental effects occur. Increases in plasma osteocalcin and decreases in plasma TRAP 5b in running mice suggest that a compensatory response occurs to counteract the detrimental effects of excessive running. PMID:25957968

  18. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen Chen, Fulin

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  19. Soy protein isolates prevent loss of bone quantity associated with obesity in rats through regulation of insulin signaling in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Cao, Jay J; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2013-09-01

    In both rodents and humans, excessive consumption of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol is known to result in disruption of energy metabolism and development of obesity and insulin resistance. However, how these high-fat, energy-dense diets affect bone development, morphology, and modeling is poorly understood. Here we show that male weanling rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet containing 45% fat and 0.5% cholesterol made with casein (HF-Cas) for 6 wk displayed a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity and insulin resistance. Substitution of casein with soy protein isolate (SPI) in the HF diet (HF-SPI) prevented these effects. Maintenance of bone quantity in the SPI-fed rats was associated with increased undercarboxylated osteocalcin secretion and altered JNK/IRS1/Akt insulin signaling in osteoblasts. The HF-Cas group had significantly greater serum nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations than controls, whereas the HF-SPI prevented this increase. In vitro treatment of osteoblasts or mesenchymal stromal ST2 cells with NEFAs significantly decreased insulin signaling. An isoflavone mixture similar to that found in serum of HF-SPI rats significantly increased in vitro osteoblast proliferation and blocked significantly reduced NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Finally, insulin/IGF1 was able to increase both osteoblast activity and differentiation in a set of in vitro studies. These results suggest that high-fat feeding may disrupt bone development and modeling; high concentrations of NEFAs and insulin resistance occurring with high fat intake are mediators of reduced osteoblast activity and differentiation; diets high in soy protein may help prevent high dietary fat-induced bone impairments; and the molecular mechanisms underlying the SPI-protective effects involve isoflavone-induced normalization of insulin signaling in bone. PMID:23776073

  20. Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells cultured by selective combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2).

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Naoki; Kawamura, Kenji; Hirose, Motohiro; Yajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshinori; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that bone marrow contains mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which can show osteoblastic differentiation when cultured in osteogenic medium containing ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. The differentiation results in the appearance of osteoblasts, together with the formation of bone matrix; thus, in vitro cultured bone (osteoblasts/bone matrix) could be fabricated by MSC culture. This type of cultured bone has already been used in clinical cases involving orthopaedic problems. To improve the therapeutic effect of the cultured bone, we investigated the culture conditions that contributed to extensive osteoblastic differentiation. Rat bone marrow was primarily cultured to expand the number of MSCs and further cultured in osteogenic medium for 12 days. The culture was also conducted in a medium supplemented with either bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), or with sequential combinations of both supplements. Among them, the sequential supplementation of FGF-2 followed by BMP-2 showed high alkaline phosphatase activity, sufficient bone-specific osteocalcein expression and abundant bone matrix formation of the MSC culture. These data implied that the number of responding cells or immature osteoblasts was increased by the supplementation of FGF-2 in the early phase of the culture and that these cells can show osteoblastic differentiation, of which capability was augmented by BMP-2 in the late phase. The sequential supplementation of these cytokines into MSC culture might be suitable for the fabrication of ideal cultured bone for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:18038421

  1. Distance measurements via the morphogen gradient of Bicoid in Drosophila embryos

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis in Drosophila embryos is instructed by the morphogen gradient of Bicoid (Bcd). Despite extensive studies of this morphogen, how embryo geometry may affect gradient formation and target responses has not been investigated experimentally. Results In this report, we systematically compare the Bcd gradient profiles and its target expression patterns on the dorsal and ventral sides of the embryo. Our results support a hypothesis that proper distance measurement and the encoded positional information of the Bcd gradient are along the perimeter of the embryo. Our results also reveal that the dorsal and ventral sides of the embryo have a fundamentally similar relationship between Bcd and its target Hunchback (Hb), suggesting that Hb expression properties on the two sides of the embryo can be directly traced to Bcd gradient properties. Our 3-D simulation studies show that a curvature difference between the two sides of an embryo is sufficient to generate Bcd gradient properties that are consistent with experimental observations. Conclusions The findings described in this report provide a first quantitative, experimental evaluation of embryo geometry on Bcd gradient formation and target responses. They demonstrate that the physical features of an embryo, such as its shape, are integral to how pattern is formed. PMID:20678215

  2. The structure and morphogenic changes of antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) in different instars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Yingping; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    To better understand the functioning and morphogenic changes of the antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) in different instars, the antennae are examined using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the antennae of M. matsumurae display three different styles in morphology and sensillar distribution in different instars. The antennae of first instar nymphs are relatively simple, including one campaniform sensillum (Ca), four smooth aporous trichoid sensilla (SAt), two intersegmental sensilla (Ins), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), three multiporous pegs (Mp) and four uniporous pegs (Up). The antennae of adult females and third instar male nymphs both possess similar antennae, and exhibit seven types of sensilla. Adult female antennae have in total 82-108 sensilla, including 9-16 Böhm's bristle (Bb), 3-7 Ca, 50-75 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 3-10 Co, 8 Mp and 5 Up, whereas third instar male nymph antennae possess approximately 62-79 sensilla. Adult male antennae are the most developed, possessing 259-312 sensilla, including 7-15 Bb, 2-5 Ca, 7-11 grooved aporous trichoid sensilla, 4-9 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 2-7 Co, 23-29 knobbed seta sensilla, 179-230 multiporous trichoid sensilla and 8 Mp. Based on these results, the main functions and morphogenic changes of antennae M. matsumurae in different instars are discussed. PMID:26849968

  3. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/β-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  4. Kartogenin, transforming growth factor-β1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 coordinately enhance lubricin accumulation in bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Ma, Xueqin; Li, Tao; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis, a common joint degeneration, can cause breakdown of articular cartilage with the presence of lubricin metabolic abnormalities. Lubricin is a multi-level chondroprotective mucinous glycoprotein in articular joints. Joint defect and infection is elevated and accompanied by accelerated cartilage lesions involving degradation and loss of lubricin. However, a novel, heterocyclic compound called kartogenin (KGN) was discovered to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation of bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). And the synergistic effect of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) could provoke lubricin accumulation. This paper attempted to explore the connection between accumulation of lubricin and the effect of TGF-β1, BMP-7 and/or KGN. Hence, we investigated the expression and secretion of lubricin in BMSCs treated with different combinations of TGF-β1, BMP-7, and/or KGN. Using an in vitro BMSCs system, we observed the content of lubricin from BMSCs treated with TGF-β1, BMP-7, and KGN was the highest at both the protein level and the gene level. The accumulation of lubricin was enhanced coordinately by the increase of synthesis and decrease of degradation possibly via c-Myc and adamts5 pathway. These results further suggested that supplementation of the defect parts with lubricin by using growth factors and small molecules showed a promising potential on preventing joint deterioration in patients with acquired or genetic deficiency of lubricin in the future of regenerative medicine. PMID:25857705

  5. Anti-wrinkle effect of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1a-extracellular domain (BMPR1a-ECD)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Jeon, Yun-Hui; Hwang, Byunghee; Kwon, Hyuknam; Choe, Senyon; Yang, Zungyoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have diverse and important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of adult stem cells in our tissues. Especially, BMPs are well known to be the main inducers of bone formation, by facilitating both proliferation and differentiation of bone stem cells. Interestingly, in skin stem cells, BMPs repress their proliferation but are indispensable for the proper differentiation into several lineages of skin cells. Here, we tested whether BMP antagonists have an effect on the prevention of wrinkle formation. For this study we used an in vivo wrinkle-induced mouse model. As a positive control, retinoic acid, one of the top anti-wrinkle effectors, showed a 44% improvement compared to the non-treated control. Surprisingly, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1a extracellular domain (BMPR1a-ECD) exhibited an anti-wrinkle effect which was 6-fold greater than that of retinoic acid. Our results indicate that BMP antagonists will be good targets for skin or hair diseases. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(9): 465-470] PMID:24064062

  6. Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein on DOPA- or Dopamine-Treated Titanium Surfaces to Enhance Osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeonghwa; Tada, Seiichi; Kitajima, Takashi; Son, Tae Il; Aigaki, Toshiro; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Titanium was treated with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) or dopamine to immobilize bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), a biomolecule. DOPA and dopamine solutions turned into suspensions, and precipitates were produced at high pH. Both treatments produced a brown surface on titanium that was thicker at high pH than low pH. Dopamine produced a thicker layer than DOPA. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces increased after treatment with dopamine independent of pH. Furthermore, there were more amino groups in the layers formed at pH 8.5 than pH 4.5 in both treatments. Dopamine treatment produced more amino groups in the layer than DOPA. BMP2 was immobilized on the treated surfaces via a coupling reaction using carbodiimide. More BMP2 was immobilized on surfaces treated at pH 8.5 than pH 4.5 in both treatments. The immobilized BMP induced specific signal transduction and alkali phosphatase, a differentiation marker. Thus, the present study demonstrates that titanium treated with DOPA or dopamine can become bioactive via the surface immobilization of BMP2, which induces specific signal transduction. PMID:24459666

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 inhibits the proliferation and growth of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YUNYUAN; CHEN, XIAN; QIAO, MIN; ZHANG, BING-QIANG; WANG, NING; ZHANG, ZHONGLIN; LIAO, ZHAN; ZENG, LIYI; DENG, YOULIN; DENG, FANG; ZHANG, JUNHUI; YIN, LIANGJUN; LIU, WEI; ZHANG, QIAN; YAN, ZHENGJIAN; YE, JIXING; WANG, ZHONGLIANG; ZHOU, LAN; LUU, HUE H.; HAYDON, REX C.; HE, TONG-CHUAN; ZHANG, HONGYU

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of CRC, which has led to successful early diagnosis, surgical intervention and combination chemotherapy. However, limited therapeutic options are available for metastatic and/or drug-resistant CRC. While the aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a critical initiating role in CRC development, disruption of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway causes juvenile polyposis syndrome, suggesting that BMP signaling may play a role in CRC development. However, conflicting results have been reported concerning the possible roles of BMP signaling in sporadic colon cancer. Here, we investigated the effect of BMP2 on the proliferation, migration, invasiveness and tumor growth capability of human CRC cells. Using an adenovirus vector that overexpresses BMP2 and the piggyBac transposon-mediated stable BMP2 overexpression CRC line, we found that exogenous BMP2 effectively inhibited HCT116 cell proliferation and colony formation. BMP2 was shown to suppress colon cancer cell migration and invasiveness. Under a low serum culture condition, forced expression of BMP2 induced a significantly increased level of apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Using a xenograft tumor model, we found that forced expression of BMP2 in HCT116 cells suppressed tumor growth, accompanied by decreased cell proliferation activity. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that BMP2 plays an important inhibitory role in governing the proliferation and aggressive features of human CRC cells. PMID:24993644

  8. Nigrostriatal alterations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II dominant negative mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, J.; Harvey, B. K.; Ebendal, T.; Hoffer, B.; Wang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background We previously demonstrated that exogenous application of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated neurodegeneration in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the endogenous neurotrophic properties of BMP Receptor II in dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. Methods Adult male BMPRII dominant negative (BMPRIIDN) mice and their wild type controls (WT) were placed in the activity chambers for 3 days to monitor locomotor activity. Animals were sacrificed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining. A subgroup of BMPRIIDN and WT mice were injected with high doses of methamphetamine (MA) and were sacrificed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry at 4 days after injection. Results BMPRIIDN mice had lower locomotor activity than the WT. There is a significant decrease in TH neuronal number in substantia nigra compacta, TH fiber density in the substantia nigra reticulata, and TH immunoreactivity in striatum in the BMPRIIDN mice, suggesting that deficiency in endogenous BMP signaling reduces dopaminergic innervation and motor function in the nigrostriatal pathway. Administration of MA increased TUNEL labeling in the substantia nigra in the BMPRIIDN mice. Conclusions Endogenous BMPs have trophic effects on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Deficiency in BMP signaling increases vulnerability to insults induced by high doses of MA. PMID:18642641

  9. Bone morphogenetic proteins in tumour associated angiogenesis and implication in cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Jiang, Wen G

    2016-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) belongs to transforming growth factor-β superfamily. To date, more than 20 BMPs have been identified in humans. BMPs play a critical role in embryonic and postnatal development, and also in maintaining homeostasis in different organs and tissues by regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, survival and motility. They play important roles in the development and progression of certain malignancies, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, etc. Recently, more evidence shows that BMPs are also involved in tumour associated angiogenesis. For example BMP can either directly regulate the functions of vascular endothelial cells or indirectly influence the angiogenesis via regulation of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Such crosstalk can also be reflected in the interaction with other angiogenic factors, like hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). All these factors are involved in the orchestration of the angiogenic process during tumour development and progression. Review of the relevant studies will provide a comprehensive prospective on current understanding and shed light on the corresponding therapeutic opportunity. PMID:26639195

  10. Retinoic acid signaling regulates sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein signalings during genital tubercle development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqing; Suzuki, Kentaro; Nakagata, Naomi; Mihara, Kenichiro; Matsumaru, Daisuke; Ogino, Yukiko; Yashiro, Kenta; Hamada, Hiroshi; Liu, Zhonghua; Evans, Sylvia M; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Yamada, Gen

    2012-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays pivotal roles in organogenesis, and both excessive and reduced amounts of RA cause developmental abnormalities. Reproductive organs are susceptible to teratogen toxigenicity, and the genital tubercle (GT) is one such representative organ. The physiological function of endogenous RA signaling and the mechanisms of RA-induced teratogenicity are poorly understood during the GT development. The objective of this study is to understand the developmental and teratogenic roles of RA during GT development by analyzing genetically modified mouse models. We found dynamic patterns of gene expression for the RA-synthesizing enzyme, Raldh2, and for the RA-catabolizing enzyme, Cyp26b1, during GT development. Rarb, an indicator gene for RA signaling, starts its expression in the prospective corpus cavernosum penis and in the urethral plate epithelium (UE), which plays central roles during GT development. Excessive RA signaling in Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants leads to abnormal extents of cell proliferation and differentiation during GT development, and also upregulates expression of growth factor signalings. They include Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling, which are expressed in the UE and its bilateral mesenchyme. RA signaling positively regulatesShh and Bmp4 expression during GT development as testified also by the experiment of RA administration and analyses of loss-of-function of RA signaling mutants. Thus, RA signaling is involved in the developmental cascade necessary for UE formation and GT development. PMID:22127979

  11. Chordin-Like 1 Suppresses Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Cyr-Depauw, Chanèle; Northey, Jason J; Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G; Dong, Zhifeng; Cory, Sean; Hallett, Michael; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Andrechek, Eran R; Siegel, Peter M

    2016-05-15

    ShcA is an important mediator of ErbB2- and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. We show that in the context of reduced ShcA levels, the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist chordin-like 1 (Chrdl1) is upregulated in numerous breast cancer cells following TGF-β stimulation. BMPs have emerged as important modulators of breast cancer aggressiveness, and we have investigated the ability of Chrdl1 to block BMP-induced increases in breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Breast cancer-derived conditioned medium containing elevated concentrations of endogenous Chrdl1, as well as medium containing recombinant Chrdl1, suppresses BMP4-induced signaling in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Live-cell migration assays reveal that BMP4 induces breast cancer migration, which is effectively blocked by Chrdl1. We demonstrate that BMP4 also stimulated breast cancer cell invasion and matrix degradation, in part, through enhanced metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 activity that is antagonized by Chrdl1. Finally, high Chrdl1 expression was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Together, our data reveal that Chrdl1 acts as a negative regulator of malignant breast cancer phenotypes through inhibition of BMP signaling. PMID:26976638

  12. Synergistic interaction between the fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways in lens cells

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Bruce A.; Musil, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a central role in two processes essential for lens transparency—fiber cell differentiation and gap junction–mediated intercellular communication (GJIC). Using serum-free primary cultures of chick lens epithelial cells (DCDMLs), we investigated how the FGF and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways positively cooperate to regulate lens development and function. We found that culturing DCDMLs for 6 d with the BMP blocker noggin inhibits the canonical FGF-to-ERK pathway upstream of FRS2 activation and also prevents FGF from stimulating FRS2- and ERK-independent gene expression, indicating that BMP signaling is required at the level of FGF receptors. Other experiments revealed a second type of BMP/FGF interaction by which FGF promotes expression of BMP target genes as well as of BMP4. Together these studies reveal a novel mode of cooperation between the FGF and BMP pathways in which BMP keeps lens cells in an optimally FGF-responsive state and, reciprocally, FGF enhances BMP-mediated gene expression. This interaction provides a mechanistic explanation for why disruption of either FGF or BMP signaling in the lens leads to defects in lens development and function. PMID:25947138

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits liposaccharide-induced inflammation in the airway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengtu; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenting; Li, Defu; Xu, Chuyi; Zhang, Kedong; Qi, Yafei; Gong, Xuefang; Tang, Chun; Zhong, Nanshan; Lu, Wenju

    2014-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a multifunctional growth factor that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. The role of BMP4 in lung diseases is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that BMP4 was upregulated in lungs undergoing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, and in airway epithelial cells treated with LPS or TNF-α. BMP4 mutant (BMP4(+/-) ) mice presented with more severe lung inflammation in response to LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and lower bacterial load compared with that in BMP4(+/+) mice. Knockdown of BMP4 by siRNA increased LPS and TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression in 16HBE human airway epithelial cells and in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from BMP4(+/-) mice produced greater levels of TNF-α and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) upon LPS treatment compared with cells from BMP4(+/+) mice. Administration of exogenous BMP4 attenuated the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-8, or KC induced by LPS and/or TNF-α in airway epithelial cells, and peritoneal macrophages. Finally, partial deficiency of BMP4 in BMP4(+/-) mice protected the animals from restrictive lung function reduction upon chronic LPS exposure. These results indicate that BMP4 plays an important anti-inflammatory role, controlling the strength and facilitating the resolution of acute lung inflammation; yet, BMP4 also contributes to lung function impairment during chronic lung inflammation. PMID:25142202

  14. Bone morphogenetic proteins, eye patterning, and retinocollicular map formation in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Plas, Daniel T.; Dhande, Onkar; Lopez, Joshua E.; Murali, Deepa; Thaller, Christina; Henkemeyer, Mark; Furuta, Yasuhide; Overbeek, Paul; Crair, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Patterning events during early eye formation determine retinal cell fate and can dictate the behavior of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons as they navigate toward central brain targets. The temporally and spatially regulated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors in the retina are thought to play a key role in this process, initiating gene expression cascades that distinguish different regions of the retina, particularly along the dorsoventral axis. Here, we examine the role of BMP and a potential downstream effector, EphB, in retinotopic map formation in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC). RGC axon behaviors during retinotopic map formation in wild type mice are compared with those in several strains of mice with engineered defects of BMP and EphB signaling. Normal RGC axon sorting produces axon order in the optic tract that reflects the dorsoventral position of the parent RGCs in the eye. A dramatic consequence of disrupting BMP signaling is a missorting of RGC axons as they exit the optic chiasm. This sorting is not dependent on EphB. When BMP signaling in the developing eye is genetically modified, RGC order in the optic tract and targeting in the LGN and SC are correspondingly disrupted. These experiments show that BMP signaling regulates dorsoventral RGC cell fate, RGC axon behavior in the ascending optic tract and retinotopic map formation in the LGN and SC through mechanisms that are in part distinct from EphB signaling in the LGN and SC. PMID:18614674

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling suppresses wound-induced skin repair by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Christopher J.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Aziz, Ahmar; Sharpe, David T.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Sharov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling plays a key role in the control of skin development and postnatal remodelling by regulating keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. To study the role of BMPs in wound-induced epidermal repair, we used transgenic mice overexpressing the BMP downstream component Smad1 under the control of a K14 promoter as an in vivo model, as well as ex vivo and in vitro assays. K14-caSmad1 mice exhibited retarded wound healing associated with significant inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis in healing wound epithelium. Furthermore, microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed decreased expression of a number of cytoskeletal/cell motility-associated genes including wound-associated keratins (Krt16, Krt17) and Myo5a, in the epidermis of K14-caSmad1 mice versus wild-type controls during wound healing. BMP treatment significantly inhibited keratinocyte migration ex vivo, and primary keratinocytes of K14-caSmad1 mice showed retarded migration compared to wild-type controls. Finally, siRNA-mediated silencing of Bmpr-1B in primary mouse keratinocytes accelerated cell migration and was associated with increased expression of Krt16, Krt17 and Myo5a compared to controls. Thus, this study demonstrates that BMPs inhibit keratinocyte proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and migration in regenerating skin epithelium during wound healing, and raises a possibility for using BMP antagonists for the management of chronic wounds. PMID:24126843

  16. Medium modification with bone morphogenetic protein 2 addition for odontogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Atalayin, Cigdem; Tezel, Huseyin; Dagci, Taner; Yavasoglu, Nefise Ulku Karabay; Oktem, Gulperi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether medium modification improves the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in vitro and in vivo. DPSC isolated from human impacted third molar teeth were analysed for clusters of differentiation with flow cytometry. Odontogenic differentiation was stimulated by medium modification with the addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). The expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, enamelysin/matrix metalloproteinase 20 and the phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome of the cells were analysed with RT-PCR at 7, 14 and 21 days. Then, DPSC were transplanted on the back of immunocompromised mice via a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate scaffold, and the structure of the formed tissue was investigated. The cells were identified as mesenchymal stem cells with a 98.3% CD73 and CD90 double-positive cell rate. The increase in mineralization capacity and expression of human enamel-dentin specific transcripts proportional to the culture period were determined after differentiation. Six weeks after transplantation, an osteo-dentin matrix was formed in the group in which odontogenic differentiation was stimulated, and the odontogenic characteristics of the matrix were confirmed by histological examination and RT-PCR analysis. Odontogenic differentiation of the isolated and characterized human DPSC was improved with medium modification by the addition of BMP2 in vitro and in vivo. The defined medium and applied technique have a potential use for forming reparative dentin in the future, but the effects of the method should be investigated in long-term studies. PMID:26981753

  17. Gelatinases promote calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells by up-regulating bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Meng, Fan-Xing; Li, Bing-Wei; Sheng, You-Ming; Liu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Bing; Li, Hong-Wei; Xiu, Rui-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), also known as gelatinase A, is involved in vascular calcification. Another member of gelatinases is MMP-9 (gelatinase B). However, the role of gelatinases in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification is not well understood. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between gelatinases and vascular calcification and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) was used to induce calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with or without 2-[[(4-Phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]methyl]-thiirane (SB-3CT), a specific gelatinases inhibitor. Levels of calcification were determined by assessing calcium content and calcification area of VSMCs. Phenotype transition of VSMCs was observed by assessing expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), smooth muscle α-actin (SM-α-actin) and desmin. Gelatin zymography was applied to determine the activities of gelatinases, and western blot was applied to determine expressions of gelatinases, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and msh homeobox homolog 2 (Msx-2). Gelatinases inhibition by SB-3CT alleviated calcification and phenotype transition of VSMCs induced by β-GP. Increased gelatinases expression and active MMP-2 were observed in calcifying VSMCs. Gelatinases inhibition reduced expression of RUNX2, Msx-2 and BMP-2. BMP-2 treatment increased expressions of RUNX2 and Msx-2, while noggin, an antagonist of BMP-2, decreased expressions of RUNX2 and Msx-2. Gelatinases promote vascular calcification by upregulating BMP-2 which induces expression of RUNX2 and Msx-2, two proteins associated with phenotype transition of VSMCs in vascular calcification. Interventions targeting gelatinases inhibition might be a proper candidate for ameliorating vascular calcification. PMID:26797522

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 may promote follicle selection in the hen.

    PubMed

    Stephens, C S; Johnson, P A

    2016-09-01

    In the hen, optimal ovulation rate depends on selection of a single follicle into the pre-ovulatory hierarchy. Follicle selection is associated with increased oocyte growth and changes in gene expression in granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte, in preparation for ovulation. This study investigated the expression, function and regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) during follicle development in the hen. BMP15 mRNA expression was analyzed in the ooplasm and granulosa cells of 3mm follicles and was confirmed to be primarily in the ooplasm. BMP15 was detected by immunoblotting in 6 and 8mm follicles near the time of follicle selection. Expression of mRNA for BMP15 receptors (BMPR1B and BMPR2) in granulosa cells increased with follicle size, indicating that BMP15 may play an important role around follicle selection. The function of BMP15 was examined by culturing granulosa cells from 3-5mm and 6-8mm follicles with recombinant human BMP15 (rhBMP15). BMP15 increased expression of follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA and decreased anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) mRNA and occludin (OCLN), factors associated with follicle maturation and growth in the hen. Hormonal regulation of BMP15 was assessed by whole follicle culture with estradiol (E2) which increased BMP15 mRNA expression. The distinct expression pattern of BMP15 and its receptors, coupled with the effects of BMP15 to increase FSHR mRNA and decrease AMH mRNA and OCLN mRNA and protein expression suggest that the oocyte may have a role in follicle selection in the chicken. PMID:27340039

  19. Stimulatory effects of distinct members of the bone morphogenetic protein family on ligament fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bobacz, K; Ullrich, R; Amoyo, L; Erlacher, L; Smolen, J S; Graninger, W B

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of cartilage derived morphogenetic protein‐1 and ‐2 (CDMP‐1, CDMP‐2), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‐7 and BMP‐6 on metabolism of ligament fibroblasts and their osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation potential. Methods Ligament fibroblasts were obtained from 3 month old calves, plated as monolayers or micromass cultures, and incubated with or without CDMP‐1, CDMP‐2, BMP‐7, and BMP‐6. Expression of the indicated growth factors was assessed by RT‐PCR and western immunoblotting. The presence of their respective type I and II receptors, and lineage related markers, was investigated in stimulated and unstimulated cells by RT‐PCR and northern blotting. Biosynthesis of matrix proteoglycans was assessed by [35S]sulphate incorporation in monolayers. Alcian blue and toluidine blue staining was done in micromass cultures. Results CDMP‐1, CDMP‐2, BMP‐7, and BMP‐6 were detected on mRNA and on the protein level. Type I and II receptors were endogenously expressed in unstimulated ligament fibroblasts. The growth factors significantly stimulated total proteoglycan synthesis as assessed by [35S]sulphate incorporation. Toluidine blue staining showed cartilage‐specific metachromasia in the growth factor treated micromass cultures. Transcription analysis of stimulated ligament fibroblasts demonstrated coexpression of chondrocyte markers but no up regulation of osteogenic markers. Conclusion CDMP‐1, CDMP‐2, BMP‐7, and BMP‐6 and their receptors were expressed in ligament tissue. These growth factors induced matrix synthesis in fibroblasts derived from bovine ligament. The preferential expression of cartilage markers in vitro suggests that CDMP‐1, CDMP‐2, BMP‐7, and BMP‐6 have the potential to induce differentiation towards a chondrogenic phenotype in ligament fibroblasts. Thus, fibroblasts from ligaments may serve as a source for chondrogenesis and tissue repair. PMID:15975973

  20. Does bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) affect female fertility in the mouse?

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Koji; Su, You-Qiang; Eppig, John J

    2010-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member produced by mammalian oocytes as well as other cell types. Despite well-characterized effects of recombinant BMP6 on granulosa cells in vitro, the function of BMP6 in vivo has been ill-defined. Therefore, the effects of genetic deletion of the Bmp6 gene on female mouse fertility were assessed. The mean litter size of Bmp6(-/-) females was reduced by 22% (P < 0.05) compared to Bmp6(+/+) controls. Not only did Bmp6(-/-) females naturally ovulate 24% fewer eggs, but competence of in vitro-matured oocytes to complete preimplantation development after fertilization in vitro was decreased by 50%. No apparent effect of Bmp6 deletion on either the morphology or the dynamics of follicular development was apparent. Nevertheless, levels of luteinizing hormone (LH)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced transcripts, which encode proteins required for cumulus expansion (HAS2, PTGS2, PTX3, and TNFAIP6), and of epidermal growth factor-like peptides (AREG, BTC, and EREG) were lower in Bmp6(-/-) mice than in controls after administration of a reduced dose of hCG (1 IU) in vivo. LH receptor (Lhcgr) transcript levels were not significantly lower in Bmp6(-/-) granulosa cells, suggesting that BMP6 is required for processes downstream of LH receptors. To assess whether another oocyte-derived BMP, BMP15, could have BMP6-redundant functions in vivo, the fertility of Bmp15/Bmp6 double mutants was assessed. Fertility was not significantly reduced in double-homozygous mutants compared with that in double-heterozygous controls. Therefore, BMP6 promotes normal fertility in female mice, at least in part, by enabling appropriate responses to LH and normal oocyte quality. Thus, Bmp6 probably is part of the complex genetic network that determines female fertility. PMID:20702851

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulates Gastric Epithelial Cell Development and Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Masahiko; Mao, Maria; Keeley, Theresa M.; El–Zaatari, Mohamad; Lee, Hyuk–Joon; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Samuelson, Linda C.; Merchant, Juanita L.; Goldenring, James R.; Todisco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS We investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the regulation of gastric epithelial cell growth and differentiation by generating transgenic mice that express the BMP inhibitor noggin in the stomach. METHODS The promoter of the mouse H+/K+-ATPase β-subunit gene, which is specifically expressed in parietal cells, was used to regulate expression of noggin in the gastric epithelium of mice. The transgenic mice were analyzed for noggin expression, tissue morphology, cellular composition of the gastric mucosa, gastric acid content, and plasma levels of gastrin. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, microtitration, and radioimmunoassay analyses. RESULTS In the stomachs of the transgenic mice, phosphorylation of Smad1, 5, and 8 decreased, indicating inhibition of BMP signaling. Mucosa were of increased height, with dilated glands, cystic structures, reduced numbers of parietal cells, and increased numbers of cells that coexpressed intrinsic factor, trefoil factor 2, and griffonia simplicifolialectin II, compared with wild-type mice. In the transgenic mice, levels of the H+/K+-ATPase α-subunit protein and messenger RNA were reduced, whereas those of intrinsic factor increased. The transgenic mice were hypochloridric and had an increased number of Ki67- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells; increased levels of plasma gastrin; increased expression of transforming growth factor-α, amphiregulin, and gastrin; and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. CONCLUSIONS Inhibiting BMP signaling in the stomachs of mice by expression of noggin causes loss of parietal cells, development of transitional cells that express markers of mucus neck and zymogenic lineages, and activation of proliferation. BMPs are therefore important regulators of gastric epithelial cell homeostasis. PMID:20826155

  2. The Use of Platelet Rich Plasma, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Different Scaffolds in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Literature Review in Comparison with Own Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jopp, Stefan; Osadnik, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article was to review and critically assess the use of platelet rich plasma, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and different scaffolds (i.e. tricalciumphosphate, polycaprolactone, demineralized bone matrix and anorganic bovine bone mineral) in oral and maxillofacial surgery comparing the relevant literature and own clinical experience. Material and Methods A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, MEDPILOT and COCHRANE DATABASE OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS. It concentrated on manuscripts and overviews published in the last five years (2006-2010). The key terms employed were platelet rich plasma, bone morphogenetic proteins and their combinations with the above mentioned scaffolds. The results of clinical studies and animal trials were especially emphasized. The statements from the literature were compared with authors’ own clinical data. Results New publications and overviews demonstrate the advantages of platelet rich plasma in bone regeneration. The results from the literature review were discussed and compared with the publications detailing authors' own experiences. Conclusions A favourable outcome concerning newly grown bone was achieved combining platelet rich plasma in addition to optimal matrices with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, depending on the clinical case. As a consequence, the paradigm shift from transplantation of autogenous bone to bone tissue engineering appears promising. PMID:24421984

  3. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplantation for critical-sized bone defect following a wide excision of osteofibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dilogo, Ismail Hadisoebroto; Kamal, Achmad Fauzi; Gunawan, Bambang; Rawung, Rangga Valentino

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteofibrous dysplasia is a rare non-neoplastic disease that is almost exclusive to pediatric tibial diaphysis. Wide excision of the lesion is recommended to avoid recurrence. However, such radical surgery will results in large segmental bone defects that will require further extensive reconstructive surgery. We report a novel approach of treating bone defect by implementing the diamond concept of bone healing using autologous bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Presentation of case An eight-year-old Indonesian male presented with severe bowing deformity of the left lower leg. Radiographic and histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of osteofibrous dysplasia. A wide excision of the defect was made leaving a critical-sized bone defect. A combination of autologous transplantation of 50 million BM-MSCs, hydroxyapatite (HA) granules, bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) and Djoko-Zarov hybrid circular external fixator was used to treat the defect. The outcomes measured were subjective complaints, functionality based on LEFS and radiological assessments. Discussion Radiographic assessments showed successful new bone tissue formation and integration of implanted HA granules. The external fixator was removed at 42 weeks after adequate callus formation and clinical stability was achieved. The patient underwent progressive functional improvements and reached a near normal functionality of 90% LEFS at 84 week. No therapy side effect or complication was reported. Conclusion Osteofibrous dysplasia was successfully excised without signs of recurrence after 84-week follow-up. Autologous transplantation of augmented BM-MSCs has successfully created new normal bone tissue without causing any side effect and had significantly improved the patient’s quality of life. PMID:26599503

  4. Differential effects of short term feeding of a soy protein isolate diet and estrogen treatment on bone in the pre-pubertal rat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial effects of a soy diet on bone quality have been assumed to be due to the putative estrogenic actions of isoflavones. We studied the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on bone quality and compared these effects to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) in pre-pubertal rats. Female rats were weaned to a ...

  5. Regeneration of a Compromized Masticatory Unit in a Large Mandibular Defect Caused by a Huge Solitary Bone Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Regenerative Literature.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Joseph Kamal; Akhtar, Shakeel; Abu Al Nassar, Hiba; Al Khoury, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    The reconstructive options for large expansive cystic lesion affecting the jaws are many. The first stage of treatment may involve enucleation or marsupialization of the cyst. Attempted reconstruction of large osseous defects arising from the destruction of local tissue can present formidable challenges. The literature reports the use of bone grafts, free tissue transfer, bone morphogenic protein and reconstruction plates to assist in the healing and rehabilitation process. The management of huge mandibular cysts needs to take into account the preservation of existing intact structures, removal of the pathology and the reconstructive objectives which focus both on aesthetic and functional rehabilitation. The planning and execution of such treatment requires not only the compliance of the patient and family but also their assent as customers with a voice in determining their surgical destiny. The authors would like to report a unique case of a huge solitary bone cyst that had reduced the ramus, angle and part of the body of one side of the mandible to a pencil-thin-like strut of bone. A combination of decompression through marsupialization, serial packing, and the fabrication of a custom made obturator facilitated the regeneration of the myo-osseous components of the masticatory unit of this patient. Serial CT scans showed evidence of concurrent periosteal and endosteal bone formation and, quite elegantly, the regeneration of the first branchial arch components of the right myo-osseous masticatory complex. The microenvironmental factors that may have favored regeneration of these complex structures are discussed. PMID:27408457

  6. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds.

  7. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds. PMID:27075233

  8. Synergistic enhancement of human bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on BMP-2-derived and RGD peptide concentration gradients.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole M; Lin, Nancy J; Gallant, Nathan D; Becker, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Rational design of bioactive tissue engineered scaffolds for directing bone regeneration in vivo requires a comprehensive understanding of cell interactions with the immobilized bioactive molecules. In the current study, substrates possessing gradient concentrations of immobilized peptides were used to measure the concentration-dependent proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Two bioactive peptides, one derived from extracellular matrix protein (ECM), GRGDS, and one from bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYL, were found to synergistically enhance cell proliferation, up-regulate osteogenic mRNA markers bone sialoprotein (BSP) and Runt-related transcription factor 2, and produce mineralization at densities greater than 130 pmol cm(-2) (65 pmol cm(-2) for each peptide). In addition, COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers alone led to up-regulated BSP mRNA levels at densities above 200 pmol cm(-2) and increased cell proliferation from day 3 to day 14. Taking further advantage of both the synergistic potentials and the concentration-dependent activities of ECM and growth-factor-derived peptides on proliferative activity and osteogenic differentiation, without the need for additional osteogenic supplements, will enable the successful incorporation of the bioactive species into biorelevant tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:21272672

  9. Dietary Protein and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in the Presence of Low vs High Calcium in Men and Women of the Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term metabolic studies show that increasing dietary protein creates negative calcium balance, yet epidemiologic studies support a beneficial effect of protein on bone. However, long-term influences of typical protein intake may rely upon concurrent calcium. We examined the cross-sectional asso...

  10. A rationale for delivery of osteoinductive proteins.

    PubMed

    Brekke, J H

    1996-01-01

    Highly pure, recombinant human osteoinductive proteins make it possible to consider programmable osteoneogenesis. Until recently, it was believed that a bioresorbable excipient or physiologic solution would suffice to transport osteoinductive agents from source to wound. After considering surgical requirements, particular bone wound circumstances, scarcity of collateral circulation, phenotype plasticity of mesenchymal progenitor cells, and the morphogens' pleiotrophic effects, it becomes clear that the issue of controlled, programmable osteoneogenesis is a more complicated proposition than can be addressed solely by application of osteoinductive protein. The essential characteristics of a manufactured bone graft substitute (BGS) device are dictated by demands placed on such a device by the surgeons who will employ them and the cells that will occupy them. This review outlines a design process for BGS devices that (1) begins by surveying BGS requirements gathered from the literature from 1991 to 1995, (2) briefly reviews recent in vitro studies of rhBMP-2 and OP- 1, (3) describes commonly encountered circumstances of recipient wound beds, (4) describes behaviors of mesenchymal cells involved in connective tissue repair and regeneration, and (5) concludes with a rationale for design of an osteoinductive bone graft substitute. Emerging from this process is a composite device consisting of a bioresorbable structural polymer, a filamentous velour of hyaluronan (HY), and an osteoinductive protein. The structural polymer, D,D-L,L-polylactic acid, fabricated in the architecture of cancellous bone, is capable of maintaining its structural and architectural properties after being thoroughly saturated with water. Within its interstices is located a filamentous velour of hyaluronan which, when fully hydrated, becomes a viscoelastic gel. It is anticipated that the osteoinductive protein will either be carried on the dried hyaluronic acid velour or in solution via the

  11. Characterization of the Enhanced Bone Regenerative Capacity of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Engineered to Express the Gene Encoding Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Im-Hee; Lee, Si-Ho; Jun, Choong-Man; Oh, Namsik

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) are considered an appropriate cell source for therapeutic strategies. The aims of this study were to investigate the sustainability of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) secretion and the bone regenerative capacity of hPDLSCs that had been genetically modified to express the gene encoding BMP2 (BMP2). hPDLSCs isolated from healthy third molars were transduced using replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus (rAd) encoding BMP2 (hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2), and the cellular characteristics and osteogenic potentials of hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 successfully secreted BMP2, formed colonies, and expressed immunophenotypes similar to their nontransduced counterparts. As to their osteogenic potential, hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 formed greater mineralized nodules and exhibited significantly higher levels of expression of BMP2 and the gene encoding alkaline phosphatase, and formed more and better quality bone than other hPDLSC-containing or recombinant human BMP2-treated groups, being localized at the initial site until 8 weeks. The findings of the present study demonstrate that hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 effectively promote osteogenesis not only in vitro but also in vivo. The findings also suggest that hPDLSCs can efficiently carry and deliver BMP2, and that hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2 could be used in an attractive novel therapeutic approach for the regeneration of deteriorated bony defects. PMID:24494708

  12. Postoperative Cyst Associated with Bone Morphogenetic Protein Use in Posterior and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Managed Conservatively: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Diana M; Drazin, Doniel; Anand, Neel

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein use in spinal surgery for off-label indications continues to remain popular. One area where its use has known associated radicular complications is posterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. These complications include radiculitis, cyst development, and heterotopic ossification, amongst others. Typically, cyst development has been treated surgically. We present two cases of bone morphogenetic protein-related cysts treated medically and thus, present medical treatment as an alternative treatment option. PMID:27014519

  13. Disseminated Tumor Cells Persist in the Bone Marrow of Breast Cancer Patients through Sustained Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Kai; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Buck, Friedrich; Gorges, Tobias M; Nilse, Lars; Assmann, Volker; Andreas, Antje; Müller, Volkmar; Wikman, Harriet; Riethdorf, Sabine; Schlüter, Hartmut; Pantel, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTC), which share mesenchymal and epithelial properties, are considered to be metastasis-initiating cells in breast cancer. However, the mechanisms supporting DTC survival are poorly understood. DTC extravasation into the bone marrow may be encouraged by low oxygen concentrations that trigger metabolic and molecular alterations contributing to DTC survival. Here, we investigated how the unfolded protein response (UPR), an important cytoprotective program induced by hypoxia, affects the behavior of stressed cancer cells. DTC cell lines established from the bone marrow of patients with breast cancer (BC-M1), lung cancer, (LC-M1), and prostate cancer (PC-E1) were subjected to hypoxic and hypoglycemic conditions. BC-M1 and LC-M1 exhibiting mesenchymal and epithelial properties adapted readily to hypoxia and glucose starvation. Upregulation of UPR proteins, such as the glucose-regulated protein Grp78, induced the formation of filamentous networks, resulting in proliferative advantages and sustained survival under total glucose deprivation. High Grp78 expression correlated with mesenchymal attributes of breast and lung cancer cells and with poor differentiation in clinical samples of primary breast and lung carcinomas. In DTCs isolated from bone marrow specimens from breast cancer patients, Grp78-positive stress granules were observed, consistent with the likelihood these cells were exposed to acute cell stress. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that the UPR is activated in DTC in the bone marrow from cancer patients, warranting further study of this cell stress pathway as a predictive biomarker for recurrent metastatic disease. PMID:26573792

  14. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    PubMed

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea. PMID:22451003

  15. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in the Pro-Mature Complex Form Enhances Bovine Oocyte Developmental Competence

    PubMed Central

    Sudiman, Jaqueline; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Ritter, Lesley J.; White, Melissa A.; Mottershead, David G.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Gilchrist, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental competence of in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes needs to be improved and this can potentially be achieved by adding recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) or growth differentiation factor (GDF9) to IVM. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a purified pro-mature complex form of recombinant human BMP15 versus the commercially available bioactive forms of BMP15 and GDF9 (both isolated mature regions) during IVM on bovine embryo development and metabolic activity. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in control medium or treated with 100 ng/ml pro-mature BMP15, mature BMP15 or mature GDF9 +/− FSH. Metabolic measures of glucose uptake and lactate production from COCs and autofluorescence of NAD(P)H, FAD and GSH were measured in oocytes after IVM. Following in vitro fertilisation and embryo culture, day 8 blastocysts were stained for cell numbers. COCs matured in medium +/− FSH containing pro-mature BMP15 displayed significantly improved blastocyst development (57.7±3.9%, 43.5±4.2%) compared to controls (43.3±2.4%, 28.9±3.7%) and to mature GDF9+FSH (36.1±3.0%). The mature form of BMP15 produced intermediate levels of blastocyst development; not significantly different to control or pro-mature BMP15 levels. Pro-mature BMP15 increased intra-oocyte NAD(P)H, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were increased by both forms of BMP15 in the absence of FSH. Exogenous BMP15 in its pro-mature form during IVM provides a functional source of oocyte-secreted factors to improve bovine blastocyst development. This form of BMP15 may prove useful for improving cattle and human artificial reproductive technologies. PMID:25058588

  16. Inductive specification and axonal orientation of spinal neurons mediated by divergent bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)7 evokes both inductive and axon orienting responses in dorsal interneurons (dI neurons) in the developing spinal cord. These events occur sequentially during the development of spinal neurons but in these and other cell types such inductive and acute chemotactic responses occur concurrently, highlighting the requirement for divergent intracellular signaling. Both type I and type II BMP receptor subtypes have been implicated selectively in orienting responses but it remains unclear how, in a given cell, divergence occurs. We have examined the mechanisms by which disparate BMP7 activities are generated in dorsal spinal neurons. Results We show that widely different threshold concentrations of BMP7 are required to elicit the divergent inductive and axon orienting responses. Type I BMP receptor kinase activity is required for activation of pSmad signaling and induction of dI character by BMP7, a high threshold response. In contrast, neither type I BMP receptor kinase activity nor Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation is involved in the low threshold orienting responses of dI axons to BMP7. Instead, BMP7-evoked axonal repulsion and growth cone collapse are dependent on phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) activation, plausibly through type II receptor signaling. BMP7 stimulates PI3K-dependent signaling in dI neurons. BMP6, which evokes neural induction but does not have orienting activity, activates Smad signaling but does not stimulate PI3K. Conclusions Divergent signaling through pSmad-dependent and PI3K-dependent (Smad-independent) mechanisms mediates the inductive and orienting responses of dI neurons to BMP7. A model is proposed whereby selective engagement of BMP receptor subunits underlies choice of signaling pathway. PMID:22085733

  17. Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling reduces vascular calcification and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Derwall, Matthias; Malhotra, Rajeev; Lai, Carol S; Beppu, Yuko; Aikawa, Elena; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Zapol, Warren M; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Yu, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is enhanced in human atherosclerotic and calcific vascular lesions. While genetic gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mice have supported a causal role of BMP signaling in atherosclerosis and vascular calcification, it remains uncertain whether BMP signaling might be targeted pharmacologically to ameliorate both of these processes. Methods and Results We tested the impact of pharmacologic BMP inhibition upon atherosclerosis and calcification in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR−/−) mice. LDLR−/− mice fed a high-fat diet developed abundant vascular calcification within twenty weeks. Prolonged treatment of LDLR−/− mice with the small molecule BMP inhibitor LDN-193189 was well-tolerated and potently inhibited development of atheroma, as well as associated vascular inflammation, osteogenic activity, and calcification. Administration of recombinant BMP antagonist ALK3-Fc replicated the anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects of LDN-193189. Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc abrogated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by oxidized LDL, a known early event in atherogenesis. Unexpectedly, treatment of mice with LDN-193189 lowered LDL serum cholesterol by 35% and markedly decreased hepatosteatosis without inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity. Treatment with BMP2 increased, whereas LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc inhibited apolipoprotein B100 secretion in HepG2 cells, suggesting that BMP signaling contributes to the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Conclusions These results definitively implicate BMP signaling in atherosclerosis and calcification, while uncovering a previously unidentified role for BMP signaling in LDL cholesterol metabolism. BMP inhibition may be helpful in the treatment of atherosclerosis and associated vascular calcification. PMID:22223731

  18. Elafin Reverses Pulmonary Hypertension via Caveolin-1–Dependent Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Nils P.; Spiekerkoetter, Edda; Gu, Mingxia; Li, Caiyun G.; Li, Hai; Kaschwich, Mark; Diebold, Isabel; Hennigs, Jan K.; Kim, Ki-Yoon; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Wang, Lingli; Cao, Aiqin; Sa, Silin; Jiang, Xinguo; Stockstill, Raymond W.; Nicolls, Mark R.; Zamanian, Roham T.; Bland, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, impaired bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) signaling, and increased elastase activity. Synthetic elastase inhibitors reverse experimental pulmonary hypertension but cause hepatotoxicity in clinical studies. The endogenous elastase inhibitor elafin attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in mice, but its potential to improve endothelial function and BMPR2 signaling, and to reverse severe experimental pulmonary hypertension or vascular pathology in the human disease was unknown. Objectives: To assess elafin-mediated regression of pulmonary vascular pathology in rats and in lung explants from patients with pulmonary hypertension. To determine if elafin amplifies BMPR2 signaling in pulmonary artery endothelial cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods: Rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor blockade and hypoxia (Sugen/hypoxia) as well as lung organ cultures from patients with pulmonary hypertension were used to assess elafin-mediated reversibility of pulmonary vascular disease. Pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from patients and control subjects were used to determine the efficacy and mechanism of elafin-mediated BMPR2 signaling. Measurements and Main Results: In Sugen/hypoxia rats, elafin reduced elastase activity and reversed pulmonary hypertension, judged by regression of right ventricular systolic pressure and hypertrophy and pulmonary artery occlusive changes. Elafin improved endothelial function by increasing apelin, a BMPR2 target. Elafin induced apoptosis in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and decreased neointimal lesions in lung organ culture. In normal and patient pulmonary artery endothelial cells, elafin promoted angiogenesis by increasing pSMAD-dependent and -independent BMPR2 signaling. This was linked mechanistically to augmented interaction of BMPR2 with caveolin-1 via

  19. Hyaluronan regulates bone morphogenetic protein-7-dependent prevention and reversal of myofibroblast phenotype.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Adam C; Duggal, Lucy; Jenkins, Robert; Hascall, Vincent; Steadman, Robert; Phillips, Aled O; Meran, Soma

    2015-05-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) promotes transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-driven myofibroblast phenotype. However, HA can also have disease-limiting activity. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is an antifibrotic cytokine that antagonizes TGF-β1, and isolated studies have demonstrated that HA can both mediate and modulate BMP7 responses. In this study, we investigated whether BMP7 can modulate HA in a manner that leads to prevention/reversal of TGF-β1-driven myofibroblast differentiation in human lung fibroblasts. Results demonstrated that BMP7 prevented and reversed TGF-β1-driven myofibroblast differentiation through a novel mechanism. BMP7 promoted the dissolution and internalization of cell-surface HA into cytoplasmic endosomes. Endosomal HA co-localized with the HA-degrading enzymes, hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal2). Moreover, BMP7 showed differential regulation of CD44 standard and variant isoform expression, when compared with TGF-β1. In particular, BMP7 increased membrane expression of CD44v7/8. Inhibiting CD44v7/8 as well as blocking Hyal2 and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 at the cell-surface prevented BMP7-driven HA internalization and BMP7-mediated prevention/reversal of myofibroblast phenotype. In summary, a novel mechanism of TGF-β1 antagonism by BMP7 is shown and identifies alteration in HA as critical in mediating BMP7 responses. In addition, we identify Hyal2 and CD44v7/8 as new potential targets for manipulation in prevention and reversal of fibrotic pathology. PMID:25716319

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 in patients with idiopathic portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    De Gottardi, Andrea; Seijo, Susana; Milá, Montserrat; Alvarez, M Isabel; Bruguera, Miquel; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosch, Jaime; García-Pagán, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) typical vascular lesions are present in the branches of the portal vein or in the perisinusoidal area of the liver. Similar histological alterations have been reported in the pulmonary vasculature of patients with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH). As IPAH is associated with mutations of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene, the aim of this study was to investigate whether this association might also be found in patients with IPH. Twenty-three samples belonging to 21 unrelated caucasian patients with IPH followed in the hepatic haemodynamic laboratory of the Hospital Clinic in Barcelona were included in the study. All patients were studied for the entire open reading frame and splice site of the BMPR2 gene by direct sequencing and multiple ligation probe amplification (MLPA) in order to detect large deletions/duplications. None of the 23 patients had pulmonary artery hypertension. Four patients presented one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 5, four patients had a SNP in exon 12 and a SNP in exon 1 was found in two cases. Two patients had both intron 5 and exon 12 polymorphisms. All SNPs were previously described. Except for these three SNPs, neither mutations nor rearrangements have been identified in the BMPR2 gene in this population. We did not detect mutations or rearrangements in the coding region of the BMPR2 gene in our patients with IPH. These findings suggest that, in contrast to IPAH, mutations in BMPR2 are not involved in the pathogenesis of IPH. PMID:22129439

  1. TNF-Alpha Represses Transcription of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nian-Ling; Li, Changgong; Huang, Hao Hao; Sebald, Matthew; Londhe, Vedang A.; Heisterkamp, Nora; Warburton, David; Bellusci, Saverio; Minoo, Parviz

    2007-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins are key signaling molecules in vertebrate development. Little is known about Bmp gene regulation in any organ. In Drosophila, the Bmp gene, dpp is regulated by Dorsal, the invertebrate homologue of Rel-NFkB. In this study we examined whether TNF-alpha, which activates NF-kB, can regulate Bmp4 gene expression. TNF-alpha reduced Bmp4 mRNA in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and repressed transcriptional activity of the human Bmp4 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Similar repression was observed when the Bmp4 promoter was co-transfected with a p65 (RelA) expression vector in the absence of TNF-alpha treatment, suggesting that RelA mediates the effect of TNF-alpha. In support of this finding, the repressor effect of TNF-alpha on Bmp4 was abrogated by a co-transfected dominant negative mutant of IkB (S32A/S36A). The human Bmp4 promoter contains 3 putative consensus binding sites for NF-kB. Surprisingly, only one of the latter binding sites was capable of binding NFkB. Repressor effect of NFkB was not dependent on any of the three binding sites, but localized to a 122 bp fragment which bound both RelA and SP1. SP1stimulated transcription, whereas increasing doses of RelA opposed this effect. In vivo, TNF-alpha inhibited branching morphogenesis and LacZ gene expression in Bmp4-lacz transgenic lungs. These data support a model in which TNF-alpha-induced RelA interacts with SP1 to bring about transcriptional repression of Bmp4 gene. These findings provide a mechanistic paradigm for interactions between mediators of inflammation and morphogenesis with relevant implications for normal lung development and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:17350185

  2. Hyaluronan Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7-dependent Prevention and Reversal of Myofibroblast Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Adam C.; Duggal, Lucy; Jenkins, Robert; Hascall, Vincent; Steadman, Robert; Phillips, Aled O.; Meran, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) promotes transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-driven myofibroblast phenotype. However, HA can also have disease-limiting activity. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is an antifibrotic cytokine that antagonizes TGF-β1, and isolated studies have demonstrated that HA can both mediate and modulate BMP7 responses. In this study, we investigated whether BMP7 can modulate HA in a manner that leads to prevention/reversal of TGF-β1-driven myofibroblast differentiation in human lung fibroblasts. Results demonstrated that BMP7 prevented and reversed TGF-β1-driven myofibroblast differentiation through a novel mechanism. BMP7 promoted the dissolution and internalization of cell-surface HA into cytoplasmic endosomes. Endosomal HA co-localized with the HA-degrading enzymes, hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal2). Moreover, BMP7 showed differential regulation of CD44 standard and variant isoform expression, when compared with TGF-β1. In particular, BMP7 increased membrane expression of CD44v7/8. Inhibiting CD44v7/8 as well as blocking Hyal2 and the Na+/H+ exchanger-1 at the cell-surface prevented BMP7-driven HA internalization and BMP7-mediated prevention/reversal of myofibroblast phenotype. In summary, a novel mechanism of TGF-β1 antagonism by BMP7 is shown and identifies alteration in HA as critical in mediating BMP7 responses. In addition, we identify Hyal2 and CD44v7/8 as new potential targets for manipulation in prevention and reversal of fibrotic pathology. PMID:25716319

  3. Traffic jams in fish bones

    PubMed Central

    Melville, David B

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, morphogens and membrane receptors are synthesized in the ER and transported through the Golgi complex to the cell surface and the extracellular space. The first leg in this journey from the ER to Golgi is facilitated by the coat protein II (COPII) vesicular carriers. Genetic defects in genes encoding various COPII components cause a broad spectrum of human diseases, from anemia to skeletal deformities. Here, we summarize our findings in zebrafish and discuss how mutations in COPII elements may cause specific cellular and developmental defects. PMID:21178403

  4. Self-construction of supramolecular polyrotaxane films by an electrotriggered morphogen-driven process.

    PubMed

    Rydzek, Gaulthier; Garnier, Tony; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Senger, Bernard; Frisch, Benoît; Haikel, Youssef; Petit, Corinne; Schlatter, Guy; Jierry, Loïc; Boulmedais, Fouzia

    2013-08-27

    The design of films using a one-pot process has recently attracted increasing interest in the field of polymer thin film formation. Herein we describe the preparation of one-pot supramolecular polyrotaxane (PRX) films using the morphogen-driven self-construction process. This one-pot buildup strategy where the film growth is triggered by the electrochemical formation and diffusion of a catalyst in close vicinity of the substrate has recently been introduced by our group. A one-pot mixture was used that contained (i) poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) functionalized by azide groups grafted on the polymer chain through oligo(ethylene glycol) (EG) arms, leading to PAA-EG13-N3, (ii) cyclodextrins (α and β CD), as macrocycles that can be threaded along EG arms, (iii) alkyne-functionalized stoppers (ferrocene or adamantane), to cap the PRX assembly by click chemistry, and (iv) copper sulfate. The one-pot mixture solution was brought into contact with a gold electrode. Cu(I), the morphogen, was generated electrochemically from Cu(II) at the electrode/one-pot solution interface. This electrotriggered click reaction leads to the capping of polypseudorotaxane yielding to PRXs. The PRXs can self-assemble through lateral supramolecular interactions to form aggregates and ensure the cohesion of the film. The film buildup was investigated using different types of CD and alkyne functionalized stoppers. Supramolecular PRX aggregates were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements. The film topographies were imaged by atomic force microscopy. The influence of the concentration in CD and the presence of a competitor were studied as well. The stability of the resulting film was tested in contact with 8 M urea and during the electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene. PMID:23895332

  5. 5-Azacytidine-induced Protein 2 (AZI2) Regulates Bone Mass by Fine-tuning Osteoclast Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kenta; Fukasaka, Masahiro; Uematsu, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kondo, Takeshi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Martino, Mikaël M.; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    5-Azacytidine-induced protein 2 (AZI2) is a TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated factor family member-associated NF-κB activator-binding kinase 1-binding protein that regulates the production of IFNs. A previous in vitro study showed that AZI2 is involved in dendritic cell differentiation. However, the roles of AZI2 in immunity and its pleiotropic functions are unknown in vivo. Here we report that AZI2 knock-out mice exhibit normal dendritic cell differentiation in vivo. However, we found that adult AZI2 knock-out mice have severe osteoporosis due to increased osteoclast longevity. We revealed that the higher longevity of AZI2-deficient osteoclasts is due to an augmented activation of proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src), which is a critical player in osteoclast survival. We found that AZI2 inhibits c-Src activity by regulating the activation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone involved in c-Src dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AZI2 indirectly inhibits c-Src by interacting with the Hsp90 co-chaperone Cdc37. Strikingly, administration of a c-Src inhibitor markedly prevented bone loss in AZI2 knock-out mice. Together, these findings indicate that AZI2 regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast survival. PMID:25691576

  6. 5-Azacytidine-induced protein 2 (AZI2) regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast survival.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kenta; Fukasaka, Masahiro; Uematsu, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kondo, Takeshi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Martino, Mikaël M; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-04-10

    5-Azacytidine-induced protein 2 (AZI2) is a TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated factor family member-associated NF-κB activator-binding kinase 1-binding protein that regulates the production of IFNs. A previous in vitro study showed that AZI2 is involved in dendritic cell differentiation. However, the roles of AZI2 in immunity and its pleiotropic functions are unknown in vivo. Here we report that AZI2 knock-out mice exhibit normal dendritic cell differentiation in vivo. However, we found that adult AZI2 knock-out mice have severe osteoporosis due to increased osteoclast longevity. We revealed that the higher longevity of AZI2-deficient osteoclasts is due to an augmented activation of proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src), which is a critical player in osteoclast survival. We found that AZI2 inhibits c-Src activity by regulating the activation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone involved in c-Src dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AZI2 indirectly inhibits c-Src by interacting with the Hsp90 co-chaperone Cdc37. Strikingly, administration of a c-Src inhibitor markedly prevented bone loss in AZI2 knock-out mice. Together, these findings indicate that AZI2 regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast survival. PMID:25691576

  7. Mandibular defect reconstruction using three-dimensional polycaprolactone scaffold in combination with platelet-rich plasma and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: de novo synthesis of bone in a single case.

    PubMed

    Schuckert, Karl-Heinz; Jopp, Stefan; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2009-03-01

    This publication describes the clinical case of a 71-year-old female patient. Using polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), a critical-sized defect in the anterior mandible was regenerated using de novo-grown bone. A bacterial infection had caused a periimplantitis in two dental implants leading to a large destruction in the anterior mandible. Both implants were removed under antibiotic prophylaxis. A PCL scaffold was prepared especially for this clinical case. In a second procedure with antibiotic prophylaxis, the bony defect was reopened. The PCL scaffold was fitted and charged with PRP and rhBMP-2 (1.2 mg). After complication-free wound healing, the radiological control demonstrated de novo-grown bone in the anterior mandible 6 months postoperatively. Dental implants were inserted in a third operation. A bone biopsy of the newly grown bone, as well as of the bordering local bone, was taken and histologically examined. The bone samples were identical and presented vital laminar bone. PMID:18767969

  8. Acute-phase protein serum amyloid A3 is a novel paracrine coupling factor that controls bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Roman; Sturmlechner, Ines; Spitzer, Silvia; Riester, Scott M.; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Klaushofer, Klaus; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Varga, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (A-SAA/Saa3) was shown before to affect osteoblastic metabolism. Here, using RT-quantitative PCR and/or immunoblotting, we show that expression of mouse Saa3 and human SAA1 and SAA2 positively correlates with increased cellular maturation toward the osteocyte phenotype. Expression is not detected in C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts but is successively higher in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, late osteoblastic MLO-A5 cells, and MLO-Y4 osteocytes, consistent with findings using primary bone cells from newborn mouse calvaria. Recombinant Saa3 protein functionally inhibits osteoblast differentiation as reflected by reductions in the expression of osteoblast markers and decreased mineralization in newborn mouse calvaria. Yet, Saa3 protein enhances osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophages/monocytes based on the number of multinucleated and tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase-positive cells and Calcr mRNA expression. Depletion of Saa3 in MLO osteocytes results in the loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype. Recombinant osteocalcin, which is reciprocally regulated with Saa3 at the osteoblast/osteocyte transition, attenuates Saa3 expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Mechanistically, Saa3 produced by MLO-Y4 osteocytes is integrated into the extracellular matrix of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, where it associates with the P2 purinergic receptor P2rx7 to stimulate Mmp13 expression via the P2rx7/MAPK/ERK/activator protein 1 axis. Our data suggest that Saa3 may function as an important coupling factor in bone development and homeostasis.—Thaler, R., Sturmlechner, I., Spitzer, S., Riester, S. M., Rumpler, M., Zwerina, J., Klaushofer, K., van Wijnen, A. J., Varga, F. Acute-phase protein serum amyloid A3 is a novel paracrine coupling factor that controls bone homeostasis. PMID:25491310

  9. The Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Robert W; Molinari, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective There is a paucity of literature describing the use of bone graft substitutes to achieve fusion in the pediatric cervical spine. The outcomes and complications involving the off-label use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in the pediatric cervical spine are not clearly defined. The purpose of this article is to report successful fusion without complications in two pediatric patients who had instrumented occipitocervical fusion using low-dose BMP-2. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the patients were followed for 5 years. Two patients under 10 years of age with upper cervical instability were treated with occipitocervical instrumented fusion using rigid occipitocervical fixation techniques along with conventionally available low-dose BMP-2. A Medline and PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms "bone morphogenetic protein," "BMP," "rh-BMP2," "bone graft substitutes," and "pediatric cervical spine." Results Solid occipitocervical fusion was achieved in both pediatric patients. There were no reported perioperative or follow-up complications. At 5-year follow-up, radiographs in both patients showed successful occipital cervical fusion without evidence of instrumentation failure or changes in the occipitocervical alignment. To date, there are few published reports on this topic. Complications and the appropriate dosage application in the pediatric posterior cervical spine remain unknown. Conclusions We describe two pediatric patients with upper cervical instability who achieved successful occipital cervical fusion without complication using off-label BMP-2. This report underscores the potential for BMP-2 to achieve successful arthrodesis of the posterior occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients. Use should be judicious as complications and long-term outcomes of pediatric BMP-2 use remain undefined in the existing literature. PMID:26835215

  10. A synthetic compound that potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced transdifferentiation of myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoshi; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Tomita, Katsuro; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2011-03-01

    There is an urgent need to develop methods that lower costs of using recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to promote bone induction. In this study, we demonstrate the osteogenic effect of a low-molecular weight compound, SVAK-12, that potentiated the effects of BMP-2 in inducing transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype. Here, we report a specific compound, SVAK-12, which was selected based on in silico screenings of small-molecule databases using the homology modeled interaction motif of Smurf1-WW2 domain. The enhancement of BMP-2 activity by SVAK-12 was characterized by evaluating a BMP-specific reporter activity and by monitoring the BMP-2-induced expression of mRNA for osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which are widely accepted marker genes of osteoblast differentiation. Finally, we confirmed these results by also measuring the enhancement of BMP-2-induced activity of ALP. Smurf1 is an E3 ligase that targets osteogenic Smads for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Smurf1 is an interesting potential target to enhance bone formation based on the positive effects on bone of proteins that block Smurf1-binding to Smad targets or in Smurf1-/- knockout mice. Since Smads bind Smurf1 via its WW2 domain, we performed in silico screening to identify compounds that might interact with the Smurf1-WW2 domain. We recently reported the activity of a compound, SVAK-3. However, SVAK-3, while exhibiting BMP-potentiating activity, was not stable and thus warranted a new search for a more stable and efficacious compound among a selected group of candidates. In addition to being more stable, SVAK-12 exhibited a dose-dependent activity in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of myoblastic C2C12 cells even when multiple markers of the osteoblastic phenotype were parallelly monitored. PMID:21110071

  11. Environmental pH-controlled loading and release of protein on mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Tianlin; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zongliang; Zhang, Peibiao; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the controlled delivery of protein drugs in micro-environment established by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, the loading/release properties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) depending on pH environment were assessed. The adsorption amounts over mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) or hydroxyapatite (HA) decreased as the pH increased, negatively correlating with zeta-potential values. The adsorption behavior over MHA fits well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models at different pHs. The results suggest that the adsorbed amount of protein on MHA or HA depended on the pH of protein solution. MHA adsorbed BSA at basic pH (MHApH 8.4) exhibited a different release kinetics compared with those in acid and neutral environments (MHApH 4.7 and MHApH 7.4), indicating that the release of protein could be regulated by environmental pH at which MHAs adsorb protein. MHApH 8.4 showed a sustained release for 6h before a gradual release when immersing in acidic environment, which is 2h longer than that in neutral environment. This suggests that MHApH 8.4 showed a more sustained release in acidic environment, which can be established by osteoclasts. The variation of adsorption strength between protein and MHA may be responsible for these behaviors. Our findings may be very useful for the development of MHA applications on both bone repair and protein delivery. PMID:25491972

  12. Outcomes for Single-Level Lumbar Fusion: The Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Kevin S.; Chi, John H.; Groff, Michael W.; McGuire, Kevin; Afendulis, Christopher C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of a population-based insurance claims dataset. Objective To determine the risk of repeat fusion and total costs associated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) use in single-level lumbar fusion for degenerative spinal disease. Summary of Background Data The use of BMP has been proposed to reduce overall costs of spinal fusion through prevention of repeat fusion procedures. Although radiographic fusion rates associated with BMP use have been examined in clinical trials, little data exists regarding outcomes associated with BMP use in the general population. Methods Using the MarketScan© claims dataset, 15,862 patients that underwent single-level lumbar fusion from 2003 to 2007 for degenerative disease were identified. Propensity scores were used to match 2,372 patients that underwent fusion with BMP to patients that underwent fusion without BMP. Logistic regression models, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of repeat fusion, length of stay, and 30-day readmission by BMP use. Cost comparisons were evaluated with linear regression models using logarithmic transformed data. Results At one year from surgery, BMP was associated with a 1.1% absolute decrease in the risk of repeat fusion (2.3% with BMP vs 3.4% without BMP, p=.03) and an odds ratio for repeat fusion of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.47-0.94) after multivariate adjustment. BMP was also associated with a decreased hazards for long-term repeat fusion (adjusted hazards ratio =0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.93). Cost analysis indicated that BMP was associated with initial increased costs for the surgical procedure (13.9% adjusted increase, 95% confidence interval 9.9%-17.9%) as well as total one year costs (10.1% adjusted increase, 95% confidence interval 6.2%-14.0%). Conclusions At one year, BMP use was associated with a decreased risk of repeat fusion but also increased healthcare costs. PMID:21311404

  13. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Effectively Induces Osteo/Odontoblastic Differentiation of the Reversibly Immortalized Stem Cells of Dental Apical Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Wenwen; Huang, Enyi; Wang, Ning; Wu, Ningning; Wen, Sheng; Chen, Xian; Liao, Zhan; Deng, Fang; Yin, Liangjun; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.

    2014-01-01

    Dental pulp/dentin regeneration using dental stem cells combined with odontogenic factors may offer great promise to treat and/or prevent premature tooth loss. We previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is one of the most potent factors in inducing bone formation. Here, we investigate whether BMP9 can effectively induce odontogenic differentiation of the stem cells from mouse apical papilla (SCAPs). Using a reversible immortalization system expressing SV40 T flanked with Cre/loxP sites, we demonstrate that the SCAPs can be immortalized, resulting in immortalized SCAPs (iSCAPs) that express mesenchymal stem cell markers. BMP9 upregulates Runx2, Sox9, and PPARγ2 and odontoblastic markers, and induces alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization in the iSCAPs. Cre-mediated removal of SV40 T antigen decreases iSCAP proliferation. The in vivo stem cell implantation studies indicate that iSCAPs can differentiate into bone, cartilage, and, to lesser extent, adipocytes upon BMP9 stimulation. Our results demonstrate that the conditionally iSCAPs not only maintain long-term cell proliferation but also retain the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteo/odontoblastic differentiation. Thus, the reversibly iSCAPs may serve as an important tool to study SCAP biology and SCAP translational use in tooth engineering. Further, BMP9 may be explored as a novel and efficacious factor for odontogenic regeneration. PMID:24517722

  14. The impact of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) on breast cancer metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Ampuja, M; Alarmo, E L; Owens, P; Havunen, R; Gorska, A E; Moses, H L; Kallioniemi, A

    2016-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a key regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. In breast cancer cells, BMP4 has been shown to reduce proliferation in vitro and interestingly, in some cases, also to induce migration and invasion. Here we investigated whether BMP4 influences breast cancer metastasis formation by using a xenograft mouse model. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were injected intracardially into mice and metastasis formation was monitored using bioluminescence imaging. Mice treated with BMP4 developed metastases slightly earlier as compared to control animals but the overall number of metastases was similar in both groups (13 in the BMP4 group vs. 12 in controls). In BMP4-treated mice, bone metastases were more common (10 vs. 7) but adrenal gland metastases were less frequent (1 vs. 5) than in controls. Immunostaining revealed no differences in signaling activation, proliferation rate, blood vessel formation, EMT markers or the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts between the treatment groups. In conclusion, BMP4 caused a trend towards accelerated metastasis formation, especially in bone. More work is needed to uncover the long-term effects of BMP4 and the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:26970275

  15. The influence of stereolithographic scaffold architecture and composition on osteogenic signal expression with rat bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyobum; Dean, David; Wallace, Jonathan; Breithaupt, Rob; Mikos, Antonios G.; Fisher, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Scaffold design parameters, especially physical construction factors such as mechanical stiffness of substrate materials, pore size of 3D porous scaffolds, and channel geometry, are known to influence the osteogenic signal expression and subsequent differentiation of a transplanted cell population. In this study of photocrosslinked poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) scaffolds, the effect of DEF incorporation ratio and pore size on the osteogenic signal expression of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was investigated. Results demonstrated that DEF concentrations and pore sizes that led to increased scaffold mechanical stiffness also upregulated osteogenic signal expression, including bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Runx2 transcriptional factor. Similar scaffold fabrication parameters supported rapid BMSC osteoblastic differentiation, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin expression. When scaffolds with random architecture, fabricated by porogen leaching, were compared to those with controlled architecture, fabricated by stereolithography (SLA), results showed that SLA scaffolds with the highly permeable and porous channels also have significantly higher expression of FGF-2, TGF-β1, and VEGF. Subsequent ALP expression and osteopontin secretion were also significantly increased in SLA scaffolds. Based upon these results, we conclude that scaffold properties provided by additive manufacturing techniques such as SLA fabrication, particularly increased mechanical stiffness and high permeability, may stimulate dramatic BMSC responses that promote rapid bone tissue regeneration. PMID:21396709

  16. Modeling digits. Digit patterning is controlled by a Bmp-Sox9-Wnt Turing network modulated by morphogen gradients.

    PubMed

    Raspopovic, J; Marcon, L; Russo, L; Sharpe, J

    2014-08-01

    During limb development, digits emerge from the undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue that constitutes the limb bud. It has been proposed that this process is controlled by a self-organizing Turing mechanism, whereby diffusible molecules interact to produce a periodic pattern of digital and interdigital fates. However, the identities of the molecules remain unknown. By combining experiments and modeling, we reveal evidence that a Turing network implemented by Bmp, Sox9, and Wnt drives digit specification. We develop a realistic two-dimensional simulation of digit patterning and show that this network, when modulated by morphogen gradients, recapitulates the expression patterns of Sox9 in the wild type and in perturbation experiments. Our systems biology approach reveals how a combination of growth, morphogen gradients, and a self-organizing Turing network can achieve robust and reproducible pattern formation. PMID:25082703

  17. Conditional Deletion of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain-Containing Protein 2 (Phd2) Gene Reveals Its Essential Role in Chondrocyte Function and Endochondral Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaohong; Xing, Weirong; Pourteymoor, Sheila; Schulte, Jan; Mohan, Subburaman

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic growth plate cartilage requires hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated pathways to maintain chondrocyte survival and differentiation. HIF proteins are tightly regulated by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (Phd2)-mediated proteosomal degradation. We conditionally disrupted the Phd2 gene in chondrocytes by crossing Phd2 floxed mice with type 2 collagen-α1-Cre transgenic mice and found massive increases (>50%) in the trabecular bone mass of long bones and lumbar vertebra of the Phd2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice caused by significant increases in trabecular number and thickness and reductions in trabecular separation. Cortical thickness and tissue mineral density at the femoral middiaphysis of the cKO mice were also significantly increased. Dynamic histomorphometric analyses revealed increased longitudinal length and osteoid surface per bone surface in the primary spongiosa of the cKO mice, suggesting elevated conversion rate from hypertrophic chondrocytes to mineralized bone matrix as well as increased bone formation in the primary spongiosa. In the secondary spongiosa, bone formation measured by mineralizing surface per bone surface and mineral apposition rate were not changed, but resorption was slightly reduced. Increases in the mRNA levels of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9, osterix (Osx), type 2 collagen, aggrecan, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, and glycolytic enzymes in the growth plate of cKO mice were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increased HIF-1α protein level in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of cKO mice. Infection of chondrocytes isolated from Phd2 floxed mice with adenoviral Cre resulted in similar gene expression patterns as observed in the cKO growth plate chondrocytes. Our findings indicate that Phd2 suppresses endochondral bone formation, in part, via HIF-dependent mechanisms in mice. PMID:26562260

  18. Influence of low-level laser associated with osteogenic proteins recombinant human BMP-2 and Hevea brasiliensis on bone repair in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; de Queiróz Tavares, Mirella Lemos; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Stuani, Maria Bernadete Sasso; Mishima, Fabíola; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Sebald, Walter

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzed the newly formed bone tissue after application of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and P-1 (extracted from Hevea brasiliensis) proteins, 2 weeks after the creation of a critical bone defect in male Wistar rats treated or not with a low-intensity laser (GaAlAs 780 nm, 60 mW of power, and energy density dose of 30 J/cm(2)). The animals were divided into two major groups: (1) bone defect plus low-intensity laser treatment and (2) bone defect without laser irradiation. The following subgroups were also analyzed: (a) 5 μg of pure rhBMP-2; (b) 5 μg of pure P-1 fraction; (c) 5 μg of rhBMP-2/monoolein gel; (d) 5 μg of P-1 fraction/monoolein gel; (e) pure monoolein gel. Comparisons of the groups receiving laser treatment with those that did not receive laser irradiation show differences in the areas of new bone tissue. The group treated with 5 μg of rhBMP-2 and laser irradiation was not significantly different (P >0.05) than the nonirradiated group that received the same treatment. The irradiated, rhBMP-2/monoolein gel treatment group showed a lower area of bone formation than the nonirradiated, rhBMP-2/gel monoolein treatment group (P < 0.001). The area of new bone tissue in the other nonirradiated and irradiated groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the group that received the 5 μg of rhBMP-2 application showed the greatest bone formation. We conclude that the laser treatment did not interfere with the area of new bone tissue growth and that the greatest stimulus for bone formation involved application of the rhBMP-2 protein. PMID:21761492

  19. Computer modelling integrated with micro-CT and material testing provides additional insight to evaluate bone treatments: Application to a beta-glycan derived whey protein mice model.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, D; Tu, P T; Dickinson, M; Watson, M; Blais, A; Das, R; Cornish, J; Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a whey protein diet on computationally predicted mechanical strength of murine bones in both trabecular and cortical regions of the femur. There was no significant influence on mechanical strength in cortical bone observed with increasing whey protein treatment, consistent with cortical tissue mineral density (TMD) and bone volume changes observed. Trabecular bone showed a significant decline in strength with increasing whey protein treatment when nanoindentation derived Young׳s moduli were used in the model. When microindentation, micro-CT phantom density or normalised Young׳s moduli were included in the model a non-significant decline in strength was exhibited. These results for trabecular bone were consistent with both trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-CT indices obtained independently. The secondary aim of this study was to characterise the influence of different sources of Young׳s moduli on computational prediction. This study aimed to quantify the predicted mechanical strength in 3D from these sources and evaluate if trends and conclusions remained consistent. For cortical bone, predicted mechanical strength behaviour was consistent across all sources of Young׳s moduli. There was no difference in treatment trend observed when Young׳s moduli were normalised. In contrast, trabecular strength due to whey protein treatment significantly reduced when material properties from nanoindentation were introduced. Other material property sources were not significant but emphasised the strength trend over normalised material properties. This shows strength at the trabecular level was attributed to both changes in bone architecture and material properties. PMID:26599826

  20. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared