Science.gov

Sample records for boreholes direct disposal

  1. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  2. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  3. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  4. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jiann -Cherng; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  5. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  6. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  7. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  8. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  9. Long-Term Safe Storage and Disposal of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Borehole Type Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Sobolev, I. A.

    2003-02-26

    Russian Federation has the leading experience in applying borehole storage/disposal method for SRS. A new immobilization technology for sources being disposed of in underground repositories was mastered by 1986 and since then it is used in the country. This method uses all advantages of borehole type repositories supplementing them with metal encapsulation of sources. Sources being uniformly allocated in the volume of underground vessel are fixed in the metal block hence ensuring long-term safety. The dissipation of radiogenic heat from SRS is considerably improved, radiation fields are reduced, and direct contact of sources to an environment is completely eliminated. The capacity of a typical borehole storage/disposal facility is increased almost 6 times applying metal immobilization. That has made new technology extremely favourable economically. The metal immobilization of SRS is considered as an option in Belarus and Ukraine as well as Bulgaria. Immobilization of sources in metal matrices can be a real solution for retrieval of SRS from inadequate repositories.

  10. Ceramic Borehole Seals for Nuclear Waste Disposal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, B.; Coates, K.; Wohletz, K.; Dunn, S.; Patera, E.; Duguid, A.; Arnold, B.; Zyvoloski, G.; Groven, L.; Kuramyssova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Sealing plugs are critical features of the deep borehole system design. They serve as structural platforms to bear the weight of the backfill column, and as seals through their low fluid permeability and bond to the borehole or casing wall. High hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures, high mineral content water, and elevated temperature due to the waste packages and geothermal gradient challenge the long term performance of seal materials. Deep borehole nuclear waste disposal faces the added requirement of assuring performance for thousands of years in large boreholes, requiring very long term chemical and physical stability. A high performance plug system is being developed which capitalizes on the energy of solid phase reactions to form a ceramic plug in-situ. Thermites are a family of self-oxidized metal/oxide reactions with very high energy content and the ability to react under water. When combined with engineered additives the product exhibits attractive structural, sealing, and corrosion properties. In the initial phase of this research, exploratory and scaled tests demonstrated formulations that achieved controlled, fine grained, homogeneous, net shape plugs composed predominantly of ceramic material. Laboratory experiments produced plug cores with confined fluid permeability as low as 100 mDarcy, compressive strength as high as 70 MPa (three times the strength of conventional well cement), with the inherent corrosion resistance and service temperature of ceramic matrices. Numerical thermal and thermal/structural analyses predicted the in-situ thermal performance of the reacted plugs, showing that they cooled to ambient temperature (and design strength) within 24 to 48 hours. The current development effort is refining the reactant formulations to achieve desired performance characteristics, developing the system design and emplacement processes to be compatible with conventional well service practices, and understanding the thermal, fluid, and structural

  11. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  12. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  13. High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; McTaggart, N. A.; Travis, K. P.; Burley, D.; Hesketh, K. W.

    2008-03-01

    Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like 129I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock.

  14. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  15. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  16. Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

  17. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  18. Disposal of disused sealed radiation sources in Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Vicente, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper gives a description of the concept of a geological repository for disposal of disused sealed radiation sources (DSRS) under development in the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), in Brazil. DSRS represent a significant fraction of total activity of radioactive wastes to be managed. Most DSRS are collected and temporarily stored at IPEN. As of 2006, the total collected activity is 800 TBq in 7,508 industrial gauge or radiotherapy sources, 7.2 TBq in about 72,000 Americium-241 sources detached from lightning rods, and about 0,5 GBq in 20,857 sources from smoke detectors. The estimated inventory of sealed sources in the country is 2.7 hundred thousand sources with 26 PBq. The proposed repository is designed to receive the total inventory of sealed sources. A description of the pre-disposal facilities at IPEN is also presented. (authors)

  19. Justification Of The Use Of Boreholes For Disposal Of Sealed Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, John; Johnson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Soon there will be only 14 states in two compacts that are able to dispose of Low Level Waste (LLW): the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compact with disposal options in Richland, Washington, and the Atlantic compact with disposal options in Barnwell, South Carolina. How do states not in one of the two compacts dispose of their LLW? The Off-Site Source Recovery Project can take possession and dispose of some of the unwanted transuranic sources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, there will be no path forward for states outside of the two compacts for disposal of their non-transuranic LLW. A solution that has been much discussed, debated and researched, but has not been put into wide scale practice, is the borehole disposal concept. It is the author's position that companies that drill and explore for oil have been disposing of sources in borehole-like structures for years. It should be noted that these companies are not purposely disposing of these sources, but the sources are irretrievable and must be abandoned. Additionally, there are Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that must be followed to seal the well that contains the lost and abandoned source. According to the NRC Event Notification Reports database, there were a minimum of 29 reports of lost and abandoned sources in oil wells between December 1999 and October 2006. The sources were lost at depths between 2,018-18,887 feet, or 600-5,750 meters. The companies that are performing explorations with the aid of sealed radiological sources must follow regulation 10 CFR Part 39. Subsection 15 outlines the procedures that must be followed if sources are determined to be irretrievable and abandoned in place. If the NRC allows and has regulations in place for oil companies, why can't states and/or companies be allowed to dispose of LLW in a similar fashion?

  20. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  1. Thermal-Hydrology Simulations of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Single Deep Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgu, Teklu; Stein, Emily; Hardin, Ernest; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Hammond, Glenn Edward

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of thermal-hydrology were carried out for the emplacement of spent nuclear fuel canisters and cesium and strontium capsules using the PFLOTRAN simulator. For the cesium and strontium capsules the analysis looked at disposal options such as different disposal configurations and surface aging of waste to reduce thermal effects. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the borehole. Simulation results include temperature and vertical flux profiles around the borehole at selected depths. Of particular importance are peak temperature increases, and fluxes at the top of the disposal zone. Simulations of cesium and strontium capsule disposal predict that surface aging and/or emplacement of the waste at the top of the disposal zone reduces thermal effects and vertical fluid fluxes. Smaller waste canisters emplaced over a longer disposal zone create the smallest thermal effect and vertical fluid fluxes no matter the age of the waste or depth of emplacement.

  2. Development of a borehole directional antenna at VHF

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Scott, L.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a directional VHF (30 MH/sub z/ to 300 MH/sub z/) antenna to physically fit into a small borehole is investigated. The study was carried out in a test chamber containing a 15 cm diameter borehole surrounded by sand which can be moistened with water or brine to adjust the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. Electric field measurements were made for an eccentrically positioned monopole, a corner reflector and a two-element array for a number of possible configurations. Using an eccentric monopole, the best beamwidth obtained was 78/sup 0/ and the front-to-back ratio was 3.5 db. The front-to-back ratio was increased to 8.5 db when two element arrays were arranged in such a way as to provide the optimum radiation pattern. However, the best results were achieved using a corner reflector: 60/sup 0/ beamwidth and 13 db front-to-back ratio. It is concluded that a directional VHF antenna can be designed for downhole application.

  3. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J., II

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  4. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  5. Volume reduction of spent fuel elements for direct disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserfuhr, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    The method of direct disposal of spent fuel elements provides the placing of fuel and non-fuel elements into the POLLUX final disposal casks. It is, however, necessary to disassemble the fuel elements into fuel rods and structural parts. While the fuel rods are condensed, the remaining structure is treated further with a 500-t skeleton press to minimize the volume.

  6. Basalt-flow imaging using a high-resolution directional borehole radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, C.W.; Wright, D.L.; Hutton, S.R.; Smith, D.V.G.; Abraham, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-resolution directional borehole radar-logging tool (DBOR tool) was used to log three wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The radar system uses identical directional cavity-backed monopole transmitting and receiving antennas that can be mechanically rotated while the tool is stationary or moving slowly in a borehole. Faster reconnaissance logging with no antenna rotation was also done to find zones of interest. The microprocessor-controlled motor/encoder in the tool can rotate the antennas azimuthally, to a commanded angle, accurate to a within few degrees. The three logged wells in the unsaturated zone at the INEEL had been cored with good core recovery through most zones. After coring, PVC casing was installed in the wells. The unsaturated zone consists of layered basalt flows that are interbedded with thin layers of coarse-to-fine grained sediments. Several zones were found that show distinctive signatures consistent with fractures in the basalt. These zones may correspond to suspected preferential flow paths. The DBOR data were compared to core, and other borehole log information to help provide better understanding of hydraulic flow and transport in preferential flow paths in the unsaturated zone basalts at the INEEL.

  7. Present-day stress directions in California determined through borehole breakout analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, V.S.; Suppe, J.

    1988-03-01

    Borehole elongations or breakouts, observed on unprocessed four-arm dipmeter logs, have been used to map in-situ stress directions throughout onshore California. Approximately 130 wells were analyzed for borehole breakouts in California, with 107 giving useful results. The wells are subvertical (most inclinations > 80/sup 0/) and range in depth from 920 to 5760 m, with 90% of the wells being deeper than 1500 m. Breakouts were observed from depths of 100-5600 m. The number of broken out intervals per well range from 3 to 38 with an average of 12. A regionally consistent stress pattern is observed with maximum horizontal compression generally oriented northeast-southwest. Breakout-determined stress directions are consistent with other stress indicators, including stress directions determined from focal mechanisms for earthquakes occurring at depths of 5-15 km. The direction of maximum compression consistently intersects the San Andreas fault at a high angle (80/sup 0/-90/sup 0/) and is approximately perpendicular to axes of young thrust-related anticlines. Heat-flow and seismic observations limit the shear stress on the San Andreas fault to 10-20 MPa, or less. The observed orientation of maximum horizontal compression (nearly perpendicular) to the San Andreas) allows generation of large regional deviatoric stresses of rock-breaking magnitudes (on the order of 100 MPa). Transpressive plate motion is decoupled into a low-stress strike-slip component and a high-stress compressive component. These observations suggest that standard concepts of transpressive wrench tectonics - which envisage drag on a high-friction fault - are wrong. The thrust structures are largely decoupled from the strike-slip fault.

  8. Accurate directional borehole drilling: A case study at Navajo Dam, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kravits, S.J.; Sainato, A.; Finfinger, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The project was conducted at Navajo Dam in northern New Mexico at the request of the Bureau of Reclamation. The trajectory of the demonstration borehole was designed to intercept a 5-ft-radius target at the final or ''punchout'' distance of 885 ft. The elevation of the borehole at this distance was within the target; the borehole punchout coordinates were 8.81 ft southwest of the target. As a result of the demonstrated accuracy, the Bureau of Reclamation has contracted the accurate drilling of boreholes as long as 600 ft from the inside of a short tunnel, to control water seepage in the right abutment. This resulted in a substantial cost savings compared to the original plan of constructing a longer tunnel and drilling 150-ft boreholes.

  9. Field evaluation of active and passive direct uranium borehole logging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.D.; Cosby, M.S.; Stone, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    Thirty test holes were placed in a variety of geologic environments and for wide variations in ore zone grade, thickness, and uranium/radium disequilibrium condition. The ore zones of each test hole were core drilled with >90% core recovery. Core samples were analyzed for a number of trace, minor and major elemental constituents, and for several physical properties. A standard suite of geophysical logs was obtained prior to casing the test holes. Direct uranium logs were then obtained by the PGT, Sandia, IRT, and Century Geophysical sondes. All core and logging results have been written to a computerized data base. The data base was then used to produce various comparison plots and other forms of data evaluation. Calculation of the grade-thickness product for each ore zone and sonde type shows that the logging results are widely dispersed about the values obtained from the core assays. Results for the IRT sonde are systematically lower than core results, the Century sonde severely overestimates the grade-thickness product for very low grade zones, and the PGT sonde exhibits a systematic trend toward underestimating grade-thickness for higher grade (>1000 ppM) ore zones. The Sandia sonde shows no such systematic trends and agrees well with core results at the higher grades (1000 to 2500 ppM range). Neglecting the very large discrepancies observed, for example, with Century's sonde at low grade, or with IRT's sonde when malfunction was suspected, the four direct uranium logging sondes exhibited similar dispersions about the core results.Approximately 50 percent of the time the logging sondes are within +-30% of the core results while about 75% of the time they are within +-50%. A certain amount of this dispersion is due to the unfavorable borehole conditions and to the variety of geologic environments sampled.

  10. Analysis of borehole breakouts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Kemeny, J.; Cook, N. G. W.

    1989-06-10

    Boreholes drilled into rock, which is subjected to stresses that amount to a significant fraction of the strength of the rock, may cause the rock to fail adjacent to the borehole surface. Often this results in the elongation of the cross section of the borehole in the direction of the minimum principal (compressive) stress orthogonal to the borehole axis. Such breakouts are valuable indicators of the direction of the minimum compressive stress orthogonal to the axis of the borehole. Their shapes may provide information about the magnitudes of both the maximum and minimum stresses relative to the strength of the rock. Borehole breakouts also may be impediments to drilling and to in situ measurement techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing. Observations and analyses of borehole breakouts raise three important questions. First, how does the shape of the borehole breakout evolve Second, why are breakout shapes stable despite the very high compressive stress concentrations that they produce Third, how is the shape of the breakout related to the magnitudes of the stresses in the rock In this paper, extensile splitting of rock in unconfined, plane strain compression is assumed to be the process of rock failure adjacent to the circumference of the borehole, by which a breakout forms. To simulate the evolution of a borehole breakout, this process is combined with a numerical boundary element analysis of the stresses around a borehole as its cross section evolves from the originally circular shape to that of a stable breakout.

  11. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep borehole disposal Facility PEIS date input report for immobilized disposal. Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout with canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    Following President Clinton`s Non-Proliferation Initiative, launched in September, 1993, an Interagency Working Group (IWG) was established to conduct a comprehensive review of the options for the disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials from nuclear weapons dismantlement activities in the United States and the former Soviet Union. The IWG review process will consider technical, nonproliferation, environmental budgetary, and economic considerations in the disposal of plutonium. The IWG is co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Security Council. The Department of Energy (DOE) is directly responsible for the management, storage, and disposition of all weapons-usable fissile material. The Department of Energy has been directed to prepare a comprehensive review of long-term options for Surplus Fissile Material (SFM) disposition, taking into account technical, nonproliferation, environmental, budgetary, and economic considerations.

  12. MWD tool for deep, small diameter boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Buytaert, J.P.R.; Duckworth, A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring a drilling parameters while drilling a borehole in an earth formation, wherein the borehole includes a small diameter deep borehole portion and a large diameter upper borehole portion. It includes small diameter drillstring means for drilling the deep borehole portion; sensor means, disposed within the small diameter drillstring means, for measuring a drilling parameter characteristic of the deep portion of the borehole while drilling the deep portion of the borehole and for providing sensor output signals indicative of the measured parameter; an upper drillstring portion extending between the surface of the formation and the small diameter drillstring means, the upper drillstring portion including a large diameter drillstring portion; data transmission means disposed within the large diameter drillstring portion and responsive to the sensor output.

  13. Borehole seismic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Tao

    In many borehole seismic experiments, the velocity of the tube wave is higher than that of the surrounding rock shear wave. This fast tube wave creates a strong conical shear wave in the surrounding rock, similar to the Mach wave in supersonic aviation and the Cherenkov radiation in electrodynamics. Many geophysicists have tried to utilize the conical signal in VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and cross borehole data interpretation, using quasi static approximations to model the borehole effect. Two popular quasi static approximations are: the effective source array method for source borehole modeling and the squeeze strain method for receiver borehole modeling. These quasi static approximations are sensible as they qualitatively conform to Hueygen's principle and the typical wavelength of a VSP or a cross borehole seismic experiment is much larger than the borehole radius. However, they have not been quantitatively benchmarked against other non approximation method such as the frequency wave number method. The frequency wave number method is a rigorous, non approximation method for modeling straight boreholes without lengthwise variation. The boreholes may consist of many coaxial, homogeneous and axially symmetric shells. In this thesis, the results of the quasi static approximations are compared to the results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The comparison demonstrates that both the effective source array method and squeeze strain method gives the correct arrival time. The effective source array method gives incorrect amplitude and waveform for direct arrivals and tube waves due to its arbitrary assumption of the elementary source radiation pattern. The squeeze strain method gives fairly accurate amplitude and waveform for P and S direct arrivals but it fails to match the tube wave results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The omission of tube wave dispersion and amplitude loss by the quasi static approximation methods also

  14. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  15. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  16. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  17. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  18. Directional location of buried objects using three component magnetic borehole data demonstrated for the case of a drillstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, S.; Virgil, C.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main applications of magnetic field measurements in boreholes is the detection of unexploded ordnance or buried utility structures like pipes or tiebacks. Even though the advantage of fully oriented magnetic vector measurements have long been recognised and could significantly reduce costs and risks, the tools used for those purposes typically measure only the total magnetic field, the vertical and horizontal components or gradients thereof. The Göttingen Bohrloch Magnetometer (GBM) uses three fiber optic gyros to record its orientation and thus enables us to compute high quality three component magnetic vector data regardless of borehole orientation. The measurements described in this paper were run in the scientific borehole Cuxhaven Lüdingworth 1/1A, which was drilled as a part of the "Coastal Aquifer Test field" project to study the dynamics of the saltwater/freshwater interface. As the drillstring got stuck during drilling of the first borehole, a second hole was drilled in the immediate vicinity. The drillstring lies at a depth between 80 m and 114 m at a distance of only 2.5 m south-east of the borehole used for the measurements, making it an ideal target to demonstrate the benefits of vector magnetic surveys. Although the theories to calculate magnetic fields of objects with different shapes is well established and do not need to be tested, they almost exclusively include approximations of the geometry. It is not obvious whether these approximations are suited to describe real data, or whether additional effects or refinements have to be considered. We use both a simplified monopole model and a cylinder model to fit the data and are able to determine the position of the drillstring within a statistical error of approximately 10 cm. Additionally, we show that the location of the drillstring could not have been determined by measurements of the total field or its horizontal and vertical component alone and that those methods would require the

  19. Directional location of buried objects using three-component magnetic borehole data demonstrated for the case of a drill string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, S.; Virgil, C.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main applications of magnetic field measurements in boreholes is the detection of unexploded ordnance or buried utility structures like pipes or tiebacks. Even though the advantage of fully oriented magnetic vector measurements have long been recognized and could significantly reduce costs and risks, the tools used for those purposes typically measure only the total magnetic field, the vertical and horizontal components or gradients thereof. The Göttingen Bohrloch Magnetometer uses three fibre optic gyros to record its orientation and thus enables us to compute high-quality three-component magnetic vector data regardless of borehole orientation. The measurements described in this paper were run in the scientific borehole Cuxhaven Lüdingworth 1/1A, which was drilled as a part of the `Coastal Aquifer Test field' project to study the dynamics of the saltwater/freshwater interface. As the drill string got stuck during drilling of the first borehole, a second hole was drilled in the immediate vicinity. The drill string lies at a depth between 80 and 114 m at a distance of only 2.5 m southeast of the borehole used for the measurements, making it an ideal target to demonstrate the benefits of vector magnetic surveys. Although the theories to calculate magnetic fields of objects with different shapes is well established and do not need to be tested, they almost exclusively include approximations of the geometry. It is not obvious whether these approximations are suited to describe real data, or whether additional effects or refinements have to be considered. We use both a simplified monopole model and a cylinder model to fit the data and are able to determine the position of the drill string within a statistical error of approximately 10 cm. Additionally, we show that the location of the drill string could not have been determined by measurements of the total field or its horizontal and vertical component alone and that those methods would require the drilling

  20. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  1. Borehole survey instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, H.E.; Lin, J.W. III; Macha, E.S.; Smither, M.A.

    1984-12-04

    A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member upon a film disposed below the compass member. This arrangement permits the centering post for the compass member to be of minimum diameter consistent with rigidity requirements and permits a high angle compass member to indicate angles of inclination approaching ninety degrees. A multiple light bulb light source is utilized and each light bulb is mounted in a manner which permits a single light bulb to illuminate the entire compass member. A hand-held programming and diagnostic unit is provided which may be momentarily electrically mated with the borehole survey tool to input a programmed timed delay and diagnostically test both the condition of the light bulbs utilized as the illumination source and the state of the batteries within the instrument. This hand-held programmable unit eliminates all the mechanical programming switches and permits the instrument to be completely sealed from the pressure, fluids and contaminants normally found in a well bore.

  2. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project: thermal analysis of spent fuel disposal in vertical emplacement boreholes in a welded tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, C.M.

    1985-11-01

    Two- and three-dimensional heat transfer analyses were conducted to determine temperatures in the vicinity of a waste canister and an emplacement drift. The effect of emplacement of canisters containing spent fuel in vertical boreholes was simulated for the cases of an emplacement drift either fully ventilated or sealed immediately after canister emplacement. PORFLOW and THERM3D respectively solve the two- and three-dimensional forms of the diffusion equation. In the unventilated case, the effect of radiation was approximated by defining an equivalent radiation thermal conductivity. A simple code, TEMP3D, based on the closed form solutions for constant and decaying heat sources, was also used. Calculations indicate that the temperature at the canister borehole wall will peak at about 215{sup 0}C if the drift is ventilated and about 240{sup 0}C if it is unventilated. The peak temperature occurs sooner in the ventilated case; after 3 to 4 yr versus 9 yr. For a point 1 m from the wall of the emplacement borehole, the corresponding peak temperatures are 150{sup 0}C for the ventilated case and 185{sup 0}C for the unventilated case and occur at about 5 and 17 yr. We assumed that the effect of drift ventilation would be to maintain a uniform temperature of 30{sup 0}C at the drift perimeter. If the drift is unventilated the wall rock temperature peaks some 75 to 100 yr after waste emplacement; reaching about 125{sup 0}C at the mid-height of the drift wall. Comparisons between the results of the three-dimensional analyses performed using TEMP3D and THERM3D indicated that the simpler modeling technique provided a good estimate of temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the canister for both the ventilated and unventilated cases. Comparisons of the results of two- and three-dimensional analyses performed using the PORFLOW and THERM3D codes indicated that the two-dimensional approximation is excellent, except in the immediate vicinity of the canister.

  3. Summary of key directives governing permanent disposal in a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, S.C. III

    1993-11-01

    This document was developed in support of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP). It is largely comprised of flow diagrams summarizing the key regulatory requirements which govern permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The key purposes are (1) to provide an easy and effective tool for referencing or cross referencing federal directives (i.e., regulations and orders), (2) to provide a method for examining the requirements in one directive category against the requirements in another, and (3) to list actions that must be taken to ensure directive compliance. The document is categorically broken down into a Transportation section and a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) section to ensure that the interrelationship of the entire disposal system is considered. The Transportation section describes the transportation packaging requirements, testing methods, and safety requirements imposed on fissile material shipments. The MGDS section encompasses technical aspects involved in siting, licensing, waste interaction with the container, container design features, physical characteristics of the surrounding environment, facility design features, barrier systems, safety features, criticality considerations, migration restrictions, implementation guidelines, and so forth. For purposes of illustration, the worst case scenario is outlined. It is important that the approaches and considerations contained in this document be integrated into the efforts of the SF&WMTDP so that every applicable aspect of the regulatory requirements can be evaluated to avoid investing large sums of money into projects that do not take into account all of the aspects of permanent waste disposal. Not until an overall picture and clear understanding of these regulations is established can a basis be developed to govern the direction of future activities of the SF&WMTDP.

  4. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  5. Facts and issues of direct disposal of spent fuel; Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P.B.

    1993-10-01

    This report reviews those facts and issues that affect the direct disposal of spent reactor fuels. It is intended as a resource document for those impacted by the current Department of Energy (DOE) guidance that calls for the cessation of fuel reprocessing. It is not intended as a study of the specific impacts (schedules and costs) to the Savannah River Site (SRS) alone. Commercial fuels, other low enriched fuels, highly enriched defense-production, research, and naval reactor fuels are included in this survey, except as prevented by rules on classification.

  6. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  7. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  8. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  9. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  10. Direct electron transfer type disposable sensor strip for glucose sensing employing an engineered FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yuki; Ferri, Stefano; Huynh, Mai Linh; Shimizu, Hitomi; Yamaoka, Hideaki; Sode, Koji

    2013-02-01

    The FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) from Burkholderia cepacia has several attractive features for glucose sensing. However, expanding the application of this enzyme requires improvement of its substrate specificity, especially decreasing its high activity toward maltose. A three-dimensional structural model of the FADGDH catalytic subunit was generated by homology modeling. By comparing the predicted active site with that of glucose oxidase, the two amino acid residues serine 326 and serine 365 were targeted for site-directed mutagenesis. The single mutations that produced the highest glucose specificity were combined, leading to the creation of the S326Q/S365Y double mutant, which was virtually nonreactive to maltose while retaining high glucose dehydrogenase activity. The engineered FADGDH was used to develop a direct electron transfer-type, disposable glucose sensor strip by immobilizing the enzyme complex onto a carbon screen-printed electrode. While the electrode employing wild-type FADGDH provided dangerously flawed results in the presence of maltose, the sensor employing our engineered FADGDH showed a clear glucose concentration-dependent response that was not affected by the presence of maltose. PMID:23273282

  11. New Framework To Diagnose the Direct Disposal of Prescribed Drugs in Wastewater - A Case Study of the Antidepressant Fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Bruce; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Intentional or accidental release (direct disposal) of high loads of unused pharmaceuticals into wastewater can go unnoticed. Here, direct disposal of a pharmaceutical drug via the sewer network was identified for the first time using wastewater analysis. An irregularly high load of the antidepressant fluoxetine in raw wastewater (10.5 ± 2.4 g d(-1)) was up to 11 times greater than any other day. National prescription data revealed a predicted daily fluoxetine load for the studied treatment works to be 0.4-1.6 g d(-1). Enantio-selective analysis showed the high load of fluoxetine was present as a racemic mixture, which is typical for fluoxetine in dispensed formulations. As fluoxetine undergoes stereoselective metabolism within the body, a racemic mixture in wastewater suggests a nonconsumed drug was the major contributor of the high load. This was confirmed by its major metabolite norfluoxetine whose load did not increase on this day. Considering the most commonly prescribed formulation of fluoxetine, this increased load accounts for the disposal of ∼915 capsules. Furthermore, as fluoxetine is prescribed as one capsule per day, disposal is unlikely to be at the patient level. It is postulated that direct disposal was from a facility which handles larger quantities of the drug (e.g., a pharmacy). PMID:26974167

  12. Estimation of groundwater flow directions and the tensor of hydraulic conductivity in crystalline massif rocks using information from surface structural geology and mining exploration boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, C.; Romero, M. A.; Ramirez, M. I.; Monsalve, G.

    2013-05-01

    In the elaboration of a hydrogeological conceptual model in regions of mining exploration where there is significant presence of crystalline massif rocks., the influence of physical and geometrical properties of rock discontinuities must be evaluated. We present the results of a structural analysis of rock discontinuities in a region of the Central Cordillera of Colombia (The upper and middle Bermellon Basin) in order to establish its hydrogeological characteristics for the improvement of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the region. The geology of the study area consists of schists with quartz and mica and porphyritic rocks, in a region of high slopes with a nearly 10 m thick weathered layer. The main objective of this research is to infer the preferential flow directions of groundwater and to estimate the tensor of potential hydraulic conductivity by using surface information and avoiding the use of wells and packer tests. The first step of our methodology is an analysis of drainage directions to detect patterns of structural controls in the run-off; after a field campaign of structural data recollection, where we compile information of strike, dip, continuity, spacing, roughness, aperture and frequency, we built equal area hydro-structural polar diagrams that indicate the potential directions for groundwater flow. These results are confronted with records of Rock Quality Designation (RQD) that have been systematically taken from several mining exploration boreholes in the area of study. By using all this information we estimate the potential tensor of hydraulic conductivity from a cubic law, obtaining the three principal directions with conductivities of the order of 10-5 and 10-6 m/s; the more conductive joint family has a NE strike with a nearly vertical dip.

  13. Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F.P.; Lane, Jr., John W.; White, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the

  14. On Boreholes and PBO Borehole Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, M. T.; Mee, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Borehole tensor strainmeters (GTSM) installed in Australia and California have established a baseline of data spanning more than twenty years. The current baseline of data allows characterisation of a moderate number of instruments in a range of very different environments in a way which defines reasonable performance expectations for the upcoming PBO deployments. A generic understanding of effects which result from the process of installation of the instrument in a stressed rock mass emerges. This indicates that, provided due allowance is made for experimentally determined borehole recovery effects, the contribution of borehole strain meters more than adequately fills the observational gap between high stability/long term geodetic measurements of strain and strain rates and high resolution/high frequency seismic observations of earth deformation processes. The various strain relief processes associated with the installation procedures and borehole recovery effects associated with pre-existing stress fields will be documented. Procedures for calibration of the total borehole inclusion and for progressive removal of effects due to rock anisotropy and visco-elastic creep of the grout and rock close to the borehole from far field tectonic effects will be defined and illustrated with examples. Observed deviations from these processes will be shown to be small and consistent with otherwise observed or implied fault motions. Full details of these borehole induced processes are, however, difficult to determine in the early years following installation, particularly if there is significant tectonic activity at the time. Once quantified for each site, the effects can be robustly removed from data streams.

  15. Petroleum Engineering Techniques for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    van den Broek, W. M. G. T.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes why petroleum engineering techniques are of importance and can be used for underground disposal of HLW (high-level radioactive waste). It is focused on rock salt as a geological host medium in combination with disposal of the HLW canisters in boreholes drilled from the surface. Both permanent disposal and disposal with the option to retrieve the waste are considered. The paper starts with a description of the disposal procedure. Next disposal in deep boreholes is treated. Then the possible use of deviated boreholes and of multiple boreholes is discussed. Also waste isolation aspects and the implications of the HLW heat generation are treated. It appears that the use of deep boreholes can be beneficial, and also that--to a certain extent--borehole deviation offers possibilities. The benefits of using multiple boreholes are questionable for permanent disposal, while this technique cannot be applied for retrievable disposal. For the use of casing material, the additional temperature rise due to the HLW heat generation must be taken into account.

  16. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the

  17. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Downhole Imaging With Borehole Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokkema, J. T.; van den Berg, P. M.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; Luthi, S. M.

    We describe a directional borehole radar system. The antennas are positioned in a bi-static set-up. In order to obtain a focused radiation pattern, the transmitting and receiving dipoles are shielded with a curved reflector. The radiation pattern of this scattered wavefield is computed by solving the integral equation for the unknown elec- tric surface current at the conducting surface. Based on these numerical simulations, a prototype was built. The effective radiation pattern is in good agreement with the computed pattern. We also present a three-dimensional imaging method for this bore- hole radar. The computed radiation pattern is used in such a way that deconvolution for the angular radiation pattern can be applied. Data from preliminary laboratory and field tests under controlled conditions are promising. The applications of this method include the detection of unexploded ordinance from boreholes, the detection of objects and layers in tunnels, and the determination of the diameter of concrete columns in the Jetgrout Diameter System. With appropriate modifications, this system may be appli- cable in the oil- and gas industry for the detection of layers and fractures in borehole. It covers a gap between conventional logging measurements in boreholes, and seismic surface surveys.

  19. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Prairie Island Nuclear Station Spent Filter Processing for Direct Disposal - 12333

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H. Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper will discuss WMG's filter processing experience within the commercial nuclear power industry, specifically recent experience processing high activity spent filters generated by Xcel Energy's Prairie Island Nuclear Station (Prairie Island), located in Welch, MN. WMG processed for disposal eighty-four 55-gallon drums filled with varying types of high activity spent filters. The scope of work involved characterization, packaging plan development, transport to the WMG's Off-Site Processing location, shredding the filter contents of each drum, cement solidifying the shredded filter material, and finally shipping the solidified container of shredded filter material to Clive, Utah where the container was presented to EnergySolutions Disposal site for disposal in their Containerised Waste Facility. This sequence of events presented in this paper took place a total of nine (9) times over a period of four weeks. All 1294 filters were successfully solidified into nine (9) -WMG 142 steel liners, and each was successfully disposed of as Class A Waste at EnergySolutions Disposal Site in Clive, Utah. Prairie Island's waste material was unique in that all its filters were packaged in 55-gallon drums; and since the station packaged its filters in drums it was much easier to develop packaging plans for such a large volume of legacy filters. For this author, having over 20-years of waste management experiences, storing and shipping waste material in 55-gallon drums is not immediately thought of as a highly efficient method of managing its waste material. However, Prairie Island's use of 55-gallon drums to store and package its filters provided a significant advantage. Drums could be mixed and matched to provide the most efficient processing method while still meeting the Waste Class A limits required for disposal. (author)

  1. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  2. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  3. PBO Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Hasting, M.; Jackson, M.; Dittmann, S. T.; Johnson, W.; Venator, S.; Andersen, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Mueller, B.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results but there are still major hurdles to overcome in production, installation processes, data quality control, data processing and near real time delivery of calibrated strain data. PBO has made significant steps forward with the installation of 19 borehole strainmeters as of September 1st, 2006 with 28 total instruments planned by early December. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and represents the first dense

  4. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  5. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  6. Laboratory Visualization Experiments of Temperature-induced Fractures Around a Borehole (Cryogenic Fracturing) in Shale and Analogue Rock Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Wu, Y. S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    In tight shales, hydraulic fracturing is the dominant method for improving reservoir permeability. However, injecting water-based liquids can induce formation damage and disposal problems, thus other techniques are being sought. One alternative to hydraulic fracturing is producing fractures thermally, using low-temperature fluids (cryogens). The primary consequence of thermal stimulation is that shrinkage fractures are produced around the borehole wall. Recently, cryogenic stimulation produced some promising results when the cryogen (typically liquid nitrogen and cold nitrogen gas) could be brought to reservoir depth. Numerical modeling also showed possible significant increases in gas production from a shale reservoir after cryogenic stimulation. However, geometry and the dynamic behavior of these thermally induced fractures under different stress regimes and rock anisotropy and heterogeneity is not yet well understood.Currently, we are conducting a series of laboratory thermal fracturing experiments on Mancos Shale and transparent glass blocks, by injecting liquid nitrogen under atmospheric pressure into room temperature blocks under various anisotropic stress states. The glass blocks allow clear optical visualization of fracture development and final fracturing patterns. For the shale blocks, X-ray CT is used to image both pre-existing and induced fractures. Also, the effect of borehole orientation with respect to the bedding planes and aligned preexisting fractures is examined. Our initial experiment on a uniaxially compressed glass block showed fracturing behavior which was distinctly different from conventional hydraulic fracturing. In addition to tensile fractures in the maximum principal stress directions, the thermal contraction by the cryogen induced (1) chaotic, spalling fractures around the borehole wall, and (2) a series of disk-shaped annular fractures perpendicular to the borehole. When applied to a horizontal borehole, the propagation plane of the

  7. A Summary of INEEL Calcine Properties Used to Evaluate Direct Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Dahl

    2003-07-01

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  8. Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

  9. Combination gas producing and waste water disposal well

    SciTech Connect

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1984-02-07

    The present invention is directed to a waste water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased borehole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. By-pass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the by-pass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  10. Microexplosions in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moren, P.

    1983-12-01

    At present micro explosions are the only known source that provides sufficient energy for large scale (about 0.5 to 1 km) seismic crosshole measurements. Results from a test of nondestructiveness on bore-hole walls from micro explosions are summarized. From geophysical well loggings in the holes it was found that only micro explosions with yields of 100 g and greater have a measurable effect on the bore-hole walls. However, the chemical properties of the bore-hole water changed as a result of collodial carbon of the explosive paste. Geophone-recordings from a series of shots with yields in the range 5 up to 200 g showed that the recorded maximum amplitude was linearly dependent of explosion yield.

  11. Direct FTIR analysis of isolated trans fatty acids in edible oils using disposable polyethylene film.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Zhu, Xufei; Chen, Xiumei; Sun, Daijun; Yu, Xiuzhu

    2015-10-15

    A new transmission-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method has been developed to determine trans fatty acids (TFA) content in edible oils using disposable polyethylene (PE) film as a spectral acquisition accessory. Calibration standards were devised by gravimetrically adding TFA to TFA-free oil. The response was measured at 990-945 cm(-1) against the baseline. A linear relationship between the areas in the spectral regions 1670-1625 cm(-1) and 990-945 cm(-1) in TFA-free oil samples was established to compensate for interference due to underlying triacylglycerol absorptions in the trans measurement region (990-945 cm(-1)). Subsequently, the area measured at 990-945 cm(-1) was corrected for interference, using the linear equation obtained, to determine TFA content. Results indicated that the PE film-based FTIR method for analyzing TFA content in edible oils was simple and rapid, and could be used effectively as an alternative to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. PMID:25952899

  12. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  13. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  14. The Role of Active Fractures on Borehole Breakout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, D.; Kohl, T.; Schoenball, M.; Müller, B.

    2013-12-01

    The properties of georeservoirs are strongly related to the stress field and their interpretation is a major target in geotechnical management. Borehole breakouts are direct indicators of the stress field as they develop due to the concentration of the highest compressional stress toward the minimum horizontal stress direction. However, the interaction with fractures might create local perturbations. Such weakened zones are often observed by localized anomalies of the borehole breakout orientation. We examined high-quality acoustic borehole televiewer (UBI) logs run in the entire granite sections at the deep well GPK4 at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The borehole is moderately inclined (15° - 35°) in its middle section. Detailed analysis of 1221 borehole elongation pairs in the vicinity of 1871 natural fractures observed in GPK4 well is used to infer the role of fractures on the borehole breakouts shape and orientation. Patterns of borehole breakout orientation in the vicinity of active fractures suggest that the wavelength of the borehole breakout orientation anomalies in this granite rock depend on the scale of the fracture while the rotation amplitude and direction is strongly influenced by the fracture orientation. In the upper and middle part of the well even a linear trend between fracture and breakout orientations could be established. In addition to the rotation, breakouts typically are found to be asymmetrically formed in zones of high fracture density. We find that major faults tend to create a systematic rotation of borehole breakout orientation with long spatial wavelength while abrupt changes are often observed around small fractures. The finding suggest that the borehole breakout heterogeneities are not merely governed by the principal stress heterogeneities, but that the effect of mechanical heterogeneities like elastic moduli changes, rock strength anisotropy and fracturing must be taken into account. Thus, one has to be careful to infer the

  15. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  16. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  17. Dependence of Body Wave Velocity on Borehole Stress Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiayong; Man, Yuanpeng; Qi, Hui

    In order to develop ultrasonic method for the quantitative measurement of in-situ rock stresses, we investigate the influence of stress concentration on the body-wave velocities around a borehole. First, the acoustoelasticity theory of finite-deformation solids yields a direct and explicit quantitative borehole acoustoelasticity, which reveals that the orientations of the maximum and minimum wave-velocity shifts at the borehole surface coincide with the directions of the minimum and maximum far-field principal stresses, respectively. Second, pulse-echo measurement of wave-velocity variations at the borehole surface in the sandstone sample under the biaxial compressional loadings is performed to validate the quantitative borehole acoustoelasticity. The consistence of the experimental results with the theoretical prediction means that the ultrasonic method based on acoustoelasticity theory could be a promising noncontact and non-destructive method for the quantitative measurement of in-situ rock stresses.

  18. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  19. Direct conversion of plutonium-containing materials to borosilicate glass for storage or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-06-27

    A new process, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), has been invented for the direct conversion of plutonium metal, scrap, and residue into borosilicate glass. The glass should be acceptable for either the long-term storage or disposition of plutonium. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into homogeneous glass (1) simplifies safeguards and security; (2) creates a stable chemical form that meets health, safety, and environmental concerns; (3) provides an easy storage form; (4) may lower storage costs; and (5) allows for future disposition options. In the GMODS process, mixtures of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids containing plutonium are fed directly into a glass melter where they are directly converted to glass. Conventional glass melters can accept materials only in oxide form; thus, it is its ability to accept materials in multiple chemical forms that makes GMODS a unique glass making process. Initial proof-of-principle experiments have converted cerium (plutonium surrogate), uranium, stainless steel, aluminum, and other materials to glass. Significant technical uncertainties remain because of the early nature of process development.

  20. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  1. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  2. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  3. Final Progress Report: Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2.

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Barry; Peter G. Brewer

    2004-05-25

    OAK-B135 This report summarizes activities and results of investigations of the potential environmental consequences of direct injection of carbon dioxide into the deep-sea as a carbon sequestration method. Results of field experiments using small scale in situ releases of liquid CO2 are described in detail. The major conclusions of these experiments are that mortality rates of deep sea biota will vary depending on the concentrations of CO2 in deep ocean waters that result from a carbon sequestration project. Large changes in seawater acidity and carbon dioxide content near CO2 release sites will likely cause significant harm to deep-sea marine life. Smaller changes in seawater chemistry at greater distances from release sites will be less harmful, but may result in significant ecosystem changes.

  4. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  5. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  6. Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

  7. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  8. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  9. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  10. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal. (a) Disposal site design for near-surface disposal. (1) Site design features must be directed... with wastes after disposal. (b) Disposal site design for other than near-surface disposal. ... extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the...

  12. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  13. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  14. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  15. Developing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Connecticut: Update on progress and new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gingerich, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Connecticut is a member of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact (Northeast LLRW Compact). The other member of the Northeast LLRW Compact is New Jersey. The Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission (Northeast Compact Commission), the Northeast LLRW Compact`s governing body, has designated both Connecticut and New Jersey as host states for disposal facilities. The Northeast Compact Commission has recommended that, for purposes of planning for each state`s facility, the siting agency for the state should use projected volumes and characteristics of the LLW generated in its own state. In 1987 Connecticut enacted legislation that assigns major responsibilities for developing a LLW disposal facility in Connecticut to the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS). The CHWMS is required to: prepare and revise, as necessary, a LLW Management Plan for the state; select a site for a LLW disposal facility; select a disposal technology to be used at the site; select a firm to obtain the necessary approvals for the facility and to develop and operate it; and serve as the custodial agency for the facility. This paper discusses progress in developing a facility.

  16. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  17. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  18. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  19. Borehole-to-tunnel seismic measurements for monitoring radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi; Marelli, Stefano; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Green, Alan A.

    2010-05-01

    Countries worldwide are seeking solutions for the permanent removal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from the environment. A critical aspect of the disposal process is the need to be confident that the deposited waste is safely isolated from the biosphere. Seismic monitoring represents a potentially powerful option for non-intrusive monitoring. We conducted a series of seismic experiments in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory, where a 1-m-diameter microtunnel simulates a HLRW repository downsized by a factor of ~2.5. The host rock at the laboratory is Opalinus clay. We had access to two water-filled boreholes, each approximately 25 m long (diameter 85 mm), with one inclined upwards and the other downwards. Both were oriented perpendicular to the microtunnel axis. Seismic signals were generated in the down-dipping borehole with a high frequency P-wave sparker source every 25 cm and received every 25 cm in the upward-dipping borehole on a multi-channel hydrophone chain. Additionally, the seismic waves were recorded on eight (100 Hz natural frequency) vertical-component geophones, mounted and distributed around the circumference of the microtunnel wall within the plane of the boreholes. The experiment was repeated with different material filling the microtunnel and under different physical conditions. So far, six experiments have been performed when the microtunnel was: a. air-filled with a dry excavation damage zone (EDZ), b. dry sand-filled with a dry EDZ, c. 50 % water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (experiments were conducted immediately after half water-saturation), d. water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (immediately after full water-saturation), e. water-saturated sand-filled with water-saturated EDZ (water was in the microtunnel for about 9.5 months), and f. water-saturated sand-filled and pressurized to 6 bars with water-saturated EDZ. The results of our seismic experiments yield several

  20. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  1. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  2. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    carbon, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from borehole USGS 136 indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Depth-discrete groundwater samples were collected in the open borehole USGS 136 near 965, 710, and 573 ft BLS using a thief sampler; on the basis of selected constituents, deeper groundwater samples showed no influence from wastewater disposal at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex.

  3. Produced water disposal in the southern San Joaquin Basin: a direct analog for brine leakage in response to carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P. D.; Gillespie, J.

    2013-12-01

    Injection of CO2 during geologic carbon storage pressurizes reservoir fluid, which can cause its migration. Migration of saline water from the reservoir into underground sources of drinking water (USDW) via pathways such as permeable wells and faults is one concern. As of 2010, 2 billion cubic meters (MMMm3) of oil, 10 MMMm3 of water, and 400 MMMm3 of gas had been produced in the southern San Joaquin Valley. A considerable portion of the gas and a majority of the water were injected into production zones for pressure support, water flooding, or as steam for thermal recovery. However a portion of the produced water was disposed of by injection into zones without economic quantities of hydrocarbons, termed saline aquifers in the geologic carbon storage community. These zones often had the shallowest activity in a field, and so had no overlying pressure sink due to production and all oil and gas-related wells in the field encountered or passed through them. The subset of such zones at CO2 storage depths received disposed water volumes equivalent to tens of megatons (MT) of CO2 injected at overpressures of many MPa. For instance a water volume equivalent to over 20 MT of CO2 was injected at a depth of 900 m and an average wellhead pressure of 6 MPa in the Fruitvale oil field, which had almost a thousand wells. Use of USDW for irrigation and consumption is widespread in the area. An increase in total dissolved solids (TDS) in well water is acutely detectable either by taste or effect on crops. Consequently the produced water disposal injection in the southern San Joaquin Valley provides an analog for assessing the occurrence of water leakage impacts due to reservoir pressurization. Almost 230 articles regarding groundwater contamination published from 2000 to 2013 by The Bakersfield Californian, the main newspaper in the area, were assessed. These were written by 71 authors including 38 staff writers, covered 53 different types of facilities or activities that either

  4. Apparatus for drilling enlarged boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.

    1982-10-19

    A rotary bore hole enlarging bit is connected to a rotary pipe string having a drilling fluid flow path and an actuator flow path. The bit comprises a body structure including inner and outer telescopic body sections, expansible and retractible arms carrying cutters on the outer body section and an expander on the inner body section engageable with the arms to expand the arms and cutters upon telescopic movement of body sections in one relative direction. A piston and cylinder is provided between the inner and outer body sections to secure relative telescopic movement between the body sections. A first passage is disposed in the body structure and expansible arms and cutters for conducting drilling fluid to the cutters from the drilling fluid flow path, there being a second passage in the body structure for conducting actuator fluid to the piston and cylinder from the actuator fluid flow path.

  5. Consideration of Nuclear Criticality When Directly Disposing Highly Enriched Spent Nuclear Fuel in Unsaturated Tuff - II: Geochemical Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, Rob P.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.; Trellue, Holly R.

    2003-11-15

    This article presents several reasonable cases in which four mechanisms - dissolution, physical mixing, adsorption, and precipitation (either chemical change or evaporation) - might concentrate fissile material in and around a disposal container for radioactive waste at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The possible masses, concentrations, and volume are then compared to criticality limits. The cases examined evaluate the geologic barrier role in preventing criticality since engineered options for preventing criticality (e.g., boron or gadolinium neutron absorber in the disposal container) are not considered. The solid concentrations able to form in the natural environment are insufficient for criticality to occur because (a) solutions of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu are clearly not critical; (b) physical mixing of fissile material with the entire potential iron oxide (as goethite - FeOOH) in a waste package is not critical; (c) the adsorption of {sup 239}Pu on consolidated iron oxide in a waste package is not critical; (d) the adsorption of {sup 235}U on consolidated iron oxide in a waste package is not critical when accounting for reduced adsorption because of carbonates at high pH; (e) the filtration of iron oxide colloids, containing fissile material, by the thin invert material is not critical; (f) insufficient retention through precipitation of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu occurs in the invert; (g) adsorption of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu on devitrified or clinoptolite-rich tuff below the repository is not critical; (h) the average precipitation/adsorption of {sup 235}U as uranyl silicates in the tuff is not critical by analogy with calcite deposition in lithophysae at Yucca Mountain; and (i) precipitation/adsorption (caused by cyclic drying) as uranyl silicates on fracture surfaces of the tuff is not critical by analogy with the oxidation of UO{sub 2}, migration of U{sup VI}, and precipitation in fractures at the Nopal I ore deposit in Mexico.

  6. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    with gravel was described. Basalt flows generally ranged in thickness from 3 to 76 ft (average of 14 ft) and varied from highly fractured to dense with high to low vesiculation. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected during certain stages of the drilling and construction process at boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141. Geophysical logs were examined synergistically with the core material for borehole USGS 140; additionally, geophysical data were examined to confirm geologic and hydrologic similarities between boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 because core was not collected for borehole USGS 141. Geophysical data suggest the occurrence of fractured and (or) vesiculated basalt, dense basalt, and sediment layering in both the saturated and unsaturated zones in borehole USGS 141. Omni-directional density measurements were used to assess the completeness of the grout annular seal behind 6-in. diameter well casing. Furthermore, gyroscopic deviation measurements were used to measure horizontal and vertical displacement at all depths in boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141. Single-well aquifer tests were done following construction at wells USGS 140 and USGS 141 and data examined after the tests were used to provide estimates of specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity. The specific capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity for well USGS 140 were estimated at 2,370 gallons per minute per foot [(gal/min)/ft)], 4.06 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 740 feet per day (ft/d), respectively. The specific capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity for well USGS 141 were estimated at 470 (gal/min)/ft, 5.95 × 104 ft2/d, and 110 ft/d, respectively. Measured flow rates remained relatively constant in well USGS 140 with averages of 23.9 and 23.7 gal/min during the first and second aquifer tests, respectively, and in well USGS 141 with an average of 23.4 gal/min. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile

  7. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  8. Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.

    2006-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed by PNNL, and the Remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this particular study was to assemble the existing borehole geologic data pertaining to sediments underlying the 216-Z Crib Facilities and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Closure Zone. The primary objective for Fiscal Year 2006 was to assemble the data, complete log plots, and interpret the location of major geologic contacts for each major borehole in and around the primary disposal facilities that received carbon tetrachloride. To date, 154 boreholes located within or immediately adjacent to 19 of the 216-Z crib facilities have been incorporated into HBGIS. Borehole geologic information for the remaining three Z-crib facilities is either lacking (e.g. 216-Z-13, -14, and -15), or has been identified as a lesser priority to be incorporated at a later date.

  9. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  16. Detecting a fluid-filled borehole using elastic waves from a remote borehole.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jingji; Li, Zhen; Su, Yuanda

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a fluid-filled borehole with incident elastic waves is an important topic for downhole acoustic measurements. By analyzing the wave phenomena of this problem, one can simulate the detection of a borehole target using a source-receiver system in a remote borehole. The analysis result shows that the wave signals from the target borehole are of sufficient amplitude even though the borehole size is small compared to wavelength. Consequently, the target borehole can be detected when the two boreholes are far away from each other. The result can be utilized to provide a method for testing downhole acoustic imaging tools. PMID:27586782

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  18. Characterization of Gas Transport Properties of Fractured Rocks By Borehole and Chamber Tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimo, M.; Shimaya, S.; Maejima, T.

    2014-12-01

    Gas transport characteristics of fractured rocks is a great concern to variety of engineering applications such as underground storage of LPG, nuclear waste disposal, CCS and gas flooding in the oil field. Besides absolute permeability, relative permeability and capillary pressure as a function of water saturation have direct influences to the results of two phase flow simulation. However, number of the reported gas flow tests for fractured rocks are limited, therefore, the applicability of the conventional two-phase flow functions used for porous media, such as Mualem-van Genuchten model, to prediction of the gas transport in the fractured rock mass are not well understood. The authors conducted the two types of in-situ tests, with different scales, a borehole gas-injection test and a chamber gas-injection test in fractured granitic rock. These tests were conducted in the Cretaceous granitic rocks at the Namikata underground LPG storage cavern construction site in Ehime Prefecture in Japan, preceding to the cavern scale gas-tightness test. A borehole injection test was conducted using vertical and sub-vertical boreholes drilled from the water injection tunnel nearly at the depth of the top of the cavern, EL-150m. A new type downhole gas injection equipment that is capable to create a small 'cavern' within a borehole was developed. After performing a series of preliminary tests to investigate the hydraulic conductivity and gas-tightness, i.e. threshold pressure, gas injection tests were conducted under different gas pressure. Fig.1 shows an example of the test results From a chamber test using a air pressurizing chamber with volume of approximately166m3, the gas-tightness was confirmed within the uncertainty of 22Pa under the storage pressure of 0.7MPa, however, significant air leakage occurred possibly through an open fracture intersecting the chamber just after cavern pressure exceeds the initial hydrostatic pressure at the ceiling level of the chamber. Anomalies

  19. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-11-05

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating a first low frequency acoustic wave within the borehole, wherein the first low frequency acoustic wave induces a linear and a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a radius of the borehole; directing a first sequence of high frequency pulses in a direction perpendicularly with respect to the longitudinal axis of the borehole into the material contemporaneously with the first acoustic wave; and receiving one or more second high frequency pulses at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole produced by an interaction between the first sequence of high frequency pulses and the one or more features undergoing linear and nonlinear elastic distortion due to the first low frequency acoustic wave to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  20. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  1. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  2. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  3. Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Nai-Hsien

    1987-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  4. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  5. Fracture-frequency prediction from borehole wireline logs using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, E.M.; Bean, C.J.; Reilly, R.

    1999-11-01

    Borehole-wall imaging is currently the most reliable means of mapping discontinuities within boreholes. As these imaging techniques are expensive and thus not always included in a logging run, a method of predicting fracture frequency directly from traditional logging tool responses would be very useful and cost effective. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) show great potential in this area. ANNs are computational systems that attempt to mimic natural biological neural networks. They have the ability to recognize patterns and develop their own generalizations about a given data set. Neural networks are trained on data sets for which the solution is known and tested on data not previously seen in order to validate the network result. The authors show that artificial neural networks, due to their pattern recognition capabilities, are able to assess the signal strength of fracture-related heterogeneity in a borehole log and thus fracture frequency within a borehole. A combination of wireline logs (neutron porosity, bulk density, P-sonic, S-sonic, deep resistivity and shallow resistivity) were used as input parameters to the ANN. Fracture frequency calculated from borehole televiewer data was used as the single output parameter. The ANN was trained using a back-propagation algorithm with a momentum learning function. In addition to fracture frequency within a single borehole, an ANN trained on a subset of boreholes in an area could be used for prediction over the entire set of boreholes, thus allowing the lateral correlation of fracture zones.

  6. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  7. Borehole logging method for fracture detection and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, B.E.; Johnson, D.L

    1989-05-16

    A method is describe for locating a fracture in a subsurface earth formation traversed by a borehole, the method using an acoustic source and at lest one acoustic detector traversing the borehole at a plurality of depths, the fracture positioned outside the direct path from the acoustic source to the at least acoustic detector, the method consists of the steps of: generating a first signal from the acoustic source, the first signal representative of Stoneley wave propagating in the borehole, receiving the first signal at the at least one detector, the first signal representative of Stoneley waves propagating in the borehole from the acoustic source to the at least one detector, receiving a second signal at the at least one detector, the second signal representative of reflections of the Stoneley wave, the reflections arising from an interaction of the Stoneyle waves and the fracture; and combining the first and second received signals to derive a fracture signal indicative of a characteristic of the fracture.

  8. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  10. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  11. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  12. Coupled aquifer-borehole simulation.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A model coupling fluid hydraulics in a borehole with fluid flow in an aquifer is developed in this paper. Conservation of momentum is used to create a one-dimensional steady-state model of vertical flow in an open borehole combined with radially symmetric flow in an aquifer and with inflow to the well through the wellbore screen. Both laminar and turbulent wellbore conditions are treated. The influence of inflow through the wellbore screen on vertical flow in the wellbore is included, using a relation developed by Siwoń (1987). The influence of inflow reduces the predicted vertical variation in head up to 15% compared to a calculation of head losses due to fluid acceleration and the conventional Colebrook-White formulation of friction losses in a circular pipe. The wellbore flow model is embedded into the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. The nonlinear conservation of momentum equations are iteratively linearized to calculate the conductance terms for vertical flow in the wellbore. The resulting simulations agree favorably with previously published results when the model is adjusted to meet the assumptions of the previous coupled models. PMID:19682095

  13. Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism.

  14. Tectonic Stress at IODP Site C0002, Nankai, Indicated by Borehole Resistivity Images of Two Boreholes Drilled under Different Annulus Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Song, I.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    We constrain tectonic stresses at IODP Site C0002 in Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan, using two boreholes drilled under different annular borehole pressures (APRS). The two vertical boreholes (C0002A and C0002F drilled in 2007 and 2012, respectively) are located at the southern margin of Kumano forearc, respectively drilled to depths of 1402 and 2006 mbsf. The two holes were drilled in different drilling modes: riserless drilling for C0002A and riser drilling for C0002F. Both holes were image-logged soon after drill bit penetration using the logging-while-drilling resistivity-at-the-bit tool, from which we detected borehole wall stress indicators (borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DITFs)). We assume that there should be little difference in tectonic stress between the two drill sites (70 m apart) and between the two time frames (5 years apart). The resistivity images show that the patterns of borehole wall failures are dramatically contrast between the two boreholes, i.e., clear and continuous breakouts and no DITFs in C0002A, whereas intermittent breakouts and DITFs in C0002F, which is due to the difference in APRS between the two holes. Such different APRS and associated distinct borehole wall failure patterns enable us to constrain possible tectonic stress states that can produce observed borehole wall failures for given APRS conditions. Our analysis shows that while the stress states in the forearc sediments are predominantly in favor of normal faulting, those in the deeper accretionary prism are favorable for either strike-slip or reverse faulting although the differential stresses (between least and major horizontal principal stresses) are not significantly large. Throughout the drill depths, the borehole wall failures indicate that the maximum horizontal principal stress direction is NE-SW (perpendicular to subduction direction). However, a series of borehole wall failure zones at 1930-1980 mbsf, if they are breakouts, may

  15. Zero-Offset VSP in the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled borehole COSC-1. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this an approx. 2.5 km deep borehole, with nearly 100% core recovery, was drilled in the Scandinavian Caledonides, close to the town of Åre in western Jämtland/Sweden. The seismic survey consisted of a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment with receivers at the surface and in the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source (VIBSIST 3000) was used and activated over a period of 20 seconds as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. For each source point, 25 seconds of data were recorded. The wavefield was recorded in the borehole by 15 three-component receivers using a Sercel Slimwave geophone chain with an inter-tool spacing of 10 meters. The ZVSP was designed to result in a geophone spacing of 2 meters over the whole borehole length. The source was about 30 meters away from the borehole and thus, provides a poor geometry to rotate 3C-data in greater depths. For this reason, a check shot position was defined in about 1.9 km distance to the borehole. With this offset shots, it is possible to rotate the components of the 3C receivers and to concentrate the S-wave energy on one component and thus, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of S-wave events. This offset source point was activated periodically for certain depth positions of the geophone chain. The stacked ZVSP-data show a high signal-to-noise ratio and good data quality. Frequencies up to 150 Hz were recorded. On the vertical component, clear direct P-wave arrivals are visible. Several P-wave reflections occur below 1600 meters depth. After rotating the components

  16. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  17. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  19. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    entire depth and was not revisited after it was logged by the caliper log. Substantial change in flow rates or direction of borehole flow was not observed in any of the three wells logged with the heatpulse flowmeter when the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive.

  20. Cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic induction for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.; Lee, K.H.

    1991-08-01

    Audio-frequency cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetics (EM) are interesting alternatives to existing techniques for petroleum reservoir characterization and monitoring. With these methods signals may be propagated several hundreds of meters through typical sand/shale reservoirs and data may be collected at high accuracy with a high sensitivity to the subsurface resistivity distribution. Field systems for cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole EM measurements have been designed and built by Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories for reservoir evaluation and monitoring. The cross-borehole system utilizes vertical axis induction coil antennas for transmission and detection of sinusoidal signals. Data are collected in profiles with the source coil moving continuously while its signal is detected by a stationary receiver coil located in a separate well. Subsequent profiles are collected using a different receiver depth and the same transmitter span until a suite of profiles is obtained that cover the desired interval in the borehole. The surface-to-borehole system uses a large diameter surface loop transmitter and a vertical axis borehole receiver. Due to its high signal strength this system operates using a sweep frequency transmitter waveform so that data may be simultaneously collected over several decades of frequency. Surface-to-borehole profiles are equally repeatable and although this data is less sensitive than cross-borehole EM, it can be fit to a resistivity section consistent with the borehole log. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for investigating stand-off in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, M.P.; Havira, R.M.

    1987-09-08

    A method is described for investigating an earth formation penetrated by a borehole with a tool having a segment which is provided with a laterally extending array of small current emitting electrodes arranged to make resistivity measurements. A contiguous lateral area of the borehole is investigated as the tool segment, while being pressed towards the borehole wall, is operatively moved along the borehole wall. The electrodes are sized to enable a high resolution resistivity investigation of the earth formation with a resolution of the order of millimeters, comprising the steps of: generating high resolution beams of acoustic energy in the form of pulses and directing these at segments of the borehole wall from places that are from at least laterally separated places that are generally in vertical alignment with the array of electrodes and are pressed with the array towards the borehole wall; detecting at the places acoustic reflections originating from the borehole wall segments and caused by the pulses of acoustic energy; and deriving from the detected acoustic reflections acoustic travel times indicative of the magnitude of tool standoff at the places as well as lateral tool lift-off at the array of electrodes with an accuracy and resolution sufficient to resolve, in the resistivity measurements, ambiguities attributable to stand-off, and vertical and lateral tool tilt.

  2. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  3. Analysis of Borehole-Radar Reflection Data from Machiasport, Maine, December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole-radar reflection logs in two boreholes in Machiasport, Maine. These bedrock boreholes were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the area surrounding the former Air Force Radar Tracking Station site on Howard Mountain near Bucks Harbor. The boreholes, MW09 and MW10, are located approximately 50 meters (m) from, and at the site of, respectively, the locations of former buildings where trichloroethylene was used as part of defense-site operations. These areas are thought to be potential source areas for contamination that has been detected in downgradient bedrock wells. This investigation focused on testing borehole-radar methods at this site. Single-hole radar-reflection surveys were used to identify the depth, orientation, and spatial continuity of reflectors that intersect and surround the boreholes. In addition, the methods were used to (1) identify the radial depth of penetration of the radar waves in the electrically resistive bimodal volcanic formation at the site, (2) provide information for locating additional boreholes at the site, and (3) test the potential applications of borehole-radar methods for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of source-area remediation efforts. Borehole-radar reflection logging uses a pair of downhole transmitting and receiving antennas to record the reflected wave amplitude and transit time of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. For this investigation, 60- and 100-megahertz antennas were used. The electromagnetic waves emitted by the transmitter penetrate into the formation surrounding the borehole and are reflected off of a material with different electromagnetic properties, such as a fracture or change in rock type. Single-hole directional radar surveys indicate the bedrock surrounding these boreholes is highly fractured, because several reflectors were identified in the radar

  4. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  5. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-04-11

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes. 3 figs.

  6. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  7. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  8. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  9. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  10. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  11. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  12. Experimental studies of electrokinetic conversions in fluid-saturated borehole models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Haartsen, M.W.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that there are electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by seismic waves with two kinds of conversion mechanisms in a fluid-saturated, porous medium. Within a homogeneous formation, the seismic wave generates a seismoelectric field that exists only in the area disturbed by the seismic wave and whose apparent velocity is that of the seismic wave. At an interface between differing formation properties, the generated seismoelectric wave is a propagating EM wave that can be detected everywhere, An electrode, used as a receiver on the ground surface, can detect the propagating EM wave generated at an interface, but cannot detect the seismoelectric field generated in a homogeneous formation. When the electrode is in a borehole and close to a porous formation, it can detect both the EM waves and the seismoelectric field. In this paper, electrokinetic measurements are performed with borehole models made of natural rocks or artificial materials. Experimental results show that the Stoneley wave and other acoustic modes, excited by a monopole source in the borehole models, generate seismoelectric fields in fluid-saturated formations. The electric components of the seismoelectric fields can be detected by an electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall. The amplitude and frequency of the seismoelectric fields are related not only to the seismic wave, but also to formation properties such as permeability, conductivity, etc. Comparison between the waveforms of the seismoelectric signals and acoustic logging waves suggests that seismoelectric well logging may explore the different properties of the formation. Electroseismic measurements are also performed with these borehole models. The electric pulse through the electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall induces Stoneley waves in fluid-saturated models that can be received by a monopole transducer in the same borehole. These measurement methods (seismoelectric logging or

  13. PBO Borehole Strain and Siesmic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Hasting, M.; Dittman, T.; Johnson, W.; Meertens, C.

    2007-05-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. A brief history of US BSM program is presented. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results: imaging two slow slip events in the PNW along with excellent tele-siesmic imaging. Exciting work has been done in the PBO community relating modeled strain from the GPS network to observed strain from the BSM network. PBO also plans the installation of three volcanic arrays at Mt St Helens, Yellowstone and Long Valley. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and

  14. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods and apparatus for evaluating formation characteristics while drilling a borehole through earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Wraight, P.D.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a method for determining at least one characteristic of an earth formation penetrated by a borehole and irradiated by radiation. It comprises: positioning a directional radiation sensor in the borehole adjacent to the irradiated formation and rotating the radiation sensor for obtaining a series of successive measurements that are representative of the radiation returning from circumferentially-spaced locations around the borehole; determining the mean as well as the measured standard deviation of the series of successive measurements; and correlating the mean and the measured standard deviation of the successive measurements for providing indications which are representative of the one formation characteristic as well as the transverse cross-sectional configuration of the borehole.

  16. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  17. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  18. RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE CLASSIFIED TRANSURANIC WASTES DISPOSED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    J. COCHRAN; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Most transuranic (TRU) wastes are destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, the TRU wastes from the cleanup of US nuclear weapons accidents are classified for national security reasons and cannot be disposed in WIPP. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sought an alternative disposal method for these ''special case'' TRU wastes and from 1984 to 1987, four Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes were used to place these special case TRU wastes a minimum of 21 m (70 ft) below the land surface and a minimum of 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in arid alluvium at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Because of state regulatory concerns, the GCD boreholes have not been used for waste disposal since 1989. DOE requires that TRU waste disposal facilities meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements for disposal of TRU wastes, which are contained in 40 CFR 191. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU waste emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's requirements. Sandia has completed the PA using all available information and an iterative PA methodology. This paper overviews the PA of the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes [1]. As such, there are few cited references in this paper and the reader is referred to [1] and [2] for references. The results of the PA are that disposal of TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes easily complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 safety standards for disposal of TRU wastes. The PA is undergoing a DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ) peer review, and the final PA will be released in FY2001 or FY2002.

  19. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  20. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  1. Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Beltrami, H.

    2011-12-01

    The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions.

  2. Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.

    2012-04-01

    The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions. (http://palma.fis.ucm.es/~volker/)

  3. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  4. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  5. Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.4–1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  6. New UK in-situ stress orientation for northern England and controls on borehole wall deformation identified using borehole imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Fellgett, Mark W.; Waters, Colin N.

    2016-04-01

    The nascent development of a UK shale gas industry has highlighted the inadequacies of previous in-situ stress mapping which is fundamental to the efficacy and safety of potential fracturing operations. The limited number of stress inversions from earthquake focal plane mechanisms and overcoring measurements of in-situ stress in prospective areas increases the need for an up-to-date stress map. Borehole breakout results from 36 wells with newly interpreted borehole imaging data are presented. Across northern England these demonstrate a consistent maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax) orientation of 150.9° and circular standard deviation of 13.1°. These form a new and quality assured evidence base for both industry and its regulators. Widespread use of high-resolution borehole imaging tools has facilitated investigation of micro-scale relationships between stress and lithology, facilitating identification of breakouts as short as 25 cm. This is significantly shorter than those identified by older dual-caliper logging (typically 1-10+ m). Higher wall coverage (90%+ using the highest resolution tools) and decreasing pixel size (down to 4mm vertically by 2° of circumference) also facilitates identification of otherwise undetectable sub-centimetre width Drilling Induced Tensile Fractures (DIFs). Examination of borehole imaging from wells in North Yorkshire within the Carboniferous Pennine Coal Measures Group has showed that even though the stress field is uniform, complex micro-stress relationships exist. Different stress field indicators (SFI) are significantly affected by geology with differing failure responses from adjacent lithologies, highlighted by borehole imaging on sub-metre scales. Core-log-borehole imaging integration over intervals where both breakouts and DIFs have been identified allows accurate depth matching and thus allows a synthesis of failure for differing lithology and micro-structures under common in-situ conditions. Understanding these

  7. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity explored by factor analysis of borehole geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Norbert Péter

    2015-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented for providing hydrogeological information on groundwater formations. Factor analysis is applied to borehole logs in Hungary and the USA to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of rocks intersected by the borehole. Earlier studies showed a strong correlation between a statistical variable extracted by factor analysis and shale volume in primary porosity rocks. Hydraulic conductivity as a related quantity can be derived directly by factor analysis. In the first step, electric and nuclear logs are transformed into factor logs, which are then correlated to hydraulic properties of aquifers. It is shown that a factor explaining the major part of variance of the measured variables is inversely proportional to hydraulic conductivity. By revealing the regression relation between the above quantities, an estimate for hydraulic conductivity can be given along the entire length of the borehole. Synthetic modeling experiments and field cases demonstrate the feasibility of the method, which can be applied both in primary and secondary porosity aquifers. The results of factor analysis show consistence with those of the Kozeny-Carman method and hydraulic aquifer tests. The application of the statistical analysis of well logs together with independent ground geophysical and hydrogeological methods serves a more efficient exploration of groundwater resources.

  9. Stress-induced borehole elongation: A comparison between the four-arm dipmeter and the borehole televiewer in the Auburn geothermal well

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.A.; Hickman, S.H.

    1985-06-10

    The nature and origin of borehole elongation recorded by the four-arm dipmeter calipers is studied utilizing information obtained from hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and borehole televiewer data taken in a well located in Auburn, New York. A preferred orientation N10/sup 0/W-S10/sup 0/E, +- 10/sup 0/ and a less prominant E-W orientation of borehole elongation, was observed on two runs of the dipmeter. Comparisons of borehole geometry determined using the televiewer and the dipmeter show that both tools give the same orientation of borehole elongation provided that the zone of elongation is longer than 30 cm. Comparisons of dipmeter caliper data with orientation of in situ stress and natural fractures, obtained from hydrofracturing tests and televiewer data show that the N10/sup 0/W-S10/sup 0/E borehole elongations (1) are axisymmetric, (2) are aligned with the minimum horizontal stress S/sub h/, and (3) are not associated with natural fractures intersecting the well. These elongations are interpreted as stress-induced well bore breakouts. The E-W elongation direction is characterized by an asymmetric borehole cross section in thinly bedded rocks and is not caused by breakouts. This asymmetric geometry can be discriminated from breakouts using the oriented electric measurements provided by the dipmeter. This study demonstrates that the dipmeter can be used to determine the orientation of S/sub h/ (by mapping breakouts), confirming the results of earlier less detailed studies, and provides a firm basis for mapping regional stress patterns using existing dipmeter data.

  10. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  11. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs at the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund site, Mercer County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    On April 14?15, 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in five open-borehole wells in and adjacent to the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund Site, Mercer County, Pa. Geophysical-logging tools used included caliper, natural gamma, single-point resistance, fluid temperature, and heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to determine casing depth, locate subsurface fractures, identify water-bearing fractures, and identify and measure direction and rate of vertical flow within the borehole. The results of the geophysical logging were used to determine the placement of borehole screens, which allows monitoring of water levels and sampling of water-bearing zones so that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can conduct an investigation of contaminant movement in the fractured bedrock. Water-bearing zones were identified in three of five boreholes at depths ranging from 46 to 119 feet below land surface. Borehole MR-3310 (MW03D) showed upward vertical flow from 71 to 74 feet below land surface to a receiving zone at 63-68 feet below land surface, permitting potential movement of ground water, and possibly contaminants, from deep to shallow zones. No vertical flow was measured in the other four boreholes.

  12. An analysis of the lithology to resistivity relationships using airborne EM and boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Adrian A. S.; Christiansen, Anders V.; Møller, Ingelise

    2014-05-01

    We present a study of the relationship between dense airborne SkyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Understanding the geological structures of the subsurface is of great importance to hydrogeological surveys. Large scale geological information can be gathered directly from boreholes or indirectly from large geophysical surveys. Borehole data provides detailed lithological information only at the position of the borehole and, due to the sparse nature of boreholes, they rarely provide sufficient information needed for high-accuracy groundwater models. Airborne geophysical data, on the other hand, provide dense spatial coverage, but are only indirectly bearing information on lithology through the resistivity models. Hitherherto, the integration of the geophysical data into geological and hydrogeological models has been often subjective, largely un-documented and painstakingly manual. This project presents a detailed study of the relationships between resistivity data and lithological borehole data. The purpose is to objectively describe the relationships between lithology and geophysical parameters and to document these relationships. This project has focused on utilizing preexisting datasets from the Danish national borehole database (JUPITER) and national geophysical database (GERDA). The study presented here is from the Norsminde catchment area (208 sq. km), situated in the municipality of Odder, Denmark. The Norsminde area contains a total of 758 boreholes and 106,770 SkyTEM soundings. The large amounts of data make the Norsminde area ideal for studying the relationship between geophysical data and lithological data. The subsurface is discretized into 20 cm horizontal sampling intervals from the highest elevation point to the depth of the deepest borehole. For each of these intervals a resistivity value is calculated at the position of the boreholes using a kriging formulation. The lithology data from the boreholes are then used to

  13. Means and method for protecting apparatus situated in a borehole from closure of the borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, J.P.

    1983-08-16

    Apparatus, situated in a borehole traversing an earth formation, is protected from closure of the borehole by being encased in an inflatable device. Surface equipment inflates and maintains the inflatable device at a sufficient pressure so as to prevent the earth formation from closing in an contacting the apparatus.

  14. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  15. Seismoelectric Wave Measurements in Borehole Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hu, H.; Guan, W.

    2014-12-01

    An experimental system was built in the laboratory based on the electrokinetic theory, which contains a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer ( 1 MS/s, 22 bits ). The electrokinetic measurements are carried out with seismoelectric well logging technique in borehole models at high frequency (90 kHz), and the localized electrokinetic fields that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are clearly observed with monopole source in two sandstone models that are saturated by tap water. The magnitudes of these seismoelectric waves are in the range of 1-100 microvolt, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. The experimental results also show that the seismoelectric well logging signals are related to the permeability of borehole formations. Their amplitudes become larger in the high permeability model, which can be used to measure the permeability of rock formation although no such relationship has ever been provided in existing theories. We also made seismoelectric measurements in a lucite borehole model, but no observable seismoelectric signals were recorded by the electrode. This is not out of our expectation because the lucite formation is not porous and no electrokinetic conversion occurs in such material. However, the electric signal recorded in the Lucite borehole represents the background noise of our measurement system, which is less than 0.5 microvolt. This study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and also presents the range of seismoelectric signals in borehole saturated by tap water that is much closer to the condition of actual formation.

  16. Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.

  17. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde.

  18. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okko, Olli; Hassinen, Pertti; Front, Kai

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurement devices. The report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consist of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogeneous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment.

  19. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  20. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  1. Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass

  2. Borehole Summary Report for C4997 Rotary Drilling, WTP Seismic Boreholes Project, CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Difebbo, Thomas J.

    2007-02-28

    The following Final Geologic Borehole Report briefly describes the drilling of a single borehole at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford, Washington, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. The location of the WTP is illustrated in Figure 1-1. The borehole was designated as “C4997”, and was drilled to obtain seismic and lithologic data for the Pretreatment Facility and High-Level Waste Vitrification Plant in the WTP. Borehole C4997 was drilled and logged to a total depth of 1428 ft below ground surface (bgs) on October 8, 2006, and was located approximately 150 ft from a recently cored borehole, designated as “C4998”. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) determined the locations for C4997, C4998, and other boreholes at the WTP in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Review Panel, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The total depth of Borehole C4997 was also determined by PNNL.

  3. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  4. Borehole data package for well 699-37-47A, PUREX Plant Cribs, CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Spane, F.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new groundwater monitoring well (699-37-47A) was installed in 1996 as a downgradient well near the PUREX Plant Cribs Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility at Hanford. This document provides data from the well drilling and construction operations, as well as data from subsequent characterization of groundwater and sediment samples collected during the drilling process. The data include: well construction documentation, geologist`s borehole logs, results of laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during drilling and of physical tests conducted on sediment samples collected during drilling, borehole geophysics, and results of aquifer testing including slug tests and flowmeter analysis. This well (699-37-47A) was constructed in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-24-00H and interim milestone M-24-35 (Ecology et al. 1994), and was funded under Project W-152.

  5. A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

    1971-01-01

    A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

  6. Simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in axis-symmetric open and cased boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidler, R.; Holliger, K.; Carcione, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Geophysical constraints with regard to permeability are particularly valuable because they tend to bridge the gap in terms of spatial coverage and resolution that exists for corresponding conventional hydrological techniques, such as laboratory measurements and pumping tests. A prominent geophysical technique for estimating the permeability along boreholes is based on the inversion of Stoneley waves. This technique is by now well established for the hydrocarbon exploration purposes, where the corresponding measurements are carried out in open boreholes and in consolidated sediments. Conversely, the sensitivity and potential of Stoneley-wave-based permeability estimates for shallow hydrological applications is still largely unknown. As opposed to their counterparts in hydrocarbon exploration, shallow boreholes tend to be located in unconsolidated alluvial sediments and hence tend to be cased with perforated or non-perforated plastic tubes. The corresponding effects on Stoneley wave attenuation and its sensitivity to in situ permeability of the formation behind the casing are largely unknown and can only be assessed through realistic modeling. To this end, we present a pseudo-spectral numerical modeling code in cylindrical coordinates that allows for the accurate simulation of complex seismic wave propagation phenomena in realistic surficial borehole environments. We employ Fourier operators along the borehole axis and Chebyshev operators in the radial direction. The Chebyshev operators allows for the use of individual computational sub-domains for the fluid-filled, acoustic borehole, the poro-elastic casing, and the poro-elastic formation surrounding the borehole. These computational sub-domains are connected through a domain decomposition method, which is needed to correctly account for the governing boundary conditions and also allows for substantially enhancing the computational efficiency of our simulations.

  7. Evolution of stress-induced borehole breakout in inherently anisotropic rock: Insights from discrete element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, K.; Kwok, C. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanisms controlling the initiation, propagation, and ultimate pattern of borehole breakouts in shale formation when drilled parallel with and perpendicular to beddings. A two-dimensional discrete element model is constructed to explicitly represent the microstructure of inherently anisotropic rocks by inserting a series of individual smooth joints into an assembly of bonded rigid discs. Both isotropic and anisotropic hollow square-shaped samples are generated to represent the wellbores drilled perpendicular to and parallel with beddings at reduced scale. The isotropic model is validated by comparing the stress distribution around borehole wall and along X axis direction with analytical solutions. Effects of different factors including the particle size distribution, borehole diameter, far-field stress anisotropy, and rock anisotropy are systematically evaluated on the stress distribution and borehole breakout propagation. Simulation results reveal that wider particle size distribution results in the local stress perturbations which cause localization of cracks. Reduction of borehole diameter significantly alters the crack failure from tensile to shear and raises the critical pressure. Rock anisotropy plays an important role on the stress state around wellbore which lead to the formation of preferred cracks under hydrostatic stress. Far-field stress anisotropy plays a dominant role in the shape of borehole breakout when drilled perpendicular to beddings while a secondary role when drilled parallel with beddings. Results from this study can provide fundamental insights on the underlying particle-scale mechanisms for previous findings in laboratory and field on borehole stability in anisotropic rock.

  8. Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

  9. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  10. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  11. The influence of natural organic matter on radionuclide mobility under conditions relevant to cementitious disposal of radioactive wastes: A review of direct evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Bryan, Nick D.

    2013-06-01

    A concept for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes involves emplacement within a geological disposal facility, followed by backfilling of the facility with cement. When the closed facility is re-saturated with groundwater, this will create a high pH environment due to dissolution of the cement minerals. Dissolved organic matter (DOM; defined here as naturally occurring organic acids and humin) will be present in the groundwater at a concentration that reflects the host rock environment and the recharge source and pathway. Interactions between DOM and radionuclides may enhance transport away from the facility and are an important consideration in safety performance assessments. This review specifically focuses on studies of DOM-radionuclide interactions at the high pH range that is expected during a repository lifetime. Whilst the vast majority of available data cover binary (DOM-radionuclide) and batch ternary systems (mineral-radionuclide-DOM), this review also covers other potentially important areas, such as reversibility kinetics and redox processes that can be mediated by DOM.

  12. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  13. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

  14. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  15. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  16. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  17. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  18. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  19. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  5. Nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain.

  6. CORK Borehole Observatory Meets NEPTUNE Canada Cabled Observatory: First Experiences and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.; Scherwath, M.

    2011-12-01

    The connection between the CORK ("Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit") borehole observatory monitoring Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) borehole 1026B and the NEPTUNE Canada ocean network in September of 2009 marks the beginning of a new era of cabled subseafloor observations. The electrical power and real-time data access provided by cables improve the sampling rate, life time, and timing accuracy of existing borehole instrumentation. Cabled observatories also provide the opportunity to deploy advanced instruments that consume more power and produce more data than ever before. Using data from the 1026B CORK, we demonstrate how the higher sampling rate of cabled CORK observatories enables us to study phenomena like ocean weather and hydrologic responses to seismic waves. In an outlook we show how CORKs and new borehole instruments-planned for future connection to the NEPTUNE Canada ocean network-can help to yield critical information on the accumulation of stress and resulting strain of plate-scale crustal movements. In the future, these CORKs and new geodetic borehole instrumentation will provide a time-series of strain signals associated with the Cascadia subduction zone that would not have been possible with remote sensing or land-based monitoring. These CORKs will not only represent a new approach for earthquake research but the high-frequency, real-time data could also directly contribute to earthquake and tsunami early warning systems.

  7. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  8. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  9. Borehole Geophysics, Hydraulic Characteristics and Chemistry of Groundwater Flow in Fractured Granite With Very Low Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, J.; Rukavickova, L.; Paces, T.

    2005-12-01

    Three test boreholes 10.9 and 10.5 meters apart were drilled in a compact granite at locality Podles' in the Bohemian Massif of central Europe. The depths of the drill boreholes were 349, 300 and 296 m. The location of the boreholes form a triangle. The main goal of this study was to determine the degree to which the very compact granite is fractured and what is the hydraulic conductivity of the fracture system. A combination of neutron log, electrical resistivity logs, gama gama log, fluid-resistivity log, and acoustic log was used to test the function of the fracture system. The hydraulic connection among the boreholes was determined from the fluid-resistivity log using injected salt as a tracer. The pressure communication through fractures among boreholes was investigated by a set of water pressure tests (WPT) in one borehole with simultaneous monitoring of responses in the other two holes equipped by a multipacker system. The connection of selected permeable fracture systems was verified by a combination of hydraulic stress tests in one borehole and simultaneous fluid-resistivity logging in other two boreholes. Indication of salt in water in adjoining boreholes was registered as anomalies on curves of the fluid-resistivity record. Several communications between boreholes were along a horizontal level, however, some connections were through combination of both horizontal and vertical fractures. The hydraulic connection between two of the boreholes was fast and straightforward. The connection with the third borehole was inexpressive. This difference was due to the position of the boreholes with regard to the direction of main fractures and the direction of natural groundwater flow. All fractures were identified using acoustic tele-viewer and inspection of core. The density of the fractures varied with depth. The density was 3 fractures per meter near surface, the density dropped to 0.9 fractures per meter at the depth of 80 m. Between 80 and 300 m, the density

  10. Method for locating underground anomalies by diffraction of electromagnetic waves passing between spaced boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Lytle, R. Jeffrey; Lager, Darrel L.; Laine, Edwin F.; Davis, Donald T.

    1979-01-01

    Underground anomalies or discontinuities, such as holes, tunnels, and caverns, are located by lowering an electromagnetic signal transmitting antenna down one borehole and a receiving antenna down another, the ground to be surveyed for anomalies being situated between the boreholes. Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment associated with the antennas is activated and the antennas are lowered in unison at the same rate down their respective boreholes a plurality of times, each time with the receiving antenna at a different level with respect to the transmitting antenna. The transmitted electromagnetic waves diffract at each edge of an anomaly. This causes minimal signal reception at the receiving antenna. Triangulation of the straight lines between the antennas for the depths at which the signal minimums are detected precisely locates the anomaly. Alternatively, phase shifts of the transmitted waves may be detected to locate an anomaly, the phase shift being distinctive for the waves directed at the anomaly.

  11. Update to Assessment of Direct Disposal in Unsaturated Tuff of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Waste Owned by U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    P. D. Wheatley; R. P. Rechard

    1998-09-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to provide information and guidance to the Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) about the level of characterization necessary to dispose of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The disposal option modeled was codisposal of DOE SNF with defense high-level waste (DHLW). A specific goal was to demonstrate the influence of DOE SNF, expected to be minor, in a predominately commercial repository using modeling conditions similar to those currently assumed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). A performance assessment (PA) was chosen as the method of analysis. The performance metric for this analysis (referred to as the 1997 PA) was dose to an individual; the time period of interest was 100,000 yr. Results indicated that cumulative releases of 99Tc and 237Np (primary contributors to human dose) from commercial SNF exceed those of DOE SNF both on a per MTHM and per package basis. Thus, if commercial SNF can meet regulatory performance criteria for dose to an individual, then the DOE SNF can also meet the criteria. This result is due in large part to lower burnup of the DOE SNF (less time for irradiation) and to the DOE SNF's small percentage of the total activity (1.5%) and mass (3.8%) of waste in the potential repository. Consistent with the analyses performed for the YMP, the 1997 PA assumed all cladding as failed, which also contributed to the relatively poor performance of commercial SNF compared to DOE SNF.

  12. High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J.F.; Chu, T.Y.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    High Energy Gas Fracturing is a tailored pulse fracturing technique which uses propellants to obtain controlled fracture initiation and extension. Borehole pressurization rates can be tailored, by suitable choice of propellants, to produce four or eight fractures radiating from the wellbore. High Energy Gas Fracture (HEGF) research is conducted at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in a tunnel complex where experiments can be done under realistic in situ stress conditions (1400 psi (9.7 MPa) overburden stress). Pressure measurements are made in the test borehole during all fracturing experiments. Experiments are mined back to provide direct observation of fracturing obtained. The initial objective of HEGF research was to develop multiple fracturing technology for application in gas well stimulation. HEGF research at NTS and in Devonian shale demonstration tests has resulted in a completed technology for multiple fracturing in uncased, liquid-free wellbores. Current resarch is directed toward extending the technique to liquid-filled boreholes for application in geothermal in addition to gas and oil wells. For liquid-free boreholes, multiple fracturing is specified in terms of pressure risetime required for a given borehole diameter. Propellants are mixed to achieve the desired risetime using a semiempirical mixing equation. The same techniques were successfully applied to fracturing in liquid-filled wellbores. However, the addition of liquid in the borehole results in a significantly more complicated fracturing behavior. Hydrodynamic effects are significant. Multiple fractures are initiated but only some propagated. Multiple- and hydraulic-type fracturing and wellbore crushing have been observed in the same experiment. The potential of using HEGB for geothermal well stimulation has been demonstrated through the present experiments. 18 refs., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Video borehole depth measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Utasi, J.G.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described of determining penetration of a drill string into the earth utilizing an element of a drilling rig, comprising: providing a target on the element of the drill rig; positioning a video camera at a remote location relative to the drill rig placing the video camera within a waterproof housing at the remote location; directing the video camera at the target; and tracking the movement of the target with the drill string into the earth.

  14. Hydrogeologic Characterization of Fractured Crystalline Bedrock on the Southern Part of Manhattan, New York, Using Advanced Borehole Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, F.; Chu, A.; Joesten, P. K.; Lane, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT. Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to assess the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y. The majority of boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock, and had an average depth of 591 ft (180 m) below land surface (BLS). In this study we use a combination of advanced and conventional borehole geophysical logs, and hydraulic measurements to characterize the fractured-rock ground-water flow system in southern Manhattan, N.Y. Borehole-geophysical logs collected in this study included natural gamma, single-point-resistance (SPR), short-normal resistivity (R), mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, specific conductance (SpC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, redox, heat-pulse flowmeter (at eight selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer (ATV and OTV), and directional borehole radar (at 23 selected boreholes). A new geophysical probe that collects multiple fluid parameters, included fluid- temperature, SpC, DO, pH, and redox logs; these were used to help delineate transmissive fractures in the boreholes. All boreholes penetrated moderately fractured bedrock that contained medium and large fractures. A total of 208 large fractures were delineated in the 31 boreholes logged with the OTV. Stereonet analysis of the large fractures indicates most are part of a subhorizontal population cluster with a mean orientation of N43 degrees E, 07 degrees SE and a smaller secondary population cluster dipping toward the northwest. A total of 53 faults were delineated with two major population clusters--one with a mean orientation of N12 degrees W, 66 degrees W and the other with a mean orientation of N11 degrees W, 70 degrees E. Foliation was fairly consistent throughout the study area with dip azimuths ranging from northwest to southwest and dip angles ranging from 30 to 70 degrees

  15. Evaluation of cross borehole tests at selected wells in the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite at the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.A.; McMaster, B.W.; Desmarais, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located on or adjacent to the karstic Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. These formations receive contaminants from nearby disposal sites, and transport of these contaminants through the formations can be quite rapid due to the karst flow system. Groups of wells, aligned perpendicular to strike, were drilled to investigate the characteristics of the Cmn, and these wells are identified as Pickets. In order to evaluate transport processes through the karst aquifer, the formations must be characterized. As one component of this characterization effort, cross borehole tests were conducted where water was injected into one well at a site, and water level responses were monitored in nearby wells to determine the directions in which quick flow is more dominant. The ultimate objective of the studies of the Cmn is to characterize the hydrologic characteristics of the karst aquifer and to identify the generalized configuration of the conduit systems and portions subject to a significant quick flow component (i.e., higher hydraulic conductivity zones). The resultant conceptual model will be useful in constructing numerical models to be used to predict flow paths.

  16. Hydrologic test plan for the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.C.

    1993-09-30

    Hydrologic tests are planned at seven wells that will be drilled at the proposed Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility (ERDF). These wells are supporting hydrologic, geologic, and hydrochemical characterization at this new facility. Hydrologic testing will consist of instantaneous slug tests, slug interference tests, step-drawdown tests, and constant rate discharge tests (generally single-well). These test results and later groundwater monitoring data will be used to determine groundwater flow directions, flow rates, and the chemical makeup of the groundwater below the proposed ERDF. The seven wells will be drilled in two phases. In Phase I four wells will be drilled and tested: Two to the top of the uppermost aquifer (water table) and two as characterization boreholes to the top of basalt. The Phase I wells are located in the northern portion of the proposed ERDF site (699-32-72, 699-SDF-6, -7 and -8) (Figure 1). If Phase II drilling proceeds, the remaining three wells will be installed and tested (two deep and one shallow). A phased approach to drilling is warranted because of current uncertainty in the land use requirements at the proposed ERDF.

  17. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  18. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  19. Stress Damage in Borehole and Rock Cores; Developing New Tools to Update the Stress Map of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Q.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I. S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of in situ stress enables us to determine the optimum borehole trajectory, predict fluid migration, and plan appropriately for geothermal and hydrocarbon production. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the state of stress in the Earth in order to design and efficiently operate engineered geothermal systems. This need motivates us to develop a new 3D model of stress for Alberta. This project mainly consists of three categories: investigating the impacts of in situ stress on borehole stability, fracture trajectory modelling and determining the stress state over an area in the northern part of Alberta. To date, we have created a MATLAB based program to calculate the stress concentrations for an arbitrarily oriented borehole in an isotropic or an arbitrarily oriented anisotropic medium subject to stress. The input to this model comes from static rock properties provided by measurements on a shale sample in the laboratory of our group. The result helps us to study the effects of rock material anisotropy on stress distribution, and it also shows the direction in which borehole failure is likely to grow. However, as the in situ stress is almost impossible to measure directly, we studied how fracture orientations identified from the borehole image log helps us to constrain in situ stress magnitudes and orientations. Moreover, based on the Mohr-Column criteria, we further assessed the tendency for both borehole tensile failure and compressive failure to occur in an isotropic formation as a function of the upper bound of rock strength and borehole fluid pressure limitations under a variety of stress states. For a given stress state and borehole orientation, tensile fracture can be tracked in the MATLAB program based on the assumption that tensile fractures are formed under pure tension. (This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner

  20. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10‑7-10‑8 m/s and that of influx is about 10‑4-10‑1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  1. Borehole measurement of NMR characteristics of earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberger, R.L.; Griffin, D.D.; Fukuhara, M.; Sezginer, A.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes an apparatus for investigating a characteristic of earth formation traversed by a borehole, comprising a body adapted for longitudinal movement in the borehole. It comprises: first means for producing a static and substantially homogeneous magnetic field in a volume of the formation directed to one side of the body; second means for radiating the volume of formation with oscillating magnetic fields and for detecting signals representative of nuclear magnetic precession of a population of particles in the formation, the second means including: antenna means; circuit means for driving the antenna means to produce oscillating magnetic fields at a frequency in the neighborhood of the NMR precession frequency of the population of particles in the volume of the formation; and Q-switching means for rapidly switching the Q value of the antenna means form a very high value to a low value, the Q-switching means comprising a field effect transistor, and optical-electronic means for switching the transistor on and off.

  2. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the disposed... must direct surface water drainage away from disposal units at velocities and gradients which will not... be designed to minimize to the extent practicable the contact of water with waste during storage,...

  4. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  5. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  6. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes

    1985-01-01

    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  7. High-precision multicomponent borehole deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.

    1984-12-01

    An instrument capable of deep borehole measurement of vector plane strain to 0.3 nstrain and tilt to 1.0 nrad has been developed for deployment in crustal deformation and earthquake prediction studies. The instrument has been deployed in California where shear strains dominate the deformation. The 125-mm-diam package is grouted in 175-mm boreholes at depths of approximately 200 m. The wall thickness and the grout thickness are chosen to match instrument strength to expected rock parameters. The instrument is capable of flat response from dc to 10 Hz on any single channel. The electronics package is stable to three parts in 108 over the temperature range 10 to 45° C. Reliable shear strain data is available immediately on installation when simple volume strain meters show only bond curing effects or thermal recovery signals.

  8. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  9. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  10. Borehole fracture detection using magnetic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for detecting fractures in a formation penetrated by a borehole wherein the fracture is first filled with a magnetic material and the formation then logged with an instrument that responds to the earth's magnetic field. The fracture can be filled with a magnetic material by including it in the drilling mud when the well is drilled and changing the mud system before logging. The logging tool can comprise a simple compass or a magnetometer.

  11. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  12. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  13. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.; Descz-Pan, M.

    1995-12-31

    We have assessed the feasibility of borehole to surface electromagnetic measurements for fluid injection monitoring. To do this we performed a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) experiment at the University of California Richmond Field Station where a saline water injection zone was created at a subsurface depth of 30 meters. The methodology used is quite similar to the conventional seismic (VSP) procedure for surface to borehole measurements. In our case however, the transmitter was located in a PVC cased borehole while the receivers were deployed on the surface. With a carefully designed system operating at 9.6 kHz we were able to make measurements accurate to 1 % in amplitude and 1 degree in phase. The data profiles at surface were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. Measurements were made at 5 m intervals. Although the VEMP process is quite vulnerable to near surface conductivity anomalies we readily detected the flat tabular target zone which was about 3 m thick and covered an area of about 120 M{sup 2}.

  14. Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Daughton, Christian G

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program--overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment--additional, collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the second of two parts describing the "green pharmacy") I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues associated with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the first time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs. PMID:12727607

  15. Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program--overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment--additional, collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the second of two parts describing the "green pharmacy") I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues associated with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the first time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs. PMID:12727607

  16. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  17. Geohydrologic assessment of fractured crystalline bedrock on the southern part of Manhattan, New York, through the use of advanced borehole geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, F.; Chu, A.; Joesten, P.K.; Lane, J.W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to assess the geohydrology of fractured crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, NY in preparation of the construction of a new water tunnel. The study area is located in a highly urbanized part of New York City. The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that has an overall southwest-to northwest-dipping foliation. Most of the fractures intersected are nearly horizontal or have moderate- to high-angle northwest or eastward dip azimuths. Heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under nonpumping (ambient) and pumping conditions, together with other geophysical logs, delineated transmissive fracture zones in each borehole. Water-level and flowmeter data suggest the fractured-rock ground-water-flow system is interconnected. The 60 MHz directional borehole-radar logs delineated the location and orientation of several radar reflectors that did not intersect the projection of the borehole. A total of 53 faults intersected by the boreholes have mean orientation populations of N12??W, 66??W and N11??W, 70??E. A total of 77 transmissive fractures delineated using the heat-pulse flowmeter have mean orientations of N11??E, 14??SE (majority) and N23??E, 57??NW (minority). The transmissivity of the bedrock boreholes ranged from 0.7 to 870 feet squared (ft2) per day (0.07 to 81 metres squared (m2) per day). ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geophysical Prospecting.

  18. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  19. Geothermics of Climate Change: Linking Ground and Air Temperature Change Through Repeat Temperature Measurements in Boreholes From Northwest Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain important information about the Earth's changing surface temperature and provide a direct method for reconstructing surface temperature variations over the past several centuries. Differences between temperature-depth logs, on annual to decadal timescales, provide an important test of borehole thermometry. Twelve temperature-depth logs at the northwestern Utah Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO) borehole, GC-1, seven at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, were acquired between the years 1978 and 2007. Differences in temperature logs extend to about 100 m. Below 100 m, differences between temperature logs are effectively zero. SAT data from the meteorological station at EPO and nearby Historical Climatology Network stations are used as a forcing function at the Earth's surface and diffused into the subsurface. These transients reproduce observed subsurface temperature variations reasonably well at each borehole. Comparisons between repeated temperature-depth profiles and diffused SAT transients over the same time period offer strong support for using GST histories to complement SAT data and multi-proxy reconstructions in climate change studies.

  20. Experimental and numerical approaches for application of density and thermal neutron tools in slim borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Won, Byeongho; Kim, Jongman

    2015-04-01

    To perform the groundwater investigation, geological surveys, geotechnical investigation, generally 3 inches diameter borehole is drilled, and PVC or steel casing having a 50 mm inner diameter is installed to prevent for collapse borehole in the case of shallow unconsolidated formation or fractured zone. In this case, well loggings for formation evaluation have many limitations, and especially radioactive tools having large diameter are basically difficult to apply. Available radioactive logs can be applied within the casing are natural gamma ray log, density log and neutron logs. Natural gamma ray log is used for estimation of shale volume, stratigraphic and facies classification such as shale and sandstone, and almost borehole environment can be corrected using manufactured charts. In the case of the small diameter borehole such as 50 mm diameter cased borehole, we should apply the small diameter radioactive logging tools. However the measured data is generally count per second. So we should convert the measured count per second to meaningful physical properties such as density or neutron porosity according to the strength of radioactive source, the distance between the source and the detector, the mud and casing type, and so on. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to convert the measured count per second to density and neutron porosity for density and neutron logs logging tools having one detector. 1Ci Am-Be single neutron logs were compared using 3Ci Am-Be dual neutron logs in the same boreholes, and empirical relationship between the single and dual neutron log is derived. The diameter and lithology of target boreholes are 3 inches and granite, sandstone, mud, etc. The response characteristics for a very small diameter and no orientation of the radioactive source density logging (4 pi omni-directional source) were analyzed using the MCNP. Numerical modeling was performed while varying the distance of the radioactive source - detector

  1. Borehole Paleoclimatology: In search of a minimum depth criterion for terrestrial borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    One important uncertainty in borehole paleoclimatology that has been overlooked is the degree to which ground surface temperature (GST) reconstructions depend on the maximum depth of the profile. Because the vast majority of measured borehole temperature profiles are acquired from boreholes of opportunity, the maximum measurement depth in data used for paleoclimatic studies varies considerably (beginning at depths as shallow as 100-150 m and extending to depths of more than 1 km). The depth of the borehole is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. Here we illustrate how the minimum depth of a temperature-depth profile impacts the estimation of the climatic transient and the resultant GST reconstruction. In particular, we attempt to quantitatively illustrate the effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of borehole temperature logs of different depths. Our results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. We show that borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths provide the most robust GST reconstructions and are preferable for inferring past climatic variations at the ground surface. Furthermore, we find that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths

  2. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  3. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  4. Method and apparatus for multipole acoustic wave borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Winbow, G.A.; Baker, L.J.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described for determining the radial thickness of an invaded zone of an earth formation surrounding a borehole where a virgin earth formation surrounds the borehole and is separated from the borehole by the invaded zone. The method comprises: (a) transmitting a 2/sup n/-pole P-wave from a point in the borehole into the earth formation surrounding the borehole, n being an integer greater than zero; (b) measuring the P-wave velocity of a zone of the earth formation located at a first radial distance from the borehole by detecting the arrival of the 2/sup n/-pole P-wave at a first location and at a second location in the borehole spaced longitudinally along the borehole from the point of transmission and from each other. The second location is spaced farther from the point of transmission than is the first location, the time arrival between the detections of the 2/sup n/-pole P-wave arrival is measured at the first location and the second location; and (c) repeating the steps (a) and (b) with successively increased longitudinal spacings between the point of transmission and the first location and between the point of transmission and the second location to measure the P-wave velocities of zones of the earth formation located successively radially farther away from the borehole.

  5. Evidence and characteristics of a diverse and metabolically active microbial community in deep subsurface clay borehole water.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Katinka; Moors, Hugo; Boven, Patrick; Leys, Natalie

    2013-12-01

    The Boom Clay in Belgium is investigated in the context of geological nuclear waste disposal, making use of the High Activity Disposal Experimental Site (HADES) underground research facility. This facility, located in the Boom Clay at a depth of 225 m below the surface, offers a unique access to a microbial community in an environment, of which all geological and geochemical characteristics are being thoroughly studied. This study presents the first elaborate description of a microbial community in water samples retrieved from a Boom Clay piezometer (borehole water). Using an integrated approach of microscopy, metagenomics, activity screening and cultivation, the presence and activity of this community are disclosed. Despite the presumed low-energy environment, microscopy and molecular analyses show a large bacterial diversity and richness, tending to correlate positively with the organic matter content of the environment. Among 10 borehole water samples, a core bacterial community comprising seven bacterial phyla is defined, including both aerobic and anaerobic genera with a range of metabolic preferences. In addition, a corresponding large fraction of this community is found cultivable and active. In conclusion, this study shows the possibility of a microbial community of relative complexity to persist in subsurface Boom Clay borehole water. PMID:23802615

  6. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  7. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  8. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic

  9. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  10. A Numerical Analysis of 3D EM Imaging from a Single Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, David L.; Wilt, Michael J.

    1999-07-27

    In this study we analyze the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) imaging from a single borehole. The proposed logging tool consists of three mutually orthogonal magnetic dipole sources and multiple three component magnetic field receivers. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important sensor configuration for providing 3D geological information about the borehole consists of a transmitter with moment aligned parallel to the axis of the borehole, and receivers aligned perpendicular to the axis. The standard coaxial logging configuration provides the greatest depth of sensitivity compared to other configurations, but offers no information regarding 3D structure. Two other tool configurations in which both the source and receiver are aligned perpendicular to the borehole axis provide some directional information and therefore better image resolution, but not true 3D information. A 3D inversion algorithm has been employed to demonstrate the plausibility of 3D inversion using data collected with the proposed logging tool. This study demonstrates that an increase in image resolution results when three orthogonal sources are incorporated into the logging tool rather than a single axially aligned source.

  11. Threshold of Breakout Formation: Stress Orientations and the Mechanics Borehole Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Conin, M.; Flemings, P. B.; Urgeles, R.; Iturrino, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    Borehole breakouts in sedimentary sections at continental margins are common in ODP/IODP holes with resistivity imaging logs. Some examples show horizontally opposed low resistivity (conductive) zones that have been interpreted as breakouts and yield horizontal stress directions interpretable in terms of regional tectonics. Other examples show bilateral high resistivity anomalies that may represent incipient breakouts. These “resistive” breakouts show trends consistent with the more typical “conductive” breakouts. Resistive breakouts in the Gulf of Mexico show predicted hoop stresses around the borehole at well beyond failure, primarily because of the material is very weak and differential fluid pressure between the formation and the hole is high. Experiments on the sediments in this example indicate a relatively high strain before failure and a nearly perfectly plastic response after failure. Thus, the initial breakout process actually involves initial bulging into the borehole that extends the breakout towards the resistivity tool causing a high resistivity response. The small difference between initial and peak strength inhibits spallation into the borehole. “Resistive” breakouts occur in a number of ODP/IODP holes at circumPacific subduction zones and can we used to infer stress orientations along with the traditional “conductive” breakouts once the eye is tuned to their recognition. Overall in ODP/IODP holes breakouts, both incipient and evolved, comprise a reliable indicator of currently active horizontal stresses.

  12. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  13. Cost of meeting geothermal liquid effluent disposal regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Price, B.A.; Rogers, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Background information is presented on the characteristics of liquid wastes and the available disposal options. Regulations that may directly or indirectly influence liquid waste disposal are reviewed. An assessment of the available wastewater-treatment systems is provided. A case study of expected liquid-waste-treatment and disposal costs is summarized. (MHR)

  14. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  15. Optical Seismometers: Borehole and Vault Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, J. D.; Berger, J.; Wyatt, F. K.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed an interferometric seismometer which uses optics instead of electronics to infer ground motion. The sensor, assembled exclusively from glass and metal materials, could be deployed into deep boreholes where temperatures often exceed 150 °C. Our first prototype consists of a leaf-spring suspension and an optical-fiber-linked interferometer, which monitors vertical displacement of the seismic mass. Several years of testing and improvements have increased its performance at both low (e.g., tidal) and high (tens of Hz) frequencies. The prototype sensor performs as well as or better than most observatory grade seismometers and has an overall observed dynamic range of 109 or 30 bits of resolution (based on its observed noise floor and its maximum mass velocity). We have also built a simple horizontal component prototype which consists of a mass suspended from a vertical pendulum whose flexure is fabricated from a single block of material. Just as our vertical seismometer can serve as a gravity meter, the horizontal prototype can serve as a tiltmeter (both of their responses are flat to DC). Tests are currently being conducted with the new sensor in our Piñon Flat Seismic Test Facility (California). One advantage of our optical displacement transducer is its dynamic range, which relaxes the requirement that the horizontal component sensor be level, simplifying borehole installations. We have already achieved a dynamic range of ±5° and we expect that a range of ±10° is possible with some effort.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework and borehole yields in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapaah-Siakwan, S.; Gyau-Boakye, P.

    2000-08-01

    In Ghana, 68% of the population live in rural communities, which are scattered and remote. Groundwater is the most feasible source of potable water supply for most of these dispersed and remote settlements. To meet the present and future challenges of population expansion vis-à-vis the observed declining rainfall in most parts of Africa including Ghana, it is necessary to assess, efficiently manage, and utilize the groundwater resources. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe the hydrogeologic framework and analyze borehole yields as part of the groundwater-resources assessment of Ghana. The hydrogeologic units are broadly categorized as: (1) the Basement Complex (crystalline rocks), which underlies about 54% of the country; (2) the Voltaian System, which underlies about 45%; and (3) the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic sedimentary strata (Coastal Provinces), which underlie the remaining 1% of the country. The Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces have higher groundwater potential than the Voltaian System. This is particularly significant, because the Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces underlie the most densely populated areas of the country and can hence be tapped for human use. The average borehole yields of the Basement Complex, the Coastal Provinces and the Voltaian System range from 2.7-12.7, 3.9-15.6, and 6.2-8.5 m3/h, respectively.

  17. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  18. Effective Stress and Permeability Redistributions Induced by Successive Roadway and Borehole Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengyong; Zhou, Fubao; Liu, Yingke; Xia, Tongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Methane extraction from in-seam boreholes is the main approach for recovering methane in China. However, the methane concentration for this method is generally lower than 30 %, which incurs a risk of methane outbursts during pipeline transportation. To increase the methane concentration, we first conducted permeability experiments to investigate the relationships between the permeability and the effective stress at different stages in the complete effective stress-strain process. We then adopted FLAC3D software to calculate the stress distributions around roadways and boreholes after their consecutive excavations and thereby divided the coal mass around the roadway and borehole according to different effective stress stages to understand the gas flow characteristics. The results show that the coal mass along the radial direction of the roadway and borehole can be sequentially divided into four zones, including the full flow zone (FFZ), the transitive flow zone (TFZ), the flow-shielding zone (FSZ), and the in situ rock flow zone (IRFZ), which have been proven correct by field experiments. The methane in the IRFZ was difficult to extract because of the low permeability of coal mass in this zone. The permeability of the FSZ was lower than that of the IRFZ. The permeability along the interface between the FSZ and TFZ was nearly one time as low as that of the IRFZ, while the permeability of the FFZ was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the IRFZ. This four-zone division demonstrates the decaying mechanism of methane extraction concentration and flow in the in-seam borehole and can provide theoretical guidance for improvement of methane extraction.

  19. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  1. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  2. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  3. Results of 1998 spectral gamma-ray monitoring of boreholes at the 216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-12 crib

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.G.; Randall, R.R.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the results of fiscal year 1998 vadose zone monitoring of three inactive liquid waste disposal facilities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant: the 216-Z-1A tile field, the 216-Z-9 trench, and the 216-Z-12 crib. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray logging of 21 boreholes. This work was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in conjunction with Three Rivers Scientific and Waste management Federal Services, inc. Northwest Operations. These three liquid waste disposal facilities were chosen for monitoring because they were identified as containing some of the most significant sources of radioactive contamination in the Hanford Site vadose zone. The basic question addressed by this logging activity is ``Has the configuration of subsurface contamination changed since it was last measured?`` Previous borehole logging and laboratory analyses provide the baseline data to help answer this question.

  4. Numerical simulation of flow in deep open boreholes in a coastal freshwater lens, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    The Pearl Harbor aquifer in southern O‘ahu is one of the most important sources of freshwater in Hawai‘i. A thick freshwater lens overlays brackish and saltwater in this coastal aquifer. Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells (DMWs) commonly are used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness. However, vertical flow in DMWs can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer or in an aquifer without a DWM. Substantial borehole flow and displacement of salinity in DMWs over several hundred feet have been observed in the Pearl Harbor aquifer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from DMWs. A numerical modeling approach incorporated aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge and withdrawal rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with both the natural regional flow system and groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results indicate that, with all other factors being equal, greater withdrawal rates, closer withdrawal locations, or higher hydraulic conductivities of the well cause greater borehole flow and displacement of salinity in the well. Borehole flow caused by the natural groundwater-flow system is five orders of magnitude greater than vertical flow in a homogeneous aquifer, and borehole-flow directions are consistent with the regional flow system: downward flow in inland recharge areas and upward flow in coastal discharge areas. Displacement of salinity inside the DMWs associated with the regional groundwater-flow system ranges from less than 1 to 220 ft, depending on the location and assumed hydraulic conductivity of the well. For example, upward displacements of the 2 percent and 50 percent salinity depths in a well in the coastal discharge part of the flow system are 17 and 4.4 ft, respectively, and the average salinity difference between aquifer and borehole is 0

  5. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  6. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, Ronald D.; Heck, G. Michael; Kohler, Stewart M.; Watts, Alfred C.

    1991-01-01

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  7. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes a wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and annular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  8. Borehole-to-borehole geophysical methods applied to investigations of high level waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the use of borehole to borehole geophysical measurements to detect geological discontinuities in High Level Waste (HLW) repository sites. The need for these techniques arises from: (a) the requirement that a HLW repository's characteristics and projected performance be known with a high degree of confidence; and (b) the inadequacy of other geophysical methods in mapping fractures. Probing configurations which can be used to characterize HLW sites are described. Results from experiments in which these techniques were applied to problems similar to those expected at repository sites are briefly discussed. The use of a procedure designed to reduce uncertainty associated with all geophysical exploration techniques is proposed; key components of the procedure are defined.

  9. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  10. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.N.

    1983-05-10

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  11. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.N.

    1981-06-09

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  12. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  13. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  14. Multiple fracturing experiments: propellant and borehole considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1982-01-01

    The technology for multiple fracturing of a wellbore, using progressively burning propellants, is being developed to enhance natural gas recovery. Multiple fracturing appears especially attractive for stimulating naturally fractured reservoirs such as Devonian shales where it is expected to effectively intersect existing fractures and connect them to a wellbore. Previous experiments and modeling efforts defined pressure risetimes required for multiple fracturing as a function of borehole diameter, but identified only a weak dependence on peak pressure attained. Typically, from four to eight equally spaced major fractures occur as a function of pressure risetime and in situ stress orientation. The present experiments address propellant and rock response considerations required to achieve the desired pressure risetimes for reliable multiple fracturing.

  15. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis associated with a borehole supply.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D; Allaby, M; Crook, S; Casemore, D; Healing, T D; Soltanpoor, N; Hill, S; Hooper, W

    1995-06-23

    From 1 April to 31 May 1993, 64 cases of cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed within one district health authority. Forty were classified as primary cases, 35 of whom were clustered in an area supplied by a discrete public water supply that supplied the majority of homes in a large town. Most of the water in this supply is abstracted from boreholes and some is filtered before distribution. Households that received mains water from this supply were 15 times more likely to be affected than households nearby that received water from other sources. A case control study demonstrated a dose response relationship between consumption of water obtained from the town supply and risk of illness. Very low concentrations of cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in the water supply on four occasions several weeks after the outbreak. Environmental investigation failed to reveal a likely mechanism for contamination of the water supply. PMID:7613587

  16. Borehole plugging materials development program, report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Walley, D.M.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-02-01

    The data for 2 yr of grout mixtures durability studies developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are reported. In addition, data for 1 yr of durability studies of grout mixture field samples used to plug the ERDA No. 10 exploratory drill hole near the WIPP site are included. The grout samples and the data do not show any evidence of deterioration during the durability studies that include exposure to brine at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The data include strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, expansion, weight change, porosity, permeability, bond strength, chemical analysis of cements, and petrographic examinations. The work was performed at the Concrete Division of the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The work is continuing at WES.

  17. Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. F.

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

  18. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  19. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  20. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-02-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 ybp. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  1. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-07-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 yr BP. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2002-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  4. Two EXCEL macros for tracing deviated boreholes using cubic splines and calculation of formation depth and thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkaya, Sait Ismail

    1995-08-01

    Two short EXCEL function macros are presented for calculation of borehole deviation, true vertical thickness, and true stratigraphic thickness. The function macros can be used as regular EXCEL functions. The calling formula, arguments, and their type are described and application is demonstrated on an example data set. The borehole bearing and drift between any two observation points are estimated by fitting a cubic spline curve to three adjacent observation points at a time. The macro can cope with horizontal wells. The macro expects dip; dip direction at formation tops; and x, y, and z components of the distance from point P 1 to point P 2 where P 1 and P 2 are the intersections of the borehole with the top and bottom of a formation, respectively. The macro returns true stratigraphic thickness of formations. Coordinates of points P 1 and P 2 are obtained from the results returned by the macro.

  5. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  6. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  7. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  8. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  9. Analysis of borehole televiewer measurements in the Vorotilov drillhole, Russia - First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, K.; Fuchs, K.; Palmer, J.; Roth, F.; Khakhaev, B.N.; Van-Kin, L. E.; Pevzner, L.A.; Hickman, S.; Moos, D.; Zoback, M.D.; Schmitt, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the Eurasian part of the World Stress Map almost the whole region east of the Tornquist-Teisseyre line is terra incognita. The closure of this information gap is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the geodynamics of the Eurasian continent. A detailed analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts has been performed over a 4.1-km-long depth interval in the Vorotilov drillhole (VGS). The borehole is located in the central part of the Russian platform, right in the center of the Vorotilov meteorite impact crater 60 km to the NNE of the city of Nizni Novgorod. An ultrasonic borehole televiewer (BHTV) was used to obtain high-resolution acoustical images from the borehole wall. With an interactive system for analyzing BHTV data the azimuth and shape of borehole breakouts occurring in the depth range of 1.3-4.8 km were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the resulting orientation profile of the breakout azimuths yields an overall direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress SH of N 137??E ?? 15??. Variations of breakout orientation with depth ranging from a few degrees up to more than 90?? are seen on various depth scales. The observed stress direction of N 137??E agrees very well with the average SH orientation of N 145??E in Central Europe. If this measurement is taken as representative for the Russian platform, the stress field in Russia is only slightly rotated in comparison to Central Europe. This can possibly be interpreted as indicative for the stress field to be governed by broad scale tectonic forces, such as a strong contribution from the forces exerted by the collision zone in the Alpine-Himalayan belt and by the Mid-Atlantic ridge.

  10. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2006-10-18

    The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to Tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. Sediments from borehole 299-E27-22 were considered to be background uncontaminated sediments against which to compare contaminated sediments for the C Tank Farm characterization effort. This report also presents our interpretation of the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the A-AX, C and U Waste Management Area field investigation report(a) in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. A core log was generated for both boreholes and a geologic evaluation of all core samples was performed at the time of opening. Aliquots of sediment from the borehole core samples were analyzed and characterized in the laboratory for the following parameters: moisture content, gamma-emitting radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Two key radiocontaminants

  11. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

    1996-05-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

  12. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  13. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Sumstine, Roger L.

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  14. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  15. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from

  16. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  17. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  18. SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component ma...

  19. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2004-09-01

    contaminated boreholes around T-106 do not clearly identify the leading edge of the plume. However, the profiles do collectively suggest that bulk of tank-related fluids (center of mass) still resides in Ringold Formation Taylor Flats member fine-grained sediments. Most of the chemical data, especially the nitrate and technetium-99 distributions with depth, support a flow conceptual model that suggests vertical percolation through the Hanford formation H2 unit near T-106 and then a strong horizontal spreading within the CCUu unit followed by more slow vertical percolation, perhaps via diffusion, into the deeper strata. Slow flushing by enhanced recharge and rapid snow melt events (Feb. 1979) appear to lead to more horizontal movement of the tank fluids downgradient towards C4105. The inventories as a function of depth of potential contaminants of concern, nitrate, technetium, uranium, and chromium, are provided. In-situ Kd values were calculated from water and acid extract measurements. For conservative modeling purposes we recommend using Kd values of 0 mL/g for nitrate, Co-60, and technetium-99, a value of 0.1 mL/g for uranium near borehole C4104 and 10 mL/g for U near borehole C4105, and 1 mL/g for chromium to represent the entire vadose zone profile from the bottoms of the tanks to the water table. A technetium-99 groundwater plume exists northeast and east of T WMA. The highest technetium-99 concentration in fiscal year 2003 was 9,200 pCi/L in well 299-W11-39. The most probable source for the technetium-99 is the T waste management area. Groundwater from wells in the west (upgradient) and north of WMA T appear to be highly influenced by wastes disposed to the cribs and trenches on the west side of the WMA. Groundwater from wells at the northeast corner and the east side of the WMA appears to be evolving towards tank waste that has leaked from T-101 or T-106.

  1. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  2. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  3. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  5. Thermobaric calculation of a steam-thermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishaev, M. G.; Azizov, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    A procedure is proposed for carrying out an approximate analytical calculation of pressure and temperature along a vertical borehole for thermal water with a temperature of 150-320°C taking into account its phase transition into steam. It is shown that both a single-phase flow mode for water and a two-phase flow mode for a mixture of water and steam can appear in the borehole under certain conditions.

  6. Borehole Array Observations of Non-Volcanic Tremor at SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    We report on the observation of non-volcanic tremor made in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth in May, 2005 during the deployment of a multi-level borehole seismic array in the SAFOD main hole. The seismic array consisted of 80 levels of hydraulically-clamped 3-component, 15 Hz omni-directional geophones spaced 15.24 m apart along a 1200 m section of the inclined borehole between 1538 and 2363 m below the ground surface. The array was provided by Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. (P/GSI), and recorded at a sample rate of 4000 sps on 24-bit Geode digital recorders provided by Geometrics, Inc. More than 2 TB of continuous data were recorded during the 2-week deployment. Selected local earthquakes and explosions recorded by the array are available at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center, and the entire unedited data set is available as assembled data at the IRIS Data Management Center. Both data sets are currently in the industry standard SEG2 format. Episodes of non-volcanic tremor are common along this reach of the San Andreas Fault according to Nadeau and Dolenc [2004, DOI: 10.1126/science.1107142], with many originating about 30 km southeast of SAFOD beneath the southern end of the Parkfield segment and northern end of the Simmler segment of the fault. We identified tremor episodes using spectrograms routinely produced by the Northern California Seismic Network (http://quake.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/sgrampark.pl) on which they appear as periods of elevated noise relative to the background. A particularly strong tremor episode occurred on May 10, 2005 between 19:39 and 20:00 UTC. In SAFOD, tremor spectral levels exceed the instrumental noise floor to at least 40 Hz. The spatially unaliased recording of the tremor wavefield on the P/GSI array reveal individual phases that can be tracked continuously across the array. The wavefield is composed of both up- and down-going shear waves that form quasi-stationary interference patterns in which areas of

  7. Surface and borehole electromagnetic imaging of conducting contaminant plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J. G., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component magnetic field detectors are deployed in other boreholes or on the surface. Sources and receivers are typically deployed in a configuration surrounding the region of interest. The goal of this procedure is to image electrical conductivity variations in the earth, much as x-ray tomography is used to image density variations through cross-sections of the body. Although such EM field techniques have been developed and applied, the algorithms for inverting the magnetic field data to produce the desired images of electrical conductivity have not kept pace. One of the main reasons for the lag in the algorithm development has been the fact that the magnetic induction problem is inherently three dimensional; other imaging methods such as x-ray and seismic can make use of two-dimensional approximations that are not too far from reality, but we do not have this luxury in EM induction tomography. In addition, previous field experiments were conducted at controlled test sites that typically do not have much external noise or extensive surface clutter problems often associated with environmental sites. To use the same field techniques in environments more typical of cleanup sites requires a new set of data processing tools to remove the effects of both noise and clutter. The goal of this project is to join theory and experiment to produce enhanced images of electrically conducting fluids underground, allowing better localization of contaminants and improved planning strategies for the subsequent remediation efforts. After explaining the physical context in more detail, this report will summarize the progress made in the first 18 months of this project: (1) on code development and (2) on field tests of

  8. Integrating Ground Penetrating Radar, Electrical Resistivity, Seismic Refraction, and Borehole Data to Image an Alluvial Aquifer in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B. L.; Marshall, S. T.; Anderson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we image the subsurface of a mountain stream floodplain in order to determine the three-dimensional aquifer geometry and degree of hydrologic connectivity. On site borehole data provides detailed information about the subsurface including direct measurements of depth to the water table; however, boreholes are not cost effective over a large area, the existing boreholes only have a penetration depth of ~3 meters, and subsurface stratigraphic features may only be locally present. We therefore combine borehole data with ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction data collected in linear transects perpendicular to the stream in order to effectively image a larger portion of the subsurface in three-dimensions. GPR data images several buried/abandoned channels, but no significant hydrologic barriers, such as clay lenses, have been found. Strong shallow reflectors in GPR data correlate to borehole measurements of water table depth and indicate a relatively flat water table surface. Furthermore, the GPR data show strong reflectors at the bedrock/sedimentary basin interface, which appears to dip towards the river mimicking the nearby surface topography. Resistivity transects also clearly delineate the water table and bedrock interface, reinforcing the GPR results. Seismic refraction data successfully resolves the dipping nature of the bedrock interface beyond the GPR penetration depth. Because bedrock was only encountered in one borehole, integrating the geophysical data provides constraints on overall aquifer volume. Future modeling studies of groundwater dynamics will better represent realistic aquifer properties by utilizing the data gathered here. Our continuing work will involve comparing the effectiveness of each geophysical technique for specific geologic targets, determining which techniques have the best resolution, and expanding the survey region.

  9. Exploring anisotropic seismic property of the seismogenic plate boundary in the Nankai Trough using a seafloor borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Takaesu, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakano, M.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stress state in the vicinity of a seismogenic fault would be a key parameter governing its fault dynamics. Stress analysis in a borehole such as breakout may give stress information, but drilling seismogenic fault at depth is still challenging and it is even more difficult to perform repeated stress measurements for temporal evolution of stress state. Here we consider applying seismic anisotropy as an index of stress state and by observing its temporal change to identify change of stress around the seismogenic fault. In this study, we explored techniques to assess seismic anisotropy in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism, using a borehole seismometer deployed in IODP borehole C0002G, which is located just above the Tonankai earthquake fault. The borehole seismometer is situated at about 900 m below 1966 m deep seafloor, and is operational since January 2013 when the observatory was connected to DONET seafloor cable network. We developed a technique to analyze seismic anisotropy on converted S-wave from microseismic noise records and applied the technique on the borehole seismometer records, by which we expect to evaluate temporal change of anisotropy continuously. We obtained anisotropy of a few percent. We further evaluated depth dependency of anisotropy direction and obtained the difference between the uppermost sedimentary basin and accretionary prism near the plate boundary. We also performed airgun array shooting around the borehole in November 2013 to check validity of the anisotropy result. We applied two different analysis on the airgun records, the one was P-wave seismic anisotropy from the travel time, and the other was S-wave anisotropy using converted S-wave from airgun P-wave. Preliminary results from these analysis were consistent with the microseismic noise analysis. Repeated airgun shooting is planned at the interval of a year or so to evaluate our ability to detect its temporal change.

  10. Method for measurement of azimuth of a borehole while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    DiPersio, R.D.; Cobern, M.E.

    1989-03-21

    A method is described for determining the azimuth angle of a borehole being drilled by instruments contained downhole in the drillstring, including the steps of: sensing with accelerometer means, during a period of nonrotation of the drillstring, the components of Gx, Gy and Gz of the total gravity field Go at the location of the instrument; sensing with magnetometer means, during a period of nonrotation of the drillstring, the components of Hx, Hy and Hz of the total magnetic field Ho at the location of the instrument; the components Gz and Hz being along the axis of the drillstring, the components Gx and the components and Gy being orthogonal to Gz and the components Hx and Hy being orthogonal to Hz; rotating the magnetometer means with the drillstring and obtaining the parameter Hzr which is the Hz component of the magnetic field at the location of the instrument during rotation of the drillstring; determining Ho from values Hx, Hy and Hz sensed during nonrotation of the drillstring; determining the inclination angle of the drillstring; determining the dip angle of the magnetic field; determining the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the axis of the drillstring at the location of the instrument from Ho and Hzr; and determining the azimuth angle.

  11. Hydrologic testing methodology and results from deep basalt boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, S R; Spane, F A; Jackson, R L; Pidcoe, W W

    1982-05-01

    The objective of the hydrologic field-testing program is to provide data for characterization of the groundwater systems wihin the Pasco Basin that are significant to understanding waste isolation. The effort is directed toward characterizing the areal and vertical distributions of hydraulic head, hydraulic properties, and hydrochemistry. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. These models are then used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. The groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site and surrounding area consists of a thick, accordantly layered sequence of basalt flows and associated sedimentary interbed that primarily occur in the upper part of the Columbia River basalt. Permeable horizons of the sequence are associated with the interbeds and the interflow zones within the basalt. The columnar interiors of a flow act as low-permeability aquitards, separating the more-permeable interflows or interbeds. This paper discusses the hydrologic field-gathering activities, specifically, field-testing methodology and test results from deep basalt boreholes.

  12. Borehole seismic in crystalline environment at the COSC-project in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2016-04-01

    -component geophones and a receiver spacing of 2 m over the whole borehole length. As first pre-processing steps, the three component VSP data were decoded and vertically stacked. Afterwards, the shots were merged to get a continuous shot gather. A horizontal rotation was performed, based on the S-wave arrivals. The rotated ZVSP-data show a high signal-to-noise ratio and good data quality. Signal frequencies up to 150 Hz were observed. On the vertical component, clear direct P-wave arrivals are visible. Several P-wave reflections occur below 1600 m logging depth. On both horizontal components, clear direct S-wave arrivals are visible after rotation what suggests that the penetrated rock is anisotropic. In addition, several PS-converted waves can be identified. In order to integrate the borehole data into the 3D surface seismic data, further processing concentrated only on the P-waves. First, deconvolution was applied to sharpen the signals and to suppress multiples. Then the wave field was separated into upgoing and downgoing components by median filtering. Finally, a corridor stack was generated using the upgoing wave field in order to allow correlation with the borehole logging data and the surface seismic data.

  13. Modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-04-01

    Today, the favored option for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes is their burial in mined caverns. As an alternative, the concept of deep disposal by rock melting (DRM) also has received some attention. DRM entails the injection of waste, in a cavity or borehole, 2 to 3 kilometers down in the earth crust. Granitic rocks are the prime candidate medium. The high thermal loading initially will melt the rock surrounding the waste. Following resolidification, a rock/waste matrix is formed, which should provide isolation for many years. The complex thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic aspects of DRM can be studied best by means of numerical models. The models must accommodate the coupling of the physical processes involved, and the temperature dependency of the granite properties, some of which are subject to abrupt discontinuities, during ..cap alpha..-..beta.. phase transition and melting. This paper outlines a strategy for such complex modeling.

  14. Deformation Monitoring by Borehole Geodetic Strainmeter in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Ergintav, Semih; Dogru, Asli; Yilmaz, Onur; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirik, Liz

    2015-04-01

    This project is aimed to study three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation through North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) in Marmara Region, Turkey. Within this project, two borehole observatories consisting of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, tiltmeters, and pore pressure sensors have been deployed in Istanbul. These installations have been supported by Istanbul Development Agency (ISTKA) (financially) and UNAVCO (technically). Istanbul, located near the most active parts of the North Anatolian Fault, has been monitored by different observing techniques such as seismic networks and continuous/survey-mode GPS networks for decades. Borehole strainmeters are very sensitive to deformation in the range of less than a month and can capture signals with superior precision at local spatial scales. In this project, it will be possible to determine the movements precisely which can not be monitored with available measurement systems in the middle and the eastern part of Marmara Sea through NAFS. Our long term objective is to build a borehole monitoring system in the region. By integrating various data obtained from borehole observatories, we expect to get a better understanding of dynamics in the western NAF. In this presentation, we introduce data and ongoing analysis obtained with strainmeters.

  15. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  16. In situ flow testing of a cement borehole seal in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Crouthamel, D.R.; Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1993-12-31

    Exploratory boreholes, shafts and tunnels drilled or excavated prior to or during the construction of a subsurface nuclear repository may create direct passages for radionuclide transport to the biosphere. Waste isolation at the Yucca Mountain repository suite will require that penetrations (boreholes, shafts, etc.) of the geological barrier be sealed, primarily to prevent excessive flow of groundwater and/or air into the emplaced wastes and to retard the migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Cement is being considered as part of multicomponent seals or plugs for the repository due to its relatively low permeability, high strength, longevity, and swelling capacity. Cement or concrete has long been used as a hydrological barrier in underground mines and in the oil and gas industry. However, insufficient tests data exists about the hydraulic performance of cement plugs under in-situ conditions (i.e. as affected by scale, and field installation and environment), and particularly about their long-term sealing effectiveness. The objectives of the research are to determine the hydraulic conductivities of the cement plug, host stuff, and their interface, and to identify the effects of size and field installation on the borehole plug performance.

  17. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  18. Tidal calibration of Plate Boundary Observatory borehole strainmeters: Roles of vertical and shear coupling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    A multicomponent borehole strainmeter directly measures changes in the diameter of its cylindrical housing at several azimuths. To transform these measurements to formation strains requires a calibration matrix, which must be estimated by analyzing the installed strainmeter's response to known strains. Typically, theoretical calculations of Earth tidal strains serve as the known strains. This paper carries out such an analysis for 12 Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters, postulating that each of the strainmeters' four gauges responds ("couples") to all three horizontal components of the formation strain tensor, as well as to vertical strain. Orientation corrections are also estimated. The fourth extensometer in each PBO strainmeter provides redundant information used to reduce the chance that coupling coefficients could be misleadingly fit to inappropriate theoretical tides. Satisfactory fits between observed and theoretically calculated tides were obtained for three PBO strainmeters in California, where the calculated tides are corroborated by other instrumentation, as well as for six strainmeters in Oregon and Washington, where no other instruments have ever recorded Earth tidal strain. Several strainmeters have unexpectedly large coupling coefficients for vertical strain, which increases the strainmeter's response to atmospheric pressure. Vertical coupling diminishes, or even changes the sign of, the apparent response to areal strain caused by Earth tides or deep Earth processes because near the free surface, vertical strains are opposite in sign to areal strain. Vertical coupling does not impair the shear strain response, however. PBO borehole strainmeters can provide calibrated shear strain time series of transient strain associated with tectonic or magmatic processes.

  19. Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Hunter, J.A.; Harris, J.B.; Ivanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Log Data and Borehole Image Analysis of Hole-B, Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E.; Gaillot, P.; Moe, K.; Lin, W.; Wu, Y.; Song, S.

    2012-12-01

    Log data and digital borehole images collected from Hole-B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project are analyzed to establish the relationships between lithology, deformation structures, in-situ stress and fluid flow and to identify the rupture zone of the Chi-Chi earthquake. Based on standard scalar logs, three log units and five subunits are recognized and are consistent with core-derived lithologic units. Permeability indicator derived from automatic characterization of electrical borehole image data suggests that permeability is fracture-controlled within the Chinshui Shale. Visual analysis and characterization of fracture recognized on the borehole images shows two pairs of conjugated conductive fractures in the strike of N030° and N110°. Three major fault zones, FZB1133, FZB1191, and FZB1240, are recognized at wireline logging depth of 1133, 1191, and 1240m, respectively. FZB1133 shows the lowest electrical resistivity, relatively lower sonic velocity, and higher permeability within the black fault gouge as well as an asymmetric resistivity pattern, and thus it is believed to be the activated rupture zone related to the Chi-Chi earthquake and the fault gouge could be characterized as a fluid conduit. The azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) inferred from borehole breakouts is regionally oriented at N130°, in agreement with the direction of plate convergence. Local variations of SHmax correlate well with lithology changes. The integration of log data, deformation structures, and in-situ stress suggests that all fractures are conductive but might not all have being activated by the Chi-Chi event.

  1. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for Long Term Gas Measurements in Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, Chr.; Co2-Sink Group

    2009-04-01

    The direct determination of the gas composition in subsurface brines in deep boreholes is necessary for the characterization of existing fluids and the monitoring of changes of reservoir gases during industrial use. The conventional methods used for this purpose were mostly expensive and sophisticated techniques and typically involve the collection of discrete samples that are transported to a laboratory for analyses. Alternatively, the presented new gas membrane sensor technique allows for a permanent collection of gas in the subsurface and the continuous conduction of the gathered gas through a special borehole cable with subsequent real time analyses at the surface. The system is easy to handle, avoids complex mechanical components and therefore reduces costs. The main component of the gas sensor is a tube-shaped membrane, together with a piezoresistive pressure and temperature transmitter and two stainless steel capillaries embedded in a borehole cable for the gas transport to the surface. A filler material prevents the membrane from collapsing inwardly under pressures exceeding 200 bars. The practicability of our method was tested by comprehensive laboratory experiments at different pressures, temperatures and salt concentrations and by comparing the results with literature data on gas permeation coefficients and activation energies gained by the conventional "time-lag" method. By taking into account the permeability coefficient for carbon dioxide in the used polydimethylsiloxan membrane, the Henry-law coefficient and the salting out effect the quantification of dissolved carbon dioxide in deep borehole brines is possible. The described method was successful applied at the scientific carbon dioxide storage test site in Ketzin, Germany. Changes in the reservoir gas composition were monitored and the breakthrough of injected carbon dioxide and krypton gas tracer into the observation well were recorded.

  2. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  3. Analysis of in-situ rock joint strength using digital borehole scanner images

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.

    1994-09-01

    The availability of high resolution digital images of borehole walls using the Borehole Scanner System has made it possible to develop new methods of in-situ rock characterization. This thesis addresses particularly new approaches to the characterization of in-situ joint strength arising from surface roughness. An image processing technique is used to extract the roughness profile from joints in the unrolled image of the borehole wall. A method for estimating in-situ Rengers envelopes using this data is presented along with results from using the method on joints in a borehole in porphyritic granite. Next, an analysis of the joint dilation angle anisotropy is described and applied to the porphyritic granite joints. The results indicate that the dilation angle of the joints studied are anisotropic at small scales and tend to reflect joint waviness as scale increases. A procedure to unroll the opposing roughness profiles to obtain a two dimensional sample is presented. The measurement of apertures during this process is shown to produce an error which increases with the dip of the joint. The two dimensional sample of opposing profiles is used in a new kinematic analysis of the joint shear stress-shear deformation behavior. Examples of applying these methods on the porphyritic granite joints are presented. The unrolled opposing profiles were used in a numerical simulation of a direct shear test using Discontinuous Deformation Analysis. Results were compared to laboratory test results using core samples containing the same joints. The simulated dilatancy and shear stress-shear deformation curves were close to the laboratory curves in the case of a joint in porphyritic granite.

  4. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. This paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues, and presents the closure strategy. Disposals have been made in 25 shallow excavated pits and trenches and 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the 92-Acre Area since 1961. The pits and trenches have been used to dispose unclassified low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform waste, and to store classified low-level and low-level mixed materials. The GCD boreholes are intermediate-depth disposal units about 10 feet (ft) in diameter and 120 ft deep. Classified and unclassified high-specific activity LLW, transuranic (TRU), and mixed TRU are disposed in the GCD boreholes. TRU waste was also disposed inadvertently in trench T-04C. Except for three disposal units that are active, all pits and trenches are operationally covered with 8-ft thick alluvium. The 92-Acre Area also includes a Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) operating under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status, and an asbestiform waste unit operating under a state of Nevada Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit. A single final closure cover is envisioned over the 92-Acre Area. The cover is the evapotranspirative-type cover that has been successfully employed at the NTS. Closure, post-closure care, and monitoring must meet the requirements of the following regulations: U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Title 40 CFR Part 265, Nevada Administrative

  5. Data Acquisition and Processing with a Three-Component Borehole Magnetometer in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hoerdt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2011-12-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008. The aim of this project was the understanding of the ore formation process in the Outokumpu mining region. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.75 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.2 ° in inclination. The vector information of the magnetic anomalies was used to compute models of the magnetized rock units of the environment of the borehole via numerical simulations. By differentiating between short scale (wavelength < 10 m) and long scale (wavelength > 10 m) magnetic anomalies, we developed two different models. The first concerns the drilled-through Outokumpu-assemblage in the direct vicinity (< 50 m) of the borehole. Here, we could identify a tilted layer and related the dip and dip-azimuth with the direction of fracture zones, obtained from televiewer data. The second model concerns the geological structure of the surrounding (< 1 km) of the drill site. By joint interpretation with seismic profiles we were able to link the seismic reflectivity with magnetic properties. This yields an estimate of the mineralogy for rock units away from the borehole path, which were not cored. The orientation information provided by the GBM was also used to compute the borehole path with an accuracy better than 5 m at a logging depth of 1440 m.

  6. Geohydrologic assessment of fractured crystalline bedrock on the southern part of Manhattan, New York, through the use of advanced borehole geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, F.; Chu, A.; Joesten, P. K.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to assess the geohydrology of fractured crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, NY in preparation of the construction of a new water tunnel. The study area is located in a highly urbanized part of New York City. The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that has an overall southwest-to northwest-dipping foliation. Most of the fractures intersected are nearly horizontal or have moderate- to high-angle northwest or eastward dip azimuths. Heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under nonpumping (ambient) and pumping conditions, together with other geophysical logs, delineated transmissive fracture zones in each borehole. Water-level and flowmeter data suggest the fractured-rock ground-water-flow system is interconnected. The 60 MHz directional borehole-radar logs delineated the location and orientation of several radar reflectors that did not intersect the projection of the borehole. A total of 53 faults intersected by the boreholes have mean orientation populations of N12°W, 66°W and N11°W, 70°E. A total of 77 transmissive fractures delineated using the heat-pulse flowmeter have mean orientations of N11°E, 14°SE (majority) and N23°E, 57°NW (minority). The transmissivity of the bedrock boreholes ranged from 0.7 to 870 feet squared (ft2) per day (0.07 to 81 metres squared (m2) per day).

  7. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  8. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  9. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  10. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  12. Direct drilling related releases from the WIPP repository

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is that due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid. The second concerns the borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Available literature concerning both processes and a quantitative model for erosion are presented. Calculations are shown that confirm the importance of gas-induced spall but no definitive model is developed. It is concluded that constitutive data for decomposed waste must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess the full significance of this latter mechanism.

  13. Direct drilling related releases from the WIPP repository

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, J.W.

    1993-04-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is that due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid. The second concerns the borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Available literature concerning both processes and a quantitative model for erosion are presented. Calculations are shown that confirm the importance of gas-induced spall but no definitive model is developed. It is concluded that constitutive data for decomposed waste must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess the full significance of this latter mechanism.

  14. Depleted uranium disposal options.

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Ranek, N. L.; Goldberg, M.; Avci, H. I.

    2000-04-01

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been produced in the United States since the 1940s as part of both the military program and the civilian nuclear energy program. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the agency responsible for managing most of the depleted UF{sub 6} that has been produced in the United States. The total quantity of depleted UF{sub 6} that DOE has to or will have to manage is approximately 700,000 Mg. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the various alternatives for managing this material. This paper evaluates and summarizes the alternative of disposal as low-level waste (LLW). Results of the analysis indicate that UF{sub 6} needs to be converted to a more stable form, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, before disposal as LLW. Estimates of the environmental impacts of disposal in a dry environment are within the currently applicable standards and regulations. Of the currently operating LLW disposal facilities, available information indicates that either of two DOE facilities--the Hanford Site or the Nevada Test Site--or a commercial facility--Envirocare of Utah--would be able to dispose of up to the entire DOE inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}.

  15. Elastic anisotropy and borehole stress estimation in the Seve Nappe Complex from the COSC-1 well, Åre, Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenning, Quinn; Almquist, Bjarne; Ask, Maria; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zappone, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The Caledonian orogeny, preserved in Scandinavia and Greenland, began with the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and culminated in the collision of Baltica and Laurentia cratons during the middle Paleozoic. The COSC scientific drilling project aims at understanding the crustal structure and composition of the Scandinavian Caledonides. The first well of the dual phase drilling program, completed in Summer of 2014, drilled through ~2.5 km of the Seve Nappe Complex near the town of Åre, Sweden. Newly acquired drill core and borehole logs provide fresh core material for physical rock property measurements and in-situ stress determination. This contribution presents preliminary data on compressional and shear wave ultrasonic velocities (Vp, Vs) determined from laboratory measurements on drill cores, together with in-situ stress orientation analysis using image logs from the first borehole of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides project (COSC-1). An hydrostatically oil pressurized apparatus is used to test the ultrasonic Vp and Vs on three orthogonally cut samples of amphibolite, calcium bearing and felsic gneiss, meta-gabbro, and mylonitic schist from drill core. We measure directional anisotropy variability for each lithology using one sample cut perpendicular to the foliation and two additional plugs cut parallel to the foliation with one parallel to the lineation and the other perpendicular. Measurements are performed using the pulse transmission technique on samples subjected to hydrostatic pressure from 1-350 MPa at dry conditions. We present preliminary results relating Vp and Vs anisotropy to geologic units and degree of deformation. Additionally, we use acoustic borehole televiewer logs to estimate the horizontal stress orientation making use of well developed techniques for observed borehole breakouts (compressive failure) and drilling induced fractures (tensile failure). Preliminary observations show that very few drilling-induced tensile

  16. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-02-26

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators.

  17. Quantitative Eatimation of Ground Water Recharge Process in Vadose Zone Beneath a Rice Paddy Field Using Cross-Borehole Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, S.; Shiina, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Takeutch, M.

    2005-12-01

    Wet Rice Paddy field is one of most important components of land uses in monsoon Asia. It is known to have some other beneficial functions than food production, for example ground water recharge, purification of surface and subsurface water, and alleviation of flood. Though ground water recharge process of paddy field is essential for those functions, the actual conditions of ground water recharge process beneath paddy field has not been clarified besides in the zone of about 1m depth from soil surface. Recently cross borehole radar is recognized as one of usefull methods for measurement of soil water distribution and its change. We applied cross borehole radar for monitoring of soil water in vadose zone beneath a paddy field to clarify the ground water recharge process. Cross borehole radar monitoring clarified the infiltration process into the vadose zone and shallow ground water aquifer beneath the paddy field. We estimated the increment of soil volumetric water content from CRIME model, the descent velocity of wetting front, and infiltration rate from cross borehole radar data quantitatively. They were almost coincident with the directly measured results. Using these results,we tried to estimate permeability based on some hypothesis of infiltration process.

  18. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  19. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  20. The strong ground motion in Mexico City: array and borehole data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullé, A.; Chávez-García, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    Site response at Mexico City has been intensively studied for the last 15 years, since the disastrous 1985 earthquakes. After those events, more than 100 accelerographs were installed, and their data have been extremely useful in quantifying amplification and in the subsequent upgrading of the building code. However, detailed analysis of the wavefield has been hampered by the lack of absolute time in the records and the large spacing between stations in terms of dominant wavelengths. In 2001, thanks to the support of CONACYT, Mexico, a new dense accelerographic network was installed in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. The entire network, including an existing network of 3 surface and 2 borehole stations operated by CENAPRED, consists in 12 surface and 4 borehole stations (at 30, 102 and 50 meters). Each station has a 18 bits recorder and a GPS receiver so that the complete network is a 3D array with absolute time. The main objective of this array is to provide data that can help us to better understand the wavefield that propagates in Mexico City during large earthquakes. Last year, a small event of magnitude 6.0 was partially recorded by 6 of the 12 surface stations and all the borehole stations. We analysed the surface data using different array processing techniques such as f-k methods and MUSIC algorithm and the borehole ones using a cross-correlation method. For periods inferior to the site resonance period, the soft clay layer with very low propagation velocities (less than 500 m/s) and a possible multipathing rule the wavefield pattern. For the large period range, the dominant surface wave comes from the epicentral direction and propagates with a quicker velocity (more than 1500 m/s) that corresponds to the velocity of deep layers. The analysis of borehole data shows the presence of different quick wavetrains in the short period range that could correspond to the first harmonic modes of Rayleigh waves. To complete this study, four others events recorded in

  1. Seismic velocities and attenuation from borehole measurements near the Parkfield prediction zone, Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Roth, Edward F.

    1989-01-01

    Shear (S)- and compressional (P)- wave velocities were measured to a depth of 195 m in a borehole near the San Andreas fault where a recurrence of a moderate Parkfield earthquake is predicted. S-wave velocities determined from orthogonal directions of the S-wave source show velocity differences of approximately 20 percent. An average shear-wave Q of 4 was determined in relatively unconsolidated sands and gravels of the Paso Robles Formation in the depth interval 57.5-102.5 m.

  2. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  3. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  4. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing...

  5. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing records series that are maintained by...

  6. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing records series that are maintained by...

  7. Regulatory Requirements and Technical Analysis for Department of Energy Regulated Performance Assessments of Shallow-Trench Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, B.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Colarusso, A.; DiSanza, F.

    2001-12-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose Department of Energy (DOE) defense-generated low-level radioactive (LLW), mixed radioactive, and classified waste in shallow trenches, pits and large-diameter boreholes. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated under DOE Order 435.1, which requires review of a Performance Assessment for four performance objectives: 1) all pathways 25 mrem/yr limit; 2) atmospheric pathways 10 mrem/yr limit; 3) radon flux density of 20 pCi/m2/s; and 4) groundwater resource protection (Safe Drinking Water Act; 4 mrem/yr limit). The inadvertent human intruder is protected under a dual 500- and 100-mrem limit (acute and chronic exposure). In response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 92 2, a composite analysis is required that must examine all interacting sources for compliance against both 30 and 100 mrem/yr limits. A small component of classified transuranic waste is buried at intermediate depths in 3-meter diameter boreholes at the Area 5 LLW disposal facility and is assessed through DOE-agreement against the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 40 CFR 191. The hazardous components of mixed LLW are assessed against RCRA requirements. The NTS LLW sites fall directly under three sets of federal regulations and the regulatory differences result not only in organizational challenges, but also in different decision objectives and technical paths to completion. The DOE regulations require deterministic analysis for a 1,000-year compliance assessment supplemented by probabilistic analysis under a long-term maintenance program. The EPA regulations for TRU waste are probabilistically based for a compliance interval of 10,000 years. Multiple steps in the assessments are strongly dependent on assumptions for long-term land use policies

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

  9. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-12-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2005-03-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-06-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-12-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-05-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS.

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-01-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2003-12-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-07-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  1. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2005-08-21

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  2. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2005-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  3. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2006-05-05

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  4. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  5. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  6. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  7. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  8. Alternative Trench Disposal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.

    2001-09-05

    During Fiscal Year 2000, a number of activities were conducted to expand the use of trenches for disposal of low-level waste in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). This document presents a summary and interpretation of these activities in the context of future work.

  9. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  10. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  13. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Some technical issues on utilizing borehole breakouts for in-situ stress estimation in deepwater sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Chang, C.; Ong, S.; Song, I.

    2013-12-01

    Stress-induced borehole breakouts have long been used as a reliable indicator of both the orientation and magnitude of in-situ stresses on the basis of the systematic alignment with the minimum horizontal principal far-field stress (σh), and the well-defined correlation between the breakout dimensions and in-situ stress magnitudes. Although breakouts can serve as a reliable stress indicator, cautions must be exercised when using them to constrain the orientation and magnitude of in-situ stresses because the breakout geometry can be altered by some geological characteristics in addition to the usual geomechanical parameters. Two factors are discussed here. We observed alterations in breakout geometry from some of the boreholes drilled along a transection of the Nankai subduction zone. In the C0002A hole, breakouts formed along the depth interval where the beddings are horizontal or sub-horizontal were consistently oriented along the regional σh direction. In contrast, a gradual rotation in breakout orientation with depth and a significant breakout widening at the borehole wall were observed along the deeper section where the beddings are steep (>40o). A geomechanical modeling taking into account the bedding effect shows that such breakout rotation and widening result from strength anisotropy inherent within the thinly bedded formations, and the misalignment between in-situ stresses and bedding dip directions. The model also revealed that there is a considerable difference in the stress magnitudes estimated with and without considering the bedding effect particularly in the steeply bedding intervals. This observation suggests that bedding effects on breakout geometry must be taken into account when using breakouts developed in such formations to estimate the orientation and magnitude of in-situ stresses, failure which would likely to lead to erroneous results. The second factor to discuss is the time-dependent growth of breakouts. While it was straightforward to

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  16. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  17. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs and hydraulic tests, phase III, at AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and aquifer-isolation tests were used to characterize the ground-water-flow system at the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site. The site is underlain by fractured carbonate rocks. Caliper, natural- gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature logs were run in six wells, and an acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation log was run in one well. The direction and rate of borehole- fluid movement was measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter for both nonpumping and pumping conditions in four wells. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed flow within the borehole during nonpumping conditions in three of the four wells tested. Flow rates up to 1.4 gallons per minute were measured. Flow was upward in one well and both upward and downward in two wells. Aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four wells to determine depth-discrete specific capacity values, to obtain depth-discrete water samples, and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone in one well on water levels in nearby wells. Water-level data collected during aquifer-isolation tests were consistent with and confirmed interpretations of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. Seven of the 13 fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water at a rate equal to or greater than 7.5 gallons per minute when isolated and pumped. The specific capacities of isolated fractures range over three orders of magnitude, from 0.005 to 7.1 gallons per minute per foot. Vertical distribution of specific capacity between land surface and 298 feet below land surface is not related to depth. The four highest specific capacities, in descending order, are at depths of 174-198, 90-92, 118-119, and 34-37 feet below land surface.

  18. Evaluation of In-Situ Stress Assessment from Deep Borehole in the Middle Coastal Plain and Its implication for Taiwan Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E. C.; Li, W. C.; Chiang, T. C.; Lin, W.; Wang, T. T.; Yu, C. W.; Chiao, C. H.; Yang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific study in deep boreholes has paid more attention as the demand of natural resources and waste disposal and risk evaluation of seismic hazard dramatically increases, such as petroleum exploitation, geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear waste disposal and seismogenic faulting. In the deep borehole geoengineering, knowledge of in-situ stress is essential for the design of drilling-casing plan. Understanding the relationship between fracture and in-situ stress is the key information to evaluate the potential of fracture seal/conduit and fracture reactivity. Also, assessment of in-situ stress can provide crucial information to investigate mechanism of earthquake faulting and stress variationfor earthquake cycles. Formations under the Coastal Plain in Taiwan have evaluated as saline-water formations with gently west-dipping and no distinct fractures endured by regional tectonics of arc-continental collision with N35W compression. The situation is characterized as a suitable place for carbon sequestration. In this study, we will integrate results from different in-situ stress determinations such as anelastic strain recovery (ASR), borehore breakout, hydraulic fracturing from a 3000m borehole of carbon sequestration testing site and further evaluate the seal feasibility and tectonic implication. Results of 30 ASR experiments between the depth of 1500m and 3000m showed the consistent normal faulting stress regime. Stress gradient of vertical stress, horizontal maximum stress and horizontal minimum stress with depth is estimated. Borehole breakout is not existed throughout 1500-3000m. The mean orientation of breakout is about 175deg and mean width of breakout is 84 deg. Based on rock mechanical data, maximum injection pressure of carbon sequestration can be evaulated. Furthermore, normal faulting stress regime is consistent with core observations and image logging, the horizontal maximum stress of 85deg inferred from breakout suggested that this place

  19. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  20. Delineation of the fractured-rock and unconsolidated overburden ground-water flow systems on the southern part of Manhattan, New York, through use of advanced borehole-geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, Frederick

    2005-11-01

    Advanced borehole-geophysical techniques were used to assess the geohydrology of crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y. Ten wells were screened in the unconsolidated overburden (glacial aquifer) to determine water-table elevation, transmissivity, and chloride concentration. The borehole-logging techniques included natural gamma, single-point resistance, short-normal resistivity, mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, borehole-fluid specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox, heat-pulse flowmeter (at selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer, and borehole radar (at selected boreholes). The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that has an overall southwest to northwest-dipping foliation. Most of the fractures penetrated are nearly horizontal or have moderate- to high-angle northwest or eastward dip azimuths. Heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under pumping and nonpumping (ambient) conditions, together with other geophysical logs, indicate transmissive fracture zones in each borehole. The 60-megahertz directional borehole-radar logs delineated the location and orientation of several radar reflectors that did not intersect the projection of the borehole. Fifty-three faults had mean orientation populations of N12°W, 66°W or N11°W, 70°E. Seventy-seven transmissive fractures delineated using the heat-pulse flowmeter had mean orientations of N11°E, 14°SE (majority) and N23°E, 57°NW (minority). The first potentiometric-surface and water-table maps were completed for southern Manhattan of the bedrock and glacial aquifer, respectively. Bedrock transmissivity ranged from 0.7 to 871 feet squared per day. Glacial aquifer transmissivity ranged from 2 to 93,000 feet squared per day. Chloride concentrations ranged from 25 to 17,800 milligrams per liter in the bedrock, and 28 to 15,250 milligrams

  1. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments.

  2. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  3. DSEM. Disposal Site Economic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The DISPOSAL SITE ECONOMIC MODEL calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development.

  4. TRENDS IN BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION: ASSAYING AND REMOTE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    Several borehole geophysical techniques have been developed in recent years. Assaying technique development has been concentrated on nuclear methods, with some progress being made on using electrical and magnetic properties for mineral identification. Adaptation of conventional surface geophysical techniques to the borehole for locating near-misses of mineralized zones has led to the development of borehole resistivity, electromagnetic (EM), gravity and magnetic methods to the borehole environment. This paper discusses some of the applications and pitfalls of these new techniques.

  5. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  6. HANDBOOK FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AT WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is directed toward technical personnel in federal, state, regional, and municipal agencies involved in the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites, industrial surface impoundments, and municipal, industrial, and combined landfills. It contains a summary of the flo...

  7. A gyro-oriented 3-component borehole magnetometer for mineral prospecting, with examples of its application

    SciTech Connect

    Bosum, W.; Eberle, D.; Rehli, H.J.

    1988-11-01

    A triple axis borehole magnetometer is described that consists of a Foerster-probe (fluxgate) triplet (sensitivity 1 nT), a Foerster-probe gradiometer (sensitivity 2 nT/40 cm), a gyro unit (mean angular drift approx 0.5/sup 0//h) which is equipped with accelerometers (sensitivity 1/100/sup 0/), and a data transmission unit (with multiplexer and 16-bit AD converter). The sensitive fluxgate-magnetometer can detect weakly magnetic or small source bodies. Data from the gyro and the accelerometers allow the 3-component magnetic field values to be transformed to north, east and vertical components. Since they do not rely on magnetically-determined directional data, the results are not disturbed by local anomalies of the magnetic declination. Furthermore, the magnetometer can also be used in vertical boreholes. 3-component measurements are carried out at discrete points in the neighbourhood of a source body to locate its position, and within the source body to determine the direction of magnetization. The strength of magnetization and information on magnetic classification are obtained by continuous measurement of one or more components within the source body. Calculation algorithms and computer programs are available to simplify data processing and interpretation. Survey examples are discussed.

  8. Multiple-Component Crystal Fabric Measurements from Acoustically-Generated Normal Modes in Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluskiewicz, D. J.; Waddington, E. D.; McCarthy, M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Voigt, D.; Matsuoka, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sound wave velocities in ice are a proxy of crystal orientation fabric. Because p- and s-waves respectively travel faster and slower in the direction of an ice crystal c-axis, the velocities of these waves in a fabric are related to the clustering of ice crystal c-axes in the direction of wave propagation. Previous sonic logs at Dome C, NGRIP, WAIS, and NEEM have inferred a single component fabric description from the velocities of vertically-propagating p-waves around each ice core borehole. These records supplement thin-section measurements of crystal fabric by sampling larger numbers of crystals in a depth-continuous log. Observations of azimuthally anisotropic vertical-girdle fabrics at ice-core sites such as WAIS, NGRIP, and EDML underly a benefit for logging methods that are sensitive to such fabrics. We present a theoretical framework for using borehole flexural modes to measure azimuthal crystal-fabric anisotropy, and describe ongoing efforts to develop a sonic logging tool for this purpose. We also present data from p-wave logs and thin section measurements at the WAIS Divide, and describe how a flexural wave log could supplement the existing measurements.

  9. Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Johnson Paul A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Guyer, Robert; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.

  10. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  11. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  13. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  14. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  15. Borehole televiewer for fracture detection and cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.; Clerke, E.A.

    1991-02-12

    This patent describes a method for acoustically logging a borehole in the earth to detect anomalies in the earth formation beyond the wall of the borehole. It comprises generating a plurality of narrow beam acoustic pulses with a rotating transducer at a first location in the borehole, wherein the complete circumference of the borehole at the first location is scanned by the pulses; receiving at the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses and producing a first electrical signal; receiving at a second location vertically spaced from the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses with a single element annular thin film omnidirectional receiver and producing a second electrical signal; recording the first and second electrical signals to provide a visual display of the elapsed time between the generating of the acoustic pulses and the occurrence of reflection events from the anomalies in the first and second electrical signals; and analyzing the display to locate the position of the anomalies.

  16. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  17. A study of sonic logging in a cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.; Everhart, A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of sonic logging in a cased borehole. Results were obtained from a scaled-model laboratory experiment and from computer simulations. The waveforms from the computer model indicate that sonic logging can be successful in bonded and unbonded cased holes. A slowness-time semblance signal processing technique is used to obtain wave velocities from waveforms.

  18. A study of sonic logging in a cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.K.; Everhart, A.H.

    1983-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of sonic logging in a cased borehole. Results were obtained from a scale-model laboratory experiment and from computer simulations. The waveforms from the computer model indicate that sonic logging can be successful in bonded and unbonded cased holes. A slowness/timesemblance signal-processing technique is used to obtain wave velocities from waveforms.

  19. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  20. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  1. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  2. Horizontal stress anisotropy determined from acoustic full waveforms in borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, A.

    2003-04-01

    Drilling inside competent formations, such as crystalline rocks, hard carbonated rocks or sandstones, involves stable stress modifications around the hole. For vertical boreholes, these modifications depend essentially on the horizontal state of stress, particularly on its anisotropy. They may significantly spread up to more than 0.5 meter from the hole. As the usual frequencies of the borehole acoustic waveforms are about 20 KHz, these modified stress areas should be taken into account in order to interpret the records of the body waves, because their corresponding wavelengths range between 0.25 m for P waves and 0.175 m for S waves. The observation of the borehole acoustic body waves which propagate inside gneisses and metabasites (KTB borehole in Bavaria), granites (boreholes of Soultz-sous-forest in Alsace, and those in Vendée), and compact sandstones and dolomites (Balazuc1 borehole in the South of France), allows us to determine two or sometimes three successive arrivals of P and S waves, although the formations are homogeneous and there is no reflector, such as a fracture. The hypothesis that the double P and S waves may be the result of the reflection of the body waves inside the stress modified areas is consistent with the calculated sizes of the paths of the supposed reflected waves. The theory of borehole rock mechanics does not predict sharp changes in the sizes of these areas as overburdened pressure increases ; but the values of the supposed sizes of the modified areas are, as a function of depth, scattered above and steady below the depth where the overburdened pressure appears equal to the maximum horizontal stress. The squeezing of micro-cracks by pressure is assumed to homogenise formation rheology, and therefore, only the steady values may be considered as representative. Matching the calculated steady values with the possible models of stress deformation can be managed from the horizontal stress anisotropy values, but the solutions are not

  3. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  5. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  6. Use of borehole and surface geophysics to investigate ground-water quality near a road-deicing salt-storage facility, Valparaiso, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, M.R.; Robinson, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Two surface surveys of terrain electromagnetic conductivity were used to map the horizontal extent of the saltwater plume in areas without monitoring wells. Background values of terrain conductivity were measured in an area where water-quality and borehole geophysical data did not indicate saline or brackish water. Based on a guideline from previous case studies, the boundaries of the saltwater plume were mapped where terrain conductivity was 1.5 times background. The extent of the saltwater plume, based on terrain conductivity, generally was consistent with the available water-quality and borehole electromagnetic-conductivity data and with directions of ground-water flow determined from water-level altitudes.

  7. Radium bearing waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-07-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach.

  8. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  9. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  10. Fast and slow flexural waves in a deviated borehole in homogeneous and layered anisotropic formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2010-04-01

    Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[

  11. Three-dimensional simulation and inversion of borehole temperatures for reconstructing past climate in complex settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Gallagher, Kerry; Pain, Christopher C.; Fang, Fangxin

    2009-06-01

    The majority of inversion methods used for inferring past ground surface temperatures (GST) from borehole temperature-depth profiles rely on the assumption that heat flow is in the vertical direction only. This means that accounting for certain effects caused by the local terrain of a borehole is not possible and consequently, many borehole profiles cannot be used with confidence. Here, we describe a methodology to avoid this problem by solving the heat conduction forward problem in 3-D using finite elements (FE). In order to make the inversion approach computationally tractable, we reduce the dimensions of this FE model using proper orthogonal decomposition. The inverse problem is cast in a probabilistic Bayesian framework for which the posterior probability distribution of the past GSTs is sampled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. This allows the resolution of the GST history over time to be explored by varying the parameterization of the GST model. Synthetic examples calculated with moderate topographies demonstrate the efficacy of the Bayesian 3-D inversion method, and the results are compared with those using a 1-D approach. For moderate topography, the latter can lead to spurious GST reconstructions. A further synthetic example demonstrates that the effect of incorrectly assuming lateral geological homogeneity is negligible. The inversion method is also compared with a more standard inversion method. A significant advantage of the Bayesian approach is that uncertainties in all of the model parameters can be accounted for, leading to a more realistic interpretation of the range of GST histories supported by the data. The methods presented here should allow a broader range of geothermal data to be used for paleoclimate reconstruction purposes in the future.

  12. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  13. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  14. Landfill disposal systems.

    PubMed

    Slimak, K M

    1978-12-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated.A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  15. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  16. Acoustic televiewer log images of natural fractures and bedding planes in the Toa Baja Borehole, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Goldberg, David

    Although borehole conditions made acoustic televiewer logging difficult in the Toa Baja borehole, more than 180 meters of continuous, acceptable quality televiewer logs were obtained in the intervals from 730 to 880 meters and from 2,515 to 2,675 meters in depth, indicating the presence of fractures that appear to be open in situ. Most of the largest, possibly open fractures in these intervals are either nearly parallel to directions given by the dipmeter log and may represent solution openings or minor washouts along bedding planes, or dip steeply to the south or southwest across bedding. The televiewer log confirms the presence of an apparently open set of fractures near 867 meters in depth, where circulation was lost during drilling, and in the interval from 2,600 to 2,650 meters in depth, where the temperature log indicates anomalous heat flow in the surrounding formation.

  17. Laboratory investigation of borehole breakouts and Multi-step failure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Xiao-Ping; Mao, Ji-Zheng; Cui, Zhan-Tao

    1993-05-01

    Based on our experiment of borehole breakouts with a group of sandstone samples described in this paper, a multi-step failure model of borehole breakouts are proposed to quantitatively explain the relationship between the section shape of borehole breakouts and the state of crustal stress. In this model the borehole spalling is not only related to the state of stress at a single point but also the state of stress on its neighboring area. The comparison between the experimental results of borehole breakouts and the calculation results shows a good agreement.

  18. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  19. Automated water content reconstruction of zero-offset borehole ground penetrating radar data using simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, Dale F.; Ferré, Ty P. A.

    2005-07-01

    The automated inversion of water content profiles from first arrival travel time data collected with zero-offset borehole ground penetrating radar is discussed. The inversion algorithm sets out to find the water content profile that minimizes a least-squares objective function representing the difference between the modeled and measured first arrival travel time. Ray-tracing analysis is used to determine the travel time for direct and critically refracted paths to identify the first arrival travel time. This automated method offers improvement over a previously presented graphical solution that considers both direct and critical refractions. Specifically, this approach can identify thinner layers and allow for the incorporation of uncertainty in the travel time measurements to determine the depth-specific uncertainty of the inferred water content profile through multiple simulations using a stochastic approach.

  20. Isotropic events observed with a borehole array in the Chelungpu fault zone, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kuo-Fong; Lin, Yen-Yu; Lee, Shiann-Jong; Mori, Jim; Brodsky, Emily E

    2012-07-27

    Shear failure is the dominant mode of earthquake-causing rock failure along faults. High fluid pressure can also potentially induce rock failure by opening cavities and cracks, but an active example of this process has not been directly observed in a fault zone. Using borehole array data collected along the low-stress Chelungpu fault zone, Taiwan, we observed several small seismic events (I-type events) in a fluid-rich permeable zone directly below the impermeable slip zone of the 1999 moment magnitude 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Modeling of the events suggests an isotropic, nonshear source mechanism likely associated with natural hydraulic fractures. These seismic events may be associated with the formation of veins and other fluid features often observed in rocks surrounding fault zones and may be similar to artificially induced hydraulic fracturing. PMID:22837526

  1. Methane drainage with horizontal boreholes in advance of longwall mining: an analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gabello, D.P.; Felts, L.L.; Hayoz, F.P.

    1981-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center has implemented a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of coalbed methane as an energy resource. The program is directed toward solution of technical and institutional problems impeding the recovery and use of large quantities of methane contained in the nation's minable and unminable coalbeds. Conducted in direct support of the DOE Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, this study analyzes the economic aspects of a horizontal borehole methane recovery system integrated as part of a longwall mine operation. It establishes relationships between methane selling price and annual mine production, methane production rate, and the methane drainage system capital investment. Results are encouraging, indicating that an annual coal production increase of approximately eight percent would offset all associated drainage costs over the range of methane production rates and capital investments considered.

  2. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  3. The application of moment methods to the analysis of fluid electrical conductivity logs in boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, S. ); Tsang, Chin-Fu; Hale, F.V. ); Hufschmied, P. , Baden )

    1990-08-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Previous reports have presented a procedure for analyzing a time sequence of wellbore electric conductivity logs in order to obtain outflow parameters of fractures intercepted by the borehole, and a code, called BORE, used to simulate borehole fluid conductivity profiles given these parameters. The present report describes three new direct (not iterative) methods for analyzing a short time series of electric conductivity logs based on moment quantities of the individual outflow peaks and applies them to synthetic as well as to field data. The results of the methods discussed show promising results and are discussed in terms of their respective advantages and limitations. In particular it is shown that one of these methods, the so-called Partial Moment Method,'' is capable of reproducing packer test results from field experiments in the Leuggern deep well within a factor of three, which is below the range of what is recognized as the precision of packer tests themselves. Furthermore the new method is much quicker than the previously used iterative fitting procedure and is even capable of handling transient fracture outflow conditions. 20 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Physico-Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Selected Borehole Water in Mahikeng, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Palamuleni, Lobina; Akoth, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is generally considered a “safe source” of drinking water because it is abstracted with low microbial load with little need for treatment before drinking. However, groundwater resources are commonly vulnerable to pollution, which may degrade their quality. An assessment of microbial and physicochemical qualities of borehole water in the rural environs of Mahikeng town, South Africa, was carried out. The study aimed at determining levels of physicochemical (temperature, pH, turbidity and nitrate) and bacteriological (both faecal and total coliform bacteria) contaminants in drinking water using standard microbiology methods. Furthermore, identities of isolates were determined using the API 20E assay. Results were compared with World Health Organisation (WHO) and Department of Water Affairs (DWAF-SA) water quality drinking standards. All analyses for physicochemical parameters were within acceptable limits except for turbidity while microbial loads during spring were higher than the WHO and DWAF thresholds. The detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella species in borehole water that was intended for human consumption suggests that water from these sources may pose severe health risks to consumers and is unsuitable for direct human consumption without treatment. The study recommends mobilisation of onsite treatment interventions to protect the households from further possible consequences of using the water. PMID:26213950

  5. Single-well wideband borehole seismics in the UNIWELL configurations: An approach to monitoring hydrocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Peveraro, R.C.A.; Leavy, P.C.; Crampin, S.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present the technical basis for bridging the wide structure data-gap at the heart of the oil and gas production business: the scale of geological detail in the range between a few tens of centimeters to a few meters. This scale range is at least an order of magnitude smaller than is resolvable with current means. Many reservoir properties such as permeabilities are largely determined by the microscale behavior of pore geometries and pore throats in the range down to millimeters or less. The underlying unifying concept is that broadband vector seismic data contain a wealth of information regarding rock fabric and fluid content. Careful seismic field experiments, observation and data analysis can bridge the gap in the spatial knowledge of the reservoir between the very detailed, but laterally very limited information provided by borehole logging data and the spatially extensive but diffuse structural information provided by 3D seismic data. Measurements obtained in boreholes and aimed specifically at capturing certain elastic formation parameters are related through the geophysical model to reservoir parameters of direct engineering and economic interest in a series of snapshots of in situ distributions of fluids and rock masses, taken at opportune moments in the life of the reservoir and representing a substantial amount of reservoir volume in centimeter to meter detail.

  6. Assessment of borehole resistivity tomography for subsurface CO2 leakage : Lab-scale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, E.; Son, J.; Jung, H.; Santamarina, C.

    2011-12-01

    The geological sequestration of carbon dioxide CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere faces difficulties related to non-homogeneous underground conditions, poorly characterized interconnected geo- systems, and complex hydro-chemo-mechanical effects that involve the reservoir rock and caprock mineralogy, the saturating fluid, and the injected fluid. Given these uncertainties, extensive monitoring of CO2 injection projects is required. We developed a unique laboratory facility for the direct observation of subsurface CO2 leakage evolution. A thin transparent tank (WxHxD=30cmx60cmx2.6cm, gap=0.15cm) is filled with different sizes of glass-beads to form controlled layered stratigraphies; then the medium is saturated with water mixed with a universal pH indicator. The flow-controlled injection of CO2 is carefully controlled using pressure transducers, and time-lapse photography permits capturing the evolution of gas invasion and diffusion. Subsequent image analyses permit extracting flow paths, displacements, invaded volume, pH and density contours of carbonated water. These coupled phenomena and situation changes are monitored using borehole resistivity tomography concept. Results show the nature of CO2 gas migration in the near surface, the effect of fine-grained layers such as the cap-rock, sediment drying, water acidification near conduits and subsequent diffusion, the convection of carbonated water, and the of feasibility borehole resistivity tomography for the detection of CO2 leakage.

  7. Broad Band Data and Noise Observed with Surface Station and Borehole Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Behiye Akşahin, Bengi; Hatipoglu, Mustafa; Cagin Yalcintepe, Ragip; Ada, Samim; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Marmara region tectonically is very active and many destructive earthquakes happened in the past. North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses the Marmara region and it has three branches. The northern branch passes through Marmara Sea and expected future large earthquake will happen along this fault zone. There is a gap in seismic network in the Marmara region at offshore and onshore areas. We have started broadband borehole seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the MARsite collaborative Project, namely "New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite-MARsite". The target area western Marmara of Turkey. In the beginning of the project, we installed eight Broadband surface station around Marmara Sea in April 2014. Then, we added broadband sensor and broadband surface sensor at the same location in November 2014. In this study, we developed a Matlab application to calculate Power Spectral Density against the New Low Noise Model (NLNM) and New High Noise Model (NHNM) determined for one-hour segments of the data. Also we compared ambient noise of broadband borehole sensor and surface broadband sensor.

  8. Role of borehole pressure containment on surface ground vibration levels at close scaled distances

    SciTech Connect

    Taqieddin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 84 reduced-scale single-hole test blasts were conducted to study the effects of collar stemming length, primer location, geophone orientation, and indirectly the borehole and detonation pressures on the generation of ground vibrations. Extra 60% dynamite and black powder explosives were tested. Charges of 144.5 and 276.5 gm having diameters of 0.5-, 0.75-, and 1.00-inch were confined within holes drilled in Jefferson City dolomite rock. Three collar stemming lengths, bottom and collar priming and two different orientation of joints were employed. Particle velocity measured by a recording seismograph, with its geophone placed at constant 15 feet, was used throughout this study. It was found at the close scaled-distances employed in this study that collar stemming length has a reciprocal relationship with the levels of ground vibration up to an optimum value beyond which it has minimal effect. Also, the length of collar stemming needed to suppress ground vibration is less than that needed to contain air blast and was dependent on charge diameter. It was also found that collar-primed charges produced higher levels of ground vibration than did the bottom-primed charges, and ground vibrations attenuated more rapidly parallel to the geologic jointing direction. Lastly it was found that the primary cause of ground vibrations was the explosive borehole pressure with little or no effect produced by detonation pressure.

  9. Impedance of an induction coil at the opening of a borehole in a conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoulidis, Theodoros P.; Bowler, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic field of a cylindrical eddy current probe coil near the open end of a borehole in a conductor has been calculated analytically accounting for edge effects. Calculations of the coil impedance as a function of position and excitation frequency have been made allowing theoretical results to be compared with experimental measurements. Comparisons have been carried out for special cases in which a cylindrical coil has its axis either perpendicular or parallel to the axis of the hole. In the approach used, the field is expressed in terms of transverse electric and transverse magnetic potentials defined with respect to the axis of the hole. The domain of the problem is truncated in the axial direction in order to express the solution in the form of eigenfunction expansions. The truncation modifies the original unbounded domain problem, but the additional boundaries can be made as remote from the coil as desired so that they have a negligible effect on numerical estimates of the coil field. The truncated region approach has proved to be accurate and computationally efficient but more significantly, it allows new solutions to be found for problems that are otherwise analytically intractable. The results model eddy current inspections of boreholes including edge effects at the opening of the hole.

  10. Downhole measurements in the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.; Williams, T.; Henrys, S.; Crosby, T.; Hansaraj, D.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive set of downhole measurements was collected in the AND-1B drillhole as part of the on-ice scientific programme defined for the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project. Geophysical logs were recorded over two operation phases and consisted of calliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, induction resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma activity, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, and dipmeter. In addition, two standard vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and one walk-away VSP were obtained. Radioactive logs (porosity and density) were not run because of unstable borehole conditions. Although the total depth of the hole is 1285 metres below seafloor (mbsf), the depth range for in situ measurements was limited by the length of the wireline (1018 mbsf) and by the nullification of some geophysical logs due to the presence of steel casing. A depth correction was derived to account for systematic discrepancies in depth between downhole measurements and cores; consequently, log responses can be directly compared to core properties. The resulting data are amenable to studies of cyclicity and climate, heat flux and fluid flow, and stricture and stress. When integrated with physical properties and fractures measured on the core, this information should play a significant role in addressing many of the scientific objectives of the ANDRILL programme.

  11. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  12. Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the "Anza cluster". Here we present analyses of trends in the observed offsets for the Anza cluster, as well as inspection of their inferred borehole lithology. We find that offsets rarely agree with elastic dislocation theory in magnitude and sign, and speculate that they are controlled more by localized geologic constraints than by triggered fault slip, as has been suggested in previous studies (e.g. Linde and Johnson, 1989).

  13. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  14. Deriving historical total solar irradiance from lunar borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of deriving historical TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) from lunar borehole temperatures. As the Moon lacks Earth's dynamic features, lunar borehole temperatures are primarily driven by solar forcing. Using Apollo observed lunar regolith properties, we computed present-day lunar regolith temperature profiles for lunar tropical, mid-latitude, and polar regions for two scenarios of solar forcing reconstructed by Lean (2000) and Wang et al. (2005). Results show that these scenarios can be distinguished by small but potentially detectable differences in temperature, on the order of 0.01 K and larger depending on latitude, within ~10 m depth of the Moon's surface. Our results provide a physical basis and guidelines for reconstructing historical TSI from data obtainable in future lunar exploration.

  15. Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and dividing by the distance between them. Two GPS stations 1 km apart, each providing displacement information accurate to the nearest millimeter, could detect strain as small as 2 mm km-1, or 2 × 10-6. It is possible, however, to measure strains at least three orders of magnitude smaller using borehole strainmeters. In fact, it is even possible to measure strains as small as 10-8 using observations of groundwater levels in boreholes.

  16. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom; Barrash, Warren; Reboulet, Edward C; Johnson, Timothy C; Leven, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. PMID:19341370

  17. Enhancement of Network Performance through Integration of Borehole Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, Edith; Plenkers, Katrin; Clinton, John; Kraft, Toni; Diehl, Tobias; Husen, Stephan; Schnellmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the detection and characterisation of weak seismic events across northern Switzerland/southern Germany, the Swiss Digital Seismic Network has installed 10 new seismic stations during 2012 and 2013. The newly densified network was funded within a 10-year project by NAGRA and is expected to monitor seismicity with a magnitude of completeness Mc (ML) below 1.3 and provide high quality locations for all these events. The goal of this project is the monitoring of areas surrounding potential nuclear waste repositories, in order to gain a thorough understanding of the seismotectonic processes and consequent evaluation of the seimsic hazard in the region. Northern Switzerland lies in a molasse basin and is densely populated. Therefore it is a major challenge in this region to find stations with noise characteristics low enough to meet the monitoring requirements. The new stations include three borehole sites equipped with 1 Hz Lennartz LE3D-BH velocity sensors (depths between 120 and 160 m), which are at critical locations for the new network but at areas where the ambient noise at the surface is too high for convential surface stations. At each borehole, a strong motion seismometer is also installed at the surface. Through placing the seismometers at depth, the ambient noise level is significantly lowered - which means detection of smaller local and larger regional events is enhanced. We present here a comparison of the performance of each of the three borehole stations, reflecting on the improvement in noise compared to surface installations at these sites, as well as with other conventional surface stations within the network. We also demonstrate the benefits in the operation network performance, in terms of earthquakes detected and located, which arise from installing borehole stations with lower background noise.

  18. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  19. Non-contact infrared temperature measurements in dry permafrost boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Ralf; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Kaul, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    While planning the COAST Expedition to the Siberian Laptev Sea in 2005, the question of how to make a short equilibrium temperature measurement in a dry borehole arose. As a result, an infrared borehole tool was developed and used in three dry boreholes (up to 60.2 m deep) in the coastal transition zone from terrestrial to sub-sea permafrost near Mamontovy Klyk in the western Laptev Sea. A depth versus temperature profile was acquired with equilibration times of 50 × 10-3 s at each depth interval. Comparison with a common resistor string revealed an offset due to limitations of accuracy of the infrared technique and the influence of the probe's massive steel housing. Therefore it was necessary to calibrate the infrared sensor with a high precision temperature logger in each borehole. The results of the temperature measurements show a highly dynamic transition zone with temperature gradients up to -0.092°C/m and heat flow of -218 mW/m. A period of submergence of only 600 years the drilled sub-sea permafrost is approaching the overlying seawater temperature at -1.61°C with a temperature gradient of 0.021°C/m and heat flow of 49 mW/m. Further offshore, 11 km from the coastline, a temperature gradient of 0.006°C/m and heat flow of 14 mW/m occur. Thus the sub-sea permafrost in the Mamontovy Klyk region has reached a critical temperature for the presence of interstitial ice. The aim of this article is to give a brief feasibility study of infrared downhole temperature measurements and to present experiences and results of its successful application.

  20. Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

    The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

  1. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L. |

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

  3. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  4. A fast inversion method for interpreting borehole electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, K. H.; Wilt, M.

    2003-05-01

    A fast and stable inversion scheme has been developed using the localized nonlinear (LN) approximation to analyze electromagnetic fields obtained in a borehole. The medium is assumed to be cylindrically symmetric about the borehole, and to maintain the symmetry a vertical magnetic dipole is used as a source. The efficiency and robustness of an inversion scheme is very much dependent on the proper use of Lagrange multiplier, which is often provided manually to achieve a desired convergence. We utilize an automatic Lagrange multiplier selection scheme, which enhances the utility of the inversion scheme in handling field data. In this selection scheme, the integral equation (IE) method is quite attractive in speed because Green's functions, the most time consuming part in IE methods, are repeatedly re-usable throughout the selection procedure. The inversion scheme using the LN approximation has been tested to show its stability and efficiency using synthetic and field data. The inverted result from the field data is successfully compared with induction logging data measured in the same borehole.

  5. Experimental measurements of seismoelectric signals in borehole models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An experimental system is built for the electrokinetic measurements with a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer (1 MS s-1, 22 bits). The acoustic and seismoelectric experiments are carried out in different borehole models at the high frequency of 90 kHz in the laboratory. All the localized seismoelectric signals that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are first clearly observed with a monopole source in sandstone boreholes that are saturated by tap water. The amplitudes of these signals are measured in the range of 1-120 μV, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. Then the amplitude ratio of electric signal to acoustic pressure (REP) for each of the three waves is calculated and compared with the theoretical simulations. Based on the experimental data, we find that seismoelectric logging signals as well as REP become stronger at the more permeable borehole model. We also find that seismoelectric logging signals are more sensitive to permeability and porosity compared with acoustic logging signals. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and further indicates that the seismoelectric logging technique might be a preferable method to estimate formation parameters in the field measurements.

  6. Comparison of climate model simulated and observed borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.; Stevens, M. B.; Beltrami, H.; Goosse, H.; Rath, V.; Zorita, E.; Smerdon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in understanding climate variability through the last millennium lean on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Progress in the integration of both approaches can potentially provide new means of assessing confidence on model projections of future climate change, of constraining the range of climate sensitivity and/or attributing past changes found in proxy evidence to external forcing. This work addresses specifically possible strategies for comparison of paleoclimate model simulations and the information recorded in borehole temperature profiles (BTPs). First efforts have allowed to design means of comparison of model simulated and observed BTPs in the context of the climate of the last millennium. This can be done by diffusing the simulated temperatures into the ground in order to produce synthetic BTPs that can be in turn assigned to collocated, real BTPs. Results suggest that there is sensitivity of borehole temperatures at large and regional scales to changes in external forcing over the last centuries. The comparison between borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations may also be subjected to non negligible uncertainties produced by the influence of past glacial and Holocene changes. While the thermal climate influence of the last deglaciation can be found well below 1000 m depth, such type of changes can potentially exert an influence on our understanding of subsurface climate in the top ca. 500 m. This issue is illustrated in control and externally forced climate simulations of the last millennium with the ECHO-G and LOVECLIM models, respectively.

  7. Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

  8. Disposal of Ash and Slag Waste of the Berezovsk State Regional Power Plant in the Berezovskii-1 Mined-Out Space: A Promising Direction of Environmental Protection in the Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ozerskii, A. Yu.; Ozerskii, D. A.

    2003-07-15

    The results of a study of the mineral, chemical, and radionuclide compositions of ash and slag waste of the Berezovsk state regional power plant (BGRES-1) and the capping of the Berezovskii-1 coal mine suggest disposal of the waste into the mined-out space. The ash and slag waste and the capping are composed of low-toxicity materials and do not endanger the environment, which makes it possible to use the suggested technology. The use of the waste for reclamation of refuse soils should have a positive ecological effect due to chemical melioration, strengthening, and lower settlement of the refuse soils and compensation of the rock mass deficit in the mined-out space.

  9. Karst systems analyzed using borehole logs — Devonian carbonates of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains, central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Jan; Rzonca, Bartłomiej

    2009-11-01

    The methodological assessment of the quality and the usefulness of borehole logs for karst analysis versus the use of data obtained via direct observation is the first objective of this paper. The second objective of the paper is to present — in the form of a case study — regional analysis of karst in Devonian carbonates of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains, south-central Poland. The subjects of the discussion are karst evolution stages, karst horizons, and their relationship to relief development. The analyzed examples (sites) presented herein, where the reliability of borehole data has often been verified by field observations, prove that descriptions of borehole logs can be used for karst analysis. However, borehole log data analysis is subject to many limitations and requires extensive validation. The basic condition that has to be met is the explicitness of the descriptions of karst forms in borehole logs. The number and the length of logs ("macro-records") as well as the number and the size of karst forms ("micro-records") are other important factors that affect log interpretation quality. Nevertheless, the principal general advantage of borehole log analysis is the representative nature of the obtained information. The formation of karst horizons independent of the lithology and the stratigraphy of the Kowala Fm in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains but controlled by external morphological factors suggests an isotropic character of this formation. Two general vertical types of karst systems are distinguished in this formation: (1) karst horizons, and (2) extensive karst development without distinct differentiation. The former could have been connected with fluvial base levels whereas the latter represents systems formed within the vadose zone.

  10. Paleomagnetic inclination and declination from three-component borehole magnetometer data—New insights from logging in the Louisville seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, S.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.; Virgil, C.

    2015-01-01

    We carried out measurements of the magnetic field vector at two sites during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 330 to the Louisville Seamount Chain. The aim was to impose constraints on the magnetization direction and to contribute to the reconstruction of possible hot spot motion. The measurements were conducted using the Göttingen Borehole Magnetometer (GBM). It comprises three fiber optic gyros (FOG) that can be used to reorient the magnetic field data. To improve accuracy, we are using a new algorithm that combines FOG data and data of two inclinometers. As can be evaluated by comparing downlog and uplog of the measurements, the three-dimensional magnetic field data obtained is of good quality. An interpretation of the magnetic field data using a state of the art method based on horizontal layers yields results inconsistent with measurements of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of drill core samples. In the following, we define the magnetization from the horizontal layer as apparent magnetization and develop a new interpretation method based on dipping layers. Our method includes a new approximate forward modeling algorithm and considerably improves the consistency of the borehole measurements and the NRM data. We show that a priori information about the geometry of a layer is required to constrain the inclination and declination of magnetization. Especially the azimuth of a layer and the declination of magnetization cannot be determined separately. Using azimuth and layer dip information from borehole images, we obtain constraints on inclination and declination for one particular layer.

  11. Borehole Magnetic Field Simulation of Rotated Plates with Special Application for the Philippine Sea and Caroline Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, C.; Virgil, C.; Neuhaus, M.; Hoerdt, A.

    2014-12-01

    The rotation of tectonic plates and basins is not uncommon in the Western Pacific. However, determining the exact amount of rotation over geological time can be quite challenging, especially for the Philippine Sea and Caroline Plates, because paleomagnetic measurements are rare and even if they exist come from sites near the plate boundary which may have suffered local tectonic deformations. Although it is generally thought that the Philippine Sea Plate rotated 90° clockwise during the last 55 Ma and that Caroline Plate likewise began to rotate soon after its formation around 32 Ma, there is no direct evidence for such arguments. While the recent IODP drilling (Leg 351) of the Amami-Sankaku Basin in the northern tip of the West Philippine Basin promises to provide an opportunity to estimate the rotation of the Philippine Sea Plate, in practice, the collection and subsequent reduction of borehole magnetic field data can be quite complicated. Moreover, if the magnetization intensity is low, which is the case for sediments, it is difficult to assess the outcome of magnetic field investigations. Hence, it is important to have the capability to compare the observation with model simulation readily. In this paper, we present magnetic field simulations within the borehole using the analytical methods outlined by Bosum and others (1988) which assumes a circular borehole within uniformly magnetized strata layers and Gallet and Courtilot (1989) which can accommodate inclined layers. The methods are applied to the Philippine Sea Plate and Caroline Plate using geological parameters whose values are derived from previous kinematic models. The results of such modeling can be quite useful and important in planning additional borehole magnetic surveys for the future as well.

  12. Current challenges for high-resolution monitoring of deep geological repository boreholes using terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Savunen, Johanna; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Mattila, Jussi; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Onkalo site has been selected as final deep geological repository for the disposal of nuclear waste in Finland. Several exploratory boreholes, similar to those that will host the nuclear waste, are currently under construction in order to analyse various technical aspects of the disposal. Among them, an accurate monitoring of the deformation of each borehole is required. The present study aims at finding the most suitable technique for measuring and monitoring small scale (below mm) deformations of these boreholes with high confidence and accuracy. Two different close-range monitoring techniques are compared here: a phase-shift terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006i) and photogrammetry (Canon EOS 6D&EF20mm + Adamtech 3DM Mine Mapping Suite 2.5). Both techniques are applied using multi temporal acquisitions. As for the data acquired by the terrestrial laser scanner, our study has revealed that parts of the 3D datasets are affected by an artificial distortion, with a maximum shift up to 6 mm, which is clearly below the required accuracy. The origin of this artifact is related with the data acquisition strategy: since the accuracy of the laser measurement is affected by the incidence angle, we observed that when the incidence angle is higher than 45°, the range is unsatisfactorily underestimated. Furthermore, we found another issue in the influence of the surface condition on range measurement, such as wet versus dry, or dark versus light colored rock surface. As for the photogrammetric data, we observed that, when compared to a theoretical cylinder, the 3D point cloud was affected by a sub-millimetric distortion. This distortion is due to the construction and georeferencing of the final 3D model. The error can reach up to +/- 0.8 mm in the border areas of the picture, which is significant value as a millimetric deformation should be detected. Up to now, the photogrammetric acquisitions have provided more accurate results than the laser scanning, but there is a

  13. Third Party Borehole Seismic Experiments During the Ocean Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.; Hoskins, H.; Bolmer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Third party borehole seismic experiments on the Ocean Drilling Program began with an oblique seismic experiment on Leg 102 at Site 418 in the Western Atlantic. Upper ocean crust here is characterized by a normal seismic layer 2 vertical velocity gradient, lateral velocity variations, azimuthal anisotropy, and azimuth dependent scattering. A normal incidence VSP was run on Leg 118 in the gabbro sequence at Hole 735B on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The vertical seismic velocity inferred from arrival times is similar to that observed horizontally by refraction in ocean layer 3, but attenuation is anomalously high, which prompted the hypothesis that the gabbro cored may not actually represent the bulk of Layer 3 material. The VSP data acquired at Hole 504B in the eastern equatorial Pacific on Legs 111 and 148 helped to constrain the P and S velocity structure at the site and showed that upper layer 3 at this site, at a depth of over 2 km into the crust, consisted of the lower portion of the sheeted dikes rather than gabbro. Both offset and normal incidence VSPs were run on Leg 164 to study the seismic velocity structure of gas hydrates on the Blake Ridge. A new innovation on ODP was the deployment of broadband seismometers in boreholes. Whereas the conventional VSPs and offset VSPs mentioned above operate in the frequency range from 1 to 100Hz, broadband seismometers are used in earthquake seismology and operate in the range from 0.001 to 10Hz. The first broadband seismometer test was carried out from the drill ship on Leg 128 in the Japan Sea. Subsequently 4 permanent broadband borehole seismic observatories were installed in the Western Pacific and Japan Trench on Legs 186, 191 and 195. The ODP era also saw the development of systems for re-entering boreholes from conventional research vessels after the drill ship left the site. Borehole seismic experiments and installations that used this wireline re-entry technology were carried out in DSDP Holes 534 (Blake

  14. Anisotropy-induced coupling in borehole acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Andrew N.; Sinha, Bikash K.

    1996-07-01

    The guided wave modes of a circular borehole in a weakly anisotropic formation are composed of linear superpositions of the associated modes for an isotropic formation. At moderate frequencies the major modes of concern are the quasi-Stoneley and quasi-flexural modes. These guided modes in anisotropic formations can be estimated from a perturbation analysis in terms of the unperturbed solutions for an isotropic formation. When the formation anisotropy is of monoclinic or lower symmetry, the normal and shear stresses become functions of both normal and shear strains through some additional anisotropic constants that are not present in materials with orthorhombic or higher symmetry. These additional elastic constants cause a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Under these circumstances, an on-axis monopole or dipole source excites both modes. Coupling coefficients account for the excitation of quasi-flexural motion by a monopole source, and of the quasi-Stoneley mode by a dipole. A transversely isotropic (TI) formation with its symmetry axis obliquely inclined with the borehole exhibits monoclinic symmetry in its rotated constants referred to the borehole axis. The monoclinic symmetry of the surrounding formation in such cases causes a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Computational results show that a borehole inclined at an angle of 60° from the symmetry axis of Austin chalk, a slow TI medium, exhibits coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural mode acceleration amplitudes of the order of 20 dB or less in the frequency range of interest. A similar obliquely inclined borehole in Bakken shale, a fast TI formation, exhibits a far weaker coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural modes. The stronger coupling in the case of Austin chalk is a result of relatively large anisotropic constants together with close proximity of the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural dispersions. On the other hand, weaker coupling in

  15. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  16. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  17. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  18. Comparison of phase velocities from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and results calculated from borehole shear-wave velocity profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Boore, David M.; Joyner, William B.; Oppenheimer, David H.; Warrick, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenbo; Hamilton, John C.; Brown, Leo T.

    2000-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities (VS) are widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. VS data are now largely obtained using borehole methods. Drilling holes, however, is expensive. Nonintrusive surface methods are inexpensive for obtaining VS information, but not many comparisons with direct borehole measurements have been published. Because different assumptions are used in data interpretation of each surface method and public safety is involved in site characterization for engineering structures, it is important to validate the surface methods by additional comparisons with borehole measurements. We compare results obtained from a particular surface method (array measurement of surface waves associated with microtremor) with results obtained from borehole methods. Using a 10-element nested-triangular array of 100-m aperture, we measured surface-wave phase velocities at two California sites, Garner Valley near Hemet and Hollister Municipal Airport. The Garner Valley site is located at an ancient lake bed where water-saturated sediment overlies decomposed granite on top of granite bedrock. Our array was deployed at a location where seismic velocities had been determined to a depth of 500 m by borehole methods. At Hollister, where the near-surface sediment consists of clay, sand, and gravel, we determined phase velocities using an array located close to a 60-m deep borehole where downhole velocity logs already exist. Because we want to assess the measurements uncomplicated by uncertainties introduced by the inversion process, we compare our phase-velocity results with the borehole VS depth profile by calculating fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from an earth model constructed from the borehole data. For wavelengths less than ~2 times of the array aperture at Garner Valley, phase-velocity results from array measurements agree with the calculated Rayleigh-wave velocities to better than 11%. Measurement errors become larger for wavelengths 2

  19. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-8 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The H-8 complex, a group of three closely-spaced boreholes, is located 9 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September of 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible disposal of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-8a (total depth 505 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian Age; H-8b (total depth 624 feet) was completed just belows the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-8c (total depth 808 feet) was completed just below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-8c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-4 feet); the Mescalero caliche (4-10 feet) and Gatuna Formation (10-153 feet) , both of Pleistocene age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (153-399 feet), the Rustler Formation (399-733 feet), and part of the Salado Formation penetrated by borehole H-8c is composed of residue from dissolution of halite and associated rocks, and the hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution front on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has reached the H-8 site. (USGS)

  20. Optical Fiber Borehole Strainmeter Arrays for Measuring Sediment Compaction in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, S.; Nooner, S. L.; Steckler, M. S.; Zumberge, M. A.; Akhter, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    Subsidence is the defining control on basin development and stratigraphy, and plays a major role in fluvial dynamics, coastal response to sea level, and flooding patterns in delta systems. As expected for an active delta, rates of subsidence in the GBMD are variable, averaging ~5 mm/yr but locally exceeding 10 mm/yr as measured by GPS. Such modern rates outpace sea-level rise, giving concern for major land loss at the coast where not balanced by sedimentation. However, subsidence rates vary considerably across the delta, and long-term (10^3 yrs) rates (0.5-3 mm/yr) appear to be 5-20x less than those derived from GPS measurements (1-13 mm/yr). These differences likely arise because of incompleteness of the sediment record and because subsidence is the sum of multiple causes, including sediment compaction, the isostatic response to sediment and thrust loads, and temporary elastic strain associated with the earthquake cycle. We have designed an experiment to directly measure the sediment compaction component of the observed subsidence in Bangladesh. Optical fiber strainmeters are an attractive alternative to conventional borehole extensometers since they are relatively robust and easy to deploy, and their lengths can be determined within several hundred microns in campaign-style measurements using an electronic distance meter. Since the measured path is inside an optical fiber, they do not require a straight borehole. The low attenuation of light in an optical fiber makes it possible to build strainmeters for practical borehole depths. Their primary drawback is the temperature coefficient of the fiber's index of refraction, which can be compensated for using thermistors. Building on years of experience, we have developed optical fiber strainmeters for measuring sediment compaction. The heart of each strainmeter is an optical fiber cable consisting of a stainless steel tube containing 4 standard telecom grade optical fibers. The fiber cable is terminated such that one

  1. Investigation on the real-time prediction of ground motions using seismic records observed in deep boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakoshi, H.; Tsuno, S.

    2013-12-01

    The present method of the EEW system installed in the railway field of Japan predicts seismic ground motions based on the estimated earthquake information about epicentral distances and magnitudes using initial P-waves observed on the surface. In the case of local earthquakes beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, however, a method to directly predict seismic ground motions using P-waves observed in deep boreholes could issue EEWs more simply and surely. Besides, a method to predict seismic ground motions, using S-waves observed in deep boreholes and S-wave velocity structures beneath seismic stations, could show planar distributions of ground motions for train operation control areas in the aftermath of earthquakes. This information is available to decide areas in which the emergency inspection of railway structures should be performed. To develop those two methods, we investigated relationships between peak amplitudes on the surface and those in deep boreholes, using seismic records of KiK-net stations in the Kanto Basin. In this study, we used earthquake accelerograms observed in boreholes whose depths are deeper than the top face of Pre-Neogene basement and those on the surface at 12 seismic stations of KiK-net. We selected 243 local earthquakes whose epicenters are located around the Kanto Region. Those JMA magnitudes are in the range from 4.5 to 7.0. We picked the on-set of P-waves and S-waves using a vertical component and two horizontal components, respectively. Peak amplitudes of P-waves and S-waves were obtained using vertical components and vector sums of two horizontal components, respectively. We estimated parameters which represent site amplification factors beneath seismic stations, using peak amplitudes of S-waves observed in the deep borehole and those on the surface, to minimize the residuals between calculations by the theoretical equation and observations. Correlation coefficients between calculations and observations are high values in the range

  2. Borehole measurement of NMR characteristics of earth formations, and interpretations thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, R.L.; Griffin, D.D.; Fukuhara, M.; Sezginer, A.; Chew, W.C.; Kenyon, W.E.; Day, P.I.; Lipsicas, M.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a method of determining a characteristic of an earth formation traversed by a borehole. It comprises: measuring nuclear magnetic resonance decay signals representative of transverse (T{sub 2}) or observed (T{sub 2}*) magnetic relaxation of a population of particles in the formation following different magnetic polarization periods; selecting a set of values of the signals; comparing the set of values directly to a representation of NMR decay which includes amplitude A and longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1} terms and simultaneously depends on both the decay time t{sub {ital dec}} and polarization periods t{sub {ital pol}} associated with the values; generating values of amplitude and T{sub 1} parameters which optimize the fit between the compared set of values and the representation; determining the formation characteristic in response to the generated values of at least one of the terms---amplitude or T{sub 1}.

  3. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-07-31

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  4. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-09-04

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  5. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2010-11-23

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  6. Some remarks on the estimation of fractal scaling parameters from borehole wire-line logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Seán S.; Bean, Christopher J.

    Well-logging provides a direct means of assessing fluctuations in petrophysical properties with depth, and thus allows for the statistical characterisation of crustal heterogeneity. Using records from three super-deep boreholes (KTB and Cajon Pass) and synthetic data, we assess three different techniques for estimating fractal dimension and correlation length. Inaccurate correlation lengths may result from the way in which the autocorrelation is calculated for well-logs, leading to an incorrect application of the von Kármán function. Analysis of the rescaled range, power spectra and autocorrelation allow us to model the data as k-β (where k = wavenumber and exponent β=5-2D, for fractal dimension D) process with values of fractal dimension displaying anti-persistence.

  7. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  8. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  9. NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

  10. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  11. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon Leigh

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  12. Development of Wireless Data Transmission System for the Monitoring in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12063

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kei; Eto, Jiro; Tanabe, Hiromi; Esaki, Taichi; Takamura, Hisashi; Suyama, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    The authors have been developing a wireless data transmission system to monitor the performance of a geological disposal system for radioactive waste. The system's concepts, advantages, and a recent development focused on reducing transmitter size to suit narrow spaces such as bentonite buffers and boreholes. A wireless transmitter with a built-in temperature sensor and a connector for external sensors has been developed, measuring 130 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter. The capability of the transmitter was confirmed by transmission tests on the ground and in a bentonite block. (authors)

  13. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  14. Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-24

    A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.

  15. Determination of hydraulic properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the bure site: Synthesis of the results obtained in deep boreholes using several in situ investigation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distinguin, Marc; Lavanchy, Jean-Marc

    Since 1991, ANDRA ( Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Déchets Radioactifs - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) has been performing research on the possibility of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste. In 1999, Andra began constructing an Underground Research Laboratory at Bure, a site located on the border of the Meuse-Haute-Marne departments, 300 km East of Paris. The laboratory is investigating the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, a 130 m thick middle Jurassic stratum, at a depth of about 420 m. Argillite is a clay-rich sedimentary rock with low-permeability. Between 1994 and 2004, Andra collected from deep boreholes an impressive wealth of data covering a wide range of geosciences. This paper focuses on the hydraulic data related to argillite, including the results from short-term hydraulic packer tests and long-term monitoring of the formation pressures. Three types of tools are used on the site for investigations in deep boreholes. The first one is a conventional packer test tool used in the petroleum industry and adapted for hydrogeological purposes. The main objective is to determinate the permeability of the formation through short-term tests (24-72 h) at about 10 regular intervals. The two other types of tool are permanent monitoring devices. The electromagnetic pressure gauge (EPG) is totally isolated from the surface perturbations. There are no electric or hydraulic lines to the surface and the borehole is cemented. The advantage of this tool is that the formation almost recovers its initial pressure, avoiding disturbances from surface. Although the multi-packer equipment, installed in an open borehole can be affected by surface perturbations, it is used to measure pressure at different isolated levels in the same borehole ( i. e., 11 chambers in one borehole). Evaluations of the formation pressure (freshwater head) and hydraulic conductivity have been performed for all intervals investigated (19 short-term packer tests and 15 long

  16. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  17. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  18. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  19. Borehole Strain Measurements on Volcanoes: Insights from Montserrat and Hekla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    In Fall 2000 we reported that data from Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters allowed a short term (~20 minutes) warning of an eruption of Hekla, Iceland, in 2000 and showed clear changes before an eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986. In 2002-2003 (CALIPSO program) we installed a small net of strainmeters near Montserrat’s Soufriere Hills Volcano, an active andesitic dome building volcano. We have sites in Long Valley and Hawaii (with USGS); at Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei area, Stromboli and (planned) Etna (with Italian colleagues). Gladwin strainmeters have been installed at Yellowstone and Mt. St. Helens (PBO). Our recent volcano research efforts have been on Montserrat and Hekla. Analyses of a very large dome collapse (Montserrat) in July 2003 (Voight et al, 2006) and an explosion in March 2004 (Linde et al., 2010) reveal a reservoir at about 5 km with a NW-SE trending dike extending from the reservoir to about 1.5 km from the surface. A number of explosions require only a narrow conduit (15 m radius) that extends from the top of the dike to the surface (Voight et al. 2010); others have a different strain signature and require deeper sources. A 1 month long clear strain excursion required an additional contribution from a reservoir at about 11 km (Hautmann et al. in prep). Many small signals with similar strain change patterns take place over much shorter time scales (2 - 20 mins) are presumably due to gas transfer. We now realize, from the 2000 eruption of Hekla, that the magma geometry is quite different from that in all earlier models. The reservoir is about 11 km deep but the dike that breaks the surface in Hekla's characteristic fissure eruption does not extend to the reservoir as had been thought; but to no more than about 1 km. Although undetectable by any available surface measurements, there must be a conduit to connect the reservoir to the dike. In Sturkell et al. (in prep) we propose that this conduit is now sufficiently large in diameter to remain

  20. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  1. Characterization of complex rock masses by combined borehole GSI and sonic logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapigni, Michele; Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2015-04-01

    Reliable assessment of the strength and hydraulic properties of rock masses at depth is key to a number of geological, engineering and geohazard applications, including tunnelling, reservoir characterization and slope stability analysis. Rock mass investigations usually exploit direct geomechanical core logging and indirect geophysical techniques. A cost-effective and reliable characterisation of rock mass quality by direct investigation is often hampered by extremely variable lithological and structural conditions. On the other hand, available indirect methods correlating rock mass properties with geophysical investigation results apply to near-surface (upper few tens of meters in depth) and rely on rock mass descriptors poorly suitable for complex rocks (including deformed, weathered, or damaged rocks). Thus, there is a need to set up: 1) robust and versatile approaches to quantify (direct) rock mass descriptors suitable for complex geological conditions from drillcores; 2) statistically-sound relationships between such descriptors and rock mass properties obtained by (indirect) geophysical methods. We focus on the analysis of relationships between sonic P-wave velocity and rock mass quality described by the Geological Strength Index (GSI), both quantified in deep boreholes. The GSI is a suitable descriptor of rock mass structure and weathering, suitable for application to nearly all kind of rock types and geological conditions. We used site investigation data gathered to design a 9.2 km long headrace tunnel in a crystalline core complex of the central italian Alps. We analysed three boreholes up to 400 m deep in gneiss and meta-sedimentary rocks (including gypsum-anhydrite, marbles, decomposed carbonates) from which high quality HQ drillcores were extracted, allowing high-resolution geological and geomechanical logging. In the same boreholes, geophysical logging was performed using a "full-wave" sonic tool (transmitter operating at 27 kHz, receivers recording up

  2. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  3. In-situ borehole seismic monitoring of injected CO2 at the FrioSite

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy funded Frio Brine Pilot provided an opportunity to test borehole seismic monitoring techniques in a saline formation in southeast Texas. A relatively small amount of CO{sub 2} was injected (about 1600 tons) into a thin injection interval (about 6 m thick at 1500 m depth). Designed tests included time-lapse vertical seismic profile (VSP) and crosswell surveys which investigated the detectability of CO{sub 2} with surface-to-borehole and borehole-to-borehole measurement.

  4. Flow modeling and permeability estimation using borehole flow logs in heterogeneous fractured formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of flow in the vicinity of a borehole is used to analyze flowmeter data obtained with high-resolution flowmeters. The model is designed to (1) precisely compute flow in a borehole, (2) approximate the effects of flow in surrounding aquifers on the measured borehole flow, (3) allow for an arbitrary number (N) of entry/exit points connected to M < N far-field aquifers, and (4) be consistent with the practical limitations of flowmeter measurements such as limits of resolution, typical measurement error, and finite measurement periods. The model is used in three modes: (1) a quasi-steady pumping mode where there is no ambient flow, (2) a steady flow mode where ambient differences in far-field water levels drive flow between fracture zones in the borehole, and (3) a cross-borehole test mode where pumping in an adjacent borehole drives flow in the observation borehole. The model gives estimates of transmissivity for any number of fractures in steady or quasi-steady flow experiments that agree with straddle-packer test data. Field examples show how these cross-borehole-type curves can be used to estimate the storage coefficient of fractures and bedding planes and to determine whether fractures intersecting a borehole at different locations are hydraulically connected in the surrounding rock mass.

  5. A numerical investigation of head waves and leaky modes in fluid- filled boreholes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Cheng, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Although synthetic borehole seismograms can be computed for a wide range of borehole conditions, the physical nature of shear and compressional head waves in fluid-filled boreholes is poorly understood. Presents a series of numerical experiments designed to explain the physical mechanisms controlling head-wave propagation in boreholes. These calculations demonstrate the existence of compressional normal modes equivalent to shear normal modes, or pseudo-Rayleigh waves, with sequential cutoff frequencies spaced between the cutoff frequencies for the shear normal modes.-from Authors

  6. Borehole Breakouts in Berea Sandstone Reveal a New Fracture Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, B. C.

    - Vertical drilling experiments in high-porosity (22% and 25%) Berea sandstone subjected to critical true triaxial far-field stresses, in which σH (maximum horizontal stress) >σv (vertical stress) >σh (least horizontal stress), revealed a new and non-dilatant failure mechanism that results in thin and very long tabular borehole breakouts that have the appearance of fractures, and which counterintuitively develop orthogonally to σH. These breakouts are fundamentally different from those induced in crystalline rocks, as well as limestones and medium-porosity Berea sandstone. Breakouts in these rocks are typically dog-eared in shape, a result of dilatant multi-cracking tangential to the hole and subparallel to the maximum far-field horizontal stress σH, followed by progressive buckling and shearing of detached rock flakes created by the cracks. In the high-porosity sandstone a narrow layer of grains compacted normal to σH is observed just ahead of the breakout tip. This layer is nearly identical to ``compaction bands'' observed in the field. It is suggested that when a critical tangential stress concentration is reached along the σh spring line at the borehole wall, grain bonding breaks down and a compaction band is formed normal to σH. Debonded loose grains are expelled into the borehole, assisted by the circulating drilling fluid. As the breakout tip advances, the stress concentration ahead of it persists or may even increase, extending the compaction band, which in turn leads to breakout lengthening.

  7. One Year of Data of Scimpi Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.; Riedel, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Pirenne, B.; Iturrino, G. J.; Masterson, W.; Furman, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-Situ (SCIMPI) is a new subseafloor observatory designed to study dynamic processes in the subseabed using a simple and low-cost approach compared to a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). SCIMPI was successfully installed at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1416 during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013. SCIMPI is designed to measure pore pressure, temperature and electrical resistivity over time in a borehole. The first SCIMPI prototype comprises nine modules joined in a single array by flexible cables. Multiple floats keep the system taut against a sinker bar weight located on SCIMPI and resting on the bottom of the borehole. All the modules record temperature and electrical resistivity, and three are also equipped with pressure sensors. Currently, SCIMPI operates as an autonomous instrument with a data logger that is recovered using an ROV. The second recovery of the SCIMPI data logger took place during the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruise, Wiring the Abyss 2014, on May 25th, 2014. The pressure sensor data show a stable trend in which tidal effects are observed in through the one year deployment. The temperature measurements in all the modules became stable over time with smaller variations over the last several months. The only temperature sensor differing from this trend is the shallowest, located at 8 meters below seafloor. This module shows a sudden spike of ~20°C that on April 5th, 2014, an event that was repeated several times from April 25th until recovery of modules. The electrical resistivity sensors show variations over time that could be related to gas hydrate dynamics at the Site. Interpretation of these data is speculative at this time but borehole-sealing processes as well as the formation of gas hydrate are potential processes influencing the recordings. SCIMPI will soon be connected to Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory at Clayoquot Slope node to

  8. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

  9. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  10. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  11. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting and evaluating borehole wall fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Danbury, K.H.; Brie, A.; Plumb, R.A.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method for forming a display log of an acoustic investigation of an earth formation penetrated by a borehole with a tool which generates sonic pulses and produces different receiver waveforms respectively representative of sonic waves passed through a common interval alongside the tool. It comprises: measuring from the different waveforms values of a parameter that is representative of a characteristic of the earths formation; assigning predetermined lateral display log position for the parameter values measured from waveforms attributable to a common interval; and recording the parameter values on the display log.

  13. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  14. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  15. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  16. Free Oscillations of the Earth Observed by Closed Borehole Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagidani, T.; Kano, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We have made observations of pore pressure under undrained condition by an airtight borehole penetrating an artesian, or a confined aquifer in the Atotsu tunnel excavated in the Kamioka Mine, central Japan. We confirmed that the relation between pore pressure change and stress change is a zero-order system for a wide range of frequency and that stress change, strictly speaking strain change, induced within the rock mass shared by the skeletal framework of rock and pore fluid. Examining the pore pressure measured using closed borehole wells, we detected free oscillations of the Earth excited by earthquakes such as the 26 December 2004 Mw = 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (epicentral distance Δ= 51.1°) and other M7 to 8 events. We made a Fourier analysis of the pore pressure record produced by the earthquakes. We examined (1) whether the closed borehole has sufficient sensitivity to identify free oscillations, and (2) how the closed borehole responds to spheroidal modes and troidal modes. The poroelastic theory predicts that pore pressure should respond only to spheroidal modes since pore pressure change is proportional to volumetric strain change. No pore pressure response is expected from shear strain that is produced by troidal modes. However, it is controversial whether pore pressure responds to shear strain, since phases corresponding S- and Love waves have been usually detected on hydroseismograms. We calculated the spectrum of the 24 hours time windows (86400 points) with shifting the time window by 1 hour from 24 hours before the origin time of the event to 24 hours after that. The spectrum peaks correspond to entire fundamental spheroidal modes were clearly observed. The Q of each mode is calculated by fitting the decay of the amplitude of each peak. The peaks whose eigenfrequencies are less than 1 mHz (0S0, 0S2, 0S3, 0S4, and 0S5) clearly appear 5 hours after the event. On the other hand, no spectrum peak corresponding troidal modes was observed

  17. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Parra, J.O.

    1992-01-14

    This patent describes a seismic detector for high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile measurements when placed in a shallow borehole in a geological formation of interest that contains a seismic source and connected to a seismograph. It comprises a framework; accelerometer sensors for X, Y, and Z axis, means for electrically connecting the accelerometers to the seismograph to record seismic waves received by the accelerometer sensors form the seismic source; heating elements secured to, but electrically insulated from, the framework; power means for supplying power to the heating elements; and meltable substance encapsulating the seismic detector.

  18. Analysis of evaporation in nuclear waste boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1993-12-31

    We present an analysis of evaporation in a nuclear waste borehole in unsaturated tuff. In unsaturated tuff, water in contact with a waste container will evaporate due to the difference in vapor pressure between water in a flat film and water held in rock pores with curved interfaces. Decay heat will also enhance evaporation. It is important to study evaporation in a potential geologic repository of nuclear waste in unsaturated rock because the corrosion of waste containers is increased with liquid water. For radionuclides other than gaseous ones, their release from waste solids requires liquid water.

  19. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by U.S. Department of Energy. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservation. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2,100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9,200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM. A source term model was developed to study the wide variety of waste forms, which included radionuclides residing in 10 different matrices and up to 8 nested layers of material that might react with water. The possibility and consequences of critical conditions occurring in or near containers of highly enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel were also studied.

  20. DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Bittner, B.J.

    1958-05-20

    A high-frequency directional antenna of the 360 d scaring type is described. The antenna has for its desirable features the reduction in both size and complexity of the mechanism for rotating the antenna through its scanning movement. These advantages result from the rotation of only the driven element, the reflector remaining stationary. The particular antenna structure comprises a refiector formed by a plurality of metallic slats arranged in the configuration of an annular cage having the shape of a zone of revolution. The slats are parallel to each other and are disposed at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage. A directional radiator is disposed inside the cage at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage in the same direction as the reflecting slats which it faces. As the radiator is rotated, the electromagnetic wave is reflected from the slats facing the radiator and thereafter passes through the cage on the opposite side, since these slats are not parallel with the E vector of the wave.